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1.
Rev. Eugenio Espejo ; 16(1): 18-28, 20220111.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352923

ABSTRACT

Helicobacter pylori es un microrganismo que se considera que afecta al 50% de la población. Se realizó un estudio con diseño no experimental, correlacional y transversal, con el objetivo de determinar la asociación de los resultados de pruebas diagnósticas de infección por H. pylori a través de biopsia obtenida por endoscopía superior y prueba de antígeno de la superficie en mues-tras de heces en 100 pacientes atendidos en el Servicio de Gastroenterología del Centro Clínico Quirúrgico Ambulatorio (Hospital del Día) Efrén Jurado López del Instituto Ecuatoriano de Seguridad Social (IESS), en la ciudad de Guayaquil, Ecuador, durante 2019. La media de la edad en la muestra de estudio fue 37,5 años, con un predominio del género femenino (78%). El 65% de las pruebas de antígeno para la detección de H. pylori en heces resultaron negativas. Los repor-tes de las pruebas de antígeno en heces e histopatología permitieron apreciar diferencias entre estos, pero con predominio de las coincidencias en los diagnósticos positivos. Existió una asocia-ción estadísticamente significativa entre las lesiones inflamatorias de la mucosa gástrica producto de la gastritis crónica atrófica y la infección por H. pylori. Los resultados de las dos pruebas diag-nósticas tuvieron una correlación lineal positiva y débil con significación estadística.


Helicobacter pylori is a microorganism that affects 50% of the population worldwide. A study with a non-experimental, correlational, and cross-sectional design was carried out in order to determine the association of the results of diagnostic tests for H. pylori infection through biopsy obtained by upper endoscopy and surface antigen test in samples of feces in 100 patients. These ones were treated at the Gastroenterology Service of the Ambulatory Surgical Clinic Center (Hospital del Día) Efrén Jurado López of the Ecuadorian Institute of Social Security (IESS), in the city of Guayaquil, Ecuador, during 2019. The mean age in the study sample was 37.5 years old, with a predominance of the female gender (78%). 65% of stool antigen tests for H. pyloriwere negative. The reports of the stool antigen test and histopathology allowed to appreciate differences between them, but with a predominance of the coincidences in the positive diagno-ses. There was a statistically significant association between the inflammatory lesions of the gastric mucosa because of chronic atrophic gastritis and the infection by H. pylori. The results of the two diagnostic tests had a positive and weak linear correlation with statistical significance


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Helicobacter pylori , Gastric Mucosa , Gastritis, Atrophic , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Gastritis , Infections
2.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 43(4): 489-493, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350813

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Low levels of neutrophils can be an intrinsic condition, with no clinical consequences or immunity impairment. This condition is the benign constitutional neutropenia (BCN), defined as an absolute neutrophils count (ANC) ≤2000 cells/mm. Diagnosis of BCN is of exclusion where patients are submitted to blood tests and possibly to invasive diagnostic search until secondary causes of neutropenia are ruled out. The natural history of the disease suggests benign evolution and Brazilian study showed an overall frequency of 2.59%. The main mechanisms include reduced neutrophil production, increased marginalization, extravasation to the tissues and immune destruction. Genetic studies showed strong association between the single nucleotide variant rs2814778 located on chromosome 1q23.2 in the promoter region of the atypical chemokine receptor 1 (Duffy blood group system) gene (ACKR1, also termed DARC) and BCN. The aim of this study is to evaluate FY phenotypes and genotypes including the analysis of the rs2814778 SNP in Brazilian patients with BCN in order to determine an effective diagnostic tool, allowing reassurance of the patient and cost reduction in their care. Methods: Case control study, with 94 individuals (18 patients and 76 controls). Phenotyping was performed by gel test and genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP. Results: White blood cell (WBC) and absolute neutrophils (AN) counts showed lower levels in patients compared to controls. In the patient group 83.3% were genotyped as FY*B/FY*B. The SNP rs2814778 (-67T > C) was identified in 77.8% of the patients genotyped as FY*B-67C/FY*B-67C. In the control group, 72.7% were homozygous for the wild type and 23.3% were heterozygous. Conclusion: This study reinforces that FY phenotyping and genotyping can be used to detect most people with BCN, avoiding excessive diagnostic investigation. Besides, this procedure may reduce health costs and be reproductible in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Duffy Blood-Group System , Genotyping Techniques , Neutropenia , Immunophenotyping , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Neutrophils
3.
Rev. cuba. cir ; 60(3): e1147, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347386

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Dentro de la atención al lesionado con trauma torácico se cuenta con varios medios diagnósticos, entre ellos la evaluación por ecografía focalizada en trauma extendido a tórax, el cual ha mostrado una alta sensibilidad, aun realizado por médicos no radiólogos como cirujanos generales, emergencistas e intensivistas. Objetivo: Determinar la utilidad de la ecografía torácica extendida realizada por cirujanos en lesionados con traumatismo torácico. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo de evaluación de pruebas diagnósticas con un diseño transversal, en 1052 pacientes ingresados en la sala de emergencia. Se les realizó la evaluación por ecografía torácica extendida en el Hospital Universitario "General Calixto García", durante el período comprendido entre enero de 2020 y febrero de 2021. Resultados: Fueron realizados en un periodo de 1 año un total de 1052 ultrasonidos torácicos, 221 casos fueron positivos, de ellos 81 neumotórax (7,7 por ciento) y 62 hemoneumotórax (5,9 por ciento) todos confirmados por tomografía de tórax. La edad promedio fue de 45,27 (18-97), el sexo masculino prevaleció con 772 casos (73,4 por ciento). Los mecanismos productores de trauma más frecuentes fueron: caída de altura 273 casos (26 por ciento) y trauma contuso 181 casos (17,2 por ciento). La ecografía torácica extendida obtuvo una sensibilidad de un 95,24 por ciento y una especificidad de 99,88 por ciento en el diagnóstico lesiones torácicas. Conclusiones: La ecografía torácica extendida demostró que en manos de los cirujanos generales es una herramienta confiable, segura, no invasiva, poco costosa, repetible, que permite diagnosticar rápidamente lesiones torácicas y tratarlas(AU)


Introduction: Within care for the injured patient with thoracic trauma there are several diagnostic means. For example, extended focused assessment with sonography for thoracic trauma has shown high sensitivity, even when performed by non-radiologists such as general surgeons, emergency specialists and intensivists. Objective: To determine the usefulness of extended thoracic sonography performed by surgeons on injured patients with thoracic trauma. Methods: An observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study of diagnostic tests assessment was carried out in 1052 patients admitted to the emergency room. They were assessed by extended thoracic sonography at General Calixto García University Hospital, during the period between January 2020 and February 2021. Results: A total of 1052 thoracic ultrasounds were performed in a period of one year, of which 221 cases were positive. Of them, 81 were pneumothorax (7.7 percent) and 62 were hemopneumothorax (5.9 percent), all confirmed by chest tomography. The average age was 45.27 (18-97). The male sex prevailed, with 772 cases (73.4 percent). The most frequent trauma-producing mechanisms were altitude fall, accounting for 273 cases (26 percent), and blunt trauma, accounting for 181 cases (17.2 percent). Extended thoracic ultrasound showed a sensitivity of 95.24 percent and a specificity of 99.88 percent in the diagnosis of thoracic injuries. Conclusions: Extended thoracic ultrasound showed that, in the hands of general surgeons, it is a reliable, safe, noninvasive, inexpensive and repeatable tool that allows rapid diagnosis and treatment of thoracic injuries(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Thoracic Injuries/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography/methods , Emergency Service, Hospital , Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma/methods , Hemopneumothorax/diagnostic imaging , Tomography/adverse effects , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/methods , Observational Studies as Topic
4.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 37(2): e1297, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289428

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La enfermedad granulomatosa crónica es una inmunodeficiencia primaria congénita del sistema inmune innato, originada por defectos en el complejo enzimático nicotinamida adenina dinucleótido fosfato oxidasa presente en células fagocíticas. Estos defectos funcionales causan incapacidad para producir especies reactivas del oxígeno en los fagocitos, que afectan la eliminación de algunos microorganismos patógenos dentro del fagolisosoma. El diagnóstico de esta enfermedad se realiza actualmente mediante la prueba de 1,2,3-dihidrorodamina asistida por citometría de flujo multiparamétrica, o la tinción de fagocitos con nitroazul de tetrazolio asistida por microscopio óptico. Objetivos: Describir los aspectos fisiopatológicos y moleculares de la enfermedad granulomatosa crónica; y discutir aspectos relacionados con las pruebas de diagnóstico antes mencionadas. Métodos: Se realizó una investigación bibliográfica-documental a partir de artículos científicos publicados desde 1933 hasta 2018, para ello fueron consultadas las bases de datos SciELO, PubMed y Springer. Desarrollo: Se exponen las características fisiopatológicas de la enfermedad granulomatosa crónica, así como la relación entre las mutaciones genéticas más abundantes en la población afectada y la gravedad de las manifestaciones clínicas que presentan los pacientes. Además, se analizan críticamente los beneficios y las deficiencias de dos técnicas que se utilizan actualmente para diagnosticar la enfermedad. Conclusiones: La enfermedad granulomatosa crónica puede generar consecuencias inmunológicas e inflamatorias graves, que se hallan en consonancia con las características genéticas expresadas en el complejo enzimático dañado. El diagnóstico de la enfermedad resulta más confiable, exhaustivo y específico, mediante la citometría de flujo y su prueba de 1,2,3-dihidrorodamina(AU)


Introduction: Chronic granulomatous disease is a congenital primary immunodeficiency of the innate immune system, caused by defects in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase enzyme complex present in phagocytic cells. These functional defects cause inability to produce reactive oxygen species in phagocytes, affecting the elimination of some pathogenic microorganisms within the phagolysosome. The diagnosis of this disease is currently made by means of the 1,2,3-dihydrorodamine test assisted by multiparametric flow cytometry, or the staining of phagocytes with nitro-blue tetrazolium assisted by light microscopy. Objectives: To characterize molecular and pathophysiologically the chronic granulomatous disease; and to discuss aspects related to the aforementioned diagnostic tests. Methods: In this work, a bibliographic-documentary research was carried out from scientific articles published from 1933 to 2018, for which the SciELO, PubMed and Springer databases were consulted. Development: The pathophysiological characteristics of chronic granulomatous disease are exposed, as well as the relationship between the most abundant genetic mutations in the affected population, and the severity of the clinical manifestations presented by the patients. In addition, the benefits and deficiencies of two techniques currently used to diagnose the disease are critically analyzed. Conclusions: Chronic granulomatous disease can generate severe immunological and inflammatory consequences, which are in line with the genetic characteristics expressed in the damaged enzyme complex. The diagnosis of the disease is more reliable, exhaustive and specific, using flow cytometry and its 1,2,3-dihydrorodamine test(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Reactive Oxygen Species , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Nitroblue Tetrazolium/therapeutic use , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Flow Cytometry/methods , Granulomatous Disease, Chronic/physiopathology , Granulomatous Disease, Chronic/genetics
5.
Rev. cub. inf. cienc. salud ; 32(2): e1680, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289345

ABSTRACT

Este estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar las métricas disponibles de las herramientas digitales que fomentan el autocuidado para comprender sus efectos en la población en tiempos de COVID-19. Se realizó una búsqueda sobre sitios web, aplicaciones móviles y redes sociales que ofrecían información a la población sobre la COVID-19, los cuales debían pertenecer al gobierno peruano o a instituciones oficiales relacionadas con la salud. Se revisaron las métricas disponibles de cada herramienta digital para una posterior evaluación de uso. Los sitios web identificados brindaban información referente a la COVID-19, así como datos actualizados sobre los casos existentes, la autoevaluación para descartar la enfermedad y el reporte de resultados de la prueba para su diagnóstico. El sitio web más visitado fue el del Gobierno del Perú, el cual contenía la página web del Ministerio de Salud. Asimismo, la aplicación móvil del Gobierno del Perú "PerúEnTusManos" fue la más descargada por parte de la población peruana. Las redes sociales, en colaboración con estas herramientas digitales en el Perú, vienen siendo utilizadas activamente para informar e interactuar con la población en estos tiempos de COVID-19. Por lo tanto, por la rápida adaptabilidad que tienen los sitios web y las aplicaciones móviles, estas se han convertido en el Perú en una herramienta informativa ideal para hacer frente a la pandemia de la COVID-19(AU)


The purpose of the study was to analyze the metrics available for digital tools fostering self-care to understand their effects on the population in the time of COVID-19. A search was conducted about websites, mobile applications and social networks offering information to the population about COVID-19 and belonging to the Peruvian government or health-related official institutions. A review was performed of the metrics available for each digital tool with a view to an eventual evaluation of their use. The websites identified provided information about COVID-19 as well as updated data about existing cases, self-evaluation to rule out the disease and the report of results of diagnostic tests. The most visited website was that of the Government of Peru, which contained the website of the Ministry of Health. The mobile application of the Government of Peru "PerúEnTusManos" was the most commonly downloaded by the Peruvian population. Social networks, in joint cooperation with these digital tools, are actively used in Peru to inform and interact with the population in the time of COVID-19. Due to the rapid adaptability of websites and mobile applications, these have become an ideal information tool in Peru to face the COVID-19 pandemic(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Self Care , Diagnostic Self Evaluation , Social Networking , COVID-19/epidemiology , Peru , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/methods , Research Report , Mobile Applications
6.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(5): e522-e525, oct. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1292701

ABSTRACT

La tuberculosis bovina es una zoonosis causada por Mycobacterium bovis. El bovino es el huésped primario. Otras especies pueden ser infectadas (cerdos, cabras y caballos, entre otras). En el ser humano, el contagio puede ser por vía aérea (enfermedad pulmonar), clínicamente indistinguible de la producida por Mycobacterium tuberculosis, o por vía oral o cutánea, (formas extrapulmonares: digestiva, ganglionar, cutánea). Su contagio se ha relacionado principalmente al contacto con el ganado y al consumo de lácteos sin pasteurizar. También se notificó el posible contagio interpersonal.Se describe el caso de una paciente adolescente, proveniente de la provincia de Buenos Aires, con síndrome febril prolongado y conglomerado ganglionar abdominal, con antecedente de ingestión de leche no pasteurizada. Es fundamental alertar acerca de la importancia del procesamiento correcto de los alimentos, sobre todo en esta época en la que las nuevas tendencias alimentarias (ingestión de lácteos caseros o comprados en ferias informales) pueden poner en riesgo la salud.


Bovine tuberculosis is an infectious, zoonotic disease, caused by Mycobacterium bovis. The bovine is the primary host. Other species can be infected (pigs, goats, horses, etc). Man can be infected by air (lung disease), clinically indistinguishable from that produced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis or by oral or cutaneous route (extrapulmonary forms: digestive, lymph node, skin). Contagion has been mainly related to contact with livestock and the consumption of unpasteurized dairy products. It was also reported the possible contagion between people. It is described the case of an adolescent patient, from the province of Buenos Aires, with prolonged febrile syndrome and abdominal lymph node conglomerate, with a history of ingestion of unpasteurized milk. We consider the importance of warning about the correct processing of food, especially at this time when new food trends (homemade dairy intake or bought at informal fairs) could put the health of the population at risk.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Child , Mycobacterium bovis , Swine , Cattle , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Food
7.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 56(3): 372-378, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288677

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The present study aims to analyze the intra- and interobserver reproducibility of the Lauge-Hansen, Danis-Weber, and Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen (AO) classifications for ankle fractures, and the influence of evaluators training stage in these assessments. Methods Anteroposterior (AP), lateral and true AP radiographs from 30 patients with ankle fractures were selected. All images were evaluated by 11 evaluators at different stages of professional training (5 residents and 6 orthopedic surgeons), at 2 different times. Intra- and interobserver agreement was analyzed using the weighted Kappa coefficient. Student t-tests for paired samples were applied to detect significant differences in the degree of interobserver agreement between instruments. Results Intraobserver analysis alone had a significant agreement in all classifications. Moderate to excellent interobserver agreement was highly significant (p ≤ 0.0001) for the Danis-Weber classification. The Danis-Weber classification showed, on average, a significantly higher degree of agreement than the remaining classification systems (p ≤ 0.0001). Conclusion The Danis-Weber classification presented the highest reproducibility among instruments and the evaluator's little experience had no negative influence on the reproducibility of ankle fracture classifications. Level of Evidence II, Diagnostic Studies - Investigating a Diagnostic Test.


Resumo Objetivo Avaliar a reprodutibilidade intra- e interobservador das classificações de Lauge-Hansen, Danis-Weber e Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen (AO) para as fraturas de tornozelo, e a influência do estágio de formação dos participantes na avaliação. Métodos Foram selecionadas radiografias de 30 pacientes com fratura de tornozelo nas incidências anteroposterior (AP), perfil e AP verdadeiro. Todas as imagens foram avaliadas por 11 participantes em diferentes estágios de formação profissional (cinco residentes e seis cirurgiões ortopédicos), em dois momentos distintos. Analisou-se a concordância inter- e intraobservador por meio do coeficiente Kappa ponderado. O teste t de Student para amostras pareadas foi aplicado para verificar se havia diferença significativa no grau de concordância interobservador entre os instrumentos. Resultado Observou-se que existe concordância significativa em todas as classificações quando da análise intraobservador isolada. Existe concordância interobservador altamente significativa de grau moderado a ótimo na classificação de Danis-Weber (p ≤ 0,0001). A classificação de Danis-Weber apresentou, em média, grau de concordância significativamente maior que as outras classificações (p ≤ 0,0001). Conclusão A classificação de Danis-Weber se mostrou a mais reprodutiva entre os instrumentos avaliados, e a pouca experiência do avaliador não influencia negativamente a reprodutibilidade das classificações das fraturas do tornozelo. Nível de Evidência II, Estudos Diagnósticos - Investigação de um Exame para Diagnóstico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Reproducibility of Results , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Fractures, Bone , Ankle Fractures/classification , Orthopedic Surgeons
8.
Rev. colomb. reumatol ; 28(1): 16-27, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341356

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Tuberculin is the globally accepted delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity test for the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis. The alteration of cellular immunity induced by disease-modifying drugs used in rheumatoid arthritis may give a false negative result, also known as cutaneous anergy. There are no studies that determine the frequency of anergy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and on immunosuppressive therapy. Objective: To determine the frequency and possible factors associated with cutaneous anergy in a group of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and on immunosuppressive therapy. Methods: Cross-sectional analytical observational study including 100 patients with rheumatoid arthritis on immunosuppressive therapy. They were tested for delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity with tuberculin, and a control test with tetanus toxoid. The non-reactivity of both tests was defined as anergy. Results: The overall frequency of cutaneous anergy was 9% (n = 11). It occurred in 33% of men versus 6% of women. The mean age was 57 years, and 89% were over 50 years-old. Being female behaved as a protective variable for the generation of anergy, OR 0.795 [95% CI, 0.658 - 0.959, P<.05]. All patients with anergy were being treated with corticosteroids, 44% with methotrexate, and 33% with biological therapy. Treatment with moderate to high dose prednisone and biological therapy were independently associated as risk factors for presenting with anergy, OR 1.044 [95% CI, 1.008-1.080 P<.05] and OR 1.096 [95% CI, 1.016-1.182, P<.05], respectively. The overall positivity for tuberculin was 13%. Symptoms associated with disease activation were present in 38% of these. All cases (n= 1) of confirmed active tuberculosis were excluded. Conclusions: The high prevalence of cutaneous anergy in patients with RA in the present study, and the evidence presented here, supports the recommendation of a second diagnostic test (tuberculin booster or Interferon-Gamma Release Assays) for the diagnosis of latent TB in patients with RA on immunosuppressive therapy.


RESUMEN Antecedentes: La tuberculina es la prueba de hipersensibilidad cutánea tardía mundialmente aceptada para el diagnóstico de tuberculosis latente. La alteración de la inmunidad celular inducida por los fármacos modificadores de la enfermedad utilizados en la artritis reumatoide puede dar un resultado falso negativo, también conocido como anergia cutánea. No hay estudios que determinen la frecuencia de anergia en pacientes con artritis reumatoide y terapia inmunosupresora. Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia y los posibles factores asociados con la anergia cutánea en un grupo de pacientes con artritis reumatoide y terapia inmunosupresora. Métodos: Estudio observacional analítico transversal que incluyó a 100 pacientes con artritis reumatoide con terapia inmunosupresora. Se les realizó una prueba de hipersensibilidad cutánea tardía con tuberculina y una prueba de control con toxoide tetánico. La no reactividad de ambas pruebas se definió como anergia. Resultados: La frecuencia general de anergia cutánea fue del 9% (n = 11). Ocurrió en el 33% de los hombres versus el 6% de las mujeres, la edad promedio fue de 57 anos y el 89% tenía más de 50 anos. El sexo femenino se comportó como una variable protectora para la generación de anergia (OR 0,795; IC 95%: 0,658-0,959; p < 0,05). Todos los pacientes con anergia usaron corticosteroides, el 44% fue tratado con metotrexato y el 33% con terapia biológica. El tratamiento con dosis de moderadas a altas de prednisona y terapia biológica se asoció de manera independiente como factor de riesgo para la presentación de anergia: OR 1,044 (IC 95%: 1,008-1,080; p < 0,05) y OR 1,096 (IC 95%: 1,016-1,182; p < 0,05), respectivamente. La positividad general para la tuberculina fue del 13%. Los síntomas asociados con la activación de la enfermedad estaban presentes en el 38% de ellos. Se excluyeron todos los casos de tuberculosis activa confirmada (n = 1). Conclusiones: La alta prevalencia de anergia cutánea en pacientes con artritis reumatoide en el presente estudio y la evidencia presentada respaldan la recomendación de una segunda prueba de diagnóstico (refuerzo de tuberculina o IGRA) para el diagnóstico de tuberculosis latente en pacientes con artritis reumatoide y terapia inmunosupresora.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Therapeutics , Clonal Anergy , Immunosuppressive Agents , Signs and Symptoms , Tuberculin , Risk Factors , Diagnosis , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Latent Tuberculosis
9.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 40(1): e846, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289441

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los valores de la frecuencia cardiaca normales y anormales registrados en los equipos electrocardiográficos ambulatorios o continuos han sido caracterizados mediante nuevas metodologías diagnósticas, las cuales se han desarrollado en el contexto de la teoría de los sistemas dinámicos y la entropía. Objetivo: Evaluar la dinámica cardiaca de adultos, teniendo en cuenta su comportamiento en el contexto de la teoría de sistemas dinámicos y las proporciones de la entropía mediante un estudio ciego. Métodos: Se realizó una prueba diagnóstica mediante un estudio ciego de 500 Holter, aplicando una nueva metodología basada en las proporciones de la entropía del atractor numérico construido con los valores registrados en el Holter. Para esto, los valores máximos y mínimos de la frecuencia cardiaca para cada hora, así como el número de latidos, fueron tomados de cada Holter durante, mínimo, 18 horas. Con estos valores se generó un atractor numérico que cuantificó la probabilidad de parejas de frecuencias cardiacas consecutivas. Se evaluó cada dinámica a partir de los valores de entropía y de sus proporciones. Posteriormente, estos resultados fueron comparados con la evaluación clínica convencional estimando la sensibilidad y especificidad, así como el coeficiente Kappa. Resultados: Se encontraron diferencias entre la dinámica de casos normales y anormales, en las dinámicas cardiacas evaluadas en 18 horas, hallando valores de sensibilidad y especificidad del 100 por ciento y coeficiente Kappa de uno, respecto al diagnóstico clínico convencional. Conclusiones: Los valores de entropía y de sus proporciones permiten diferenciar cuantitativamente la normalidad de la enfermedad en la dinámica cardiaca, durante un mínimo de 18 horas(AU)


Introduction: The normal and abnormal heart rate values recorded on ambulatory or continuous electrocardiographic devices have been characterized with novel diagnostic methodologies developed in the context of dynamic systems and entropy theory. Objective: Through a blind study, evaluate the heart dynamics of adults taking into account their behavior in the context of dynamic systems theory and entropy proportions. Methods: A diagnostic test was conducted through a 500 Holter blind study, applying a novel methodology based on the entropy proportions of the numerical attractor constructed with the values registered on the Holter device. To achieve this end, maximum and minimum heart rate values for each hour, as well as the number of beats, were obtained from each Holter device for at least 18 hours. Based on these values, a numerical attractor was generated which quantified the probability of consecutive heart rate pairs. Each dynamic was evaluated in terms of entropy values and their proportions. These results were then compared with the conventional clinical evaluation, estimating the sensitivity and specificity as well as the kappa coefficient. Results: Differences were found between the dynamics of normal and abnormal cases, in the heart dynamics evaluated in 18 hours, finding sensitivity and specificity values of 100 percent and a kappa coefficient of 1, with respect to conventional clinical diagnosis. Conclusions: Entropy values and their proportions make it possible to quantitatively differentiate the normality of the disease in heart dynamics for a minimum of 18 hours(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Behavior , Clinical Diagnosis , Equipment and Supplies , Gender Identity , Heart , Heart Rate/physiology , Diagnostic Tests, Routine
10.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54(supl.1): e2020630, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250840

ABSTRACT

Abstract The recommendations for diagnostic tests for investigating syphilis are part of the Clinical Protocol and Therapeutic Guidelines for Comprehensive Care for People with Sexually Transmitted Infections and the Technical Manual for Syphilis Diagnosis, published by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. These recommendations were developed based on scientific evidence and discussions with a panel of experts. This article presents direct tests to detect Treponema pallidum in lesions and algorithms that combine treponemal and non-treponemal antibody tests to assist in syphilis diagnosis, with the aim of contributing to the efforts of health service managers and health professionals in qualifying health care. The article also covers the use of non-treponemal tests to investigate neurosyphilis and guidelines for interpreting non-treponemal antibody titers in monitoring the treatment and diagnosis of congenital syphilis, as well as prospects for innovations in diagnosis. The critical role of rapid immunochromatographic treponemal tests for public health and for addressing syphilis is also highlighted.


Subject(s)
Humans , Syphilis/diagnosis , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Brazil , Syphilis Serodiagnosis , Diagnostic Tests, Routine
11.
Rev. bras. educ. méd ; 45(2): e092, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279841

ABSTRACT

Resumo: Introdução: O ensino médico vem passando por transformações nas últimas décadas. Objetivos educacionais tendem a se alterar com os avanços tecnológicos recentes, em especial na área de tecnologias de informação. Objetivo: Esta pesquisa aborda o exame do fundo de olho explorando e analisando as dificuldades dos estudantes de Medicina na execução desse componente do exame clínico e busca propor diretrizes para seu ensino na graduação médica. Métodos: Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa com técnicas de observação direta e entrevistas com análise de conteúdo em uma população de estudantes do internato da Universidade do Estado do Pará (Uepa), na cidade de Marabá. Na avaliação de conteúdo utilizaram-se recursos do programa livre de análise de texto Iramuteq. Resultados: Dos 21 estudantes voluntários participantes da pesquisa, apenas dois relataram experiência anterior com oftalmoscópio direto (9,52%) e um aluno havia participado de campanha com uso de dispositivo portátil para registro da imagem do fundo de olho (4,8%). As atividades da pesquisa incluiram discussão de casos clínicos, realização de oftalmoscopias diretas em pacientes voluntários e análise de retinografias. Na análise dos textos correspondentes às entrevistas foram categorizadas quatro classes geradas pelo programa Iramuteq, realçando-se o valor da integração de teoria e prática no depoimento dos alunos. Conclusão: Programas de treinamento com integração de teoria e prática e valendo-se de princípios de aprendizagem significativa podem contribuir para prover competência ao estudante de Medicina para o exame de fundo de olho, adequando-se ao surgimento de novas tecnologias.


Abstract: Introduction: Medical education has undergone changes in recent decades. Educational objectives tend to change with recent technological advances, especially in the area of information technologies. Objective: This research addresses the examination of ocular fundus by exploring and analyzing the difficulties medical students encounter in relation to this component of the clinical examination and seeks to propose guidelines for its teaching in undergraduate medical training. Method: Qualitative research with direct observation techniques and interviews with content analysis with a population of students at the University of the State of Pará (UEPA), in the city of Marabá. Content analysis used resources from the free text analysis program Iramuteq. Results: Of the 21 volunteer students participating in the research, only two reported previous experience with direct ophthalmoscope (9.52%) and one student had participated in a campaign using a portable device to record the fundus image (4.8%). Research activities included discussion of clinical cases, performing direct ophthalmoscopies in volunteer patients and retinography analysis. In the analysis of the texts corresponding to the interviews, four classes generated by the Iramuteq program were categorized, highlighting the value of theoretical and practical integration in the students' testimony. Conclusion: Training programs with theoretical and practical integration using meaningful learning concepts can help qualify medical students in the ocular fundus exam, adapting to the emergence of new technologies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Ophthalmology/education , Ophthalmoscopy/methods , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Retinal Diseases/diagnosis , Clinical Competence , Problem-Based Learning , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Fundus Oculi
12.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e20200326, 2021. graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143884

ABSTRACT

Abstract Chagas Disease is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. This infection is endemic in the Americas region. Neurological Chagas reactivation is diagnosed through the visualization of the parasite in the cerebrospinal fluid, blood, or tissue samples. Herein, we report the visualization of trypomastigotes by direct microscopic observation of a brain biopsy specimen and its preservation fluid (PF) in a paitient infected with VIH and T. cruzi. This easy and simple diagnostic method coupled with quantitative polymerase chain reaction can be used in all tissue biopsies and PF of T. cruzi seropositive patients, suspected of Chagas disease reactivation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Trypanosoma cruzi , Chagas Disease/diagnosis , Biopsy , Diagnostic Tests, Routine
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878357

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The aim of the present study was to evaluate the performance of the simultaneous detection of HIV-1 RNA, HIV-1 DNA, and HCV RNA using one dried blood spot (DBS) as an alternative sample to plasma.@*Method@#A total of 571 paired DBS/plasma samples were collected from men who have sex with men (MSM) and injection drug users (IDUs), and serological and molecular assays were performed. Using plasma results as the reference standard, the performance of DBS tests for HIV-1 RNA, HIV-1 DNA, and HCV RNA was evaluated. Pearson's correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman analysis were performed to assess the correlation and concordance between DBS and plasma.@*Results@#Among paired plasma/DBS samples with detectable HIV-1 RNA and HCV RNA, five samples (5/32) were not detectable in DBS, while measurable HIV-1 RNA levels were present in plasma (1.44 to 3.99 log @*Conclusion@#The performance of the simultaneous detection of HIV-1 RNA, HIV-1 DNA, and HCV RNA using one DBS was acceptable. DBS, as an alternative sample to plasma, may be a viable option for the simultaneous detection of HIV-1 RNA, HIV-1 DNA, and HCV RNA in resource-limited settings or for individuals living in areas that are difficult to access.


Subject(s)
DNA, Viral/analysis , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/methods , Dried Blood Spot Testing/methods , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV-1/isolation & purification , Hepacivirus/isolation & purification , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/analysis , Sensitivity and Specificity , Specimen Handling/methods , Syphilis/diagnosis , Treponema pallidum/isolation & purification
15.
Infectio ; 24(3,supl.1): 5-10, oct.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1143093

ABSTRACT

Resumen Se formulan recomendaciones de un grupo de consenso de expertos sobre los criterios para evaluar el desempeño diagnóstico (tamaño y selección de muestras para sensibilidad y especificidad analíticas, criterios para establecer límites de detección, criterios para establecer el estándar de oro para las serologías) que deberían ser tenidos en cuenta al evaluar y validar las pruebas diagnósticas para SARS CoV-2. Con el propósito de asegurar la calidad de las pruebas serológicas a utilizar en el país, se recomienda la participación en un programa de control de calidad externo, que garantice la idoneidad y desempeño en la realización de las pruebas diagnósticas serológicas y moleculares durante esta pandemia, ya que su uso tiene profundas implicaciones para las medidas de intervención clínicas individuales y de seguimiento y control en salud pública.


Abstract We formulate recommendations from a consensus working group on the criteria to evaluate the diagnostic performance (size and criteria of selection of samples to determine sensitivity, analytical specificity, criteria for limit of detection, criteria for gold standard to evaluate serological assays) that should be taken into account during the evaluation and validation/verification of diagnostic tests for SARS CoV-2 infection. A national external quality control program should be established to guarantee the suitability and performance of these diagnostic serological and molecular tests during this pandemic, that will have deep implications for decisions on clinical and public health.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Quality Control , Pandemics , Consensus , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Laboratory Test , COVID-19 Testing , SARS-CoV-2 , Infections
16.
Acta méd. colomb ; 45(3): 75-77, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1130703

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: el síndrome de Cushing (SC) es un grupo de signos y síntomas causados por la exposición crónica al exceso de glucocorticoides. El uso de fármacos con glucocorticoides es la causa más frecuente, pero algunos productos vendidos como suplementos nutricionales o medicamentos naturistas para el control de los dolores articulares pueden contenerlos de forma oculta, lo cual dificulta el enfoque diagnóstico Presentación del caso: paciente de 40 años con signos clínico típicos de síndrome de Cushing con resultados discordantes en las pruebas diagnósticas para identificar su origen. Finalmente se logra establecer que el paciente consumía de forma crónica un producto "naturista" conocido como artrin®, el cual fue analizado en el laboratorio de la institución con resultados positivos para cortisol. Conclusión: la exposición crónica a glucocorticoides exógenos, ya sea subrepticia, desconocida o prescrita, causa SC y debe distinguirse tempranamente de las formas endógenas para evitar la realización de pruebas diagnósticas y tratamientos inadecuados.(Acta Med Colomb 2020; 45. DOI:https://doi.org/10.36104/amc.2020.1500).


Abstract Introduction: Cushing's syndrome (CS) is a group of signs and symptoms caused by chronic exposure to excessive glucocorticoids. The use of medications containing glucocorticoids is the most common cause, but they may be hidden in some products sold as nutritional supplements or naturopathic medications, which makes the diagnostic approach more difficult. Case presentation: this was a 40-year-old patient with typical clinical signs of Cushing's syndrome and discordant results of diagnostic tests to identify its origin. It was ultimately determined that the patient had been chronically taking a "naturopathic" product known as artrin®, which was analyzed in the institution's lab and found to contain cortisol. Conclusion: chronic exposure to exogenous glucocorticoids, whether surreptitious, unknown or prescribed, causes CS and should be promptly distinguished from endogenous forms to avoid inappropriate diagnostic tests and treatments.(Acta Med Colomb 2020; 45. DOI:https://doi.org/10.36104/amc.2020.1500).


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Cushing Syndrome , Syndrome , Dietary Supplements , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Glucocorticoids
17.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 138(4): 310-316, July-Aug. 2020. tab
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1139710

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for making the diagnosis of subscapularis tears presents wide variation in the literature and there are few prospective studies. OBJECTIVE: To compare the findings from MRI and arthroscopy for diagnosing subscapularis tears. DESIGN AND SETTING: Diagnostic test study performed in a tertiary care hospital. METHODS: We included patients who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair and who had firstly undergone high magnetic field MRI without contrast. The images were independently evaluated by a shoulder surgeon and two musculoskeletal radiologists. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, accuracy and inter and intra-observer agreement were calculated. RESULTS: MRIs on 200 shoulders were evaluated. The incidence of subscapularis tears was 69.5% (41.5% partial and 28.0% full-thickness). The inter and intra-observer agreement was moderate for detection of subscapularis tears. The shoulder surgeon presented sensitivity of 51.1% to 59.0% and specificity of 91.7% to 94.4%. The radiologists showed sensitivity of 83.5% to 87.1% and specificity of 41% to 45.9%. Accuracy ranged from 60.5% to 73.0%. CONCLUSION: The 1.5-T MRIs without contrast showed mean sensitivity of 70.2% and mean specificity of 61.9% for detection of subscapularis tears. Sensitivity was higher for the musculoskeletal radiologists, while specificity was higher for the shoulder surgeon. The mean accuracy was 67.6%, i.e. lower than that of rotator cuff tears overall.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Tendon Injuries/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Rotator Cuff/diagnostic imaging , Rotator Cuff Injuries/diagnostic imaging , Arthroscopy , Observer Variation , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Rotator Cuff/surgery , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Rotator Cuff Injuries/surgery
18.
Caracas; Observatorio Nacional de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación; ago. 2020. 53-56 p. ilus.(Observador del Conocimiento. Revista Especializada en Gestión Social del Conocimiento, 5, 2).
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1118410

ABSTRACT

El uso de Plasma de Convaleciente de COVID-19 (PC-CoV19) como coadyuvante en el tratamiento de pacientes, tendría impacto socioeconómico importante al disminuir el periodo de estancia hospitalaria y letalidad por la enfermedad. La determinación de anticuerpos en plasma de potenciales donantes es criterio fundamental para su selección. Existe dificultad para disponer de pruebas serológicas certificadas que cuantifiquen anticuerpos específicos contra SARS-CoV-2. Las Pruebas de Diagnóstico Rápido (PDR) se convierten en herramienta útil y al alcance para la selección de pacientes recuperados, potenciales donantes de PC-CoV19. Este estudio evaluó el porcentaje de positividad de diferentes PDR en veintidós (22) muestras de pacientes con COVID-19 confirmada por RT-PCR. Las muestras se analizaron siguiendo el procedimiento descrito por cada fabricante. Se analizó el comportamiento de las PDR en pacientes sintomáticos y asintomáticos en diferentes momentos de la enfermedad. El porcentaje de positividad fue de 100% con dos de las tres pruebas utilizadas, una de las cuales discrimina IgM de IgG. Se concluye que la presencia de IgG se registra a partir de los 15 días del inicio de los síntomas y se mantiene presente a los 59 días de evolución en los pacientes sintomáticos, y que pacientes asintomáticos podrían ser considerados candidatos a donantes de PC-CoV19 pues se evidenció seroconversión para IgG. El porcentaje de positividad a IgG podría disminuir en los pacientes recuperados. Se sugiere que pacientes sintomáticos con criterio de alta médica sean considerados candidatos donantes en momento posterior a 28 días de la fecha de inicio de los síntomas. Se recomienda utilizar PDR que discriminen IgM de IgG como herramienta para la selección de donantes de PC-CoV19(AU)


The use of COVID-19 Convales-cent Plasma (PC-CoV19) as an ad-juvant for the treatment of patients, would have a significant socioeconomic impact by reducing the leng-th of hospital stay and lethality due to the disease. The determination of antibodies in plasma from potential donors is a fundamental criterion for their selection. There is dificulty in obtaining certified serological tests that quantify specific antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. Rapid Diagnostic Tests (PDR) become a useful and accessible tool in the selection of recovered patients, potential PC-CoV19 donors. This study evaluated the positivity rate of different PDRs in twenty two (22) samples from patients with COVID-19 confirmed by RT-PCR. The samples were analyzed following the procedure described by each manufacturer. The performance of PDRs was analyzed in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients at different times of the disease. The positivity rate was 100% with two of the three tests used, one of which discriminates IgM from IgG. It is concluded that the presence of IgG is recorded 15 days after the onset of symptoms and remains present at day 59 of evolution in symptomatic patients, and that asymptomatic patients could be considered candidates for PC-CoV19 donors since IgG se-reconversion was evident. The positivity rate to IgG could decrease in the recovered patients. It is suggested that symptomatic patients with medical discharge criteria be considered donor candidates after 28 days from the date of onset of symptoms. It is recommended to use PDRs that discriminate IgM from IgG as a tool for the selection of PC-CoV19 donors


Subject(s)
Humans , Plasma , Tissue Donors , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulin M , Serologic Tests , Coronavirus Infections , Diagnostic Tests, Routine
20.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(1): 54-59, Jan. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094206

ABSTRACT

Background: Sudomotor dysfunction may appear in early stages of diabetic neuropathy. Aim: To evaluate the diagnostic capacity of the Neuropad test, based on the detection of sudomotor dysfunction, as an early indicator of diabetic neuropathy. Material and Methods: In Forty-two type 2 diabetic patients, the Neuropad test was compared with the 10 g monofilament test (proposed in the technical orientation of diabetic foot of the Ministry of Health of Chile), deep and thermal sensitivity. Results: The surface sensitivity assessed with a brush had a sensitivity and specificity of 18.8 and 100% respectively when compared with the 10 g monofilament. When compared with the Neuropad, the figures were 9 and 100%, respectively. Pain perception sensitivity and specificity were 13 and 100% respectively when compared with the 10 g monofilament. The figures were 6 and 100%, when compared with the Neuropad. Thermal discrimination had a sensitivity and specificity of 88 and 33% respectively when compared with the 10 g monofilament. The figures were 75 and 25% respectively when compared with the Neuropad. The deep sensitivity evaluated with a 128 Hz tuning fork had a sensitivity and specificity of 31 and 100% respectively when compared with the 10 g monofilament. The figures were 16 and 31% respectively when compared with the Neuropad. The Neuropad had a sensitivity and specificity of 94 and 29% respectively were compared with the 10 g monofilament. Conclusions: Neuropad had a good diagnostic yield for the early detection of sudomotor dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetic Foot , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Neuropathies , Chile , Diagnostic Tests, Routine
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