Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 1.493
Filter
1.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359923

ABSTRACT

Introduction: cognitive biases might affect decision-making processes such as clinical reasoning and confirmation bias is among the most important ones. The use of strategies that stimulate deliberate reflection during the diagnostic process seems to reduce availability bias, but its effect in reducing confirmation bias needs to be evaluated. Aims: to examine whether deliberate reflection reduces confirmation bias and increases the diagnostic accuracy of orthopedic residents solving written clinical cases. Methods: experimental study comparing the diagnostic accuracy of orthopedic residents in the resolution of eight written clinical cases containing a referral diagnosis. Half of the written cases had a wrong referral diagnosis. One group of residents used deliberate reflection (RG), which stimulates comparison and contrast of clinical hypotheses in a systematic manner, and a control group (CG), was asked to provide differential diagnoses with no further instruction. The study included 55 third-year orthopedic residents, 27 allocated to the RG and 28 to the CG. Results: residents on the RG had higher diagnostic scores than the CG for clinical cases with a correct referral diagnosis (62.0±20.1 vs. 49.1±21.0 respectively; p = 0.021). For clinical cases with incorrect referral diagnosis, diagnostic accuracy was similar between residents on the RG and those on the CG (39.8±24.3 vs. 44.6±26.7 respectively; p = 0.662). We observed an overall confirmation bias in 26.3% of initial diagnoses (non-analytic phase) and 19.5% of final diagnoses (analytic phase) when solving clinical cases with incorrect referral diagnosis. Residents from RG showed a reduction in confirmation of incorrect referral diagnosis when comparing the initial diagnosis given in the non-analytic phase with the one provided as the final diagnosis (25.9±17.7 vs. 17.6±18.1, respectively; Cohen d: 0.46; p = 0.003). In the CG, the reduction in the confirmation of incorrect diagnosis was not statistically significant. Conclusions:confirmation bias was present when residents solved written clinical cases with incorrect referral diagnoses, and deliberate reflection reduced such bias. Despite the reduction in confirmation bias, diagnostic accuracy of residents from the RG was similar to those from the CG when solving the set of clinical cases with a wrong referral diagnosis.


Introdução: os vieses cognitivos podem afetar tanto os processos de tomada de decisão como o raciocínio clínico e o viés de confirmação está entre os mais importantes. O uso de estratégias que estimulem a reflexão deliberada durante o processo diagnóstico parece reduzir o viés de disponibilidade, mas seu efeito na redução do viés de confirmação precisa ser avaliado. Objetivos: examinar se a reflexão deliberada reduz o viés de confirmação e aumenta a acurácia do diagnóstico de residentes de ortopedia ao resolverem casos clínicos escritos. Métodos: estudo experimental comparando a acurácia diagnóstica de residentes de ortopedia na resolução de oito casos clínicos escritos contendo um diagnóstico de encaminhamento. Metade dos casos escritos tinha um diagnóstico de encaminhamento errado. Um grupo de residentes utilizou a reflexão deliberada (GR), que estimula a comparação e o contraste de hipóteses clínicas de maneira sistemática, e um grupo controle (GC) foi solicitado a fornecer diagnósticos diferenciais sem maiores instruções. O estudo incluiu 55 residentes de ortopedia do terceiro ano, 27 alocados no GR e 28 no GC. Resultados: residentes no GR tiveram escores diagnósticos mais altos do que o GC para casos clínicos com um diagnóstico de encaminhamento correto (62,0±20,1 vs. 49,1±21,0 respectivamente; p = 0,021). Para os casos clínicos com diagnóstico de encaminhamento incorreto, a acurácia diagnóstica foi semelhante entre os residentes do GR e os do GC (39,8±24,3 vs. 44,6±26,7 respectivamente; p = 0,662). Observamos viés geral de confirmação em 26,3% dos diagnósticos iniciais (fase não analítica) e 19,5% dos diagnósticos finais (fase analítica) na resolução de casos clínicos com diagnóstico de encaminhamento incorreto. Os residentes do GR mostraram uma redução na confirmação do diagnóstico de encaminhamento incorreto ao comparar o diagnóstico inicial dado na fase não analítica com aquele fornecido como diagnóstico final (25,9±17,7 vs. 17,6±18,1, respectivamente; Cohen d: 0,46; p = 0,003). No GC, a redução na confirmação do diagnóstico incorreto não foi estatisticamente significativa. Conclusões: o viés de confirmação esteve presente quando os residentes resolveram casos clínicos escritos com diagnósticos de encaminhamento incorretos e a reflexão deliberada reduziu esse viés. Apesar da redução do viés de confirmação, a acurácia diagnóstica dos residentes do GR foi semelhante à do GC na solução do conjunto de casos clínicos com diagnóstico de encaminhamento incorreto.


Subject(s)
Humans , Decision Making , Education, Medical , Clinical Reasoning , Internship and Residency , Diagnostic Errors
2.
Autops. Case Rep ; 12: e2021352, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355721

ABSTRACT

Solid Papillary Carcinoma (SPC) of the breast is a rare tumor with an incidence of less than 1%, mainly affecting elderly females. It is morphologically characterized by well-defined nodules with low-grade nuclear features associated with fibrovascular cores and shows neuroendocrine differentiation. SPC can be in-situ or invasive but has a favorable prognosis. It is a morphological mimicker of some pre-malignant conditions leading to its frequent misdiagnosis. An appropriate immunohistochemical (IHC) panel workup helps in distinguishing this tumor from its various morphological mimics. In this report, we present one such case of SPC with a small focus of invasion, reviewing the literature.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Carcinoma, Papillary/pathology , Unilateral Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Diagnostic Errors
3.
MedUNAB ; 24(3): 340-346, 202112.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353595

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El tromboembolismo pulmonar y la trombosis venosa profunda son urgencias cardiovasculares relativamente comunes, se han descrito diferentes predictores clínicos para la estratificación del riesgo, biomarcadores séricos y pruebas de imagenología. Dentro de los biomarcadores séricos se ha descrito el dímero D. Debido a que la enfermedad tromboembólica venosa es un reto diagnóstico para el clínico, el objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la pertinencia de la solicitud del dímero D, en el servicio de urgencias de un centro de tercer nivel en la ciudad de Bogotá durante los años 2018-2019. Metodología. Estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal retrospectivo de pacientes que consultaron al servicio de urgencias, de una clínica de tercer nivel, de la ciudad de Bogotá, durante el periodo 2018-2019. Resultados. Se revisaron 583 historias clínicas, se excluyeron 107 pacientes, con un total final de 474 (57.3% mujeres y 42.6% hombres). De estos, 21 pacientes presentaron estudios positivos (angiotomografía y Doppler venoso). El dímero D presentó un valor predictivo negativo inferior al 50%. Discusión. A pesar de los resultados y de ser un estudio de un solo centro se evidencian las dificultades que tienen los médicos de los servicios de urgencias al momento de solicitar pruebas diagnósticas. Conclusiones. Este estudio evidencia la dificultad que existe en los servicios de urgencias al momento de la evaluación diagnóstica y cómo la solicitud de los paraclínicos tiene que ser un proceso estandarizado, guiado por los motivos de consulta y hallazgos al examen físico, y así no perder las características operativas de las pruebas diagnósticas y su utilidad al momento de la evaluación clínica.


Introduction. Pulmonary thromboembolisms and deep vein thromboses are relatively common cardiovascular emergencies. Various clinical predictors, serial biomarkers and imaging tests have been described for the stratification of the risk. D-dimer has been described within the serial biomarkers. Since venous thromboembolic disease is a diagnostic challenge for doctors, the objective of this study was to assess the pertinence of the D-dimer request in emergency services in a level three center in Bogotá during 2018-2019. Methodology. An observational, descriptive and cross-sectional retrospective study of patients who resorted to emergency services in a level three clinic in Bogotá during 2018-2019. Results. 583 medical records were reviewed, and 107 patients were excluded, with a final total of 474 patients (57.3% women and 42.6% men). Of these, 21 patients had positive studies (angiotomography and venous doppler ultrasound). D-dimer had a negative predictive value of less than 50%. Discussion. Despite the results and it being a study in a single clinic, the difficulties emergency service doctors experience when requesting diagnostic tests can be observed. Conclusions. This study shows the difficulties in emergency services when performing a diagnosis. The request for complementary tests has to be a standardized process guided by the reasons for the consultation and findings from the physical exam, in order not to lose the operational characteristics of the diagnostic tests and their usefulness during the clinical evaluation.


Introdução. Tromboembolismo pulmonar e trombose venosa profunda são emergências cardiovasculares relativamente comuns. Têm sido descritos diferentes preditores clínicos para estratificação de risco, biomarcadores séricos e testes de imagem. Entre os biomarcadores séricos, foi descrito o D-dímero. Considerando que a doença tromboembólica venosa é um desafio diagnóstico para o clínico, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a relevância da solicitação de D-dímero no serviço de emergência de um centro de terceiro nível na cidade de Bogotá ao longo dos anos 2018-2019. Metodologia. Estudo observacional, descritivo e transversal retrospectivo de pacientes que consultaram o serviço de emergência de uma clínica de terceiro nível na cidade de Bogotá, no período de 2018-2019. Resultados. Foram revisados 583 prontuários, excluídos 107 pacientes, totalizando 474 (57.3% mulheres e 42.6% homens). Destes, 21 pacientes apresentaram estudos positivos (angiotomografia e Doppler venoso). D-dímero apresentou valor preditivo negativo inferior a 50%. Discussão. Apesar dos resultados e do fato de se tratar de um estudo só de um centro, são evidentes as dificuldades que os médicos de emergência apresentam ao solicitarem exames diagnósticos. Conclusões. Este estudo mostra a dificuldade que existe nos serviços de emergência no momento da avaliação diagnóstica e como a solicitação dos testes paraclínicos tem que ser um processo padronizado, orientado pelos motivos da consulta e pelos resultados do exame físico, e assim não perder as características operacionais dos exames diagnósticos e sua utilidade no momento da avaliação clínica.


Subject(s)
Pulmonary Embolism , Probability , Venous Thrombosis , Diagnostic Errors , Computed Tomography Angiography
4.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 53(2): 163-166, 20210630.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349052

ABSTRACT

Os esforços envidados para o controle e extinção da pandemia do novo Coronavírus-2019 (COVID-19) não estão obtendo êxito, e já atingiram critérios epidemiológicos alarmantes, tendo infectado mais de dez milhões de pessoas no Brasil e mais de 100 milhões no mundo. A infecção por este vírus pode causar a síndrome respiratória aguda grave, com danos diretos ao epitélio das vias aéreas, permitindo a instalação de patógenos secundários de origem bacteriana e fúngica, como exemplo os fungos do gênero Aspergillus, que podem causar complicações nas manifestações clínicas e aumentar a taxa de mortalidade. Porém, mesmo com a alta probabilidade de infecção por estes fungos, verifica-se que são poucos os estudos direcionados a este assunto, como também, em alguns países, não há critério para identificar os fungos patógenos em geral, sendo possível que o verdadeiro número de coinfecções e a necessidade de internação em UTI seja maior. Portanto, neste artigo, revisamos estudos anteriores sobre a CAPA em bancos de dados eletrônicos e discutimos a necessidade do diagnóstico da aspergilose invasiva para aumento da sobrevida dos pacientes envolvidos. Neste trabalho recomendamos o diagnóstico correto e precoce das infecções fúngicas invasivas em pacientes com COVID-19, e que novos estudos sobre o tema sejam realizados para padronizar um diagnóstico eficaz e comprovado.


The new corona virus 2019 (COVID-19) is becoming unstoppable, and has already reached alarming epidemiological criteria, having infected more than 10,000,000 in Brazil and more than 100,000,000 worldwide. Infection with this virus can cause severe acute respiratory syndrome, which causes direct damage to the airway epithelium, allowing the invasion of secondary pathogens of bacterial and fungal origin, such as fungi of the genus Aspergillus, which can cause complications in clinical manifestations. and increase the mortality rate, however, even with the high probability of infection by these fungi, it appears that there are few studies directed to this subject, and also, in some countries there is no criterion to identify pathogenic fungi in general, it is possible that the true number of co-infections and the need for ICU admission is greater. Therefore, in this article, we reviewed previous studies on CAPA in electronic databases, and discussed the need for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis to increase the survival of the patients involved. Therefore, in this work, we recommend the correct and early diagnosis of invasive fungal infections in patients with COVID-19, and that further studies on the subject be carried out to standardize an effective and proven diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus , Diagnostic Errors , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , COVID-19
5.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1637-1644, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922308

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the clinical characteristics, diagnosis and prognostic factors of bone marrow necrosis (BMN) patients, aim to avoid misdiagnosis, missed diagnosis or delayed treatment.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 51 BMN patients treated in the Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University from January 2010 to December 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. The types of primary disease, etiology, clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, radiological findings, treatment outcomes and prognostic factors were summrized, and the reasons for misdiagnosis were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Among 51 BMN patients, the hematologic tumor was detected out in 32 patients; solid tumors caused- BMN was detected out in 14 patients, benign lesions for 5 patients. The time of interval from the appearance of symptoms to the confirmation of BMN was 7 days to 6 months, with a median of 35 days. Misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis occurred in 25.5% of the BMN patients. Anemia was found in all of the 51 BMN patients, fever accounted for 58.8%, systemic bone pain for 52.9%, bleeding for 29.4%, lymphadenectasis for 37.3%, and hepatosplenomegaly for 19.6%. Leukoerythroblastic anemia accounted for 84.3%, bicytopenia for 51.0%, pancytopenia for 25.5%, and monocytopenia for 23.5%. The serologic test revealed no specific results. The first bone marrow aspiration were 38 patients and multi-site puncture were 7 patients. The diagnostic coincidence rate of bone marrow smear was 88.2%. Among 51 BMN patients, 41 patients received bone marrow biopsy, and the diagnostic coincidence rate of bone marrow biopsy was 75.6%. The abnormal signals were found in multiple vertebral bodies by spinal/pelvic MRI scan in 13 BMN patients; PET-CT scan revealed a diffuse pattern of low FDG uptake in the bone marrow in 16 patients, with a local increase in FDG uptake accompanied by bone marrow involvement. For 46 patients with BMN combined with malignancies, among which 35 patients died (76.1%) and the median survival time was 25 days. Among the 32 patients with hematologic tumors, early death occurred in 12 patients, BMN disappeared in 11 out of 20 patients received active chemotherapy for the primary disease, 9 patients died within 1 week to 3 months. Fourteen patients combined with bone marrow metastatic carcinoma died within 2 weeks to 3 months. Focal necrosis disappeared in 4 out of 5 BMN patients secondary to non-malignant diseases after symptomatic supportive treatment and still alived. Multiple logistic regression was performed to analyze factors affecting the prognosis of BMN patients, the result showed that the prognosis of BMN was closely related to the factors of primary disease (benign and malignant). The reasons for misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis were as follows: hidden onset of the primary disease, nonspecific symptoms, insufficient understanding and alertness of the physicians regarding the primary clinical characteristics and hematological abnormalities, and failure to receive multiple sites bone marrow punctures or bone marrow biopsies.@*CONCLUSION@#BMN usually occurs concomitantly to hematologic tumors and bone marrow metastases from solid tumors. Its prognosis is closely related to the nature and severity of the primary disease and its own severity. In the clinic, BMN should be suspected in patients with severe bone pain, fever, hepatosplenomegaly, hemocytopenia, lymphadenectasis and leukoerythroblastic anemia. Bone marrow puncture at multiple positions and bone marrow biopsy can compensate for each other in the diagnosis of BMN. The combined use of the two methods can improve the diagnostic coincidence rate of BMN, and the positive rate of the etiological diagnosis of BMN.


Subject(s)
Bone Marrow , Diagnostic Errors , Humans , Necrosis , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921875

ABSTRACT

Computed tomography (CT) examination is the major measure for detecting and diagnosis of foreign bodies in human body. Although CT has high sensitivity in diagnosis of foreign body, some interference factors may still lead to missed diagnosis or misdiagnosis. Here we report a rare case that a bamboo stick accidentally pierced into the left chest of a young man who was drunk and unware of this hurt. The patient experienced cough, chest pain, fever, hemoptysis, and was misdiagnosed as primary and secondary tuberculosis based on chest CT examinations at a local hospital, although no tubercular bacillus detected by sputum smear. He subsequently received anti-tuberculous treatments in the following three years, but no improvement of his symptoms was observed. Until one month before his death, the bamboo stick was detected by spiral CT examination as well as three-dimensional image reconstruction at another hospital. Postmortem examination revealed pneumonia, pulmonary infarction, and abscess as the causes of his death. We analyze the potential reasons of misdiagnosis in this case, aiming to provide reference for the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary inflammation associated with foreign body in the future.


Subject(s)
Abscess , Diagnostic Errors , Humans , Male , Pneumonia , Pulmonary Infarction , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary
7.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021339, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345358

ABSTRACT

Myeloid sarcoma (MS) is a rare extramedullary neoplasm of myeloid cells, which can arise before, concurrently with, or following hematolymphoid malignancies. We report 04 such cases of MS, diagnosed in this institute over a period of 6 years, during various phases of their respective myeloid neoplasms/leukemias. These cases include MS occurring as a relapse of AML (Case 1), MS occurring as an initial presentation of CML (Case 2), MS occurring during ongoing chemotherapy in APML (Case 3), and MS presenting as a progression of MDS to AML (Case 4). In the absence of relevant clinical history and unemployment of appropriate immunohistochemical (IHC) studies, these cases have a high risk of being frequently misdiagnosed either as Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL) or small round cell tumors or undifferentiated carcinomas, which may further delay their management, making an already bad prognosis worse. This case series has been designed to throw light on the varied presentation of MS and the lineage differentiation of its neoplastic cells through the application of relevant IHC markers along with their clinical correlation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Adolescent , Middle Aged , Aged , Sarcoma, Myeloid/pathology , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/pathology , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/pathology , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/pathology , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute/pathology , Diagnostic Errors/prevention & control
8.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021326, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339247

ABSTRACT

Currently, there is growing evidence in the literature warning of misdiagnosis involving amyloidosis and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Although inducing clinical manifestations outside the peripheral nervous system, light chain and transthyretin amyloidosis may initially present with peripheral neuropathy, which can be indistinguishable from CIDP, leading to a delay in the correct diagnosis. Besides, the precise identification of the amyloid subtype is often challenging. This case report exemplifies clinical and laboratory pitfalls in diagnosing amyloidosis and subtyping amyloid, exposing the patient to potentially harmful procedures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Amyloidosis, Familial/complications , Paraproteinemias , Polyradiculoneuropathy, Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating/complications , Diagnostic Errors , Immunoglobulin Light-chain Amyloidosis/complications
9.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021256, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153179

ABSTRACT

Introduction Acute liver failure (ALF) due to diffuse infiltrating solid malignancy without any focal lesions on radiographic imaging is rare. Case report A 70-year-old man was admitted due to mental confusion, abdominal pain, and ALF. Three years before, he had undergone a left nephrectomy for urothelial carcinoma followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. The abdominal computed tomography (CT) showed hepatomegaly and ascites. Ascitic fluid had transudate characteristics, with no malignant cells. Percutaneous liver biopsy (LB) showed diffuse liver infiltration of metastatic urothelial carcinoma. The patient rapidly deteriorated and died in a week due to ALF. Discussion History of solid cancer and hepatomegaly and/or liver failure without other obvious explanation should encourage to perform LB. Conclusion LB is warranted to avoid misdiagnosis, prolonged hospital stays, and delay in palliative care.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma , Liver Failure, Acute/pathology , Ascites , Autopsy , Biopsy , Fatal Outcome , Diagnostic Errors , Hepatomegaly
10.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2020237, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153177

ABSTRACT

Whipple's Disease, a rare diagnosis caused by the slow-growing bacterium Tropheryma whipplei, most often presents with the classically described signs of malabsorption due to gastrointestinal colonization. However, it can also have signs and symptoms that clinically overlap with rheumatic diseases, potentially resulting in misdiagnosis. Furthermore, treatment with modern potent biologic immunosuppressive agents and classic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) can lead to serious exacerbation of undiagnosed infections. We present the case of a middle-aged woman with long term complaints of arthalgias, who was diagnosed with seronegative rheumatoid arthritis and subsequently treated for almost 7 years with such immunosuppressive therapies. The patient's disease course included chronic diarrhea that abruptly intensified and culminated in fatal hypovolemic shock/sepsis. A diagnosis of WD was made by autopsy examination, wherein several organ systems were found to be heavily involved by Tropheryma whipplei organisms, and their identification was confirmed with histochemical and molecular evaluation. Notably, most bacterial organisms were located deeply in the submucosa/muscularis of affected organs, a practical reminder to practicing pathologists that challenges the classic histopathologic description of Whipple disease as an infiltration of predominantly lamina propria, and the potential for sampling bias in typically superficial endoscopic biopsies during routine procedures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Actinomycetales Infections/pathology , Tropheryma , Whipple Disease/complications , Whipple Disease/pathology , Autopsy , Rheumatic Diseases/complications , Sepsis/etiology , Diagnostic Errors/prevention & control
11.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021305, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285408

ABSTRACT

Primary paraganglioma and small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the urinary bladder are rare tumors, comprising 0.05% of all bladder tumors and <1% of all malignant bladder tumors, respectively. These tumors can be the cause of a diagnostic dilemma or misdiagnosis on morphology. Paraganglioma is often mistaken for urothelial carcinoma and small cell carcinoma for poorly differentiated carcinoma or lymphoma. Herein, we report a case of primary paraganglioma and another of a small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and discuss their closest differential diagnoses. The diagnostic pitfalls should be kept in mind so that correct, timely diagnosis of these entities can be made due to implications in the management and prognosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged, 80 and over , Paraganglioma/complications , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/complications , Neuroendocrine Tumors/complications , Carcinoma, Small Cell/complications , Diagnosis, Differential , Diagnostic Errors
12.
Rev. bras. educ. méd ; 45(2): e080, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279839

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Introduction: Medical teams constantly work with patients in critical conditions and complex environments. Within these environments, it is understood that cognitive, metacognitive and affective processes coexist, promoting or preventing an adequate performance1),(2. In this study, a case of medical misdiagnosis is analyzed from a metacognitive perspective. Objectives: 1- Describe the thinking processes that led to the misdiagnosis, 2- Investigate possible contributions of metacognitive processes to medical education. Methods: Group interview3 with the winning team of a simulation contest for attending critical patients held at a national medical education congress. Content analysis4, coded by Atlas-ti™, according to Efklides5, followed by the extraction of empirical categories in the SimpleMind™ Mind Map Editor. The study was registered (CAAE 96007018.5.0000.5286) and approved (Opinion No. 2,938,945) by the Research Ethics Committee of Institute of Collective Health Studies at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. Results: Before the contest, the team predicted possible scenarios. During the contest, the simulated scenario presented to the participants was similar to one of the previously predicted scenarios. It was then observed that the team unconsciously biased all their reasoning aiming to confirm the previously predicted diagnosis. Different metacognitive mechanisms involved in this process are described. The team had sufficient knowledge to establish the correct diagnosis but did not do it due to the distortion of their thinking processes. This case illustrates the fact that, to practice medicine, knowledge is not enough; learning to think is also necessary. In addition, a proposal for a theoretical framework is established, where the simulation presents itself as a problematizing methodology, providing a context where metacognition and the Maguerez Arch6 are harmoniously integrated with Ausubel's Meaningful Learning Theory7),(8 for professional competence6 development. Conclusions: It is concluded that metacognition can elucidate events such as those described here, also suggesting that its teaching and practice could contribute to the reduction in medical misdiagnosis.


Resumo: Introdução: As equipes médicas atuam constantemente diante de pacientes em estado crítico e ambientes complexos. Nesses ambientes, entende-se que processos cognitivos, metacognitivos e afetivos coexistem, de modo a propiciar ou impedir um desempenho adequado1),(2. Nesta pesquisa, analisa-se um caso de erro diagnóstico sob a perspectiva metacognitiva. Objetivos: Este estudo teve como objetivos descrever os processos de pensamento que levaram ao erro e investigar possíveis contribuições dos processos metacognitivos para o ensino médico. Métodos: Fez-se uma entrevista em grupo3 com a equipe vencedora de uma olimpíada de simulação de atendimento a pacientes críticos realizada em um congresso nacional de educação médica. Adotou-se a análise de conteúdo4, codificada por Atlas-ti©, segundo Efklides5, seguida da extração das categorias empíricas no editor de mapas mentais SimpleMind©. O estudo foi registrado com CAAE nº 96007018.5.0000.5286 e aprovado (Parecer nº 2.938.945) pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa do Instituto de Estudos e Saúde Coletiva da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). Resultados: A equipe, antes da olimpíada, previu cenários possíveis. Durante a competição, o cenário simulado apresentado era semelhante a um dos esperados. Observou-se então que a equipe, sem se dar conta, enviesou todo o seu raciocínio visando confirmar o diagnóstico previsto a priori. São descritos os vários mecanismos metacognitivos envolvidos nesse processo. A equipe possuía conhecimento suficiente para estabelecer o diagnóstico correto, mas não o fez por distorção dos processos de pensamento. Esse caso ilustra o fato de que, para praticar medicina, conhecimento não é suficiente; aprender a pensar também é necessário. Ademais, estabelece-se uma proposta de quadro teórico, em que a simulação se apresenta como metodologia problematizadora, fornecendo um contexto no qual a metacognição e o Arco de Maguerez6 integram-se harmonicamente com a Teoria da Aprendizagem Significativa de Ausubel7),(8 para o desenvolvimento da competência profissional6. Conclusão: A metacognição permite elucidar eventos como os aqui descritos, sugerindo também que seu ensino e sua prática poderiam contribuir para a redução do erro médico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Young Adult , Diagnostic Errors/prevention & control , Education, Medical/methods , Metacognition , High Fidelity Simulation Training , Interviews as Topic , Simulation Exercise
14.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(6): 972-981, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134251

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose To estimate statewide presentation delay, misdiagnosis rate, inter-hospital transfer times and testicular salvage for testicular torsion patients treated in our state's public health system. Patients and Methods Case series of consecutive testicular torsion patients treated in our state's public health system between 2012-2018. Predictors included presentation delay (time from symptoms to first medical assessment), facilitie's level-of-care (primary, secondary, tertiary), first diagnosis (torsion, epididymitis, other), Doppler-enhanced ultrasound request (Doppler-US) and inter-hospital transfer times, with surgical organ salvage as the main response. We used Bayesian regression to estimate the effect of first examining facilitie's level-of-care, first diagnosis, and Doppler-US on transfer time. Results 505 patients were included, most (298, 59%) with presentation delay >6 hours. Misdiagnosis at first examining facility raised transfer time from median 2.8 to 23.4 (epididymitis) and 37.9 hours (other) and lowered testicular salvage rates from 60.3% (torsion) to 10.7% (epididymitis) and 18.3% (other). Doppler-US had negligible effects on transfer time once controlling for misdiagnosis in the regression model. Although organ salvage in patients presenting before 6 hours at the tertiary facility was high (94.6%, and about 20% lower for those presenting at lower levels-of-care), the overall salvage rate was more modest (46%). Conclusion Our low overall testicular salvage rates originated from a large proportion of late presentations combined with long transfer times caused by frequent misdiagnoses. Our results indicate that efforts to improve salvage rates should aim at enhancing population-wide disease awareness and continuously updating physicians working at primary and secondary levels-of-care about scrotal emergencies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Spermatic Cord Torsion/surgery , Spermatic Cord Torsion/diagnostic imaging , Brazil , Retrospective Studies , Bayes Theorem , Treatment Outcome , Diagnostic Errors , Hospitals
15.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 138(5): 359-367, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1139721

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Older adults frequently experience nonspecific clinical features. However, there is limited evidence on how often admission diagnoses for hospitalized older patients are incorrect, potentially leading to treatment delays. OBJECTIVES: To determine the consistency between hospital admission and discharge diagnoses, and identify factors associated with diagnostic discrepancies in older adults. DESIGN AND SETTING: Population-based cohort study in the United States. We included adults aged ≥ 18 years who were admitted from emergency departments (EDs) to hospitals, identified using the 2005-2010 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Survey, a nationally representative survey. METHODS: Three admission diagnoses and the principal discharge diagnosis were captured and classified as discrepant if they involved considerably different conditions within the same organ system, or different organ systems altogether. RESULTS: Each year, 12 million adults were hospitalized following ED visits in the United States; 45% were aged ≥ 65 years. These patients' mean age was 79 years and 58% were women. Diagnostic discrepancies between admission and discharge were more common among adults ≥ 65 years (12.5 versus 8.3%; P < 0.001). Certain admission diagnoses had particularly high rates of diagnostic discrepancies: 26-27% of patients presenting with mental disorders or with endocrine and metabolic diseases had substantial diagnostic discrepancies between admission and discharge. Substantial diagnostic discrepancy was independently associated with longer hospitalization and higher in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSION: One out of eight older adults hospitalized from EDs was discharged with a principal diagnosis differing considerably from the admission diagnosis. Given that missed or delayed diagnoses are a critical safety problem, clinicians should be vigilant and frequently cogitate alternative diagnostic possibilities.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Patient Admission , Patient Discharge , Diagnostic Errors/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Service, Hospital , United States , Cohort Studies , Health Care Surveys
16.
Rev. Asoc. Odontol. Argent ; 108(2): 57-62, mayo-ago. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1121186

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Describir la importancia del reconocimiento oportuno del trauma crónico de la mucosa bucal producido por un elemento dentario que generó una lesión erróneamente diagnosticada como neoplasia maligna. Caso clínico: Una paciente de sexo femenino, de 79 años de edad, realizó una consulta estomatológica por una lesión lingual con un diagnóstico presuntivo de cáncer. Tras la inspección de la cavidad bucal y el estudio anatomopatológico se diagnosticó úlcera asociada a trauma dentario. La intervención terapéutica odontológica (eliminación del trauma) resolvió el cuadro cínico. Conclusión: El trauma crónico en la mucosa bucal puede generar lesiones sobre mucosa sana o bien complicar una patología preexistente. En el presente caso, la inspección de la cavidad bucal con la identificación y la eliminación del trauma lograron la reparación de la lesión. El estudio anatomopatológico precisó el diagnóstico de ulceración asociada a trauma dentario (AU)


Aim: The aim of this case report is to show the importance of the early diagnosis of a traumatic lesion of the oral mucosa arising from a posterior broken tooth that was initially misdiagnosed as oral cancer. Case report: A 79-year-old female attends an appointment with the oral medicine specialist for a lesion on the lateral side of the tongue with a presumptive diagnosis of oral cancer. The examination of the oral cavity and the anatomopathological diagnosis confirmed the presence of an ulcer associated with dental trauma. The lesion healed completely with the elimination of the trauma. Conclusion: Chronic trauma in the oral cavity can produce lesions in the oral mucosa or exacerbate preexisting lesions. In this case report a thorough oral examination showed a broken tooth as the cause of trauma and after its removal the lesion healed completely. The result of the biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of an oral ulcer associated with dental trauma (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Tongue Diseases/diagnosis , Oral Ulcer/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Diagnostic Errors , Tooth Extraction , Tooth Root/pathology , Biopsy
18.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(1): 46-50, feb. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092786

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: La migraña abdominal (MA) es infrecuente y poco estudiada. Nuestro objetivo fue investigar el diagnóstico y tratamiento de niños y adolescentes con MA y compararlos entre gastroen terólogos y neurólogos pediatras. Pacientes y Método: Todos los cuadros de MA (1-18 años) de un hospital de EE. UU, con diagnóstico de MA o sus variantes (ICD-9 346.2 o IC-10 G43.D, G43.D0, G43.D1) entre 2011-2017 fueron revisados. La información sobre diagnóstico, intervalo desde inicio de síntomas, criterios diagnósticos, pruebas diagnósticas, tratamiento y resultado se analizaron. Re sultados: Sesenta y nueve historias médicas fueron identificadas. La edad media al diagnóstico fue 9,7 años. El 48% de los pacientes fueron del sexo femenino. Cincuenta (72,4%) pacientes fueron tratados solo por gastroenterólogos pediatras, y 10/69 (14,5%) por neurológos pediatras exclusivamente. 6/69 (8,7%) fueron inicialmente evaluados por gastroenterología y posteriormente referidos a neurología, y 2/69 (2,9%) fueron inicialmente evaluados por neurología y luego referidos a gastroenterología. 3/10 (30%) de las MA diagnosticadas por neurólogos no mencionaban que el paciente tuviera dolor abdominal, sin embargo, todos los diagnósticos realizados por gastroenterólogos presentaron dicho síntoma (p=0,0035). 5/50 (10%) de las historias médicas de gastroenterología y ninguna de las histo rias de neurología mencionaban los criterios de Roma. Conclusiones: La mayoría de los niños fueron diagnosticados por pediatras gastroenterólogos. Los gastroenterólogos rara vez utilizaron los criterios de Roma. Pacientes evaluados por neurología son frecuentemente diagnosticados con MA, incluso sin presentar dolor abdominal (criterio necesario para el diagnóstico). Se recomienda educación para el correcto y oportuno diagnóstico de la migraña abdominal.


Abstract: Introduction: Abdominal migraine (AM) is uncommon and understudied. Our objective was to investigate the diagnosis and treatment of children and adolescents with AM and compare with that of pediatric gastroenterologists and neurologists. Patients and Method: All AM cases (1-18 years) from a USA hospital with diagnosis of abdominal migraine or its variants (ICD-9 346.2 or IC-10 G43.D, G43.D0, G43.D1) between 2011 and 2017 were reviewed. Information on diagnosis, interval from onset of symptoms, diagnostic criteria, diagnostic tests, treatment, and outcome were analyzed. Results: 69 medical records were identified. The mean age at diagnosis was 9.7 years, and 48% of patients were female. 50/69 (72.4%) patients were exclusively treated by a pediatric gastroenterologist and 10/69 (14.5%) exclusively by a pediatric neurologist. 6/69 (8.7%) were initially evaluated by gas troenterology and referred to neurology, and 2/69 (2.9%) were initially evaluated by neurology and then referred to gastroenterology. 3/10 (30%) of the AM diagnosed by neurologists did no report ab dominal pain (AP), however, all diagnoses made by gastroenterologists did (p = 0.0035). 5/50 (10%) of the gastroenterology medical records and no neurology medical records mentioned Rome criteria. Conclusions: Most of the children were diagnosed by pediatric gastroenterologists. Gastroenterolo gists rarely use the Rome criteria. Patients evaluated by neurologists are frequently diagnosed with AM even without AP (a criterion that is required for its diagnosis). Education is recommended for the correct and timely diagnosis of AM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Pediatrics , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Gastroenterology , Migraine Disorders/diagnosis , Migraine Disorders/therapy , Neurology , Referral and Consultation , United States , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Follow-Up Studies , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Diagnosis, Differential , Diagnostic Errors , Migraine Disorders/complications
19.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 26: e20190100, 2020. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135140

ABSTRACT

Despite the disrepute spiders have had for centuries, their bite is a rare occurrence. In the Mediterranean area, only two of the numerous known species are considered of medical significance: Latrodectus tredecimguttatus and Loxosceles rufescens. Spider bites have no pathognomonic signs or symptoms, therefore most diagnoses are presumptive; a spider bite can only be diagnosed when a spider (seen at the time of the bite) is collected and identified by an expert, since most physicians and patients are unable to recognize a certain spider species or distinguish spiders from other arthropods. Skin lesions of uncertain etiology are too often attributed to spider bites. In most cases, these are actually skin and soft-tissue infections, allergic reactions, dermatoses etc. Misdiagnosing a wound as a spider bite can lead to delays in appropriate care, cause adverse or even fatal outcomes and have medical-legal implications. Concerningly, misinformation on spider bites also affects the medical literature and it appears there is lack of awareness on current therapeutic indications for verified bites.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Spider Bites , Arthropods , Spiders , Bites and Stings , Diagnosis , Diagnostic Errors
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878669

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the clinical characteristics of relapsing polychondritis(RP)patients presented with arthropathy. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 201 RP patients who were hospitalized in our center between December 2005 and February 2019.After 16 patients with co-existing other autoimmune diseases and malignancies were ruled out,185 RP patients entered the final analysis,among whom 16 RP patients were presented with arthropathy and 169 without arthropathy.The demographic data,clinical manifestations,laboratory findings,and prognosis were compared between these two groups. Results Five of the 16 RP patients with arthropathy at presentation were misdiagnosed as rheumatoid arthritis.Compared with RP patients without arthropathy at presentation,RP patients with arthropathy at presentation had a longer disease course[(37.50±66.50)months


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Delayed Diagnosis , Diagnostic Errors , Humans , Joint Diseases/diagnosis , Polychondritis, Relapsing/diagnosis , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL