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1.
Rev. méd. Paraná ; 80(1): 1-4, jan. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1380875

ABSTRACT

A insuficiência renal crônica compromete as funções fisiológicas dos rins, e leva o paciente à diálise como terapia; contudo, essa condição gera suscetibilidade à desnutrição. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever o perfil epidemiológico e nutricional dos pacientes em hemodiálise e compará-los em relação à doença renal de base. É estudo retrospectivo, descritivo e transversal. Foram coletados dados demográficos, clínicos, antropométricos e laboratoriais de pacientes que estiveram em diálise. Foram incluídos pacientes com insuficiência renal crônica e excluídos menores de 18 anos, com dados insuficientes ou com comorbidades que alterassem processo nutricional. Em conclusão, observaram-se 4 principais causas para doença renal crônica: hipertensão arterial crônica, doença renal policística, doença renal terminal e nefropatia diabética, que foi a mais prevalente, com pouca evidência de desnutrição


Chronic renal failure compromises the physiological functions of the kidneys and leads the patient to dialysis as a therapy; however, this condition generates susceptibility to malnutrition. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological and nutritional profile of patients on hemodialysis and to compare them in relation to the underlying renal disease. It is a retrospective, descriptive and cross-sectional study. Demographic, clinical, anthropometric and laboratory data were collected from patients who were on dialysis. Patients with chronic renal failure were included and those under 18 years of age, with insufficient data or with comorbidities that altered the nutritional process, were excluded. In conclusion, 4 main causes of chronic kidney disease were observed: chronic arterial hypertension, polycystic kidney disease, end-stage renal disease and diabetic nephropathy, which was the most prevalent, with little evidence of malnutrition


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Profile , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dialysis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Kidney , Deficiency Diseases , Malnutrition
2.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 39(2): 161-169, abr.-jun. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395053

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo. Comparar la supervivencia de pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica (ERC) en hemodiálisis (HD) versus diálisis peritoneal (DP). Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un análisis de supervivencia de una cohorte retrospectiva de pacientes ≥ 18 años que iniciaron HD versus DP en el Hospital Víctor Lazarte Echegaray del 2015 al 2019. Se analizaron las covariables: edad, sexo, diabetes mellitus con causa de ERC, catéter venoso central temporal (CVC) como acceso vascular inicial y tasa de filtración glomerular. Se calculó la supervivencia con curvas de Kaplan-Meier para la cohorte global y para edad ≥ 60 años, diabetes mellitus como causa de ERC y CVC. Se estimó el riesgo de fallecer mediante Hazard Ratio (HR) según el modelo de riesgos proporcionales de Cox para cada covariable ajustada a la modalidad de diálisis en un análisis bivariado y multivariado considerando diferencia significativa si el valor de p < 0,05. Resultados. Se incluyeron 368 pacientes en HD de los cuales fallecieron 129 (35,1%) y 172 pacientes en DP de los cuales fallecieron 66 (38,4%) (p=0,455). La probabilidad acumulada de supervivencia a los 60 meses para HD fue de 30% y para DP fue de 37% con curvas de supervivencia similares (p=0,719). La mediana del tiempo de sobrevida en HD fue de 32 meses (RIC: 20-53) y en DP fue de 32,5 meses (RIC: 18-57) (p=0,999). Se determinó que las covariables asociadas con una mayor mortalidad ajustadas a la modalidad de diálisis fueron edad ≥60 años (HR 1,77; p<0,001) y diabetes mellitus como causa de ERC (HR 1,63; p=0,002). Conclusiones. La supervivencia de los pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica en HD y DP fue similar.


ABSTRACT Objective. To compare the survival of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) on hemodialysis (HD) versus peritoneal dialysis (PD). Materials and methods. Survival analysis of a retrospective cohort of patients ≥ 18 years who started HD versus PD at the Victor Lazarte Echegaray Hospital from 2015 to 2019. We analyzed the following covariates: age, sex, diabetes mellitus as cause of CKD, temporary central venous catheter (CVC) as initial vascular access and glomerular filtration rate. Survival was calculated with Kaplan-Meier curves for the overall cohort and for age ≥ 60 years, diabetes mellitus as a cause of CKD and CVC. The risk of death was estimated by Hazard Ratio (HR) according to the Cox proportional hazards model for each covariate adjusted for dialysis type in a bivariate and multivariate analysis considering significant difference if the p-value < 0.05. Results. We included 368 patients on HD of whom 129 (35.1%) died, and 172 patients on PD of whom 66 (38.4%) died (p=0.455). The cumulative probability of survival at 60 months for HD was 30% and for PD was 37% with similar survival curves (p=0.719). The median survival time for HD was 32 months (IQR: 20-53) and for PD was 32.5 months (IQR: 18-57) (p=0.999). The covariates associated with higher mortality adjusted for dialysis type were age ≥60 years (HR 1.77; p<0.001) and diabetes mellitus as a cause of CKD (HR 1.63; p=0.002). Conclusions. Survival of patients with CKD on HD and PD was similar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Survival Analysis , Mortality , Peritoneal Dialysis , Dialysis , Patients , Survival , Renal Dialysis , Survivorship
3.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 55(1): 27-38, 20220401.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1366663

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Procesos como la mutagénesis, la carcinogénesis y la teratogénesis son producto de la interacción de agentes de origen endógeno como exógeno que interactúan con la molécula de ADN en forma crónica produciendo rupturas en la doble hélice, y en cromosomas completos resultando en la inestabilidad genómica. El estrés oxidativo al que se encuentran sometidas las células al formarse las especies reactivas de oxígeno (ROS) y también las especies reactivas de nitrógeno (RNS), que pueden provenir de radicales producidos a consecuencia de la diabetes o en estados iniciales de la enfermedad renal crónica o como respuesta a procesos inflamatorios en estados avanzados de estas patologías, actúan como agentes genotóxicos endógenos.Objetivos: Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo determinar el daño basal en la molécula de ADN de pacientes diabéticos hemodializados, a través del ensayo del Cometa, como un bioindicador de inestabilidad genómica., durante seis meses de tratamiento. Materiales y métodos: Se planteó un estudio longitudinal prospectivo de cohorte para comparar los diferentes niveles de daño antes y durante los primeros seis del tratamiento de hemodiálisis. Se evaluó con el test del cometa o electroforesis de células individuales, el daño basal en muestras de sangre venosa de pacientes diagnosticados con Diabetes de tipo II como control negativo y en pacientes diabéticos con enfermedad renal crónica antes de iniciar el tratamiento de diálisis y luego durante el tratamiento. Se utilizó el test de t- Student para muestras independientes y emparejadas. Resultados: Se observó un aumento significativo de daño basal y oxidativo en el material genético de pacientes diabéticos con enfermedad renal crónica, comparados con los controles negativos (p< 0.005) y se observó, además, que el daño celular aumenta con el tratamiento de hemodiálisis (p<0.005). Conclusión: Los resultados obtenidos en esta investigación permiten concluir que el estrés oxidativo tiene un efecto genotóxico y que el nivel de daño genético es un buen bioindicador del avance de la enfermedad renal crónica y que la hemodiálisis induce a un aumento de daño a nivel del material genético, aumentando el riesgo de carcinogénesis.


Introduction: Processes such as mutagenesis, carcinogenesis and teratogenesis are the product of the interaction of agents of endogenous and exogenous origin that interact with the DNA molecule in a chronic way producing ruptures in the double helix, and in complete chromosomes resulting in genomic instability. The oxidative stress to which the cells are subjected when reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are formed, which may come from radicals produced as a result of diabetes or in initial stages of chronic kidney disease or in response to inflammatory processes in advanced stages of these pathologies, act as endogenous genotoxic agents. Objectives: This research aimed to determine the basal damage in the DNA molecule of hemodialyzed diabetic patients, through the Comet assay, as a bioindicator of genomic instability, during six months of treatment. Materials and methods: For this research, a prospective longitudinal cohort study was proposed to compare the different levels of genetic damage before and during the first six of hemodialysis treatment. Baseline damage was evaluated with the comet test or single cell electrophoresis, in venous blood samples from patients diagnosed with Type II Diabetes as a negative control and in diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease before starting dialysis treatment and then during treatment. Results: A significant increase in basal and oxidative damage was observed in the genetic material of diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease, compared to negative controls (p< 0.005) and it was also observed that cell damage increases with hemodialysis treatment (p<0.005). The t-Student test was used for independent and paired samples. Conclusion: The results obtained in this research allow us to conclude that oxidative stress has a genotoxic effect and that the level of genetic damage is a good bioindicator of the progression of chronic kidney disease and that hemodialysis induces an increase in damage at the level of the genetic material, increasing the risk of carcinogenesis.


Subject(s)
Renal Dialysis , Comet Assay , Dialysis , Research , DNA , Oxidative Stress
4.
Goiânia; SES-GO; 25 mar. 2022. 1-21 p. quad, graf.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, CONASS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1397377

ABSTRACT

A Portaria MS n.º 78, de 9 de março de 1.999, credenciou a Central Estadual de Transplantes de Goiás - CET/GO e desde então, os transplantes no Estado tem desenvolvido de forma íntegra e abrangente, inclusive no que tange outras instituições, as quais possam participar de forma direta ou indiretamente das ações relacionadas aos transplantes, no Estado. Diante disso, a presente Nota Técnica n.º 2/2022 visa orientar, organizar e publicizar o fluxo das ações relacionadas aos transplantes de rins em Goiás, de modo a atender as legislações vigentes, bem como a necessidade social e médica, em consonância com os princípios do SUS, que são norteadores desse processo


Ordinance MS n.º 78, of March 9, 1999, accredited the Goiás State Transplant Center - CET/GO and since then, transplants in the State have developed in an integral and comprehensive way, including with regard to other institutions, which can participate directly or indirectly in actions related to transplants in the State. Therefore, this Technical Note No. 2/2022 - aims to guide, organize and publicize the flow of actions related to kidney transplants in Goiás, in order to comply with current legislation, as well as the social need and medical, in line with the principles of the SUS, which guide this process


Subject(s)
Humans , Kidney Transplantation/standards , Tissue Donors/classification , Dialysis/standards
5.
San Salvador; MINSAL; feb. 02, 2022. 32 p. ilus, graf.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1361737

ABSTRACT

En los presentes lineamientos técnicos se describen los conceptos y procedimientos a realizar en la implementación del registro, además se presentan entre otros aspectos, los componentes relacionados con la obligatoriedad en el reporte, definición de caso registrable, las variables a registrar, las fuentes de información, metodología de la recolección, los centros de diálisis y trasplante, así como el reporte de resultados y la hoja de recolección de la información


These technical guidelines describe the concepts and procedures to be carried out in the implementation of the registry, in addition to presenting, among other aspects, the components related to the obligatory nature of the report, the definition of the registrable case, the variables to be registered, the sources of information, collection methodology, dialysis and transplant centers, as well as the results report and the information collection sheet


Subject(s)
Records , Kidney Transplantation , Dialysis , Registries , Research Report
6.
Acta sci., Health sci ; 44: e53802, Jan. 14, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1363583

ABSTRACT

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become a global public health challenge. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between self-perception of oral health and clinical condition among patients with CKD. This isa quanti-qualitative survey conducted in a CKD specialized service. The sample consisted of 60 patients who underwent oral examinations to have their severity of caries (DMFT) and need for dental prosthesis checked. Age, sex, time on dialysis, marital status, skin color, education and pre-existing diseases were also analyzed. Among the kidney patients who agreed to undergo the clinical examinations and showed communication skills, some were selected, and three focus groups were created, with the participation of a moderator and six to 10 kidney patients in each group. Their speeches were processed in the IRAMUTEQ software and analyzed through the similarity analysis and word cloud techniques. As for profile, the patients were aged 60.23 ± 10.87 years old; were male (73.33%); were on dialysis for 41.90 ± 56.57 months; were married (61.67%); were white (76.67%); had incomplete primary education (41.66%); had arterial hypertension (76.67%); had a DMFT index of 22.55 ± 8.39; 43.33% needed an upper complete denture; and 30.00% needed a lower complete denture. The similarity analysis revealed many doubts and uncertainties about current health services, which can be proven by the words 'no' and 'treatment'. The quanti-qualitative analysis showed a high rate of dental loss and the need for complete dentures and suggests inequities in oral health care for chronic kidney disease patients, especially in tertiary care. There was a positive representation regarding oral health, but the lexicographical analyses of the textual corpusconfirmed the self-perception of lack of dental care.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Oral Health , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Tertiary Healthcare/organization & administration , Public Health/methods , Tooth Loss/diagnosis , Dental Care/methods , Focus Groups/methods , Dental Prosthesis/methods , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Qualitative Research , Diagnosis, Oral/methods , Dialysis/methods , Health Services/supply & distribution
7.
HU rev ; 48: 1-8, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377791

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A análise da ingestão alimentar de pacientes com doença renal crônica (DRC) em tratamento dialítico é eficaz para fornecer informações a fim de auxiliar no diagnóstico nutricional e nortear as condutas dietéticas necessárias. Objetivo: Analisar a adequação do consumo alimentar de acordo com as recomendações publicadas pelo Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative (KDOQI) para macro e micronutrientes, além de avaliar a capacidade antioxidante total da dieta (CATd), de portadores de DRC. Materiais e Métodos: Estudo transversal, com 60 voluntários portadores de DRC em tratamento hemodialítico de um Hospital Universitário de Juiz de Fora ­ MG. A caracterização da amostra foi feita no período de junho de 2019 a fevereiro de 2020, através da aplicação de um Questionário Quantitativo de Frequência Alimentar (QQFA) e de coleta de dados pessoais, clínicos e comorbidades. As análises estatísticas foram conduzidas utilizando-se o software SPSS, versão 20.0. As variáveis numéricas foram apresentadas na forma de média (± desvio-padrão), mediana, mínimo e máximo, enquanto as categóricas em frequência absoluta e relativa. Resultados: Observou-se que 43% e 55% dos pacientes apresentaram um consumo calórico e proteico acima do preconizado pela KDOQI, respectivamente. Para os micronutrientes, foi observado que 77% dos pacientes apresentaram consumo de cálcio abaixo do recomendado e de fósforo 65% maior do que a recomendação atual. Percebeu-se que 67% e 40% dos pacientes apresentaram adequado consumo de sódio e potássio. O perfil lipídico da dieta dos pacientes, demonstrou uma desproporção da razão ômega 6/ômega 3, além de um CATd de 4,05 mmol/dia. Conclusão: Através do presente estudo podemos concluir que o consumo alimentar dos pacientes em hemodiálise avaliados apresenta algumas inadequações em relação às recomendações propostas pela literatura.


Introduction: The analysis of food intake in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) undergoing dialysis is effective to provide information to assist in nutritional diagnosis and guide the necessary dietary behaviors. Objective: To analyze the adequacy of food consumption according to the recommendations published by the Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative (KDOQI) for macro and micronutrients, in addition to evaluating the total antioxidant capacity of the diet (CATd) of patients with CKD. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study with 60 volunteers with CKD undergoing hemodialysis treatment at a University Hospital in Juiz de Fora ­ MG. The characterization of the sample was carried out from June 2019 to February 2020, through the application of a Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (QQFA) and the collection of personal, clinical and comorbid data. Statistical analyzes were conducted using SPSS software, version 20.0. Numerical variables were presented as mean (± standard deviation), median, minimum and maximum, while categorical variables in absolute and relative frequency. Results: It was observed that 43% and 55% of the patients had a caloric and protein consumption above that recommended by the KDOQI, respectively. For micronutrients, it was observed that 77% of the patients had calcium intake below the recommended level and phosphorus consumption 65% higher than the current recommendation. It was noticed that 67% and 40% of the patients had adequate consumption of sodium and potassium. The lipid profile of the patients' diet showed a disproportion of the omega 6/omega 3 ratio, in addition to a CATd of 4.05 mmol/day. Conclusion: Through the present study we can conclude that the food consumption of the evaluated hemodialysis patients presents some inadequacies in relation to the recommendations proposed by the literature


Subject(s)
Renal Dialysis , Recommended Dietary Allowances , Dialysis , Diet , Eating , Diet, Food, and Nutrition , Food , Kidney Diseases
8.
Cienc. Salud (St. Domingo) ; 6(1): [71-79], ene.-abr. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1366886

ABSTRACT

Se realizó un estudio tipo descriptivo, prospectivo, de corte transversal, con el objetivo de establecer los efectos de la suplementación oral y ejercicios de resistencia en pacientes de hemodiálisis Hospital Infantil Dr. Robert Reid Cabral abril-junio 2019. La población estuvo conformada por 60 pacientes con Enfermedad Renal Crónica perteneciente al servicio de diálisis, mientras que la muestra estuvo constituida por 17 pacientes. Finalizamos el proyecto con 11 pacientes, en vista de que en el periodo descrito se trasladaron 3 a diálisis peritoneal, 1 fue referido a adulto, 1 fallecido, 1 abandonó el estudio. La técnica utilizada para el levantamiento de la información fue un cuestionario de recolección de datos, procesados con el programa estadístico SPSS, utilizándose la prueba de Wilcoxon, donde el contraste de hipótesis es comparado con el valor p = 0.05, un nivel de confianza del 95 %. Los hallazgos más relevantes mostraron que la edad más frecuente fue 17 años, El sexo más frecuente el masculino; un promedio del 63.6 % tomaron del 90-100 % del suplemento indicado. El promedio de ejercicios realizado fue de 20-30 minutos. Los signos y síntomas frecuentes como efecto secundario a la realización de ejercicios se presentaron en 3 pacientes: dolor muscular; y vómito y dolor abdominal para la ingesta del suplemento. El peso tuvo un rango promedio de 3-5 % ganado. Para el índice de masa corporal el porcentaje ganado fue 1-6 %. La evolución de la masa muscular tuvo un promedio ganado de 11-15 %. En la evolución de la masa grasa 36 % perdieron entre 6-14 % de grasa. Tanto la hemoglobina como el hematocrito aumentaron en el 100 % de los pacientes. Los niveles de urea, proteínas y albúmina no evidenciaron diferencias significativas. En conclusión, demostramos en este estudio que administrando suplementación oral intradialítica, aunada a ejercicios físicos, se mejora la composición corporal de los pacientes en hemodiálisis


A descriptive, prospective, cross-sectional study was carried out to establish the effects of oral supplementation and resistance exercises in hemodialysis patients Hospital Infantil Dr. Robert Reid Cabral April-June 2019. The population consisted of 60 patients with Chronic Kidney Disease belonging to the dialysis service, while the sample consisted of 17 patients. We finished the project with 11 patients, given that in the period described, 3 were transferred to peritoneal dialysis, 1 was referred to an adult dialysis program, 1 died, and 1 dropped out of the study. The technique used to collect the information was a data collection questionnaire, processed with the statistical program SPSS, using the Wilcoxon test, where the contrast of hypotheses is compared with the value p = 0.05, a confidence level of 95 %. The most relevant findings showed that the most frequent age was 17 years, the most frequent sex was male; an average of 63.6% took 90-100% of the indicated supplement. The average number of exercises performed was 20-30 minutes. Frequent signs and symptoms as a side effect of exercising were presented muscle pain in 3 patients. In relation to oral supplements were vomiting and abdominal pain. The weight had an average range of 3-5% gained and for the body mass index, the percentage gained was 1-6%. The evolution of muscle mass had an average gain of 11-15%. In the evolution of fat mass, 36% lost between 6-14% of fat. Both hemoglobin and hematocrit increased in 100% of patients. Urea, protein, and albumin levels did not show significant differences. In conclusion, we demonstrate in this study that administering intradialytic oral supplementation, together with physical exercises, improves the body composition of hemodialysis patients


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Dialysis , Exercise , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dietary Supplements , Dominican Republic , Hemodialysis Units, Hospital
9.
Rev. baiana saúde pública ; 45(3,supl.n.esp): 48-57, 28 dec. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352325

ABSTRACT

A rabdomiólise como complicação da dengue é subnotificada e pouco descrita na literatura. O presente caso traz um alerta para recordar tal possibilidade, principalmente devido à alta incidência da dengue no Brasil e da importância do manejo inicial, que pode evitar um desfecho desfavorável. Este relato trata de um paciente de 54 anos que iniciou com quadro agudo de fraqueza, com dor intensa em membros inferiores, dor abdominal, náuseas, vômitos e anúria. Foi observada evidente disfunção renal aguda em urgência dialítica com acidose metabólica grave, além de hiperuricemia, hiponatremia, hipocalcemia e hipercalemia, com valores de creatinofosfoquinase (CPK) de 125.010 e de mioglobina, 318,28. O paciente necessitou de três sessões de hemodiálise e recebeu alta com recuperação da função renal. O resultado da sorologia IgM para dengue foi positivo após um mês e dez dias da admissão hospitalar.


Reports on rhabdomyolysis as a complication of dengue are scarce in the literature. This study warns about such a possibility, especially considering the high incidence of dengue in Brazil and the importance of early management to avoid an unfavorable outcome for the patient. The case consists of a 54-year-old patient admitted to the hospital with complains of acute weakness, severe lower limb pain, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and anuria. Clinical evaluation indicated acute renal dysfunction in dialysis emergency with severe metabolic acidosis, as well as hyperuricemia, hyponatremia, hypocalcemia, and hyperkalemia, with creatine phosphokinase (CPK) values equal to 125.010 and myoglobin to 318.28. The patient was discharged with recovery of renal function after three hemodialysis sessions. Serology results were positive for dengue IgM one month and ten days after hospital admission.


La rabdomiólisis como complicación del dengue está poco implementada en la literatura y poco reportada, y este caso trae una advertencia para recordar esta posibilidad, principalmente por la alta incidencia del dengue en el país en el que vivimos y la importancia del manejo inicial, evitando un desfavorable resultado para el paciente. Se trata de un paciente de 54 años que inicia debilidad aguda, dolor severo en miembros inferiores, dolor abdominal, náuseas, vómitos y anuria. Se evidenció disfunción renal aguda en urgencia de diálisis con acidosis metabólica severa, además de hiperuricemia, hiponatremia, hipocalcemia e hiperpotasemia, con valores de creatinfosfoquinasa (CPK)de 125.010 y mioglobina de 318,28. El paciente requirió tres sesiones de hemodiálisis y fue dado de alta con recuperación de la función renal. El resultado de la serología IgM para el dengue fue positivoun mes y diez días después del ingreso hospitalario.


Subject(s)
Rhabdomyolysis , Immunoglobulin M , Recovery of Function , Dengue , Dialysis
10.
Rev. APS ; 24(Supl 1): 200-218, 2021-12-31.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1367263

ABSTRACT

O número de pessoas em diálise tem aumentado de maneira significativa nos últimos anos. Essas pessoas são, em geral, portadoras de condições crônicas múltiplas e complexas, e a coordenação do seu cuidado torna-se um desafio. O presente artigo objetiva sintetizar os resultados da literatura a respeito da coordenação do cuidado e dos cuidados primários ofertados ao paciente em diálise. Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa que teve como fontes de dados publicações disponíveis nas bases: LILACS, SciELO e PubMed. Foram identificados 16 artigos publicados entre 1992 e 2020. A partir da análise temática, evidenciaram-se cinco áreas: vínculo das pessoas em diálise com a Atenção Primária à Saúde (APS) e com o médico da família e comunidade (MFC); percepção dos profissionais quanto a seus papéis e habilidades; percepção das pessoas a respeito dos papéis e habilidades dos profissionais; cuidados primários (CP) prestados por nefrologistas e MFC; e impacto da APS na mortalidade, hospitalização e qualidade de vida. Os resultados sugerem que o nefrologista tem assumido o papel de coordenador do cuidado e de principal provedor de CP à pessoa em diálise. Todavia, isso não significa queos cuidados oferecidos sejam adequados às necessidades do paciente, devendo o MFC estar cada vez mais envolvido com esse cuidado, o que tem sido gradualmente observado nos últimos anos.


The number of patients on dialysis has increased significantly in recent years. These patients are, in general, carriers of multiple and complex chronic conditions, and the coordination of their care becomes a challenge. This article aims to summarize the results of the literature regarding the coordination of care for dialysis patients. This is an integrative review based on data published and available in the databases: LILACS, SciELO, and PubMed. 16 articles published between 1992 and 2020 were identified. Based on the thematic analysis, five areas were highlighted: linkage of patients with primary health care (PHC) and with the family and community physician (FCF); professionals' perception of their roles and skills; patients' perception of the professionals' roles and skills; primary care delivered by nephrologists and FCF; and the impact of PHC on mortality, hospitalization, and quality of life. The results suggest that nephrologists have assumed the role of care coordinators and main providers of primary care for dialysis patients. However, this does not mean that the care offered is adequate for the patient's needs, and the FCF should be increasingly involved with this care, which indeed began to gradually occur in recent years.


Subject(s)
Primary Health Care , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Comprehensive Health Care , Dialysis , Family Practice , Nephrologists , Health Services Needs and Demand
11.
Iatreia ; 34(2): 97-106, abr.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250060

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo: describir el porcentaje de resistencia a la mupirocina y a otros antibióticos en aislados de Staphylococcus aureus que colonizan pacientes en hemodiálisis. Métodos: estudio descriptivo en el que se incluyeron pacientes en hemodiálisis en una unidad renal de Medellín. La colonización por S. aureus fue evaluada en las fosas nasales y en la piel. La identificación bacteriana se realizó por PCR y la sensibilidad antibiótica se determinó por el sistema automatizado VITEK-2 y por el método E-test. Las características clínicas de los pacientes fueron evaluadas con la historia clínica. Resultados: se incluyeron 210 pacientes, de estos el 50,5 % (n = 106) fueron mujeres, con una mediana para la edad de 62 años (RIC 51,87-71,13). De las características clínicas se destacó el uso frecuente de antibióticos: 59 % (n = 124) y la historia de hospitalización: 69 % (n = 145). El porcentaje de colonización por S. aureus fue de 33,8 % (n = 71) y el sitio más frecuente de colonización fue las fosas nasales (19 %; n = 40). Todos los aislados fueron sensibles a la mupirocina por el método de VITEK-2. Sin embargo, un aislado presentó resistencia de bajo nivel a la mupirocina por E-test. La colonización por aislados resistentes a meticilina (SARM) fue de 4,8 % (n = 10) y estos presentaron, principalmente, resistencia solamente a la oxacilina (58,3 %; n = 7). Conclusión: la alta sensibilidad a la mupirocina en aislados de S. aureus colonizantes sugiere su uso como terapia profiláctica en pacientes en hemodiálisis con alto riesgo de infección. Es importante fortalecer los programas de uso racional de antibióticos para evitar la diseminación de mecanismos de resistencia a estos y a otros en las unidades renales.


SUMMARY Objective: To describe the resistance percentage to mupirocin and other antibiotics in Staphylococcus aureus isolates colonizing hemodialysis patients. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted at an outpatient dialysis center in Medellín and hemodialysis patients with catheter were included. Colonization by S. aureus was evaluated in nostrils and skin. Bacterial identification was performed by PCR and antibiotic susceptibility was determined by the Vitek-2 automated system and by E-test. Clinical information was obtained from medical records. Results: Two hundred and ten patients were included, of which 50.5% (n=106) were women, with a median for the age of 62 years (IQR 51,87-71,13). Among the clinical characteristics, the frequent use of antibiotics 59% (n=124) and the history of hospitalization 69% (n=145) were highlighted. The percentage of colonization by S. aureus was 33.8% (n=71) and the most frequent site of colonization was nostrils (19%; n=40). All isolates were susceptible to mupirocin by the method of Vitek-2. However, one isolate showed low level resistance to mupirocin by E-test. Colonization by methicillinresistant isolates (MRSA) was 4.8% (n=10); which presented mainly resistance only to oxacillin (58,3%; n = 7). Conclusion: The high susceptibility to mupirocin in isolates of colonizing S. aureus suggests its use as prophylactic therapy in hemodialysis patients with high risk of infection. It is important to strengthen programs for the rational use of antibiotics to prevent the spread of mechanisms of resistance to this and other antibiotics at dialysis units.


Subject(s)
Humans , Renal Dialysis , Mupirocin , Dialysis
12.
J. bras. nefrol ; 43(2): 274-278, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286939

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: The clinical impact of vascular calcification is well established in the context of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, but other clinical syndromes, such as calciphylaxis, although less frequent, have a significant impact on chronic kidney disease. Methods: Case report of a 27-year-old woman, who had complained of bilateral pain in her toes for 3 days, with the presence of small necrotic areas in the referred sites. She had a history of type 1 diabetes (25 years ago), with chronic kidney disease, on peritoneal dialysis, in addition to rheumatoid arthritis. She was admitted to the hospital, which preceded the current condition, due to exacerbation of rheumatoid arthritis, evolving with intracardiac thrombus due to venous catheter complications, when she started using warfarin. Ischemia progressed to her feet, causing the need for bilateral amputations. Her chirodactyls were also affected. Thrombophilia, vasculitis, endocarditis or other embolic sources were investigated and discarded. Her pathology report evidenced skin necrosis and superficial soft parts with recent arterial thrombosis, and Monckeberg's medial calcification. We started treatment with bisphosphonate and sodium thiosulfate, conversion to hemodialysis and replacement of warfarin with unfractionated heparin. Despite all the therapy, the patient died after four months of evolution. Discussion: Calciphylaxis is a rare microvasculature calcification syndrome that results in severe ischemic injuries. It has pathogenesis related to the mineral and bone disorder of chronic kidney disease combined with the imbalance between promoters and inhibitors of vascular calcification, with particular importance to vitamin K antagonism. Conclusion: The preventive strategy is fundamental, since the therapy is complex with poorly validated effectiveness.


RESUMO Introdução: O impacto clínico da calcificação vascular está bem estabelecido no âmbito de morbimortalidade cardiovascular, mas outras síndromes clínicas, como a calcifilaxia, apesar de menos frequente, têm significante impacto na doença renal crônica. Métodos: Relato de caso de mulher, 27 anos, com queixa de dor em pododáctilos bilateralmente havia 3 dias, com presença de pequenas áreas necróticas nos locais referidos. Antecedente pessoal de diabetes tipo 1 (há 25 anos), com doença renal crônica, em diálise peritoneal, além de artrite reumatoide. Teve internação hospitalar, que antecedeu o quadro atual, devido à exacerbação da artrite reumatoide, evoluindo com trombo intracardíaco por complicação de cateter venoso, quando iniciou uso de varfarina. A isquemia progrediu para pés com necessidade de amputações bilaterais. Quirodáctilos também foram acometidos. Trombofilias, vasculites, endocardite ou outras fontes emboligênicas foram pesquisadas e descartadas. Anatomopatológico evidenciou: necrose de pele e partes moles superficiais com trombose arterial recente e calcificação medial de Monckeberg. Tratamento foi instituído com bisfosfonato e tiossulfato de sódio, conversão para hemodiálise e substituição de varfarina por heparina não fracionada. Apesar de toda a terapia, a paciente foi a óbito após quatro meses de evolução. Discussão: A calcifilaxia é uma rara síndrome de calcificação da microvasculatura que resulta em graves lesões isquêmicas. Tem patogênese relacionada ao distúrbio mineral e ósseo da doença renal crônica combinado com o desbalanço entre promotores e inibidores de calcificação vascular, com particular importância ao antagonismo da vitamina K. Conclusão: A estratégia preventiva é fundamental, uma vez que a terapia é complexa e de eficácia pouco validada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Calciphylaxis/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Heparin , Dialysis , Extremities , Necrosis
13.
West Indian med. j ; 69(2): 103-108, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341879

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: People receiving dialysis have a high mortality rate due to life-threatening, chronic renal failure. These patients experience the fear of pain and suffering, loneliness and death in the haemodialysis unit. This research aimed at determining the perception of death in people receiving dialysis. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive research was conducted under the supervision of the Ministry of Health in public hospitals in the cities of Mersin, Izmir, Antalya, Erzurum, Samsun and Gaziantep. A total 240 patients were treated in the dialysis units of these hospitals. Participants were selected with stratified random sampling. For data collection, a patient information form was prepared by the researcher. Data from the study were analysed with Tukey Honest Significant Difference and one-way ANOVA, using an SPSS version 11.5 software package (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Windows, IBM Corp., Armonk, NY). The statistical significance level was defined as p < 0.05. Results: People receiving dialysis were found to be in a mildly depressive emotional state and they had death anxiety. Death-related anxiety and depression were more common among the female study participants compared to the male participants. Single patients exhibited higher levels of death anxiety compared to married patients. Conclusion: We recommend a holistic and personalised care to allow people receiving dialysis to express their feelings and to overcome the death anxiety. Further research is needed to improve dignified person-centred care for people receiving dialysis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , Kidney Failure, Chronic/mortality , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Socioeconomic Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies
14.
Investig. enferm ; 23(1)2021. 2 tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1372883

ABSTRACT

Introducción: las personas adultas con enfermedad renal crónica (ERC) tienen mayor riesgo de presentar úlceras, especialmente en las extremidades inferiores. Sin embargo, existen datos limitados sobre la prevalencia y los factores asociados. Objetivo: determinar la prevalencia de úlceras en miembros inferiores y sus factores asociados en pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica que asisten a una institución de IV nivel de complejidad. Método: estudio de tipo observacional, transversal y analítico, la muestra fue de 561 participantes. Los instrumentos fueron una ficha de datos sociodemográcos y de antecedentes, y el índice tobillo brazo (ITB). Resultados: los participantes fueron en su mayoría hombres (67%), con promedio de edad de 62 años; se encontró significancia estadística (p < 0,05) entre las variables antecedente de diabetes, ITB bajo, haber tenido úlcera previa y presencia de úlcera en miembros inferiores. Conclusiones: estudiar este tipo de fenómenos en unidades de cuidado renal se convierte en una necesidad debido a la alta prevalencia y a los factores de riesgo asociados. Esto permite la planicación de estrategias encaminadas a la prevención.


Introduction: adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a higher risk of developing ulcers, especially lower extremities. However, there are limited data on prevalence and associated factors. Objective: to determine the prevalence of ulcers in the lower limbs and their associated factors in patients with chronic kidney disease who attend a IV level of complexity institution. Method: observational, cross-sectional, and analytical study, the sample was 561 participants. The instruments were a sociodemographic and background datasheet and the Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI). Results: the participants were primarily men (67%), with an average age of 62 years; Statistical significance (p <0.05) was found between the variables history of diabetes, low ABI, having had a previous ulcer, and the presence of an ulcer in the lower limbs. Conclusions: studying this phenomenon in renal care units becomes necessary due to the high prevalence and associated risk factors; it allows the planning of strategies aimed at prevention.


Introdução: adultos com doença renal crônica (DRC) apresentam maior risco de desenvolver úlceras, principalmente nas extremidades inferiores. No entanto, existem dados limitados sobre prevalência e fatores associados. Objetivo: determinar a prevalência de úlceras de membros inferiores e seus fatores associados em pacientes com doença renal crônica atendidos em instituição de nível de complexidade IV. Método: estudo observacional, transversal e analítico, a amostra foi de 561 participantes. Os instrumentos foram ficha sociodemográfica e de antecedentes e o índice tornozelo-braquial (ITB). Resultados: os participantes eram em sua maioria homens (67%), com média de idade de 62 anos; Foi encontrada significância estatística (p < 0,05) entre as variáveis antecedente, baixo ITB, ter tido úlcera prévia e presença de úlcera em membros inferiores. Conclusões: o estudo desse tipo de fenômeno em unidades de cuidados renais torna-se uma necessidade devido à alta prevalência e aos fatores de risco associados. Isso permite o planejamento de estratégias encaminhadas à prevenção.


Subject(s)
Humans , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Ulcer , Lower Extremity , Dialysis
15.
Infectio ; 24(4): 243-247, oct.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1114876

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: to describe an experience in identification and control of an outbreak of Ralstonia spp. in a renal unit. Material and Method: an epidemiological investigation of a hospital outbreak in 2 sites and extramural service of a renal unit. The investigation included patients who presented fever or chills, during or after dialysis, and who had positive blood culture for Ralstonia spp. Results: Of 769 hemodialysis patients, 124 were identified with bacteremia by Ralstonia spp.; of these, 98.4% had catheter access and 1.6% had fistula. The overall attack rate was 16.1% and the case fatality rate was 0.8%. Environmental cultures were taken and drugs and devices were tracked. Several cultures were taken of the prefilled heparin following the methods described in the International Pharmacopoeia. However, it was the technique of microbial isolation recommended by experts that enabled the isolation of the microorganism and confirmed the source. Conclusions: The outbreak described exceeded the number of patients affected documented in literature. It was caused by a contaminated batch of heparin. Evidence is provided of a recommended by expert technique used for the isolation of Ralstonia spp. in order to achieve control of outbreaks in a timely manner, minimizing clinical, economic, and social impact.


Resumen Objetivo: describir la experiencia en la identificación y control de un brote por Ralstonia spp. en una unidad renal. Material y Método: investigación epidemiológica de brote hospitalario en 2 sedes y servicio extramural de una unidad renal. Se incluyeron pacientes que presentaron fiebre o escalofrío, durante o después de la terapia dialítica, y que tuvieran hemocultivo positivo para Ralstonia spp. Resultados: De los 709 pacientes para hemodiálisis, se identificaron 124 con bacteriemia por Ralstonia spp., 98,4% tenían acceso por catéter. La tasa de ataque global fue del 16,1% y la tasa de letalidad 0,8%. Se realizaron cultivos ambientales y trazabilidad de medicamentos y dispositivos, pero ante la presencia de casos extramurales la hipótesis fue redireccionada. La heparina prellenada había sido cultivada en varias oportunidades siguiendo la metodología de la farmacopea internacional. Sin embargo, la técnica de aislamiento microbiano recomendada por expertos fue la que permitió aislar el microorganismo y confirmar la fuente. Conclusiones: El brote que se describe excedió el número de pacientes documentados en la literatura y fue causado por un lote contaminado de heparina. Se aporta evidencia de una técnica recomendada por expertos utilizada para el aislamiento de Ralstonia spp. a fin de lograr el control de brotes de manera oportuna, minimizando el impacto clínico, económico y social.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ralstonia , Dialysis , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Disease Outbreaks , Mortality , Renal Dialysis , Equipment and Supplies , Catheters
16.
J. bras. nefrol ; 42(4): 420-428, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154631

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The progressive decline in 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in chronic kidney disease (CKD) limits the kidney ability of synthesizing the vitamin. Vitamin D deficiency as defined by KDIGO (25(OH)D <20 ng/mL) is prevalent in CKD patients and associated to oxidative stress (OS). We studied a possible association between vitamin D deficiency and OS in pre-dialysis patients. Methods: A cross-sectional study with 206 CKD patients was carried out. Laboratory tests for 25(OH)D, 1,25(OH)2D, inflammatory markers, and OS were added to routine tests including creatinine, albumin, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, iPTH, glucose, hemoglobin, uric acid, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and triglycerides. Results: Vitamin D deficiency was present in 55 CKD patients and normal vitamin D levels were seen in 149 patients. There was a significant association between vitamin D and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGRF). Homocysteine levels were best predicted by eGRF, sex, and age; high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) by staging and BMI; nitric oxide metabolites (NOx) were increased in late disease; leptin was influenced by BMI and higher in women than man; and adiponectin levels were higher in women. Conclusions: OS biomarkers were not correlated with vitamin D deficiency but increased NOx were seen in stages 4-5 CKD patients. Even though a relatively large number of CKD patients was included and a broad number of OS and inflammatory biomarkers were used in this studied we failed to find an association between vitamin D levels and eGRF. More studies are needed to evaluate the influence of vitamin D status in OS in pre-dialysis CKD patients.


Resumo Introdução: A queda da 25-hidroxivitamina D [25 (OH) D] na doença renal crônica (DRC) limita a capacidade renal de sintetizar a vitamina. A deficiência de vitamina D, (25(OH)D<20 ng/mL), é prevalente em pacientes com DRC e associada ao estresse oxidativo (EO). Avaliamos possível associação entre a deficiência de vitamina D e EO em pacientes pré-dialíticos. Métodos: estudo transversal com 206 pacientes com DRC. Exames para 25(OH)D, 1,25(OH)2D, marcadores inflamatórios e EO foram adicionados àqueles de rotina, incluindo creatinina, albumina, cálcio, fósforo, fosfatase alcalina, iPTH, glicose, hemoglobina, ácido úrico, colesterol total , LDL, HDL e triglicerídeos. Resultados: 55 pacientes com DRC tinham deficiência de vitamina D e os 149 tinham níveis normais da vitamina. Houve uma associação significativa entre a vitamina D e a taxa estimada de filtração glomerular (TFGe). Os níveis de homocisteína foram melhor previstos pela TFGe, gênero e idade; proteína C reativa de alta sensibilidade (hsCRP) por estadiamento e IMC; os metabólitos de óxido nítrico (NOx) aumentaram na doença tardia; a leptina foi influenciada pelo IMC, e mais alta em mulheres, assim como os níveis de adiponectina. Conclusões: biomarcadores do EO não correlacionaram com a deficiência de vitamina D, mas houve aumento de NOx nos estágios 4-5 da DRC. Apesar dos grandes números de pacientes com DRC, de biomarcadores inflamatórios e EO usados neste estudo, não houve associação entre os níveis de vitamina D e a TFGe. Mais estudos são necessários para avaliar a influência do status da vitamina D no EO em pacientes com DRC em pré-diálise.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Vitamin D , Cross-Sectional Studies , Oxidative Stress , Dialysis
17.
Rev. colomb. nefrol. (En línea) ; 7(2): 37-43, jul.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1251563

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: la enfermedad renal puede generar un cambio en la vida de las personas que la padecen, pues los obliga a cambiar sus estilos y proyectos de vida, facilitando las afecciones a nivel físico, psicológico y social. Objetivo: determinar la prevalencia y los factores asociados a la ansiedad en pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica atendidos en dos unidades de diálisis de Boyacá, Colombia. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio transversal analítico en pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica en fases avanzadas que estuvieran en manejo con terapia dialítica. Se incluyeron 224 participantes mayores de 18 años de edad que fueron seleccionados mediante un muestreo aleatorio simple y que firmaron un consentimiento informado de participación voluntaria. Resultados: la prevalencia de ansiedad fue de 41,33 %, además se encontró que tener pareja y apoyo familiar (0,42 %), estar empleado (0,56 %) y recibir una buena atención por parte del personal de salud (0,69 %) son factores protectores para la ansiedad. Por su parte, tener más de 2 años en diálisis (2,73 %) o hemodiálisis (2,92 %), tener enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (3,19 %), padecer de diabetes mellitus (3,23 %), tener antecedente familiar de enfermedad renal crónica (3,58 %), ser mujer (4,46 %) y ser mayor de 50 años (4,73 %) son factores que aumentan la probabilidad de presentar ansiedad. Conclusiones: los factores asociados a la ansiedad encontrados en la población estudiada son congruentes con los de la mayoría de estudios al respecto. Dada la importante prevalencia de este trastorno en pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica, es importante implementar estrategias psicoterapéuticas haciendo énfasis en la población con mayor riesgo de desarrollarla.


Abstract Introduction: Kidney pathology can generate a change in people's lives, since it forces us to change life styles and projects, facilitating physical, psychological and social conditions. Objective: To determine the factors associated with anxiety in patients with chronic kidney disease treated in two dialysis units of the department of Boyacá. Materials and methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted, which included patients with chronic kidney disease in advanced stages who were managed with dialysis therapy. We included 224 patients over 18 years of age who accepted the informed consent for voluntary participation, selected by simple random sampling. Results: The prevalence of anxiety was 41.33 %, where it was found that having a partner, family support (0.42), being employed (0.56) and good care by health personnel (0.69) are protective factors for anxiety, while having more than 2 years on dialysis (2.73), hemodialysis (2.92), having chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (3.19), suffering from diabetes mellitus (3.23), Family history of chronic kidney disease (3.58), being a woman (4.46) and being older than 50 years (4.73) are factors that increase the likelihood of anxiety. Conclusions: the factors associated with anxiety in our study in patients with chronic kidney disease are congruent with the majority of studies carried out in this regard. Given the significant prevalence of anxiety in patients with chronic kidney disease, it is important to implement psychotherapeutic strategies in these patients with emphasis on the population with a higher risk of developing it.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Anxiety , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Patients , Prevalence , Colombia , Dialysis , Protective Factors , Hemodialysis Units, Hospital
18.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 53(3): 147-152, 20201201.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177998

ABSTRACT

La función renal (FR) es medida por varios métodos. La más utilizada es el aclaramiento de creatinina (ClCr), que reflejaría, el filtrado glomerular (FG). Para su medición se recurre a la recolección de orina durante 24 horas o a la utilización de fórmulas, siendo la más utilizada, la ecuación CKD-EPI (Chronic kidney disease Epidemiology Collaboration). La disfunción renal se clasifica en 5 estadios. El estadio 5 (cuando el ClCr es igual o inferior a 15 ml/min), es cuando los pacientes están prontos a recibir tratamiento sustitutivo renal (TSR). La hemodiálisis (HD), es una técnica muy utilizada como TSR y normalmente es llevada a cabo 3 veces a la semana, por 4 horas cada una. Un paciente de 59 años, quién debido a la distancia entre su domicilio y el Centro de diálisis decide (consentimiento firmado), someterse a solo 2 sesiones de HD por semana. Al inicio del tratamiento, el paciente presentaba todos los datos clínicos y bioquímicos de la Enfermedad renal Crónica Avanzada, estadio 5 y un volumen diurético (VD) ≥ 1 litro/día. En caso de empeoramiento clínico y/o bioquímico, las sesiones de HD serían 3 veces por semana. Al año, los parámetros clínicos, bioquímicos y la función renal residual (FRR), permanecen óptimos. Si FRR (medido por el aclaramiento de urea (Kru) y el VD), declina serán necesarias 3 sesiones de HD, semanales. El mantenimiento de la FRR, está relacionado con la mortalidad y la HD incremental, al preservar mejor la FRR, mejora la sobrevida del paciente.


Several methods are useful to measure renal function (RF). In clinical practice, the creatinina cleareance (CrCl), is widely used, which approximately reflects the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The 24 hs urine volume collection is required to measure CrCl, however, thanks different formulas we can have a precise CrCl value. The CKD-EPI (chronic kidney disease epidemiology collaboration), is the equation frequently used. According to glomerular filtration rate (GFR), the renal function has been classified in 5 stages. At advances stages (stage 5), (CrCl: 15 ml/min), the patient is faced to receive renal replacement therapy (RRT). Hemodialysis (HD) method is often used. It is carry out 3 times per week (4 hours each). A 59 years old male, due to the distance between the Capital City and his home, decided to receive HD only two times per week (signed consent). At the beginning of the treatment the patient presents all the clinical and biochemical data corresponding to Chronic Renal Failure stage 5. His diuretic volume (DV), ≥ 1 lt/day. In the case of RF deterioration reflected clinical and/or biochemically, the HD session would be 3 times a week. At year, presents adequate residual renal function (RRF) and clinics, biochemical parameters as well. If the RRF (measured by urea clareance (Kru) and the DV) decline, 3 sessions per week will be necessary. The RRF maintenance is related to mortality, therefore, its preservation thanks incremental HD, improve the patient survival.


Subject(s)
Renal Dialysis , Creatinine , Dialysis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Residence Characteristics , Epidemiology , Mortality
20.
J. bras. nefrol ; 42(3): 349-356, July-Sept. 2020. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134840

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The pregnancy rate of women on dialysis is still very low when compared to that of the remaining population. However, recent years have seen an increase in the success rates of these pregnancies. Among the main precautions that must be taken with pregnant women on dialysis are the maintenance of low levels of pre-dialysis urea, the adequacy of the tension profile, the control of anemia and care to avoid infections, nutritional deficits, changes in phosphorus-calcium metabolism and electrolytic fluctuations. It is also necessary to strictly monitor fetal growth and development. Pregnant women on dialysis have a higher probability of maternal and fetal complications; thus the importance of a multidisciplinary approach among nephrologists, obstetricians and pediatricians. The main objective of this study was to review the literature evidence available on pregnancy on dialysis, on the basic principles of the pathophysiology of pregnant women and their particularities in kidney disease. We will address available treatment options, benefits and risks, anticipating possible future challenges. At the end, we will present a clinical case to illustrate the topic.


RESUMO O índice de gravidez de mulheres em diálise permanece ainda muito baixo quando comparado ao da população restante. Contudo, nos últimos anos, o sucesso dessas gestações tem aumentado. Entre os principais cuidados que se deve ter com as grávidas em diálise estão a manutenção de níveis baixos de ureia pré-diálise, a adequação do perfil tensional, o controle da anemia e os cuidados para evitar infecções, deficit nutricionais, alterações do metabolismo fosfo-cálcio e flutuações eletrolíticas. O monitoramento rigoroso do crescimento e desenvolvimento fetal é também necessário. Gravidezes em diálise estão associadas à maior probabilidade de complicações maternas e fetais, por isso é de extrema importância uma abordagem multidisciplinar entre nefrologistas, obstetras e pediatras. O objetivo principal do presente trabalho consiste na revisão da evidência literária disponível sobre a gravidez em diálise, sobre os princípios básicos da fisiopatologia da grávida e de suas particularidades na doença renal. Serão abordadas as opções de tratamento disponíveis, as vantagens e os riscos, antevendo possíveis desafios futuros. No final, será apresentado um caso clínico ilustrativo da temática.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications , Anemia , Renal Dialysis , Dialysis , Nephrologists
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