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1.
Fisioter. Bras ; 22(6): 951-964, Fevereiro 7, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358387

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A sobrecarga corporal devida à obesidade contribui no surgimento de alterações no sistema musculoesquelético e respiratório. Objetivo: Analisar as evidências científicas referentes à influência da obesidade sobre a postura do tronco, a resposta cinético-funcional do diafragma e a função pulmonar em crianças e adolescentes. Métodos: Trata-se de uma revisão de literatura, utilizando as bases de dados Medline, Cochrane, Embase, Lilacs e Web of Sciences, nos idiomas inglês, português e espanhol, nos últimos 10 anos. Foram utilizados os descritores: "obesidade', "postura", "diafragma", "função pulmonar", "adolescentes", "adultos jovens". Os critérios de exclusão foram: estudos que abordaram distúrbios neuromusculares associados, cifoescoliose, fibrose cística, enfisema pulmonar, asma e DPOC e artigos não disponíveis na íntegra. Resultados: Foram identificados 226 estudos, porém 10 foram analisados. Os resultados apontaram que a postura do tronco nos obesos é hipercifótica, hiperlordótica e com anteversão pélvica, além de apontar indícios de repercussão na dinâmica respiratória, com redução da mobilidade do diafragma e dos volumes e capacidades pulmonares. Conclusão: A obesidade contribui para a ocorrência de hipercifose, hiperlordose e anteversão da pelve, bem como na diminuição da atividade do diafragma e função pulmonar. (AU)


Subject(s)
Child , Adolescent , Posture , Diaphragm , Torso , Musculoskeletal System , Obesity , Child , Adolescent
2.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 20(4): e4196, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289620

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La hernia diafragmática traumática es una complicación grave del traumatismo abdominal o torácico. Se considera una entidad poco frecuente. El diagnóstico es difícil y, a menudo, puede pasar inadvertido. Objetivo: El propósito de este caso clínico es demostrar la necesidad de sospechar la presencia de hernia diafragmática en los pacientes con trauma toracoabdomial. Presentación del Caso: Paciente de 75 años que sufre accidente de tránsito, con evaluación inicial sin alteraciones clínico-radiológicas, que posteriormente presentan evolución desfavorable con hallazgo radiográfico de una hernia diafragmática traumática. Conclusiones: La hernia diafragmática cuando se presenta constituye un verdadero reto para el diagnóstico por parte del personal médico; pues esta requiere de un alto índice de sospecha y el uso adecuado de las imágenes diagnósticas. Se considera una entidad importante para la evaluación del paciente traumatizado(AU)


Introduction: Traumatic diaphragmatic hernia is a serious complication of abdominal or thoracic trauma. It is considered a rare pathology. The diagnosis is difficult and can often go unnoticed. Objective: The purpose of this clinical case is to demonstrate the need to suspect the presence of diaphragmatic hernia in patients with thoracoabdomial trauma. Case Presentation: Seventy-five-year-old patient who suffers a traffic accident. At initial evaluation no clinical-radiological alterations were observed, but later the patient presented an unfavorable evolution with radiographic finding of a traumatic diaphragmatic hernia. Conclusions: Diaphragmatic hernia, when present, is a real challenge for the diagnosis by the medical staff since it requires a high index of suspicion and an adequate use of diagnostic images. It is considered an important entity in the evaluation of the trauma patient(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Accidents, Traffic/prevention & control , Hernia, Diaphragmatic, Traumatic/complications , Diaphragm/injuries , Early Diagnosis , Hernia, Diaphragmatic, Traumatic/diagnostic imaging , Abdominal Injuries/complications , Occupational Groups
3.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(3): 474-477, jun. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346489

ABSTRACT

Abstract Borrelia burgdorferi infection (Lyme disease) is one of the few identifiable causes of neuralgic amyotrophy (AN). Bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis is considered rare in borreliosis, and the pattern of long-term recovery of diaphragm function is also uncertain. Transdiaphragmatic pressure is the gold standard for diagnosing bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis, a study that has been reported on a few occasions. We pres ent a case of AN associated with borrelia infection and bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis that provides a detailed follow-up of the spirometric evolution, the maximum static pressures in the mouth, and the transdiaphragmatic pressure from the onset of symptoms and in the long term. This case allows us to know one of the possible evolutionary profiles of diaphragmatic dysfunction in AN due to borreliosis.


Resumen La infección por Borrelia burgdorferi (enfermedad de Lyme) es una de las pocas causas identificables de amiotrofia neurálgica. La parálisis diafragmática bilateral es considerada rara en la borreliosis y el patrón de recuperación a largo plazo de la función del diafragma también es incierto. La presión transdiafragmática es el patrón de oro para el diagnóstico de parálisis diafragmática bilateral, un estudio que ha sido informado en pocas ocasiones. Se presenta un caso de amiotrofia neurálgica asociado a infección por Borrelia y parálisis diafrag mática bilateral, que aporta un seguimiento detallado de la evolución espirométrica, de las presiones estáticas máximas en la boca y de la presión transdiafragmática desde el inicio de los síntomas y a largo plazo. Este caso permite conocer uno de los posibles perfiles evolutivos de la disfunción diafragmática en la amiotrofia neurálgica por borreliosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiratory Paralysis/diagnosis , Respiratory Paralysis/etiology , Brachial Plexus Neuritis , Lyme Neuroborreliosis/complications , Lyme Neuroborreliosis/diagnosis , Diaphragm/diagnostic imaging , Follow-Up Studies
4.
Rev. Pesqui. Fisioter ; 11(2): 411-419, Maio 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1253994

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Iliopsoas e o músculodiafragma compartilham fixação comum nas vértebras L2, a contração do iliopsoas pode levar à redução da excursão do diafragma levando à dificuldade respiratória. Portanto, o presente estudo controlado fornecerá evidências sobre o efeito da liberação do músculo iliopsoas na melhoria da eficiência respiratória em pacientes com dor lombar crônica. MÉTODO / DESENHO: Um total de trinta e quatro participantes com lombalgia crônica mecânica lombar crônica devido à rigidez dos flexores do quadril, dor lombar crônica e dificuldade respiratória serão recrutados com base nos critérios de seleção e serão alocados aleatoriamente em dois grupos, Grupo A (tratamento conservador + liberação miofascial iliopsoas), Grupo B (tratamento conservador + tratamento simulado). Ambos os grupos receberão a intervenção três vezes por semana durante 3 semanas. As medidas de resultado serão o Questionário de Incapacidade de Roland Morris, a Escala Numérica de Avaliação da Dor e a Capacidade de Difusão do Pulmão, pois o monóxido de carbono será usado como medidas de resultado. DISCUSSÃO: Este estudo ajudará a identificar a eficácia da liberação de iliopsoas na dor lombar e seu efeito nos parâmetros respiratórios. REGISTRO DO ENSAIO: Este ensaio foi registrado prospectivamente em cliniclatrials.gov (CTRI / 2020/04/024661), em 16 de abril de 2020.


BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Iliopsoas and diaphragm muscle share common attachment at L2 vertebrae, iliopsoas tightness may lead to reduce diaphragm excursion leading to breathing difficulty. Therefore, the present controlled trial will provide evidence on the effect of the iliopsoas muscle release in upgrading respiratory efficiency in patients with chronic low back pain. METHOD/DESIGN: A total of thirty-four participants with mechanical chronic low back pain due to hip flexor tightness and having breathing difficulty will be recruited based on selection criteria. It will be randomly allocated into Group A (conservative treatment + iliopsoas myofascial release), Group B (conservative treatment + sham treatment). Both the group will receive the intervention three times a week for three weeks. The outcome measures will be the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire, Numeric Pain Rating Scale, and diffuse capacity of Lung for Carbon monoxide as outcome measures. DISCUSSION: This trial will help identify the effectiveness of iliopsoas release in low back pain and its effect on respiratory parameters. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial has been prospectively registered at cliniclatrials.gov (CTRI/2020/04/024661) on 16 April 2020.


Subject(s)
Low Back Pain , Diaphragm , Carbon Monoxide
6.
J. bras. pneumol ; 47(5): e20210166, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340148

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a cinética diafragmática, a função respiratória e a dosagem sérica de leptina e citocinas inflamatórias (IL-6 e TNF-α) em três grupos clínicos: obeso, asmático e saudável. Métodos Estudo clínico-exploratório realizado com 73 jovens (12-24 anos, sendo 42,5% do sexo masculino) alocados em três grupos: obesidade (GO, n = 33), índice de massa corporal (IMC z-score) ≥ + 2 e asmáticos leves controlados (GA, n = 26), classificados pela GINA, e grupo controle saudável (GC, n = 14). Os participantes foram submetidos à ultrassonografia diafragmática, espirometria, pressão respiratória máxima, níveis séricos de leptina e níveis de IL-6 e TNF-α em hemocultura total. Resultados A espessura do diafragma foi maior no GO em comparação ao GA e GC (2,0 ± 0,4 vs 1,7 ± 0,5 e 1,6 ± 0,2, respectivamente, com p < 0,05). A ventilação voluntária máxima (VVM) foi significativamente menor no GO e GA em relação ao GC (82,8 ± 21,4 e 72,5 ± 21,2 vs 102,8 ± 27,3, respectivamente, com p < 0,05). O GO tem a maior taxa de leptina entre todos os grupos (com os outros dois grupos, p < 0,05). Os três grupos tinham níveis semelhantes de TNF-α e IL-6. Conclusão A hipertrofia muscular encontrada no diafragma de indivíduos obesos pode ser justificada pelo aumento do trabalho respiratório imposto pela condição crônica da doença. Esse aumento de espessura não ocorreu em asmáticos leves controlados. Os marcadores IL-6 e TNF-α não detectaram evidências de inflamação muscular, embora fosse esperado que a leptina estivesse alterada em indivíduos obesos. Pacientes obesos e asmáticos apresentaram menor resistência pulmonar do que os saudáveis.


ABSTRACT Objective The aim of this study was to assess the diaphragm kinetics, respiratory function, and serum dosage of leptin and inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α) in three clinical groups: obese, asthmatic, and healthy. Methods This is a clinical exploratory study performed on 73 youths (12-24 years of age, 42.5% male) allocated into three groups: obesity (OG, n=33), body mass index (BMIz-score) ≥ +2, asthmatic (AG, n=26) controlled mild asthmatics, classified by GINA, and Healthy Control Group (CG, n=14). The participants were subjected to diaphragmatic ultrasound, spirometry, maximal respiratory pressure, serum leptin levels, and IL-6 and TNF-α whole blood cell culture levels. Results Diaphragm thickness was higher in OG in comparison to AG and CG (2.0±0.4 vs 1.7±0.5 and 1.6±0.2, both with p<0.05). Maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV) was significantly lower in OG and AG in relation to the CG (82.8±21.4 and 72.5±21.2 vs 102.8±27.3, both with p<0.05). OG has the highest leptin rate among the groups (with the other two groups had p<0.05). All groups had similar TNF-α and IL-6 levels. Conclusion The muscular hypertrophy found in the diaphragm of the obese individuals can be justified by the increase in respiratory work imposed by the chronic condition of the disease. Such increase in thickness did not occur in controlled mild asthmatics. The IL-6 and TNF-α markers detected no evidence of muscle inflammation, even though leptin was expected to be altered in obese individuals. Both obese and asthmatic patients had lower pulmonary resistance than the healthy ones.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Asthma , Diaphragm/diagnostic imaging , Kinetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Leptin , Obesity/complications
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878721

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the relationship between diaphragmatic ultrasound and postoperative residual neuromuscular blockade(PRNB). Methods The patients undergoing non-thoracic and abdominal surgery under general anesthesia from August to October in 2019 were randomly enrolled from Peking Union Medical College Hospital.Diaphragmatic ultrasound was acquired pre-operation and post extubation.A 4-15 MHz probe was used to measure diaphragmatic thickness at the intersection point of 8-9 intercostal space with right anterior axillary line at the end of inspiration and expiration during quiet breathing and deep breathing(DB),and the diaphragmatic thickness fraction(DTF)was calculated.A 1-5 MHz probe was used to measure diaphragmatic excursion(DE)at the intersection point of right costal margin with midaxillary line during quiet breathing and DB.Train of four ratio(TOFr)was recorded for neuromuscular monitoring.TOFr,observer assessment of alertness and sedation score at extubation,Aldrete score at postanesthesia care unit,and postoperative pulmonary complication were recorded. Results The PRNB rate was 54.7%.The DTF-DB [31.3(21.1,45.0)vs.38.5(26.6,53.9),P=0.045] and DE-DB(2.9±1.4 vs.4.1±1.0,P<0.001)in PRNB group was lower than those in the group without PRNB.DTF-DB(r=0.351,P=0.002)and DE-DB(r=0.580,P<0.001)were correlated with TOFr. Conclusion Perioperative diaphragmatic ultrasound may be helpful for the diagnosis of PRNB.


Subject(s)
Delayed Emergence from Anesthesia , Diaphragm/diagnostic imaging , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Prospective Studies , Ultrasonography
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887469

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the therapeutic effect of acupuncture combined with western conventional therapy on type Ⅱ respiratory failure of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) and evaluate the effect of acupuncture on diaphragmatic function and prognosis by bedside ultrasound.@*METHODS@#A total of 111 patients with AECOPD type Ⅱ respiratory failure were randomized into an acupuncture group, a conventional treatment group and a non-acupoint acupuncture group, 37 cases in each one. The routine AECOPD nursing care and treatment with western medicine were provided in the 3 groups. Additionally, in the acupuncture group, acupuncture was applied at Dingchuan (EX-B 1), Feishu (BL 13), Taiyuan (LU 9), Danzhong (CV 17) and Zhongwan (CV 12), etc. In the non-acupoint acupuncture group, acupuncture was given at the points 5 to 10 mm lateral to each of the acupoints selected in the acupuncture group. Acupuncture was given once every day, 30 min each time, consecutively for 10 days in the above two groups. Separately, before treatment, on day 3, 7 and 10 of treatment, arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO@*RESULTS@#On day 3, 7 and 10 of treatment, PaO@*CONCLUSION@#Acupuncture as adjunctive therapy achieves significant therapeutic effect on AECOPD type Ⅱ respiratory failure. It improves diaphragmatic function, promotes oxygenation and relieves carbon dioxide retention of artery, alleviates clinical symptoms and reduces the time of mechanic ventilation and hospitalization. Besides, the bedside ultrasound detection can objectively reflect the effect of acupuncture on diaphragmatic function in the patients with AECOPD complicated with typeⅡrespiratory failure.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Diaphragm , Humans , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy
9.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 16(4): 146-151, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361903

ABSTRACT

La respiración es un proceso continuo donde los músculos respiratorios tienen un rol central e imprescindible para la vida. Su óptimo funcionamiento involucra diversas estructuras que deben funcionar de forma armónica y coordinada, para que el gasto energético asociado a sus demandas permita aumentos considerables de carga sin afectar mayormente la función esencial de intercambio gaseoso. Comprender la fisiología muscular, desde la base anatómica hasta su comportamiento en el ejercicio y la enfermedad, es fundamental para detectar con anticipación las diversas disfunciones que se producen cuando este equilibrio se descompensa. El objetivo de esta revisión es entregar las bases fisiológicas del comportamiento de la musculatura respiratoria que permitan comprender y aplicar las mejores estrategias de evaluación y tratamiento, cuando la función normal se ve alterada, ya sea por enfermedad, desuso o altas cargas asociadas al ejercicio físico.


Breathing is a continuous process where the respiratory muscles have a central and essential role for life. Its optimal operation involves various structures that must work in a harmonious and coordinated way, so that the energy expenditure associated with their demands allows considerable increases in load without significantly affecting the essential function of gas exchange. Understanding muscle physiology, from the anatomical basis to its behavior in exercise and disease, is essential to anticipate the various dysfunctions that can occur when this balance is decompensated. The objective of this review is to provide physiological bases for the behavior of the respiratory muscles that allow understanding and applying the best evaluation and treatment strategies, when its correct functioning is altered, either due to illness, disuse or high loads associated with physical exercise.


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiratory Muscles/physiology , Respiratory Physiological Phenomena , Diaphragm/physiology
10.
Rev. argent. cir ; 112(4): 407-413, dic. 2020. graf, il
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1288149

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La unión del tubo esofágico con el estómago en lo que denominamos el cardias, su tránsito y relacio nes con el hiato diafragmático, las estructuras fibromembranosas que la fijan y envuelven, la existencia de un esfínter gastroesofágico anatómico y su real morfología, así como la interacción de todos estos elementos, han sido materia de controversia por décadas y aún hoy. Este artículo actualiza la descrip ción de tales estructuras.


ABSTRACT The point where the esophagus connects to the stomach, known as the cardia, its transition and re lationship with the diaphragmatic hiatus, its fibromembranous attachments, the existence of an ana tomic gastroesophageal sphincter and its real morphology, and the interaction between all these ele ments, have been subject of debate for decades that still persist. The aim of this article is to describe the updated information of such structures.


Subject(s)
Diaphragm/physiology , Muscle Development , Esophagogastric Junction/physiology , Diaphragm/anatomy & histology , Esophagogastric Junction/anatomy & histology , Esophagogastric Junction/embryology
11.
Fisioter. Bras ; 21(5): 492-500, Nov 19, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283518

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Durante sua carreira o cantor lírico sofre grande demanda e consequente alteração da coordenação dos músculos respiratórios, porém não se sabe se estas exigências podem alterar a mobilidade e tonicidade no principal músculo da respiração, o diafragma. Objetivos: Avaliar e comparar a tonicidade e a mobilidade do diafragma de cantores líricos profissionais e de não-cantores. Participaram do estudo 15 cantores líricos profissionais em plena carreira e 24 adultos não-cantores com idades e IMCs equivalentes. Métodos: Duas avaliações foram empregadas: para avaliar a mobilidade costal foi utilizada a parte referente a avaliação desse parâmetro da Manual Evaluation of the Diaphragm Scale (MED Scale); para avaliar a tonicidade diafragmática a avaliação descrita por Rial e Pinsach em 2015. Resultados: Os resultados mostraram que a distribuição da avaliação manual do diafragma no grupo dos cantores apresentou distribuição significativamente diferente, tendo p < 0,05, com relação à tonicidade bilateral do diafragma, apresentando maior hipertonicidade em relação ao grupo controle, e que não houve diferenças significativas em relação à mobilidade. Conclusão: Os gestos artísticos usados pelos cantores líricos profissionais afetam a tonicidade do diafragma. (AU)


Introduction: The professional lyrical singers during their careers suffer great demand and consequent alteration of the coordination of the respiratory muscles, however it is not known if these requirements can alter the mobility and tonicity in the main muscle of the breath, the diaphragm. Objectives: To evaluate and compare diaphragm tonicity and mobility of professional lyric singers and non-singers. The study included 15 professional lyric singers in their full careers and 24 non-singing adults of equivalent ages and BMIs. Methods: Two forms of manual evaluation of the diaphragm were used: to assess costal mobility, the part of the manual evaluation to evaluate this parameter was used the Manual Evaluation of the Diaphragm Scale (MED Scale); and to evaluate the diaphragmatic tonicity the evaluation described by Rial and Pinsach in 2015. Results: The results showed that the distribution of the manual evaluation of the diaphragm in the group of singers presented a significantly different distribution, with p < 0,05, in relation to the bilateral diaphragm tonicity, presenting them with greater hypertonicity in relation to the control group, and that there were no significant differences regarding mobility. Conclusion: The artistic gestures used by professional lyric singers affect the tone of the diaphragm. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Diaphragm , Muscle Tonus , Singing
12.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(2): 255-259, abr. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098900

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: El marcapasos diafragmático permite reducir o eliminar la necesidad de ventilación mecánica en pacientes con insuficiencia respiratoria crónica que conservan el eje nervio frénico-diafragma in tacto, siempre que no presenten enfermedad pulmonar intrínseca. Aunque su implantación ha sido practicada por décadas, su uso no está ampliamente difundido, y existe poca literatura pu blicada al respecto, la mayoría relacionada con lesión medular alta y síndrome de hipoventilación central congénito. Objetivo: Describir una experiencia de implantación de marcapasos diafragmático en paciente pediátrico con síndrome de hipoventilación central adquirido. Caso Clínico: Pa ciente femenino con síndrome de hipoventilación central secundario a lesión isquémica de tronco cerebral como resultado de disfunción de válvula de derivación ventrículo peritoneal, motivo por el cual durante 5 años se mantuvo con asistencia de ventilación mecánica intrahospitalaria. A los 7 años de edad se implantó marcapasos diafragmático mediante cirugía toracoscópica, lo que per mitió posterior a un periodo de rehabilitación y acondicionamiento respiratorio el destete de la ventilación mecánica y el egreso hospitalario. Conclusiones: El marcapasos diafragmático es una opción factible, potencialmente segura y costo efectiva para disminuir o eliminar la dependencia de ventilación mecánica y mejorar la calidad de vida en pacientes con síndrome de hipoventilación central adquirido.


Abstract: Introduction: Diaphragmatic pacemaker is a device that reduces or eliminates the need of mechanical ventilation in patients with chronic respiratory failure who keep the phrenic nerve-diaphragm axis intact, as long as they do not present intrinsic lung disease. Although its implantation has been practiced for deca des, its use is not widespread and to date, there is little published literature about it, mostly related to high spinal cord injury and congenital central hypoventilation syndrome. Objective: To describe an experience of diaphragmatic pacemaker implantation in a pediatric patient with acquired cen tral hypoventilation syndrome. Clinical Case: Female patient with central hypoventilation syndrome secondary to ischemic brainstem lesion as a result of ventriculoperitoneal shunt malfunction. For this reason, for 5 years she was supported by inpatient mechanical ventilation. At 7 years of age, a diaphragmatic pacemaker was implanted by thoracoscopic surgery, which allowed, after a period of rehabilitation and respiratory conditioning, mechanical ventilation withdrawal, and hospital dischar ge. Conclusions: Diaphragmatic pacemaker is a feasible, potentially safe, and cost-effective option for decreasing or eliminating mechanical ventilation dependence and improve life quality in patients with acquired central hypoventilation syndrome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Pacemaker, Artificial , Diaphragm , Hypoventilation/therapy , Syndrome , Thoracoscopy , Hypoventilation/etiology
13.
Rev. am. med. respir ; 20(1): 75-84, mar. 2020. graf, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1178764

ABSTRACT

En humanos, PaCO2 es controlada muy estrictamente. A diferencia de PaO2 y todas las pruebas funcionales respiratorias que cambian con la edad, PaCO2 permanece constante durante toda la vida. Por lo tanto, su desviación sostenida representa una alteración significativa de la homeostasis. La estructura responsable de mantener la PaCO2 dentro de límites muy estrechos es la bomba ventilatoria. Se compone de varias unidades anatómicas y funcionales que van desde la corteza cerebral hasta los músculos respiratorios. Varias condiciones clínicas que involucran estas estructuras pueden conducir a la insuficiencia de la bomba respiratoria, cuyo sello distintivo es la hipercapnia. La relevancia del concepto de bomba respiratoria ha sido reconocida a lo largo de las décadas. Unos pocos trabajos germinales abrieron la puerta a un notable número de proyectos básicos, aplicados y clínicos en torno a la insuficiencia de la bomba respiratoria y su relevancia clínica. Este artículo revisará algunos de estos estudios y narrará el camino hacia nuestro estado actual de conocimiento sobre el tema.


IIn humans, PaCO2 is very strictly controlled. Unlike PaO2 and all respiratory functional tests that change with age, PaCO2 remains constant throughout life. Therefore, its sustained deviation represents a significant alteration of homeostasis. The structure responsible for keeping PaCO2 within very narrow limits is the ventilatory pump. It consists of several anatomical and functional units that go from the cerebral cortex to the respiratory muscles. Several clinical conditions involving these structures can lead to failure of the respiratory pump, whose hallmark is hypercapnia. The relevance of the respiratory pump concept has been acknowledged for decades. A few initial works allowed for a remarkable number of basic, applied and clinical projects regarding the respiratory pump failure and its clinical relevance. This article reviews some of these studies and describes the process that lead to our current state of knowledge on the subject


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiratory Insufficiency , Respiratory Muscles , Diaphragm , Hypercapnia
14.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 92(1): e748, ene.-mar. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093748

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La ruptura diafragmática es un reto diagnóstico y terapéutico para los médicos que se enfrentan al manejo de pacientes politraumatizados; debe sospecharse siempre en lesiones traumáticas de localización torácica o abdominal. Objetivo: Informar los elementos diagnósticos y terapéuticos seguidos ante ruptura diafragmática y esplénica de origen traumático. Presentación del caso: Se presenta el caso de un adolescente de 14 años que ingresa por presentar herida punzante por arma blanca de localización abdominal y manifestaciones clínicas que permiten hacer el diagnóstico de la afección tratada. Durante el acto quirúrgico se comprobó la ruptura del diafragma, hernia diafragmática y ruptura esplénica con salida de sangre hacia la cavidad abdominal. Se realizó reducción de la hernia, sutura del diafragma y extirpación del bazo por el estado del órgano en el momento de la cirugía. Conclusiones: La ruptura diafragmática postraumática es una entidad que cada vez se observa con mayor frecuencia en pacientes pediátricos. El examen clínico auxiliado por estudios imagenológicos resulta vital para su diagnóstico, tratamiento precoz y evitar complicaciones. Es importante mantener un alto índice de sospecha ante esta entidad poco frecuente, pero no rara en la edad pediátrica. El paciente tuvo una evolución favorable y fue egresado del servicio de cirugía luego de 10 días de hospitalización(AU)


Introduction: The diaphragmatic rupture is a diagnostic and a therapeutic challenge for physicians who have to face the management of polytraumatized patients; there must always be suspicion on traumatic injuries of thoracic or abdominal location. Objective: To inform the diagnostic and therapeutic elements followed in case of diaphragmatic and splenic rupture of traumatic origin. Presentation of the case: 14-year-old male teenager that was admitted for presenting stabbing wound by sharp weapon, with abdominal location and clinical manifestations that allow making the diagnosis of the condition being treated. During surgery, it was found the rupture of the diaphragm, a diaphragmatic hernia and splenic rupture with output of blood into the abdominal cavity. It was conducted the reduction of the hernia, the suture of the diaphragm and the removal of the spleen due to the state of the organ during the surgery. Conclusions: Post-traumatic diaphragmatic rupture is an entity that it is most often seen in pediatric patients. The clinical examination aided by imaging studies is vital for its diagnosis, early treatment and to avoid complications. It is important to maintain a high index of suspicion to face this rare entity, but not so rare in the pediatric age group. The patient had a favourable evolution and he was discharged of the surgery service after 10 days of hospitalization(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Spleen/injuries , Splenic Rupture/surgery , Diaphragm/injuries , Hernia, Diaphragmatic, Traumatic/surgery
15.
Clinics ; 75: e1428, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055880

ABSTRACT

The objectives of the study were to identify the factors that limit diaphragmatic mobility and evaluate the therapeutic results of the monitoring methods previously used in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and LILACS databases were used. A gray literature search was conducted with Google scholar. PRISMA was used, and the bias risk analysis adapted from the Cochrane Handbook for clinical trials and, for other studies, the Downs and Black checklist were used. Twenty-five articles were included in the qualitative synthesis analysis on physiotherapeutic techniques and diaphragmatic mobility. Eight clinical trials indicated satisfactory domains, and on the Downs and Black scale, 17 cohort studies were evaluated to have an acceptable score. Different conditions must be observed; for example, for postoperative assessments the supine position is suggested to be the most appropriate position to verify diaphragm excursion, although it has been shown to be associated with difficulty of restriction and matching in samples. Therefore, we identified the need for contemporary adjustments and strategies that used imaging instruments, preferably in the dorsal position. Therapeutic evidence on the association between the instrumental method and diaphragmatic mobility can be controversial. The ultrasound measurements indicated some relevance for different analyses, for pulmonary hyperinflation as well as diaphragm thickness and mobilization, in COPD patients. In particular, the study suggests that the ultrasound technique with B-mode for analysis and M-mode for diaphragmatic excursion be used with a 2 - 5 MHz with the patient in the supine position. However, the methods used to monitor diaphragm excursion should be adapted to the conditions of the patients, and additional investigations of their characteristics should be performed. More selective inclusion criteria and better matching in the samples are very important. In addition, more narrow age, sex and weight categories are important, especially in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diaphragm/physiopathology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , Diaphragm/diagnostic imaging , Range of Motion, Articular , Ultrasonography
16.
Fisioter. Mov. (Online) ; 33: e003337, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133910

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The voice is heavily influenced by breathing and abdominal muscles. Objective: To verify the immediate effects of cervical stimulation and diaphragmatic release on the respiratory and phonatory function of adult women with no vocal complaints. Method: Relaxation maneuvers and eccentric work of the diaphragm were performed together with articulatory maneuver of the third cervical vertebra. Twenty-four women without vocal complaints, aged between 18 and 35 years were part of the intervention. All volunteers were submitted to an evaluation of respiratory muscle strength, maximum phonation time of the vowel /a/, sound pressure level and acoustic vocal analysis, before and after physiotherapeutic intervention. Statistical analysis consisted of the Student's t-test for independent samples and Spearman's correlation. Significance level was set at 5%. Results: There was a significant increase in the maximum phonation time of the vowel /a/ and in the modal sound pressure level. Regarding the acoustic analysis, there was a reduction in the standard deviation values of the fundamental frequency; in the smoothed pitch disturbance quotient; and in the fundamental frequency and amplitude variations. Conclusion: Cervical stimulation and diaphragmatic release improved vocal quality regarding duration of emission, sound pressure, and stability and noise of the glottic signal.


Resumo Introdução: A voz é muito influenciada pela respiração e pela musculatura abdominal. Objetivo: Verificar os efeitos imediatos da estimulação cervical e liberação diafragmática na função respiratória e fonatória de mulheres adultas sem queixas vocais. Método: Realizaram-se manobras de relaxamento e trabalho excêntrico do diafragma junto a uma manobra articulatória da terceira vertebra cervical. Fizerem parte da intervenção 24 mulheres sem queixas vocais, com idades entre 18 e 35 anos. Todas as voluntárias foram submetidas a uma avaliação de força da musculatura respiratória, do tempo máximo de fonação da vogal /a/, do nível de pressão sonora e análise vocal acústica, pré e pós-intervenção fisioterapêutica. Foram realizados os testes t-student para amostras independentes e correlação de Spearman com nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: Verificou-se aumento significativo no tempo máximo de fonação da vogal de /a/ e do nível de pressão sonora modal. Na análise acústica, houve redução dos valores do desvio-padrão da frequência fundamental; do quociente de perturbação do pitch suavizado; da variação da frequência fundamental e da variação da amplitude. Conclusão: As manobras fisioterapêuticas de estimulação cervical e liberação diafragmática melhoraram a qualidade vocal em relação ao tempo de sustentação da emissão, à pressão sonora, à estabilidade e ao ruído do sinal glótico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Voice Quality , Acoustics , Diaphragm , Respiration , Abdominal Muscles
19.
J. bras. pneumol ; 46(6): e20200064, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134913

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The diaphragm is the main muscle of respiration, acting continuously and uninterruptedly to sustain the task of breathing. Diaphragmatic dysfunction can occur secondary to numerous pathological conditions and is usually underdiagnosed in clinical practice because of its nonspecific presentation. Although several techniques have been used in evaluating diaphragmatic function, the diagnosis of diaphragmatic dysfunction is still problematic. Diaphragmatic ultrasound has gained importance because of its many advantages, including the fact that it is noninvasive, does not expose patients to radiation, is widely available, provides immediate results, is highly accurate, and is repeatable at the bedside. Various authors have described ultrasound techniques to assess diaphragmatic excursion and diaphragm thickening in the zone of apposition. Recent studies have proposed standardization of the methods. This article reviews the usefulness of ultrasound for the evaluation of diaphragmatic function, addressing the details of the technique, the main findings, and the clinical applications.


RESUMO O diafragma é o principal músculo da respiração e age de forma contínua e ininterrupta para mantê-la. Muitas patologias podem causar disfunção diafragmática, que é geralmente subdiagnosticada na prática clínica em virtude de sua apresentação inespecífica. Embora várias técnicas tenham sido usadas na avaliação da função diafragmática, o diagnóstico de disfunção diafragmática ainda é problemático. A ultrassonografia diafragmática ganhou importância em virtude de suas muitas vantagens: não é invasiva, não expõe os pacientes à radiação, está amplamente disponível, fornece resultados imediatos, é altamente precisa e é repetível à beira do leito. Vários autores descreveram técnicas ultrassonográficas para avaliar a excursão e o espessamento diafragmático na zona de aposição. Estudos recentes propuseram a padronização dos métodos. Este artigo de revisão analisa a utilidade da ultrassonografia na avaliação da função diafragmática, abordando os detalhes da técnica, os principais achados e as aplicações clínicas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diaphragm/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography/methods , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Respiratory Muscles , Neuromuscular Diseases
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