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1.
Medicina UPB ; 41(2): 107-113, julio-diciembre 2022. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1392148

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: los parásitos son organismos que viven en el interior o sobre otra especie para su propio beneficio. Logran afectar plantas, animales y humanos. Los niños son más vulnerables a infectarse, pero la incidencia ha disminuido en Costa Rica gracias a la mejora en salubridad. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el conocimiento general que tiene la población costarricense con respecto a las parasitosis infantiles. Metodología: se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo de tipo transversal, a una muestra de 196 sujetos. Se presentó encuesta a costarricenses mayores de 18 años que tuvieran un dispositivo con acceso a internet. Se consultó sobre el conocimiento del cuadro clínico de las parasitosis infantiles en Costa Rica. Resultados: la mayoría de los participantes eran universitarios (68.3%). El 89.9% cree que los parásitos de las mascotas pueden infectar a los humanos. Los parásitos más conocidos fueron los piojos 173 (88.3%). La parte del cuerpo que se considera más afectada por los parásitos es el estómago (75.5%). La principal medida preventiva contra las parasitosis más conocidas es lavarse las manos (67.9%). Conclusión: muchos participantes creen que los humanos se pueden infectar por los mismos parásitos de los animales. Los piojos fueron los parásitos más conocidos y las garrapatas las menos conocidas. La mayoría considera el vómito o la diarrea como los síntomas principales de las parasitosis y creen que el estómago es el más afectado en una infección. Además, señalan que la principal medida preventiva para evitar el contagio es el lavado de manos.


Objective: parasites are organisms that live inside or on another species for their own benefit, managing to affect plants, animals, and humans. Children are more vulnerable to infection, but the incidence has decreased thanks to the improvement in Costa Rican sanitation. The aim was to evaluate the general knowledge that the Costa Rican population has regarding childhood parasitosis. Methodology: an observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out on a sample of 196 subjects. A survey was conducted among Costa Ricans over 18 years of age who had a device with internet access. The participants were asked about their knowledge on the clinical picture of childhood parasitosis in Costa Rica. Results: most of the participants were college students (68.3%). 89.9% of them believe that pet parasites can infect humans. The best-known parasites were lice, marked by 173 (88.3%) people. The stomach is the part of the body considered most affected, with 148 (75.5%) responses. The main known preventive measure is washing hands with soap and water, answered by 133 participants (67.9%). Conclusion: Many participants believe that humans can be infected by the same parasites as animals. Lice were the best known and ticks the least. Most of the people consider vomiting and/or diarrhea as one of the main symptoms and believe that the stomach is the most affected part during the infection. In addition, they consider that the main preventive measure to avoid contagion is hand washing.


Objetivo: Parasitas são organismos que vivem em ou sobre outra espécie para seu próprio benefício. Eles conseguem afetar plantas, animais e humanos. As crianças são mais vulneráveis à infecção, mas a incidência diminuiu na Costa Rica graças a melhorias no saneamento. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o conhecimento geral que a população costarriquenha tem sobre parasitas infantis.Metodologia: estudo observacional, descritivo, transversal, com amostra de 196 sujeitos.Uma pesquisa foi apresentada a costarriquenhos maiores de 18 anos que possuíam um dispositivo com acesso à internet. O conhecimento do quadro clínico de parasitas infantis na Costa Rica foi consultado.Resultados:a maioria dos participantes era universitária (68.3%). 89.9% acreditam que parasitas de animais de estimação podem infectar humanos. Os parasitas mais conhecidos foram os piolhos 173 (88.3%). A parte do corpo considerada mais afetada pelos parasitas é o estômago (75.5%). A principal medida preventiva contra os parasitas mais conhecidos é a lavagem das mãos (67.9%).Conclusão: muitos participantes acreditam que humanos podem ser infectados pelos mesmos parasitas de animais. Os piolhos foram os parasitas mais conhecidos e os carrapatos os menos conhecidos. A maioria considera vômito ou diarreia como os principais sintomas dos parasitas e acredita que o estômago é o mais afetado em uma infecção. Além disso, apontam que a principal medida preventiva para evitar o contágio é a lavagem das mãos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Cats , Cattle , Dogs , Parasitic Diseases , Parasites , Ticks , Water , Sanitation , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Knowledge , Diarrhea , Pets
2.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 42(2): 187-189, Apr.-June 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394417

ABSTRACT

Introduction: McKittrick-Wheelock syndrome is a rare condition that arises from a hypersecretory state secondary to large colorectal tumors, mainly villous adenomas, leading to an electrolytic disorder associated with chronic diarrhea that usually persists for years. It is a relatively unknown disease that can lead to severe complications such as acute kidney injury, severe hyponatremia, and hypokalemia. In fact, it causes death in most untreated cases. Surgical removal of the tumor is the most successful treatment, and symptoms tend to disappear after proper management. Case Report: A 62-year-old man with a 2-year history of mucoid diarrhea preceded by abdominal pain presented with acute kidney injury, hyponatremia, and hypokalemia. A digital rectal examination and sigmoidoscopy were performed, and revealed a large laterally-spreading tumor in the rectum. Further investigation showed a rectal tubulovillous adenoma with secondary McKittrick-Wheelock syndrome. An anterior resection of the rectum with a colonic J-pouch and a diverting ileostomy were performed, and the patient improved with the resolution of the renal failure and electrolyte disturbances. The histopathological analysis revealed an invasive rectal adenocarcinoma. Discussion: McKittrick-Wheelock syndrome is a condition with a low incidence that needs early intervention and proper diagnosis. It is of extreme importance that this disease is included in the differential diagnoses for chronic diarrhea associated with an electrolytic disorder. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Rectal Neoplasms/complications , Water-Electrolyte Imbalance/etiology , Adenocarcinoma/complications , Diarrhea/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Syndrome
3.
Rev. méd. hondur ; 90(1): 36-43, ene.-jun. 2022. ilus, tab.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BIMENA | ID: biblio-1393213

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: No conocemos datos sobre evaluación de pruebas inmunológicas para mejorar el diagnóstico de Giardia duodenalis y Cryptosporidium spp., agentes etiológicos de diarrea de importancia mundial, en Honduras. Objetivos: Comparar dos pruebas inmunológicas para el diagnóstico de Giardia y Cryptosporidium spp. con microscopía de rutina y determinar su aplicabilidad local. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal. En 2013, 134 muestras de heces recibidas en el Servicio de Parasitología del Hospital Escuela (HE) y 67 muestras del Centro de Salud Alonso Suazo (CSAS) se analizaron con una Prueba Rápida Inmunocromatográfica (PDR). En 2019-2020, 60 muestras de heces del HE se analizaron con una prueba inmunoenzimática ELISA. El protocolo de rutina incluyó examen directo en solución salina y solución de Lugol, coloración tricrómica y coloración ácido resistente modificada (ARM) (HE) y examen directo en solución salina y solución de Lugol (CSAS). Resultados: Cada prueba inmunológica mostró mayor positividad que la microscopía: en 134 muestras del HE para Giardia (6.7% vs 4.5%) y Cryptosporidium (3.7% vs 0.7%), similar en 67 muestras del CSAS (14.9% vs 7.5% para Giardia; 0.7% para Cryptosporidium con la prueba inmunológica). De 60 muestras analizadas por ELISA en HE, 31.7% fue positiva por Giardia vs 18.3% en examen directo y 23.3% en coloración tricrómica; 6.7% positiva por Cryptosporidium spp. vs 3.3% por coloración ARM. Discusión: Pruebas inmunológicas aumentaron significativamente el diagnóstico de ambas parasitosis; sin embargo, publicaciones sobre pruebas similares ofrecieron resultados no concluyentes. Por costo elevado podrían reservarse para pacientes pediátricos, pacientes inmunocomprometidos en hospitales, complementando microscopía. Los laboratorios de salud deben fortalecer capacidad diagnóstica...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Immunologic Tests/methods , Giardia lamblia/parasitology , Cryptosporidium/parasitology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Diarrhea/complications
4.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 37(2): 155-162, Jan.-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394944

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Microscopic colitis is a benign and multifactorial disease characterized by watery diarrhea and histological alterations in the colonic mucosa. The incidence of this disease is increasing, being diagnosed more frequently. Materials and methods: In this retrospective study, patients were examined employing colonoscopy and biopsy due to a diagnosis of chronic diarrhea in a gastroenterology unit throughout 22 months. Their diagnosis of colitis was confirmed by clinical picture and microscopic analysis. Results: In the study period, a total of 2849 colonoscopies were performed, 116 in patients with chronic diarrhea. We identified 15 patients with microscopic colitis, 12 were men (80 %), and only three were older than 60 (20 %). Conclusion: Unlike the world literature, this study found that microscopic colitis in our patients affects the male sex primarily (male/female ratio: 4/1) and occurs in young people, with an average age of 47.5 years (range: 21-82 years).


Resumen Introducción: la colitis microscópica es una enfermedad benigna y multifactorial caracterizada por la presencia de diarrea acuosa y alteraciones histológicas en la mucosa colónica. La incidencia de esta enfermedad viene en aumento y su diagnóstico se realiza cada vez con mayor frecuencia. Métodos: estudio retrospectivo en el que se revisaron los pacientes por medio de colonoscopia y biopsias por diagnóstico de diarrea crónica en un período de 22 meses en una unidad de gastroenterología, y en quienes mediante la clínica y el análisis histológico se confirmó el diagnóstico de colitis microscópica. Resultados: en el período de estudio se realizó un total de 2849 colonoscopias, 116 en pacientes con diarrea crónica. Se identificaron 15 pacientes con colitis microscópica, 12 fueron hombres (80 %) y solo hubo 3 mayores de 60 años (20 %). Conclusión: a diferencia de lo informado en la literatura mundial, en este estudio se encontró que la colitis microscópica en nuestros pacientes compromete especialmente al sexo masculino (relación hombre/mujer: 4/1) y se presenta en personas jóvenes, con un promedio de edad de 47,5 años (rango de 21 a 82 años).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Retrospective Studies , Colitis , Colitis, Microscopic , Incidence , Colonoscopy , Diarrhea , Literature
5.
Buenos Aires; GCBA. Gerencia Operativa de Epidemiología; 29 abr. 2022. f:11 l:14 p. tab, graf.(Boletín Epidemiológico Semanal: Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, 7, 297).
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, InstitutionalDB, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1390693

ABSTRACT

Se presenta de manera breve la situación de diarreas agudas, en particular diarrea aguda sanguinolenta, hasta la Semana Epidemiológica 15 de 2022: notificaciones según tipo de efector, notificación de agentes etiológicos, y tasas según sexo y edad.


Subject(s)
Disease Notification/statistics & numerical data , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Diarrhea/etiology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Epidemiological Monitoring
6.
Acta méd. costarric ; 64(1)mar. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1402993

ABSTRACT

Resumen Tras el descubrimiento de que el transporte del sodio y el transporte de la glucosa están acoplados en el intestino delgado, de manera que la glucosa acelera la absorción de soluto y agua, destacó la hidratación oral junto con otros hitos del siglo XX como el desarrollo de la penicilina y los cultivos virales que anteceden la vacuna contra la poliomielitis; este artículo de opinión se refiere a la participación de Costa Rica en el exitoso desarrollo de un estudio de investigación aplicada sobre un problema prioritario de Salud: la hidratación oral en las diarreas provocadas por virus.


Abstract Following the discovery that sodium transport and glucose transport are coupled in the small intestine, such that glucose accelerates solute and water absorption, highlighted oral hydration), along with other 20th-century milestones like the development of penicillin and viral cultures that preceded the polio vaccine; this opinion article refers to the participation of Costa Rica in the successful development of an applied research study on a priority health problem: oral rehydration in diarrhea caused by viruses.


Subject(s)
Diarrhea/diagnosis , Fluid Therapy
7.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(1): 1-12, Jan-Abr. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362657

ABSTRACT

Mesmo com a evolução do conhecimento científico, a utilização de plantas medicinais é uma das práticas mais antigas ainda realizadas pelo homem, especialmente pelos habitantes de comunidades e municípios do interior do Brasil, principalmente em regiões com baixos índices de desenvolvimento humano. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar um estudo etnobotânico sobre as plantas medicinais utilizadas pelos moradores de um bairro localizado em um município ribeirinho do interior do estado do Amazonas. Participaram do estudo cem indivíduos, e os dados obtidos pela pesquisa foram compilados por meio de um formulário, contendo 14 questões (objetivas e discursivas). Os resultados demonstraram que 95% dos moradores faziam uso de plantas medicinais. Foram citadas 89 espécies, pertencentes a 48 famílias botânicas, com destaque para a Lamiaceae. As plantas mais citadas foram: Plectranthus barbatus (boldo) ­ 6,1%, Citrus sinensis (laranjeira) ­ 5,8% e Allium sativum (alho) ­ 4,7%. No entanto, quando analisado o índice de concordância (porcentagem de uso principal = CUP), a Citrus sinensis (laranjeira) apresentou um CUP de 80,9%, seguida por Plectranthus barbatus (boldo) e Disphania ambrosioides (mastruz), com 68,1% e 61,5%, respectivamente. Com relação ao modo de preparo, 61,1% citaram infusão, e as principais enfermidades tratadas foram as dores de estômago, com 13,1%. É importante enfatizar a necessidade de mais estudos acerca dos reais benefícios dessas ervas, a fim de que a divulgação de tais informações possa complementar o conhecimento empírico já difundido entre a população local. Dessa forma, será possível ampliar o conhecimento etnobotânico como um todo e, consequentemente, promover saúde e bem-estar.


Despite the evolution of scientific knowledge, the use of medicinal plants is one of the oldest practices still used by men and, especially by the inhabitants of communities and municipalities of the interior of Brazil, mainly in regions with low human development rates. The purpose of this work was to perform an ethnobotanical study on medicinal plants used by residents of a neighborhood located in a riverside city in the interior of the state of Amazonas. A total of 100 individuals participated in the study, with data being obtained through the use of a form containing 14 open and closed-ended questions. The results showed that 95% of the residents used medicinal plants. A total of 89 species, belonging to 48 botanical families were mentioned, with emphasis to Lamiaceae. The plants that were most frequently mentioned were Plectranthus barbatus (locally known as boldo) ­ 6.1%; Citrus sinensis (orange tree) ­ 5.8%; and Allium sativum (garlic) ­ 4.7%. However, when analyzing the agreement index (percentage of main use = CUP), Citrus sinensis (orange tree) presented a CUP of 80.9%, followed by Plectranthus barbatus (boldo) and Disphania ambrosioides (Mexican tea), with 68.1 and 61.5%, respectively. In relation to the method of preparation, 61.1% cited infusion, with the main disorder treated being stomachache, with 13.1%. It is important to emphasize the need for further studies on the actual benefits of these herbs so that the dissemination of the information can complement the already widespread empirical knowledge among the local population. Thus, it will be possible to expand the ethnobotanical knowledge as a whole and, consequently, promote health and well-being.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Plants, Medicinal/adverse effects , Ethnobotany , Tea/adverse effects , Agricultural Cultivation , Lamiaceae/adverse effects , Peumus/adverse effects , Citrus sinensis/adverse effects , Diarrhea/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/therapy , Juices , Inflammation/prevention & control , Phytotherapy
8.
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; 81(Único): e37253, mar.1, 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, VETINDEX, CONASS, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-IALACERVO | ID: biblio-1410387

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate an outbreak caused by protozoa, which occurred in a municipality in the Brazil southern region. The investigations were carried out analyzing 47 fresh stool samples and 26 water samples by parasitological and molecular methods, as well as, direct immunofluorescence. After the filtrations of water samples and purification of stool samples, the concentrates were evaluated microscopically for presence of parasites. Molecular analyses were performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for DNA detection of Giardia spp., Cryptosporidium parvum, C. hominis and Cyclospora cayetanensis. Out of 26 water samples, 30.8% (8/26) had waterborne protozoa and C. cayetanensis was the most prevalent (15.5%). Out of the 47 stool samples, 23.4% (11/47) were infected with C. cayetanensis and Giardia spp. The results showed that backwash water samples from filters of the Water Treatment Station were contaminated with C. cayetanensis, C. hominis and Giardia spp., suggesting the contamination of water sources with human waste brought by sewage. These results show the importance of protozoa investigation in water and stool samples by laboratory methodologies principally in outbreaks causing acute diarrheal disease (AU).


O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar um surto causado por protozoários, ocorrido em um município da região sul do Brasil. As investigações foram realizadas analisando 47 amostras de fezes frescas e 26 amostras de água por métodos parasitológicos, moleculares e de imunofluorscência direta. Após as filtrações das amostras de água e purificação das amostras de fezes, os concentrados foram avaliados microscopicamente a procura de parasitas. A seguir, foram analisadas, pela reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR), a detecção de DNA de Giardia spp., Cryptosporidium parvum, C. hominis e Cyclospora cayetanensis. Das 26 amostras de água, 30,8% (8/26) apresentaram protozoários de veiculação hídrica, sendo que, C. cayetanensis foi o mais prevalente (15,5%). Das 47 amostras de fezes, 23,4% (11/47) estavam infectadas por C. cayetanensis e Giardia spp. Os resultados mostraram que as águas de retrolavagem dos filtros da Estação de Tratamento de Água estavam contaminadas com C. cayetanensis, C. hominis e Giardia spp. sugerindo a contaminação dos mananciais com dejetos humanos trazidos pelo esgoto. Estes resultados mostram a importância da investigação de protozoários em água e fezes por metodologias laboratoriais, principalmente em surtos que causam doença diarreica aguda (AU).


Subject(s)
Protozoan Infections , Disease Outbreaks , Cryptosporidium , Cyclospora , Diarrhea , Waterborne Diseases , Giardia
9.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 39(1): 29-34, feb. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388329

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La infección por Clostridioides dfficile (ICD) es la principal causa de diarrea nosocomial, generalmente asociada al consumo de antimicrobianos. Esta infección puede causar desde diarrea no complicada hasta colitis pseudomembranosa o megacolon tóxico. Estudios recientes han intentado relacionar el valor el ciclo umbral (Ct) de la RT-PCR con la mortalidad, como un método rápido, sencillo, objetivo y eficaz. OBJETIVO: Evaluar el Ct como predictor de mala evolución en pacientes con y sin criterio clínico de dicha gravedad. PACIENTES Y MÉTODOS: Realizamos un estudio retrospectivo entre enero 2015 y diciembre 2018, incluyendo todos los pacientes del área de referencia del Hospital Universitario de Canarias en Tenerife (396.483 habitantes) en pacientes con criterios clínicos de gravedad (de acuerdo a la Guía para la Práctica Clínica de la enfermedad por C. dfficile de la Sociedad de Epidemiología del Cuidado de la Salud de América (SHEA) y la Sociedad de Enfermedades Infecciosas de Norteamérica (IDSA) y pacientes sin criterios clínicos de gravedad evaluando el Ct como predictor de mala evolución. RESULTADOS: Se diagnosticó un total de 202 episodios de ICD. El 77,7% (n = 157) presentó criterios clínicos de gravedad. La presencia de colitis ulcerosa (p < 0,001), fiebre (p < 0,001), leucocitosis (p < 0,001), neutrofilia (p < 0,001), creatininemia (p = 0,005) se presentaron como factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de ICD grave. El sexo femenino, la institucionalización, el ingreso previo y el exitus se describieron con mayor frecuencia en el grupo con ICD-G, no encontrando diferencias significativas. No encontramos diferencias respecto a los días de estancia previa, o de estancia post-ICD, aunque en este último, la media fue mayor en el caso de los pacientes con ICD-G. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en cuanto al Ct en ambos grupos; siendo sólo un punto menor en pacientes con criterio de gravedad (Ct = 26,1) que sin criterios de gravedad (Ct = 27,4) (p = 0,326).


BACKGROUND: Clostridioides dfficile infection (CDI) is the main cause of nosocomial diarrhea, generally associated with the use of antibiotics. This infection can cause uncomplicated diarrhea to pseudomembranous colitis or toxic megacolon. Recent studies have attempted to relate the threshold cycle (Ct) value of RT-PCR with mortality, as a fast, simple, objective and efficient method. AIM: To evaluate Ct as a predictor of poor outcome in patients with C. dfficile disease with/without clinical signs of severity. METHODS: We carried out a retrospective study between January 2015 and December 2018, including all patients in the reference area of the Hospital Universitario de Canarias in Tenerife (396,483 inhabitants) in patients with clinical criteria of severity and patients without clinical severity criteria (according to the guide for the clinical practice of CDI of the Society of Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) and the Infectious Diseases Society of North America (IDSA). RESULTS: A total of 202 CDI episodes were diagnosed. 77.7% (n = 157) presented clinical severity criteria. The presence of ulcerative colitis (p < 0.001), fever (p < 0.001), leukocytosis (p < 0.001), neutrophilia (p < 0.001), creatininemia (p = 0.005) were presented as risk factors for the development of severe CDI (S-CDI). Female sex, institutionalization, previous admission and death were described more frequently in the group with S-CDI, not finding significant differences. We found no differences with respect to the days of previous stay, or of post-CDI stay, although in the latter, the mean was higher in the case of S-CDI patients. No significant differences were found in terms of Ct in both groups; being only one point lower in patients with severity criteria (Ct = 26.1) than without severity criteria (Ct = 27.4) (p = 0.326). CONCLUSION: Based on the results of our study, it has not been possible to systematically implement the Ct value as a predictor of severity to the clinical report, and it is not possible to extrapolate this predictive variable from S-CDI and standardize the Ct value as a predictor of severity. Conclusion: Basándonos en los resultados de nuestro estudio, no ha sido posible la implementación sistemática del valor Ct como predictor de gravedad al informe clínico, no siendo posible extrapolar esta variable predictora de enfermedad por C difficile-G y estandarizar el valor Ct como factor predictor de gravedad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Clostridioides difficile/genetics , Clostridium Infections , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Diarrhea
10.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(1): 46-: I-53, III, feb 2022. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1353491

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El tratamiento de la diarrea aguda se basa en prevenir la deshidratación, reducir la duración y gravedad de la enfermedad. El objetivo fue conocer los patrones de tratamiento ambulatorio de la diarrea aguda en <5 años. Métodos. Estudio observacional, analítico, mediante encuestas autoadministradas a pediatras de un hospital de niños de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires. Se indagó: edad, sexo, lugar de trabajo, fuentes bibliográficas, indicación de tratamientos farmacológicos, no farmacológicos y medidas de prevención e higiene. Se evaluó la asociación entre prescripciones farmacológicas y características de los encuestados. Resultados. Respondieron 182/216 pediatras; la edad media fue 42,4 ± 10,24 años (el 78,6 %, mujeres); el 59,2 %, del sector público; el 22,4 %, de servicios de guardia. El 91,2 % consultaba guías/consensos. El 92,9 % prescribió fórmulas de rehidratación oral; el 46,2 %, antieméticos; el 43,4 %, antiácidos y/o protectores gástricos; el 35,7 %, probióticos, y el 30,7 %, cinc. El 91,7 % indicó realimentación precoz; el 96,7 %, lactancia materna y el 96-100 %, medidas de prevención e higiene. En el análisis multivariado, tener >40 años se asoció con prescribir antiácidos/protectores gástricos (odds ratio [OR] 2,6; 1,22-5,61), probióticos (OR 3,03; 1,34-6,83) y cinc (OR 0,39; 0,17-0,87); trabajar en el sector privado con prescribir probióticos (OR 3,05; 1,56-5,94) y en servicios de guardia, con prescribir antiácidos/ protectores gástricos (OR 2,60; 1,22-5,54). Conclusiones. El tratamiento se basó principalmente en hidratación, alimentación precoz y lactancia. La edad y el lugar de desempeño de los pediatras modifican el patrón de prescripción.


Introduction. The management of acute diarrhea is based on preventing dehydration and reducing disease duration and severity. The study objective was to establish the patterns for the outpatient management of acute diarrhea in children younger than 5 years. Methods. Observational, analytical study using a self-administered survey among pediatricians from a children's hospital in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires. Age, sex, place of work, bibliographic sources, indication of drug and non-drug therapies, and preventive and hygiene measures were recorded. The association between drug prescription and the characteristics of surveyed pediatricians was assessed. Results. In total, 182/216 pediatricians completed the survey. Their mean age was 42.4 ± 10.24 years; 78.6% were females; 59.2% worked in the public sector; 22.4% worked in the emergency department; and 91.2% consulted guidelines and/or consensuses. Also, 92.9% prescribed oral rehydration solutions; 46.2%, antiemetics; 43.4%, antacids and/or gastric protectors; 35.7%, probiotics; and 30.7%, zinc. Early food reintroduction was indicated by 91.7%; breastfeeding, by 96.7%; and preventive and hygiene measures, by 96-100%. The multivariate analysis showed an association between age > 40 years and prescribing antacids/ gastric protectors (odds ratio [OR]: 2.6; 1.22-5.61), probiotics (OR: 3.03; 1.34-6.83), and zinc (OR: 0.39; 0.17-0.87); between working in the private sector and prescribing probiotics (OR: 3.05; 1.565.94); and between working in the emergency department and prescribing antacids/gastric protectors (OR: 2.60; 1.22-5.54). Conclusions. Treatment was mainly based on hydration, early food reintroduction, and breastfeeding. Age and work sector affected the prescription pattern.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Adult , Middle Aged , Outpatients , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Pediatricians/psychology , Diarrhea/prevention & control , Diarrhea/therapy , Hospitals, Pediatric
11.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 150(1): 120-124, ene. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389611

ABSTRACT

Enterovesical fistula (EVF) is a fistulous communication between the intestine and the bladder. It is uncommon and its classic clinical manifestations are the presence of pneumaturia, fecaluria, suprapubic pain and recurrent urinary infections. Surgical repair of EVF leads to rapid correction of both diarrhea and metabolic abnormalities. We report a 73-year-old diabetic woman with a neurogenic bladder secondary to a spine meningioma. She presented with diarrhea, vomiting, impaired consciousness and metabolic acidosis. She developed hypernatremia, hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, and hypophosphatemia, which were successfully corrected.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Acidosis , Urinary Tract Infections , Urinary Bladder Fistula/surgery , Urinary Bladder Fistula/complications , Intestinal Fistula/surgery , Intestinal Fistula/complications , Diarrhea/complications
12.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(1): 81-93, ene. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1372383

ABSTRACT

Escherichia coli is a pathogen associated with infections in piglets in the post-weaning phase, its pathogenicity is related to the animal's susceptibility to bacterial enterotoxins. The objective of the present study was to determine the EOs activity against E. colistrain, in the form planktonic and sessile. Although the Disc-Diffusion tests to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration, do not fully corroborate with the other analyzes of this study, it was noticed bacteria inhibition. The EOs were prepared at 0.4%, 0.8% and 1.0% for tests. The tested EOs were effective against E. coliplanktonic cells (p<0.05). As for the sessile cells, the most significant result was inhibition and 100% sessile cells at the concentration of 1.0% of Cymbopogon citratusEO. Although there was resistance in some treatments, the tested EOs demonstrated inhibition capacity, constituting promising alternatives for the control of E. coli, especially of planktonic cells.


Escherichia coli es un patógeno asociado con infecciones en lechones en la fase posterior al destete, su patogenicidad está relacionada con la susceptibilidad del animal a las enterotoxinas bacterianas. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la actividad de contra E. coli, en la forma planctónico y sésil. Aunque las pruebas de difusión de disco para determinar la concentración inhibitoria mínima, no corroboran completamente con los otros análisis de este estudio, se observó inhibición de la bacteria. Las soluciones basadas en AE se prepararon al 0.4%, 0.8% y 1.0% para pruebas. Los AEs probados fueron efectivos contra las células planctónicas (p<0.05). En cuanto a las células sésiles, el resultado más significativo fue la inhibición y el 100% de las células sésiles a la concentración de 1,0% de Cymbopogon citratus. Aunque hubo resistencia en algunos tratamientos, los AEs probados demostraron capacidad de inhibición, constituyendo alternativas prometedoras para el control de E. coli, especialmente de células planctónicas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Swine , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Biofilms/drug effects , Ocimum basilicum , Cymbopogon , Diarrhea/microbiology , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Escherichia coli/cytology , Flame Ionization , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry
13.
Cienc. Salud (St. Domingo) ; 6(1): [5-15], ene.-abr. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1366678

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: realizar un análisis económico para evaluar los costos de una intervención educativa, utilizando los principios de un modelo de seguridad humana en Bateyes del suroeste de la República Dominicana. Métodos: se consideraron cuatro recursos de intervención, incluyendo la capacitación del personal, los incentivos mensuales, la supervisión de las actividades de campo y el costo total asociado al tratamiento anual de la diarrea aguda. El gasto se comparó entre el programa estándar de atención (Batey Control) y la intervención con el modelo de seguridad humana (Batey Caso). Resultados: el ahorro del costo total anual para el Ministerio de Salud de República Dominicana asociado con la reducción de la incidencia de episodios de diarrea aguda fue de US$252,399. Si se extrapolan a los 300 Bateyes de República Dominicana, se podría ahorrar aproximadamente US$75 millones en prevención de enfermedades infecciosas. Conclusiones: el modelo de seguridad humana luce ser un método eficaz para mejorar el conocimiento sobre la prevención de enfermedades y aumentar el empoderamiento de la comunidad para la movilización de recursos. Aplicada a otros entornos, la intervención podría tener una incidencia beneficiosa en las poblaciones de refugiados e indocumentados bajo el impacto de la violencia estructural.


Objectives: To conduct an economic analysis to evaluate the costs of an educational intervention, using the human security model, and potential sources of economic benefits, in Southwestern Bateyes in the Dominican Republic. Methods: Four intervention resources were considered, including staff training, monthly incentives, supervision of field activities, and total cost associated with annual treatment for acute diarrhea. The expenditure was compared between the standard program of care and the intervention using the human security model. Results: The total annual cost saving to the Dominican Republic Ministry of Health, associated with reducing the incidence of acute diarrhea episodes, was US$252,399. If this is extrapolated to the 300 Bateyes of the Dominican Republic, the Ministry of Health could save approximately US$75 million in infectious disease prevention by implementing this intervention model in these isolated rural communities. Conclusions: The educational intervention, which incorporated a human security approach, appeared to be an effective method to enhance knowledge about disease prevention and to increase empathy among community members for resource mobilization and local empowerment. Applied to other settings, the intervention could have a beneficial impact on refugee and undocumented populations under the


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control , Public Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diarrhea , Dominican Republic , Economic Factors
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929071

ABSTRACT

As a group of nonspecific inflammatory diseases affecting the intestine, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) exhibits the characteristics of chronic recurring inflammation, and was proven to be increasing in incidence (Kaplan, 2015). IBD induced by genetic background, environmental changes, immune functions, microbial composition, and toxin exposures (Sasson et al., 2021) primarily includes ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) with complicated clinical symptoms featured by abdominal pain, diarrhea, and even blood in stools (Fan et al., 2021; Huang et al., 2021). UC is mainly limited to the rectum and the colon, while CD usually impacts the terminal ileum and colon in a discontinuous manner (Ordás et al., 2012; Panés and Rimola, 2017). In recent years, many studies have suggested the lack of effective measures in the diagnosis and treatment of IBD, prompting an urgent need for new strategies to understand the mechanisms of and offer promising therapies for IBD.


Subject(s)
Chronic Disease , Colitis, Ulcerative/therapy , Crohn Disease/epidemiology , Diarrhea , Homeodomain Proteins , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , MicroRNAs , RNA, Long Noncoding , Recurrence , Umbilical Cord/cytology
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-943043

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effects of high risk factors questionnaire (HRFQ), Asia-Pacific colorectal screening (APCS) score and their combinations with fecal immunochemical test (FIT) in screening advanced colorectal neoplasia, in order to provide an evidence for further optimization of cancer screening program. Methods: A retrospective cohort study method was used to summarize and analyze the results of colorectal tumor screening in Jiashan County, Zhejiang Province from March 2017 to July 2018. Those with severe diseases that were not suitable for colonoscopy and those with mental and behavioral abnormalities who can not cooperate with the screening were excluded. Those who met any one or more of the followings in the HRFQ questionnaire were classified as high-risk people of HRFQ: (1) first-degree relatives with a history of colorectal cancer; (2) subjects with a history of cancer or any other malignant tumor; (3) subjects with a history of intestinal polyps; (4) those with two or more of the followings: chronic constipation (constipation lasted for more than 2 months per year in the past two years), chronic diarrhea (diarrhea lasted for more than 3 months in the past two years, and the duration of each episode was more than one week), mucus and bloody stools, history of adverse life events (occurring within the past 20 years and causing greater trauma or distress to the subject after the event), history of chronic appendicitis or appendectomy, history of chronic biliary disease or cholecystectomy. In this study, those who were assessed as high risk by HRFQ were recorded as "HRFQ (+)", and those who were not at high risk were recorded as "HRFQ (-)". The APCS questionnaire provided risk scores based on 4 risk factors including age, gender, family history and smoking: (1) age: 2 points for 50-69 years old, 3 points for 70 years old and above; (2) gender: 1 point for male, 0 point for women; (3) family history: 2 points for first-degree relatives suffering from colorectal cancer; (4) smoking: 1 point for current or past smoking, 0 point for non-smokers. The population was divided into low-risk (0-1 point), intermediate-risk (2-3 points), and high-risk (4-7 points). Those who were assessed as high risk by APCS were recorded as "APCS (+)", and those with intermediate and low risk were recorded as "APCS (-)". The hemoglobin threshold for a positive FIT was set to 100 μg/L. Those who were assessed as high risk by APCS with positive FIT were recorded as "APCS+FIT (+)". Those who were assessed as high risk by APCS with negative FIT, those who were assessed by APCS as low-middle risk with positive FIT, and those who were assessed by APCS as low-middle with negative FIT were all recorded as "APCS+FIT(-)". Observation indicators in this study were as follows: (1) the screening compliance rate of the cohort and the detection of advanced colorectal tumors; (2) positive predictive value, negative predictive value, sensitivity and specificity of HRFQ and APCS and their combination with FIT for screening advanced colorectal tumors; (3) comparison of the detection rate between HRFQ and APCS questionnaire for different colorectal lesions. Using SPSS 21.0 software, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was drawn to evaluate the clinical value of HRFQ and APCS combined with FIT in screening advanced colorectal tumors. Results: From 2017 to 2018 in Jiashan County, a total of 53 268 target subjects were screened, and 42 093 people actually completed the questionnaire, with a compliance rate of 79.02%. A total of 8145 cases underwent colonoscopy. A total of 3607 cases among HRFQ positive population (5320 cases) underwent colonoscopy, and the colonoscopy compliance rate was 67. 80%; 8 cases were diagnosed with colorectal cancer and 88 cases were advanced colorectal adenoma. A total of 2977 cases among APCS positive population (11 942 cases) underwent colonoscopy, and the colonoscopy compliance rate was 24.93%; 17 cases were diagnosed with colorectal cancer and 148 cases were advanced colorectal adenoma. The positive rate of HRFQ screening was lower than that of APCS [12.6% (5320/42 093) vs. 28.4% (11 942/42 093), χ2=3195. 547, P<0.001]. In the FIT positive population (6223 cases), a total of 4894 cases underwent colonoscopy, and the colonoscopy compliance rate was 78.64%; 34 cases were diagnosed with colorectal cancer and 224 cases were advanced adenoma. The positive predictive values of HRFQ and APCS and their combination with FIT for screening advanced colorectal tumors were 2.67%, 5.54%, 5.44%, and 8.56%; negative predictive values were 94.89%, 96.85%, 96.11% and 96.99%; sensitivity was 29.27%, 50.30%, 12.20 % and 39.02%; specificity was 55.09%, 64.03%, 91.11% and 82.51%, respectively. The ROC curves constructed by HRFQ, APCS, FIT, HRFQ+FIT and APCS+FIT indicated that APCS+FIT presented the highest efficacy in screening advanced colorectal tumors (AUC: 0.608, 95%CI: 0.574-0.642). The comparison of the detection rates of different colorectal lesions between HRFQ and APCS questionnaires showed that there were no significant differences in detection rate of inflammatory polyps and hyperplastic polyps between the two questionnaires (both P>0.05). However, as compared to HRFQ questionnaire, APCS questionnaire had higher detection rates in non-advanced adenomas [26.10% (777/2977) vs. 19.43% (701/3607), χ2=51.228, P<0.001], advanced adenoma [4.97% (148/2977) vs. 2.44% (88/3607), χ2=30.249, P<0.001] and colorectal cancer [0.57% (17 /2977) vs. 0.22% (8/3607), χ2=5.259, P=0.022]. Conclusions: APCS has a higher detection rate of advanced colorectal tumors than HRFQ. APCS combined with FIT can further improve the effectiveness of advanced colorectal tumor screening.


Subject(s)
Adenoma/diagnosis , Aged , Asia , Colonoscopy , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Constipation , Diarrhea , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Feces , Female , Humans , Male , Mass Screening/methods , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939661

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the clinical features and gene mutation sites of children with cystic fibrosis (CF), in order to improve the understanding of CF to reduce misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on the medical records of 8 children with CF who were diagnosed in Hebei Children's Hospital from 2018 to 2021.@*RESULTS@#Among the 8 children with CF, there were 5 boys and 3 girls, with an age of 3-48 months (median 8 months) at diagnosis, and the age of onset ranged from 0 to 24 months (median 2.5 months). Clinical manifestations included recurrent respiratory infection in 7 children, sinusitis in 3 children, bronchiectasis in 4 children, diarrhea in 8 children, fatty diarrhea in 3 children, suspected pancreatic insufficiency in 6 children, pancreatic cystic fibrosis in 1 child, malnutrition in 5 children, and pseudo-Bartter syndrome in 4 children. The most common respiratory pathogens were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4 children). A total of 16 mutation sites were identified by high-throughput sequencing, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, and Sanger sequencing, including 5 frameshift mutations, 4 nonsense mutations, 4 missense mutations, 2 exon deletions, and 1 splice mutation. CFTR mutations were found in all 8 children. p.G970D was the most common mutation (3 children), and F508del mutation was observed in one child. Four novel mutations were noted: deletion exon15, c.3796_3797dupGA(p.I1267Kfs*12), c.2328dupA(p.V777Sfs*2), and c.2950G>A(p.D984N).@*CONCLUSIONS@#p.G970D is the most common mutation type in children with CF. CF should be considered for children who have recurrent respiratory infection or test positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with or without digestive manifestations or pseudo-Bartter syndrome.


Subject(s)
Bartter Syndrome , Child, Preschool , Cystic Fibrosis/genetics , Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator/genetics , Diarrhea , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Mutation , Respiratory Tract Infections , Retrospective Studies
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939510

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of moxibustion on the regulation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and inflammatory factors by multiple microRNAs (miRNAs) in rats with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D), and to explore the anti-inflammatory mechanism of moxibustion on IBS-D.@*METHODS@#Twelve of 52 newborn rats were randomly selected into a normal group. The remaining rats were made into IBS-D model. A total of 36 rats with successful model were randomly divided into a model group, a medication group and a moxibustion group, 12 rats in each group. The rats in the medication group were intraperitoneally injected with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC). The rats in the moxibustion group were treated with moxibustion at "Tianshu" (ST 25) and "Shangjuxu" (ST 37) for 20 min each time. All the intervention was given once a day for 7 days. Before and after modeling as well as after intervention, the body mass, loose stool rate and the minimum volume threshold of abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) were measured. After intervention, the contents of serum tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-8 were detected by ELISA method; the morphology of colon tissues was observed by HE staining, and the expressions of miR-155, miR-125b, miR-29b, miR-31, miR-18a and NF-κB p65 mRNA in colon tissues were detected by real-time PCR. The expressions of NF-κB p65, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-8 protein in colon tissues were detected by immunofluorescence.@*RESULTS@#After modeling, the body mass and the minimum volume threshold of AWR in the model group were lower than those in the normal group (P<0.01); the rates of loose stool in the model group were higher than those in the normal group (P<0.01); after intervention, in the model group, the inflammatory infiltration of colon tissues was obvious, and the serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1 β, IL-8 were higher than those in the normal group (P<0.05); the expression of miR-155, miR-125b, miR-29b, miR-31, miR-18a and NF-κB p65 mRNA in colon tissues was higher than that in the normal group (P<0.05); the protein expression of NF-κB p65, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8 was also higher than that in the normal group (P<0.01). After intervention, the body mass and the minimum volume threshold of AWR in the medication group and the moxibustion group were both higher than those in the model group (P<0.05); the loose stool rate in the medication group and the moxibustion group were lower than those in model group (P<0.05); the inflammatory cells infiltration in the colon tissues was less, the serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-8 as well as the protein expression of NF-κB p65, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-8 in the colon tissues in the medication group and the moxibustion group were lower than those in the model group (P<0.05, P<0.01). The expression of miR-125b, miR-31, miR-18a and NF-κB p65 mRNA in the medication group were lower than those in the model group (P<0.05). The expression of miR-155, miR-125b, miR-29b, miR-31, miR-18a and NF-κB p65 mRNA in the moxibustion group were lower than those in the model group (P<0.05). The miR-155, miR-125b, miR-29b, miR-31, miR-18a were positively correlated with NF-κB p65 mRNA (0<r<1, P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#The anti-inflammatory mechanism of moxibustion at "Tianshu" (ST 25) and "Shangjuxu" (ST 37) for IBS-D rats may be related to regulating multiple miRNAs to inhibit NF-κB signal pathway and reduce the expression of inflammatory factors.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diarrhea/therapy , Interleukin-8/genetics , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/therapy , MicroRNAs/genetics , Moxibustion , NF-kappa B/metabolism , RNA, Messenger , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics
18.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 734-738, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935452

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the etiological and epidemiological characteristics of Vibrio cholerae in Beijing during 2015-2021 and provide evidence for the prevention and control of cholera. Methods: The V. cholerae strains isolated in Beijing during 2015-2021 were analyzed by serotyping and virulence genes detection. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed for the molecular typing of the strains. Based on the collected epidemiological and clinical data of cholera cases,the epidemiological characteristics of cholera were analyzed by descriptive epidemiology method. Results: A total of 76 Vibrio cholerae O1 strains were isolated in Beijing during 2015-2021, including 61 strains from human, 10 strains from environment and 5 strains from seafood. The 76 strains consisted of 68 Ogawa strains and 8 Inaba strains. Six Ogawa strains isolated from sporadic cases carried ctxAB. After NotⅠ digestion, 76 strains were divided into 33 PFGE patterns. From 2015 to 2021, a total of 38 cholera epidemics were reported in Beijing, most of them were sporadic ones, accounting for 92.11% (35/38). A total of 45 cases were reported, and the cases occurred during June-September accounted for 97.78% (44/45). Cholera cases occurred in 9 districts of Beijing, and the cases reported in Chaoyang district accounted for 42.22% (19/45) and in Changping district accounted for 31.11% (14/45). The age of the cholera cases ranged from 19 to 63 years. Except for one case with unknown clinical symptoms, 44 cases had diarrhea symptoms with 84.09% (37/44) of the cases reporting diarrhea (3-9 times/day), followed by yellow watery stool (95.45%, 42/44), abdominal pain (68.18%, 30/44), nausea and vomiting (40.91%, 18/44) and fever (36.36%, 16/44). Conclusion: Vibrio cholerae strains isolated in Beijing during 2015-2021 were mainly O1 serotype Ogawa,most of which were non-toxigenic. The PFGE of the strains varied. Cholera epidemics occurred in 9 districts of Beijing, but most were sporadic ones with incidence peak during June-September.


Subject(s)
Adult , Beijing/epidemiology , Cholera/epidemiology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Humans , Middle Aged , Vibrio cholerae O1/genetics , Young Adult
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935312

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of Yersinia enterocolitica in patients with diarrhea in Pudong New Area, Shanghai. Methods: Active surveillance of diarrhea was conducted in 14 sentinel hospitals (three tertiary-level hospitals, nine secondary-level hospitals, and two primary-level hospitals) from January 2013 to December 2019 in Pudong New Area of Shanghai, China base on their location, catchment area, and patient volume. Cold enrichment method was used to isolate Y. enterocolitica and further detection of bioserotype, virulence genes and antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates were conducted. The difference of rates was determined using chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. Results: A total of 12 941 diarrhea cases were included, and 0.7% (88/12 941) cases were confirmed with Yersinia enterocolitica infection. 67.0% (59/88) cases were single infection, 33.0% (29/88) cases were mixed infections. Detection rates of Y. enterocolitica increased annually (0.3%-1.2%) and were highest in children<5 years of age (1.1%, 37/3 218) and in spring (1.1%, 32/2 998) (χ2 were 18.64 and 9.76, respectively, P<0.05). 58.0% (51/88) cases had watery diarrhea, 15.9% (14/88) had fever and 14.8% (13/88) had vomiting. The predominant bioserotypes were 3/O:3 (53.4%, 47/88), followed by 1A/O:8 (15.9%, 14/88) and 1A/O:5(6.8%, 6/88), respectively. Bioserotype 3/O:3 counted for the highest proportions (89.2%, 33/37) in children <5 years of age. All the strains of bioserotype 3/O:3 harbored ail, ystA, yadA and virF genes, which encoded pathogenic Y. enterocolitica. 11/14 strain of 1A/O:8 and 4/6 strains of 1A/O:5 harbored ystB gene. Most strains were resistant to ampicillin (80.7%,71/88) and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (71.6%,63/88), and 63.8% (56/88) strains were multidrug resistance (MDR). The difference of antimicrobial resistance rates between 3/O:3 and non 3/O:3 was statistically significant in ampicillin, cefoxitin, nalidixic acid, tetracycline and ampicillin/sulbactam (χ2 was 14.68, 43.80, 41.86, 30.54 and 5.07, respectively, P<0.05). Conclusion: The detection rate of Yersinia enterocolitica was higher in children than in adults in Pudong New Area , Shanghai. The predominant bioserotype was pathogenic 3/O:3 with multidrug resistance.


Subject(s)
Ampicillin , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Child , China/epidemiology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Humans , Yersinia enterocolitica
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928598

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the molecular epidemiological characteristics of the virus in children with acute viral diarrhea in Changdu of Tibet, China.@*METHODS@#Fecal specimens were collected from 96 children with acute diarrhea who visited the People's Hospital of Changdu, Tibet, from November 2018 to November 2020 and were tested for adenovirus, norovirus, astrovirus, sapovirus, and rotavirus. Gene sequencing was performed for the genotypes of these viruses.@*RESULTS@#The overall positive rate of the five viruses was 39% (37/96), among which astrovirus had the highest positive rate of 17%, followed by norovirus (9%), rotavirus (8%), adenovirus (7%), and sapovirus (5%). There was no significant difference in the positive rate of the five viruses among different age groups (P>0.05). Only the positive rate of astrovirus was significantly different among the four seasons (P<0.05). For adenovirus, 6 children had F41 type and 1 had C2 type; for norovirus, 6 had GⅠ.3 type, 1 had GⅠ.7 type, 1 had GⅡ.3 type, and 2 had GⅡ.4 Sydney_2012 type; HAstrV-1 type was observed in all children with astrovirus infection; for sapovirus, 1 child each had sporadic GⅠ.2, GⅠ.6, and GⅡ.1 sapovirus and 2 children had unknown type; 6 children had rotavirus G9[P8].@*CONCLUSIONS@#Astrovirus and norovirus are important pathogens in children with acute diarrhea in Changdu, Tibet. The positive rate of adenovirus, norovirus, astrovirus, sapovirus, and rotavirus is not associated with age, and only the positive rate of astrovirus has obvious seasonality. F41 type is the dominant genotype of adenovirus; GⅠ.3 is the dominant genotype of norovirus; HAstrV-1 is the dominant genotype of astrovirus; sporadic GⅠ.2, GⅠ.6, and GⅡ.1 are the dominant genotypes of sapovirus; G9[P8] is the dominant genotype of rotavirus.


Subject(s)
Child , China , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Feces , Gastroenteritis , Humans , Tibet/epidemiology , Viruses/genetics
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