Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 285
Filter
1.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(3): 1427-1436, set-dez. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1414675

ABSTRACT

A pandemia de COVID-19 se propagou rapidamente pelo mundo, causada pela infecção do novo coronavírus (SARS-CoV-2), que surgiu na China no final de 2019. Apesar da porta de entrada mais comum do agente etiológico ser pelo trato respiratório, evidências demonstram que a doença pode apresentar sintomas extrapulmonares, como os do trato gastrointestinal. Descrever sobre possíveis alterações gastrointestinais ocasionadas em pacientes infectados pelo SARS-CoV-2. Tratou-se de uma revisão bibliográfica, que utilizou artigos científicos disponíveis na íntegra em bases de dados Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, Google Acadêmico, Scientific Electronic Library Online, nos meses de abril a outubro de 2021, além de monografias, dissertações, teses e livros. Foram utilizados como descritores as palavras: SARS-CoV-2 e intestino, COVID-19 e intestino, alterações intestinais na COVID-19. Os distúrbios gastrointestinais mais prevalentes são náuseas, vômitos e diarreia e dor abdominal. O papel da microbiota intestinal em influenciar as doenças pulmonares foi bem articulado, devido à existência do eixo intestino-pulmão, a inflamação em um desses órgãos interfere diretamente no perfil inflamatório no outro. Embora ainda não esteja totalmente esclarecido se os sintomas gastrointestinais indicam maior viremia ou um processo fisiopatológico alternativo, observa-se que a presença destes configura um fator de risco para a maior severidade da doença.


The COVID-19 pandemic has spread rapidly around the world, caused by the infection of the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), which emerged in China at the end of 2019. respiratory evidence shows that the disease can present extrapulmonary symptoms, such as those in the gastrointestinal tract. Objective: To describe possible gastrointestinal alterations caused in patients infected by SARS-CoV-2. Methodology: this was a literature review, which used scientific articles available in full in the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), Academic Google, Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) databases, as well as monographs, dissertations, theses and books. The words used as descriptors were: SARS-CoV-2 and intestine, COVID-19 and intestine, intestinal alterations in COVID-19. Development: The most prevalent gastrointestinal disorders are nausea, vomiting and diarrhea and abdominal pain. The role of the intestinal microbiota in influencing lung diseases was well articulated, due to the existence of the gut- lung axis, inflammation in one of these organs directly interfering with the inflammatory profile in the other. Conclusion: Although it is not yet fully understood whether the gastrointestinal symptoms


La pandemia COVID-19 se ha extendido rápidamente por todo el mundo, causada por la infección del nuevo coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), que surgió en China a finales de 2019. Las evidencias respiratorias muestran que la enfermedad puede presentar síntomas extrapulmonares, como los del tracto gastrointestinal. Objetivo: Describir las posibles alteraciones gastrointestinales causadas en pacientes infectados por SARS-CoV-2. Metodología: se trató de una revisión bibliográfica, que utilizó artículos científicos disponibles en su totalidad en las bases de datos Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), Academic Google, Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), así como monografías, disertaciones, tesis y libros. Las palabras utilizadas como descriptores fueron: SARS-CoV-2 e intestino, COVID-19 e intestino, alteraciones intestinales en COVID-19. Desarrollo: Las alteraciones gastrointestinales más prevalentes son náuseas, vómitos y diarrea y dolor abdominal. Se articuló bien el papel de la microbiota intestinal en la influencia de las enfermedades pulmonares, debido a la existencia del eje intestino-pulmón, la inflamación en uno de estos órganos interfiere directamente en el perfil inflamatorio del otro. Conclusiones: Aunque aún no se comprenda del todo si los síntomas gastrointestinales indican una mayor viremia o un proceso fisiopatológico alternativo, se observa que su presencia es un factor de riesgo para la mayor gravedad de la enfermedad.


Subject(s)
Digestive System Diseases/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Diarrhea/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology
2.
Cambios rev. méd ; 21(1): 710, 30 Junio 2022. ilus, tabs, grafs.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1400338

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La colitis eosinofílica y la colitis de la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal, son dos entidades que pueden compartir similares características clínicas, endoscópicas y terapéuticas pero diferentes criterios diagnósticos. OBJETIVOS: Describir el caso clínico de un niño preescolar con antecedente de alergia alimentaria, de hospitalizaciones y uso de antibióticos por varias ocasiones, que evoluciona con diarrea crónica intermitente. CASO CLÍNICO: Se trata de un paciente masculino, de 3 años 5 meses, con antecedente de alergia alimentaria con cuadro crónico de dolor abdominal, diarrea y retraso en el crecimiento. Se realiza abordaje de diarrea crónica. RESULTADOS: Con hallazgos clínicos de enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal y descripción histopatológica de colitis eosinofílica, se considera la asociación entre estas dos patologías sin dejar la posibilidad de que esta última se trate de una fase inicial de enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal. CONCLUSIONES: El tratamiento de pacientes con colitis eosinofílica complicada es similar a la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal, se requiere seguimiento clínico, endoscópico e histopatológico de pacientes con colitis eosinofílica a largo plazo.


INTRODUCTION: Eosinophilic colitis and inflammatory bowel disease colitis are two entities that may share similar clinical, endoscopic and therapeutic features but different diagnostic criteria. OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical case of a preschool child with a history of food allergy, hospitalizations and use of antibiotics for several occasions, who evolves with chronic intermittent diarrhea. CLINICAL CASE: This is a male patient, 3 years 5 months old, with a history of food allergy with chronic abdominal pain, diarrhea and growth retardation. Chronic diarrhea was approached. RESULTS: With clinical findings of inflammatory bowel disease and histopathological description of eosinophilic colitis, the association between these two pathologies is considered without leaving the possibility that the latter is an initial phase of inflammatory bowel disease. CONCLUSIONS: The treatment of patients with complicated eosinophilic colitis is similar to inflammatory bowel disease, clinical, endoscopic and histopathological follow-up of patients with eosinophilic colitis is required in the long term.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Colitis , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Enterocolitis , Eosinophils , Food Hypersensitivity , Pediatrics , Colitis, Ulcerative , Abdominal Pain , Colon , Enteric Nervous System , Diarrhea, Infantile , Eosinophilia , Prescription Drug Overuse , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Hospitalization
3.
Buenos Aires; GCBA. Gerencia Operativa de Epidemiología; 29 abr. 2022. f:11 l:14 p. tab, graf.(Boletín Epidemiológico Semanal: Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, 7, 297).
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, InstitutionalDB, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1390693

ABSTRACT

Se presenta de manera breve la situación de diarreas agudas, en particular diarrea aguda sanguinolenta, hasta la Semana Epidemiológica 15 de 2022: notificaciones según tipo de efector, notificación de agentes etiológicos, y tasas según sexo y edad.


Subject(s)
Disease Notification/statistics & numerical data , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Diarrhea/etiology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Epidemiological Monitoring
4.
Acta méd. costarric ; 64(1)mar. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1402993

ABSTRACT

Resumen Tras el descubrimiento de que el transporte del sodio y el transporte de la glucosa están acoplados en el intestino delgado, de manera que la glucosa acelera la absorción de soluto y agua, destacó la hidratación oral junto con otros hitos del siglo XX como el desarrollo de la penicilina y los cultivos virales que anteceden la vacuna contra la poliomielitis; este artículo de opinión se refiere a la participación de Costa Rica en el exitoso desarrollo de un estudio de investigación aplicada sobre un problema prioritario de Salud: la hidratación oral en las diarreas provocadas por virus.


Abstract Following the discovery that sodium transport and glucose transport are coupled in the small intestine, such that glucose accelerates solute and water absorption, highlighted oral hydration), along with other 20th-century milestones like the development of penicillin and viral cultures that preceded the polio vaccine; this opinion article refers to the participation of Costa Rica in the successful development of an applied research study on a priority health problem: oral rehydration in diarrhea caused by viruses.


Subject(s)
Diarrhea/diagnosis , Fluid Therapy
5.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(4): 584-590, ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138675

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El síndrome IPEX (inmunodesregulación, poliendocrinopatía y enteropatía autoinmune ligada a X) causado por mutaciones en el gen FOXP3, se caracteriza por diarrea prolongada, alteraciones endocrinológicas y dermatitis. El tratamiento consiste en la administración de medicamentos inmunosupresores, siendo el trasplante de médula ósea la única cura potencial. OBJETIVO: Describir una nueva mutación del gen FOXP3, así como los hallazgos y evolución de un paciente con síndrome IPEX. CASO CLÍNICO: Lactante menor masculino que debutó al mes de vida con diarrea cró nica, falla intestinal e infecciones recurrentes. Exámenes de laboratorio y biopsia intestinal sugerentes de enteropatía autoinmune. Durante el seguimiento, el paciente presentó refractariedad al manejo inmunosupresor con esteroides, ciclosporina y tacrolimus, falleciendo a los 7 meses de edad por complicaciones vasculares. Antecedente familiar por línea materna de múltiples muertes en hombres menores de 1 año. Ante la sospecha de síndrome IPEX se realizó exoma en trío que reportó una mutación probablemente patogénica en el gen FOXP3. CONCLUSIÓN: Se documentó una nueva mutación del gen FOXP3 en paciente con síndrome IPEX. A pesar de la baja prevalencia de esta enfermedad, es importante el reconocimiento de síntomas no específicos pero sugerentes del diagnóstico.


INTRODUCTION: The IPEX (immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked) syn drome is caused by the mutations of the FOXP3 gene, characterized by persistent diarrhea, endo crine disorders, and dermatitis. The treatment is the administration of immunosuppressive drugs, where hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the only potential cure. OBJECTIVE: To describe a new FOXP3 gene mutation, as well as the findings and evolution of a patient with IPEX syndrome. CLINICAL CASE: Male infant presenting at one month of age with chronic diarrhea, intestinal failure, and recurrent infections. Lab tests and intestinal biopsy suggested autoimmune enteropathy. During follow-up, the patient presented resistance to immunosuppressive treatment with corticosteroids, cyclosporine, and tacrolimus, dying at 7 months of age due to vascular complications. He had a ma ternal family history of multiple deaths of men under 1 year of age. IPEX syndrome was suspected therefore a trio whole-exome sequencing was performed that showed a probably pathogenic FOXP3 gene mutation. CONCLUSION: A new FOXP3 gene mutation is reported in a patient with IPEX syndro me. Despite the low prevalence of this disease, it is important to recognize non-specific but suggestive symptoms for its diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/congenital , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Forkhead Transcription Factors/genetics , Immune System Diseases/congenital , Pedigree , Genetic Markers , Chronic Disease , Fatal Outcome , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/genetics , Diarrhea/genetics , Immune System Diseases/diagnosis , Immune System Diseases/genetics , Mutation
6.
Rev. medica electron ; 42(3): 1920-1927, mayo.-jun. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1127052

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La colitis ulcerativa es una enfermedad crónica recidivante del tracto gastrointestinal, que evoluciona por recaídas formando parte de las enfermedades inflamatorias intestinales (EII). Afecta la mucosa y submucosa del colon, caracterizada por un proceso ulcerativo y supurado de la mucosa. La diarrea crónica con sangre es el síntoma más importante. En su curso alternan periodos de remisión y de crisis. No existe un criterio patognomónico para su definición, su diagnóstico se basa en una serie de criterios clínicos, endoscópicos e histológicos. Esta entidad infrecuente en su forma extensa severa. Aparece en un paciente, que llega a la institución de salud refiriendo que hace aproximadamente dos años, presenta cuadros de diarreas intermitentes con sangre, tratadas en el área de salud. Se le realizó Rx y colonoscopia constatando presencia de eritema, granularidad mucosa, friabilidad, pérdida de la vascularización submucosa, erosiones y ulceraciones extensas, profundas, signos de edema, pseudopólipos, pérdida de haustras, rigidez, sangrado, tractos fibrosos y presencia de exudado luminal. Se diagnosticó colitis extensa ulcerativa severa y se orientó tratamiento médico endovenoso y se continuó por via oral, obteniendo la remisión del cuadro clínico desde el punto de vista clínico y endoscópico (AU).


ABSTRACT Ulcerative colitis is a chronic recidivist disease of the gastrointestinal tract, evolving by relapses and is one of the intestinal inflammatory diseases. It affects the colon mucosa and sub-mucosa, characterized for an ulcerative process and mucosa exudation. Chronic diarrhea with blood is the most important symptom. Periods of crisis and remission alternated in its course; there is not a pathognomonic criteria for its definition and its diagnosis is based in a series of clinical, endoscopic and histological criteria. This entity, infrequent in extensive severe form, appears in a patient arriving to the hospital referring having intermittent diarrheas with blood for two years, treated in the health area. He undergone a radiography and colonoscopy, showing the presence of an erythema, mucosa granularity, friability, lost of submucosa vascularization, deep extensive erosions and ulcerations, edema signs, pseudo polyps, haustras lost, stiffness, bleeding, fibrous tracts and presence of luminal exudates. Severe ulcerative extensive colitis was diagnosed and was prescribed an endovenous medical treatment, continued orally, achieving the disease remission from the clinical and endoscopic point of view (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Colitis, Ulcerative/etiology , Chronic Disease , Colonoscopy , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology , Urology , Colitis, Ulcerative/diagnosis , Colitis, Ulcerative/epidemiology , Colitis, Ulcerative/diagnostic imaging , Gastrointestinal Tract/diagnostic imaging , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Gastroenterology
7.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 96(supl.1): 20-28, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098357

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To restate the epidemiological importance of Shigella in acute diarrhea with blood, providing an overview of the treatment and stressing the need for the correct indication of antibiotic therapy. Sources of Data A search was carried out in the Medline and Scopus databases, in addition to the World Health Organization scientific documents and guidelines, identifying review articles and original articles considered relevant to substantiate the narrative review. Synthesis of Data Different pathogens have been associated with acute diarrhea with blood; Shigella was the most frequently identified. The manifestations of shigellosis in healthy individuals are usually of moderate intensity and disappear within a few days. There may be progression to overt dysentery with blood and mucus, lower abdominal pain, and tenesmus. Conventional bacterial stool culture is the gold standard for the etiological diagnosis; however, new molecular tests have been developed to allow the physician to initiate targeted antibacterial treatment, addressing a major current concern caused by the increasing resistance of Shigella. Prevention strategies include breastfeeding, hygiene measures, health education, water treatment, and the potential use of vaccines. Conclusions Acute diarrhea is an important cause of mortality in children under 5 years and shigellosis is the leading cause of acute diarrhea with blood worldwide. The current concern is the increase in microbial resistance to the recommended antibiotics, which brings an additional difficulty to therapeutic management. Although no vaccine is yet available against Shigella, several candidates are undergoing clinical trials, and this may be the most cost-effective preventative measure in future.


Resumo Objetivo Reiterar a importância epidemiológica da Shigella na diarreia aguda com sangue, fornecer uma visão geral do tratamento e ressaltar a necessidade da correta indicação da antibioticoterapia. Fontes dos dados Realizada pesquisa nos bancos de dados Medline e Scopus, além de documentos científicos e diretrizes da Organização Mundial da Saúde, com a identificação de artigos de revisão e artigos originais considerados relevantes para fundamentar a revisão do tipo narrativa. Síntese dos dados Diferentes patógenos têm sido associados à diarreia aguda com sangue, a Shigella é o mais frequente. As manifestações da shigelose em indivíduos saudáveis são geralmente de intensidade moderada e desaparecem em poucos dias. Pode haver progressão para disenteria franca com sangue e muco, dor em abdome inferior e tenesmo. A coprocultura bacteriana convencional é o padrão-ouro para o diagnóstico etiológico, porém novos testes moleculares foram desenvolvidos, os quais permitem ao médico iniciar tratamento antibacteriano direcionado, sanar uma grande preocupação atual, devido à crescente resistência da Shigella. Estratégias de prevenção incluem aleitamento, medidas de higiene, educação em saúde, tratamento da água e o potencial uso de vacinas. Conclusões A diarreia aguda é uma importante causa de mortalidade em crianças com menos de cinco anos e a shigelose é a principal causa de diarreia aguda com sangue em todo o mundo. A preocupação atual é o aumento da resistência microbiana aos antibióticos preconizados, o que traz uma dificuldade adicional ao manejo terapêutico. Embora ainda não exista vacina disponível para Shigella, várias candidatas estão em fase de testes clínicos, podem futuramente ser a medida preventiva mais custo-efetiva.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Diarrhea/drug therapy , Shigella , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Dysentery, Bacillary/diagnosis , Dysentery, Bacillary/drug therapy , Feces
8.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200494, 2020. tab
Article in English | SES-SP, ColecionaSUS, LILACS | ID: biblio-1136860

ABSTRACT

Abstract Diagnosing cases of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) with only non-respiratory symptoms has been challenging. We reported the diagnosis of a child who tested positive for COVID-19 with abdominal pain/diarrhea and tracked his family cluster. One member of the family tested positive for COVID-19 on real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assay and three other family members had anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Pandemics , Pharyngitis/etiology , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Cluster Analysis , Contact Tracing , Coronavirus Infections , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Diarrhea/etiology , Fever/etiology , Betacoronavirus
9.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057212

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To report a case of a child with primary immunodeficiency who at eight years developed digestive symptoms, culminating with the diagnosis of a neuroendocrine tumor at ten years of age. Case description: One-year-old boy began to present recurrent pneumonias in different pulmonary lobes. At four years of age, an immunological investigation showed a decrease in IgG and IgA serum levels. After the exclusion of other causes of hypogammaglobinemia, he was diagnosed with a Common Variable Immunodeficiency and started to receive monthly replacement of human immunoglobulin. The patient evolved well, but at 8 years of age began with epigastrium pain and, at 10 years, chronic persistent diarrhea and weight loss. After investigation, a neuroendocrine tumor was diagnosed, which had a rapid progressive evolution to death. Comments: Medical literature has highlighted the presence of gastric tumors in adults with Common Variable Immunodeficiency, emphasizing the importance of early diagnosis and the investigation of digestive neoplasms. Up to now there is no description of neuroendocrine tumor in pediatric patients with Common Variable Immunodeficiency. We believe that the hypothesis of digestive neoplasm is important in children with Common Variable Immunodeficiency and with clinical manifestations similar to the case described here in the attempt to improve the prognosis for pediatric patients.


RESUMO Objetivo: Relatar um caso de criança portadora de imunodeficiência primária que, aos oito anos, desenvolveu sintomas digestivos, culminando com o diagnóstico de tumor neuroendócrino aos dez anos de idade. Descrição do caso: Menino, com um ano de idade, começou a apresentar pneumonias de repetição em diferentes lobos pulmonares. Aos quatro anos, a investigação imunológica mostrou diminuição dos níveis séricos de IgG e IgA. Após exclusão de outras causas de hipogamaglobulinemia, teve diagnóstico de imunodeficiência comum variável, passando a receber reposição mensal de imunoglobulina humana. Evoluiu bem, porém, aos oito anos, começou com epigastralgia e, aos dez anos, diarreia crônica persistente e perda de peso. O quadro culminou com o diagnóstico de tumor neuroendócrino intestinal, de rápida progressão, com óbito do paciente. Comentários: A literatura tem chamado a atenção para tumores gástricos em adultos com imunodeficiência comum variável, alertando para a importância do diagnóstico precoce e da pesquisa de neoplasias digestivas. Até o momento, não há descrição de tumor neuroendócrino em pacientes pediátricos portadores de imunodeficiência comum variável. Acredita-se ser importante a hipótese de neoplasia digestiva diante de crianças com imunodeficiência comum variável e com manifestações clínicas semelhantes ao caso descrito, na tentativa de melhorar o prognóstico para pacientes pediátricos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/complications , Neuroendocrine Tumors/diagnosis , Pneumonia/etiology , Recurrence , Weight Loss , Abdominal Pain/diagnosis , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/immunology , Neuroendocrine Tumors/pathology , Neuroendocrine Tumors/therapy , Fatal Outcome , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Diarrhea/etiology , Intestinal Neoplasms/surgery , Intestinal Neoplasms/pathology , Intestinal Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Neoplasm Metastasis/pathology , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use
10.
Gastroenterol. latinoam ; 30(supl.1): S26-S30, 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116309

ABSTRACT

Acute diarrhea (AD) is the increase in frequency and volume of bowel movements with decrease in their consistency that lasts less than 14 days. AD is a major public health problem and is still nowadays a cause of significant morbidity and mortality during childhood, especially in children with nutritional deficits. At a younger age, there is a greater susceptibility to diarrhea, which is more intense and more likely cause dehydration. The prevention and management of dehydration is the mainstay of treatment. The use of medications must be used with caution, analyzing individual cases and based on the best available evidence. We will analyze the subject with special emphasis on treatment according to scientific evidence.


La diarrea aguda (DA) se define como el aumento en la frecuencia y volumen de las deposiciones con disminución de la consistencia y que dura menos de 14 días. La DA es un gran problema de salud pública y es aún hoy en día una causa de importante morbimortalidad durante la infancia en especial en niños con déficits nutricionales. A menor edad hay mayor susceptibilidad de presentar diarrea, siendo ésta de mayor intensidad y con mayores posibilidades de producir deshidratación. La prevención y el manejo de la deshidratación es el pilar fundamental del tratamiento. El uso de medicamentos debe ser criterioso, analizando cada caso individual y basado en la mejor evidencia disponible. Analizaremos el tema con especial énfasis en el tratamiento según evidencia científica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Diarrhea/drug therapy , Rehydration Solutions/therapeutic use , Acute Disease , Ondansetron/therapeutic use , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Dehydration/etiology , Diarrhea/etiology , Diarrhea/prevention & control , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
11.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(1): 177-183, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889193

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The study was conducted to compare the specificity of immunological diagnostic methods used for the diagnosis of Cryptosporidium species capable of causing life-threatening infection in both immunosuppressed and immunocompetent patients. For the detection of Cryptosporidium species in 79 animals with diarrhoea, we used three Copro-antigen tests: RIDASCREEN® Cryptosporidium test, Cryptosporidium 2nd Generation (ELISA) and RIDA®QUICK Cryptosporidium. For immunoassays we used positive and negative samples detected by means of polymerase chain reaction and validated by sequencing and nested polymerase chain reaction to confirm the presence six different species of Cryptosporidium species. Prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in the entire group determined by enzyme immunoassay, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, immuno-chromatographic test and polymerase chain reaction was 34.17%, 27.84%, 6.33% and 27.84%, respectively. Sensitivity of animal samples with enzyme immunoassay, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, and immuno-chromatographic test was 63.6%, 40.9% and 22.7%, resp., when questionable samples were considered positive, whereas specificity of enzyme immunoassay, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and immuno-chromatographic test was 75.9%, 78.9% and 100%, respectively. Positive predictive values and negative predictive values were different for all the tests. These differences results are controversial and therefore reliability and reproducibility of immunoassays as the only diagnostic method is questionable. The use of various Cryptosporidium species in diagnosis based on immunological testing and different results obtained by individual tests indicate potential differences in Copro-antigens produced by individual Cryptosporidium species.


Subject(s)
Animals , Immunologic Tests/methods , Cryptosporidiosis/microbiology , Cryptosporidium/isolation & purification , Diarrhea/veterinary , Immunologic Tests/economics , Immunologic Tests/veterinary , Sensitivity and Specificity , Cryptosporidiosis/diagnosis , Cryptosporidium/genetics , Cryptosporidium/immunology , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Diarrhea/microbiology
12.
Mem. Inst. Invest. Cienc. Salud (Impr.) ; 15(1): 16-21, abr. 2017. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | BDNPAR, LILACS | ID: biblio-1008719

ABSTRACT

La Escherichia coli diarreogénica (ECD) se ha clasificado con base en criterios clínicos, epidemiológicos y moleculares en cinco grupos, cada uno con factores de virulencia específicos. El objetivo fue determinar la prevalencia de ECD en pacientes pediátricos con enfermedad diarreica aguda del Laboratorio Central de Salud Publica en el periodo 2012- 2015. Se procesaron muestras de heces con síndrome diarreico agudo, provenientes de pacientes pediátricos, en los cuales se buscó algún gen de virulencia ECD utilizando métodos convencionales de siembra y screening molecular, mediante PCR múltiple con cebadores diseñados específicamente para amplificar los genes de virulencia elt, est, eae, stx, ipaH y aggR. Del total de muestras analizadas, 13% (180/1379) de las muestras presentó algún factor de virulencia compatible con algún patotipo ECD con mayor predominio en niños de 1 a 3 años. La frecuencia de los distintos patotipos fue la siguiente: 61 (34%) ETEC, 40 (22%) EAEC, 41 (23%) EPEC, 27 (15%) EIEC, 7 (4%) STEC y 3 (2%) ETEC/EAEC, 1 (0.5%) ETEC/EAEC/EIEC. El porcentaje de E. coli diarreogénicas detectado tiene similitud con lo reportado en otros países de la región, lo que nos indica que estos patógenos son parte importante de la etiología de la enfermedad diarreica aguda infecciosa en la población infantil en nuestro país. Se debe destacar que para el diagnóstico de las diferentes categorías ECD, es necesario disponer de un procedimiento diagnóstico específico dirigido a la detección de los factores de virulencia utilizando métodos moleculares o métodos inmunológicos.


Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) has been classified based on clinical, epidemiological and molecular criteria in five groups, each with specific virulence factors. The objective was to determine the prevalence of DEC in pediatric patients with acute diarrheal disease of the Central Laboratory of Public Health in the 2012-2015 period. A total of 1447 fecal samples of acute diarrheal syndrome from pediatric patients were processed in which a DEC virulence gene was searched using conventional screening and molecular screening methods with multiple PCR primers specifically designed to amplify virulence genes, st, lt, eae, stx, ipaH and aggR. From the total of analyzed samples, 13% (180/1379) of the samples presented some virulence factor compatible with a DEC pathogen type with greater predominance in children from 1 to 3 years. The frequency of the different pathogen types was as follows: 61 (34%) ETEC, 40 (22%) EAEC, 41 (23%) EPEC, 27 (15%) EIEC, 7 (4%) STEC and 3 (2% ETEC/EAEC, 1 (0.5%) ETEC/EAEC/EIEC. The percentage of DEC detected is similar to that reported in other countries of the region, which indicates that these pathogens are an important part of the etiology of acute infectious diarrheal disease in children in our country. It should be noted that for the diagnosis of different DEC categories, it is necessary to have a specific diagnostic procedure aimed at the detection of virulence factors using molecular methods or immunodiagnostic methods.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Dysentery/diagnosis , Escherichia coli/genetics , Paraguay , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Dysentery/epidemiology
13.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1272744

ABSTRACT

Background: Giardia lamblia, a flagellate protozoa, is a one of the most common causes of non-viral (parasitic) diarrheal illness in humans. Laboratory diagnosis mainly consists of direct microscopic examination of stool specimen for trophozoites and cysts. However, due to intermittent fecal excretion of the parasite, the patient may be misdiagnosed, continue excreting the parasite and infecting others. Therefore, other methods of diagnosis should be looked for, which overcome the drawbacks of microscopy when used alone for diagnosis. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of coproantigen detection by ELISA test in comparison to direct microscopy in the diagnosis of G. lamblia in stool specimens from patients with diarrhea and other gastrointestinal symptoms. Patients and methods: stool samples were collected form 250 child included in the present study (150 symptomatic and 100 apparently healthy as a control group) aged between 1-10 years old, and subjected for direct microscopic examination and ELISA test for copro-antigen detection. Results: out of 250 stool samples, 53 specimens (21.2%) were positive for Giardia by direct microscopy, while 68 specimens (27.2%) were positive by ELISA test. Conclusion: ELISA test for copro-antigen detection in stool samples is a rapid and effective method with high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of giardiasis in stool specimens even when the parasitic count is low, thus reducing the chances of missing even in the asymptomatic cases


Subject(s)
Diarrhea/diagnosis , Egypt , Enzymes , Giardia lamblia , Pathology, Clinical , Patients
14.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(supl.1): 03-30, Oct.-Dec. 2016.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469632

ABSTRACT

Most Escherichia coli strains live harmlessly in the intestines and rarely cause disease in healthy individuals. Nonetheless, a number of pathogenic strains can cause diarrhea or extraintestinal diseases both in healthy and immunocompromised individuals. Diarrheal illnesses are a severe public health problem and a major cause of morbidity and mortality in infants and young children, especially in developing countries. E. coli strains that cause diarrhea have evolved by acquiring, through horizontal gene transfer, a particular set of characteristics that have successfully persisted in the host. According to the group of virulence determinants acquired, specific combinations were formed determining the currently known E. coli pathotypes, which are collectively known as diarrheagenic E. coli. In this review, we have gathered information on current definitions, serotypes, lineages, virulence mechanisms, epidemiology, and diagnosis of the major diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes.


Subject(s)
Diarrhea/diagnosis , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Escherichia coli Infections/epidemiology
15.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(supl.1): 3-30, Oct.-Dec. 2016.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839325

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Most Escherichia coli strains live harmlessly in the intestines and rarely cause disease in healthy individuals. Nonetheless, a number of pathogenic strains can cause diarrhea or extraintestinal diseases both in healthy and immunocompromised individuals. Diarrheal illnesses are a severe public health problem and a major cause of morbidity and mortality in infants and young children, especially in developing countries. E. coli strains that cause diarrhea have evolved by acquiring, through horizontal gene transfer, a particular set of characteristics that have successfully persisted in the host. According to the group of virulence determinants acquired, specific combinations were formed determining the currently known E. coli pathotypes, which are collectively known as diarrheagenic E. coli. In this review, we have gathered information on current definitions, serotypes, lineages, virulence mechanisms, epidemiology, and diagnosis of the major diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Diarrhea/microbiology , Escherichia coli/classification , Escherichia coli/physiology , Escherichia coli Infections/diagnosis , Escherichia coli Infections/microbiology , Prevalence , Virulence Factors/genetics , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Escherichia coli Infections/epidemiology
16.
Rev. gastroenterol. Perú ; 36(4): 340-349, oct.-dic. 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-991206

ABSTRACT

Desde hace más de 70 años se conoce la asociación de diarrea con diabetes mellitus. En pacientes diabéticos su prevalencia es de alrededor del 20%. Sus manifestaciones clínicas son diversas, y representa un reto diagnóstico y terapéutico. Existen ciertos diagnósticos de mayor prevalencia en pacientes diabéticos que en la población general. Las distintas etiologías relacionadas pueden ser diagnosticadas adecuadamente a través de la historia clínica y pruebas diagnósticas complementarias. Los medicamentos utilizados por el paciente diabético para el manejo de su enfermedad, frecuentemente causan diarrea crónica, por lo que se debe profundizar en los antecedentes farmacológicos al momento de estudiar la diarrea. Los pacientes diabéticos pueden presentar otras condiciones patológicas asociadas, como enfermedad celíaca o colitis microscópica, cuya molestia única es la diarrea. La función del páncreas exocrino puede estar disminuida en el paciente diabético, frecuentemente llevando a insuficiencia pancreática exocrina. Factores dietarios, como los edulcorantes libres de azúcar y otros agentes, pueden causar diarrea en el paciente diabético. La presencia de condiciones como la neuropatía autonómica y neuropatía periférica secundarias a la diabetes mellitus, pueden explicar desordenes como la disfunción anorrectal y la incontinencia fecal. Finalmente, la enteropatía diabética per se o con sobrecrecimiento bacteriano asociado, puede causar diarrea. Lograr un control glicémico adecuado constituye el pilar del tratamiento de la diarrea en el diabético, después de esto existen medidas adicionales que se aplican según el contexto especifico del paciente. En el presente artículo se revisan las causas de mayor incidencia diarrea en el paciente diabético y los mecanismos fisiopatológicos implicados


The association of diarrhea with diabetes mellitus has been known for more than 70 years. In diabetic patients its prevalence is around 20%.Its clinical manifestations are diverse, and represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge.There are certain diagnoses of higher prevalence in diabetic patients than in the general population.The different related etiologies can be adequately diagnosed through the clinical history and complementary diagnostic tests.The medications used by the diabetic patient to manage their disease often cause chronic diarrhea, so the pharmacological background should be studied at the time of the study of diarrhea.Diabetic patients can present other associated pathological conditions, such as celiac disease or microscopic colitis, which only discomfort is diarrhea.Exocrine pancreatic function may be decreased in the diabetic patient, frequently leading to exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Dietary factors, such as sugar-free sweeteners and other agents, can cause diarrhea in the diabetic patient.The presence of conditions such as autonomic neuropathy and peripheral neuropathy secondary to diabetes mellitus may explain disorders such as anorectal dysfunction and faecal incontinence. Finally, diabetic enteropathy alone or with associated bacterial overgrowth can cause diarrhea.Achieving adequate glycemic control is the pillar of the treatment of diarrhea in the diabetic, after which there are additional measures that are applied according to the specific context of the patient.This article reviews the causes of higher diarrhea incidence in the diabetic patient and the pathophysiological mechanisms involved


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetes Complications/etiology , Diarrhea/etiology , Chronic Disease , Risk Factors , Diabetes Complications/diagnosis , Diabetes Complications/physiopathology , Diabetes Complications/therapy , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Diarrhea/physiopathology , Diarrhea/therapy
17.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 36(1): 21-26, Jan.-Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-780061

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Colonoscopy is part of the current diagnostic armamentarium. However, in some patients with chronic diarrhea, a colonoscopy may show normal mucosa; in these cases, serial biopsies can provide important information for the diagnosis and treatment of patients. AIM: To analyze patients with chronic diarrhea having a macroscopically normal colonoscopy, by evaluating histological changes. METHODS: 30 patients with chronic diarrhea and normal colonoscopy were prospectively evaluated and submitted to serial biopsies of the terminal ileum, ascending colon and rectum. RESULTS: The sample of 30 patients showed a ratio of 18 men (60%) and 12 women (40%). On histological types, it was found that 13 patients (43.3%) had lymphoid hyperplasia, eosinophilic inflammation in 4 (13.3%), nonspecific inflammation in 4 (13.3%), regenerative changes in 3 (10%), lymphocytic colitis in 2 (6.6%) and changes consistent with Crohn's disease in 1 (3.3%). CONCLUSIONS: One can observe that even chronic diarrhea patients, without other associated factors, benefited from colonoscopy with biopsy, because it held the etiologic diagnosis in some cases as also excluded by histopathology. It was noticed that the frequency of patients with altered biopsy and less dragged diarrheal episodes (84.2%) was large, should consider their achievement.


INTRODUÇÃO: A colonoscopia faz parte do arsenal de diagnóstico atual. Porém, em alguns pacientes com diarreia crônica, a colonoscopia pode evidenciar mucosa normal; nesses casos biópsias seriadas podem trazer informações importantes para o diagnóstico e tratamento dos pacientes. OBJETIVO: Analisar pacientes com diarreia crônica submetidos à colonoscopia macroscopicamente normal, avaliando assim histologicamente as alterações. MÉTODOS: Análise prospectiva da histologia 30 pacientes com diarreia crônica e colonoscopias normais, submetidos a biópsias seriadas de íleo terminal, cólon ascendente e reto. RESULTADOS: A amostra de 30 pacientes mostrou uma proporção de 18 homens (60%) e 12 mulheres (40%). Sobre os tipos de alterações histológicas, foi verificado que 13 pacientes (43,3%) apresentaram hiperplasia linfóide, inflamação eosinofílica em 4 (13,3%), inflamação inespecífica em 4 (13,3%), alterações regenerativas em 3 (10%), colite linfocítica em 2 (6,6%) e alterações compatíveis com Doença de Crohn em 1 (3,3%). CONCLUSÕES: Observou-se que mesmo pacientes com diarreia crônica, sem outros fatores associados, beneficiaram-se da colonoscopia com biópsia, pois a mesma realizou o diagnóstico etiológico em alguns casos como também o excluiu através da histopatologia. Verificou-se que a frequência de pacientes com biópsia alterada e quadros diarreicos menos arrastados (84,2%) foi grande, devendo-se considerar a realização do exame.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Rectum/surgery , Crohn Disease/surgery , Pseudolymphoma , Colon, Ascending/surgery , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Diarrhea/pathology , Rectum/pathology , Crohn Disease/pathology , Colonoscopy , Colon, Ascending/pathology , Colitis, Lymphocytic , Diarrhea/microbiology , Inflammation
18.
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 26(5): 676-686, sept. 2015. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1128587

ABSTRACT

En este artículo se enfocará la diarrea aguda del adulto desde una perspectiva clínica, incorporando definiciones básicas de epidemiología, fisiopatología, enfrentamiento clínico, estudio cuando corresponda y tratamiento. Se presentarán nuevas herramientas diagnósticas basadas en biología molecular, de reciente introducción en clínica y que han significado un aporte en casos seleccionados. Además, se enfrentan situaciones especiales como la diarrea del viajero y de los pacientes inmunocomprometidos. La diarrea asociada a antibióticos se tratará en un artículo aparte.


In this article of acute diarrhea in adults, will present from a clinical perspective, including different basic definitions from epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical approach, corresponding studies and treatment. It includes new diagnostic tools based on molecular biology, of recent use in medical practice, that have had a relevant effect in selected cases. It also includes special situations, such as traveler's diarrhea and immunosuppressed patients. We exclude from this article antibiotics-related diarrhea.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Diarrhea/therapy , Physical Examination , Acute Disease , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Diarrhea/physiopathology , Diarrhea/microbiology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Feces/microbiology , Medical History Taking
19.
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 26(5): 687-695, sept. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1128588

ABSTRACT

La diarrea asociada a antibióticos es una entidad clínica que ha aumentado de manera considerable los últimos años a nivel mundial. Lo anterior se ha visto favorecido por el incremento en el uso de antibióticos de amplio espectro, los que fundamentalmente alteran la flora intestinal habitual, actuando también por otros mecanismos como la alteración de la motilidad intestinal y acción tóxica directa sobre la mucosa intestinal. La presentación clínica varía desde un cuadro leve hasta de mayor gravedad, llegando incluso a la muerte. Lo anterior dependerá de algunas variables, siendo fundamental el estado inmunitario del paciente. La diarrea asociada a antibióticos por Clostridium Difficile tiene mayor relevancia dado su mayor morbimortalidad. Se han utilizado diversos métodos diagnósticos para evaluar esta patología como así también, diferentes estrategias terapéuticas de enfrentamiento, las que se exponen en la presente revisión


Antibiotic-associated diarrhea is a clinical entity showing a significantly greater presence in past years worldwide. These has been favored by the intensification of treatments based on the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, which alter intestinal flora and act through other mechanisms like alteration of intestinal motility and direct toxic action on the intestinal mucosa. Clinical symptoms vary from mild to severe and may even cause death. The severity of this condition depends on different variables, mainly the immune status of the patient. Clostridum difficile antibiotic-associated diarrhea is the most relevant since it causes greater mobility and mortality. This article is a review of various diagnostic methods used to evaluate this pathology and multiple therapeutical strategies for management of same.


Subject(s)
Humans , Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous/diagnosis , Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous/therapy , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Diarrhea/microbiology , Diarrhea/therapy , Recurrence , Severity of Illness Index , Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous/chemically induced , Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous/prevention & control , Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Clostridioides difficile , Diarrhea/chemically induced , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL