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1.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(4): 584-590, ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138675

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El síndrome IPEX (inmunodesregulación, poliendocrinopatía y enteropatía autoinmune ligada a X) causado por mutaciones en el gen FOXP3, se caracteriza por diarrea prolongada, alteraciones endocrinológicas y dermatitis. El tratamiento consiste en la administración de medicamentos inmunosupresores, siendo el trasplante de médula ósea la única cura potencial. OBJETIVO: Describir una nueva mutación del gen FOXP3, así como los hallazgos y evolución de un paciente con síndrome IPEX. CASO CLÍNICO: Lactante menor masculino que debutó al mes de vida con diarrea cró nica, falla intestinal e infecciones recurrentes. Exámenes de laboratorio y biopsia intestinal sugerentes de enteropatía autoinmune. Durante el seguimiento, el paciente presentó refractariedad al manejo inmunosupresor con esteroides, ciclosporina y tacrolimus, falleciendo a los 7 meses de edad por complicaciones vasculares. Antecedente familiar por línea materna de múltiples muertes en hombres menores de 1 año. Ante la sospecha de síndrome IPEX se realizó exoma en trío que reportó una mutación probablemente patogénica en el gen FOXP3. CONCLUSIÓN: Se documentó una nueva mutación del gen FOXP3 en paciente con síndrome IPEX. A pesar de la baja prevalencia de esta enfermedad, es importante el reconocimiento de síntomas no específicos pero sugerentes del diagnóstico.


INTRODUCTION: The IPEX (immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked) syn drome is caused by the mutations of the FOXP3 gene, characterized by persistent diarrhea, endo crine disorders, and dermatitis. The treatment is the administration of immunosuppressive drugs, where hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the only potential cure. OBJECTIVE: To describe a new FOXP3 gene mutation, as well as the findings and evolution of a patient with IPEX syndrome. CLINICAL CASE: Male infant presenting at one month of age with chronic diarrhea, intestinal failure, and recurrent infections. Lab tests and intestinal biopsy suggested autoimmune enteropathy. During follow-up, the patient presented resistance to immunosuppressive treatment with corticosteroids, cyclosporine, and tacrolimus, dying at 7 months of age due to vascular complications. He had a ma ternal family history of multiple deaths of men under 1 year of age. IPEX syndrome was suspected therefore a trio whole-exome sequencing was performed that showed a probably pathogenic FOXP3 gene mutation. CONCLUSION: A new FOXP3 gene mutation is reported in a patient with IPEX syndro me. Despite the low prevalence of this disease, it is important to recognize non-specific but suggestive symptoms for its diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/congenital , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Forkhead Transcription Factors/genetics , Immune System Diseases/congenital , Pedigree , Genetic Markers , Chronic Disease , Fatal Outcome , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/genetics , Diarrhea/genetics , Immune System Diseases/diagnosis , Immune System Diseases/genetics , Mutation
2.
Rev. medica electron ; 42(3): 1920-1927, mayo.-jun. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1127052

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La colitis ulcerativa es una enfermedad crónica recidivante del tracto gastrointestinal, que evoluciona por recaídas formando parte de las enfermedades inflamatorias intestinales (EII). Afecta la mucosa y submucosa del colon, caracterizada por un proceso ulcerativo y supurado de la mucosa. La diarrea crónica con sangre es el síntoma más importante. En su curso alternan periodos de remisión y de crisis. No existe un criterio patognomónico para su definición, su diagnóstico se basa en una serie de criterios clínicos, endoscópicos e histológicos. Esta entidad infrecuente en su forma extensa severa. Aparece en un paciente, que llega a la institución de salud refiriendo que hace aproximadamente dos años, presenta cuadros de diarreas intermitentes con sangre, tratadas en el área de salud. Se le realizó Rx y colonoscopia constatando presencia de eritema, granularidad mucosa, friabilidad, pérdida de la vascularización submucosa, erosiones y ulceraciones extensas, profundas, signos de edema, pseudopólipos, pérdida de haustras, rigidez, sangrado, tractos fibrosos y presencia de exudado luminal. Se diagnosticó colitis extensa ulcerativa severa y se orientó tratamiento médico endovenoso y se continuó por via oral, obteniendo la remisión del cuadro clínico desde el punto de vista clínico y endoscópico (AU).


ABSTRACT Ulcerative colitis is a chronic recidivist disease of the gastrointestinal tract, evolving by relapses and is one of the intestinal inflammatory diseases. It affects the colon mucosa and sub-mucosa, characterized for an ulcerative process and mucosa exudation. Chronic diarrhea with blood is the most important symptom. Periods of crisis and remission alternated in its course; there is not a pathognomonic criteria for its definition and its diagnosis is based in a series of clinical, endoscopic and histological criteria. This entity, infrequent in extensive severe form, appears in a patient arriving to the hospital referring having intermittent diarrheas with blood for two years, treated in the health area. He undergone a radiography and colonoscopy, showing the presence of an erythema, mucosa granularity, friability, lost of submucosa vascularization, deep extensive erosions and ulcerations, edema signs, pseudo polyps, haustras lost, stiffness, bleeding, fibrous tracts and presence of luminal exudates. Severe ulcerative extensive colitis was diagnosed and was prescribed an endovenous medical treatment, continued orally, achieving the disease remission from the clinical and endoscopic point of view (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Colitis, Ulcerative/etiology , Chronic Disease , Colonoscopy , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology , Urology , Colitis, Ulcerative/diagnosis , Colitis, Ulcerative/epidemiology , Colitis, Ulcerative/diagnostic imaging , Gastrointestinal Tract/diagnostic imaging , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Gastroenterology
3.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057212

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To report a case of a child with primary immunodeficiency who at eight years developed digestive symptoms, culminating with the diagnosis of a neuroendocrine tumor at ten years of age. Case description: One-year-old boy began to present recurrent pneumonias in different pulmonary lobes. At four years of age, an immunological investigation showed a decrease in IgG and IgA serum levels. After the exclusion of other causes of hypogammaglobinemia, he was diagnosed with a Common Variable Immunodeficiency and started to receive monthly replacement of human immunoglobulin. The patient evolved well, but at 8 years of age began with epigastrium pain and, at 10 years, chronic persistent diarrhea and weight loss. After investigation, a neuroendocrine tumor was diagnosed, which had a rapid progressive evolution to death. Comments: Medical literature has highlighted the presence of gastric tumors in adults with Common Variable Immunodeficiency, emphasizing the importance of early diagnosis and the investigation of digestive neoplasms. Up to now there is no description of neuroendocrine tumor in pediatric patients with Common Variable Immunodeficiency. We believe that the hypothesis of digestive neoplasm is important in children with Common Variable Immunodeficiency and with clinical manifestations similar to the case described here in the attempt to improve the prognosis for pediatric patients.


RESUMO Objetivo: Relatar um caso de criança portadora de imunodeficiência primária que, aos oito anos, desenvolveu sintomas digestivos, culminando com o diagnóstico de tumor neuroendócrino aos dez anos de idade. Descrição do caso: Menino, com um ano de idade, começou a apresentar pneumonias de repetição em diferentes lobos pulmonares. Aos quatro anos, a investigação imunológica mostrou diminuição dos níveis séricos de IgG e IgA. Após exclusão de outras causas de hipogamaglobulinemia, teve diagnóstico de imunodeficiência comum variável, passando a receber reposição mensal de imunoglobulina humana. Evoluiu bem, porém, aos oito anos, começou com epigastralgia e, aos dez anos, diarreia crônica persistente e perda de peso. O quadro culminou com o diagnóstico de tumor neuroendócrino intestinal, de rápida progressão, com óbito do paciente. Comentários: A literatura tem chamado a atenção para tumores gástricos em adultos com imunodeficiência comum variável, alertando para a importância do diagnóstico precoce e da pesquisa de neoplasias digestivas. Até o momento, não há descrição de tumor neuroendócrino em pacientes pediátricos portadores de imunodeficiência comum variável. Acredita-se ser importante a hipótese de neoplasia digestiva diante de crianças com imunodeficiência comum variável e com manifestações clínicas semelhantes ao caso descrito, na tentativa de melhorar o prognóstico para pacientes pediátricos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/complications , Neuroendocrine Tumors/diagnosis , Pneumonia/etiology , Recurrence , Weight Loss , Abdominal Pain/diagnosis , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/immunology , Neuroendocrine Tumors/pathology , Neuroendocrine Tumors/therapy , Fatal Outcome , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Diarrhea/etiology , Intestinal Neoplasms/surgery , Intestinal Neoplasms/pathology , Intestinal Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Neoplasm Metastasis/pathology , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use
4.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200494, 2020. tab
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136860

ABSTRACT

Abstract Diagnosing cases of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) with only non-respiratory symptoms has been challenging. We reported the diagnosis of a child who tested positive for COVID-19 with abdominal pain/diarrhea and tracked his family cluster. One member of the family tested positive for COVID-19 on real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assay and three other family members had anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Pandemics , Pharyngitis/etiology , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Cluster Analysis , Contact Tracing , Coronavirus Infections , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Diarrhea/etiology , Fever/etiology , Betacoronavirus
5.
Gastroenterol. latinoam ; 30(supl.1): S26-S30, 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116309

ABSTRACT

Acute diarrhea (AD) is the increase in frequency and volume of bowel movements with decrease in their consistency that lasts less than 14 days. AD is a major public health problem and is still nowadays a cause of significant morbidity and mortality during childhood, especially in children with nutritional deficits. At a younger age, there is a greater susceptibility to diarrhea, which is more intense and more likely cause dehydration. The prevention and management of dehydration is the mainstay of treatment. The use of medications must be used with caution, analyzing individual cases and based on the best available evidence. We will analyze the subject with special emphasis on treatment according to scientific evidence.


La diarrea aguda (DA) se define como el aumento en la frecuencia y volumen de las deposiciones con disminución de la consistencia y que dura menos de 14 días. La DA es un gran problema de salud pública y es aún hoy en día una causa de importante morbimortalidad durante la infancia en especial en niños con déficits nutricionales. A menor edad hay mayor susceptibilidad de presentar diarrea, siendo ésta de mayor intensidad y con mayores posibilidades de producir deshidratación. La prevención y el manejo de la deshidratación es el pilar fundamental del tratamiento. El uso de medicamentos debe ser criterioso, analizando cada caso individual y basado en la mejor evidencia disponible. Analizaremos el tema con especial énfasis en el tratamiento según evidencia científica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Diarrhea/drug therapy , Rehydration Solutions/therapeutic use , Acute Disease , Ondansetron/therapeutic use , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Dehydration/etiology , Diarrhea/etiology , Diarrhea/prevention & control , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
6.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(1): 177-183, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889193

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The study was conducted to compare the specificity of immunological diagnostic methods used for the diagnosis of Cryptosporidium species capable of causing life-threatening infection in both immunosuppressed and immunocompetent patients. For the detection of Cryptosporidium species in 79 animals with diarrhoea, we used three Copro-antigen tests: RIDASCREEN® Cryptosporidium test, Cryptosporidium 2nd Generation (ELISA) and RIDA®QUICK Cryptosporidium. For immunoassays we used positive and negative samples detected by means of polymerase chain reaction and validated by sequencing and nested polymerase chain reaction to confirm the presence six different species of Cryptosporidium species. Prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in the entire group determined by enzyme immunoassay, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, immuno-chromatographic test and polymerase chain reaction was 34.17%, 27.84%, 6.33% and 27.84%, respectively. Sensitivity of animal samples with enzyme immunoassay, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, and immuno-chromatographic test was 63.6%, 40.9% and 22.7%, resp., when questionable samples were considered positive, whereas specificity of enzyme immunoassay, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and immuno-chromatographic test was 75.9%, 78.9% and 100%, respectively. Positive predictive values and negative predictive values were different for all the tests. These differences results are controversial and therefore reliability and reproducibility of immunoassays as the only diagnostic method is questionable. The use of various Cryptosporidium species in diagnosis based on immunological testing and different results obtained by individual tests indicate potential differences in Copro-antigens produced by individual Cryptosporidium species.


Subject(s)
Animals , Immunologic Tests/methods , Cryptosporidiosis/microbiology , Cryptosporidium/isolation & purification , Diarrhea/veterinary , Immunologic Tests/economics , Immunologic Tests/veterinary , Sensitivity and Specificity , Cryptosporidiosis/diagnosis , Cryptosporidium/genetics , Cryptosporidium/immunology , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Diarrhea/microbiology
7.
Mem. Inst. Invest. Cienc. Salud (Impr.) ; 15(1): 16-21, abr. 2017. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1008719

ABSTRACT

La Escherichia coli diarreogénica (ECD) se ha clasificado con base en criterios clínicos, epidemiológicos y moleculares en cinco grupos, cada uno con factores de virulencia específicos. El objetivo fue determinar la prevalencia de ECD en pacientes pediátricos con enfermedad diarreica aguda del Laboratorio Central de Salud Publica en el periodo 2012- 2015. Se procesaron muestras de heces con síndrome diarreico agudo, provenientes de pacientes pediátricos, en los cuales se buscó algún gen de virulencia ECD utilizando métodos convencionales de siembra y screening molecular, mediante PCR múltiple con cebadores diseñados específicamente para amplificar los genes de virulencia elt, est, eae, stx, ipaH y aggR. Del total de muestras analizadas, 13% (180/1379) de las muestras presentó algún factor de virulencia compatible con algún patotipo ECD con mayor predominio en niños de 1 a 3 años. La frecuencia de los distintos patotipos fue la siguiente: 61 (34%) ETEC, 40 (22%) EAEC, 41 (23%) EPEC, 27 (15%) EIEC, 7 (4%) STEC y 3 (2%) ETEC/EAEC, 1 (0.5%) ETEC/EAEC/EIEC. El porcentaje de E. coli diarreogénicas detectado tiene similitud con lo reportado en otros países de la región, lo que nos indica que estos patógenos son parte importante de la etiología de la enfermedad diarreica aguda infecciosa en la población infantil en nuestro país. Se debe destacar que para el diagnóstico de las diferentes categorías ECD, es necesario disponer de un procedimiento diagnóstico específico dirigido a la detección de los factores de virulencia utilizando métodos moleculares o métodos inmunológicos.


Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) has been classified based on clinical, epidemiological and molecular criteria in five groups, each with specific virulence factors. The objective was to determine the prevalence of DEC in pediatric patients with acute diarrheal disease of the Central Laboratory of Public Health in the 2012-2015 period. A total of 1447 fecal samples of acute diarrheal syndrome from pediatric patients were processed in which a DEC virulence gene was searched using conventional screening and molecular screening methods with multiple PCR primers specifically designed to amplify virulence genes, st, lt, eae, stx, ipaH and aggR. From the total of analyzed samples, 13% (180/1379) of the samples presented some virulence factor compatible with a DEC pathogen type with greater predominance in children from 1 to 3 years. The frequency of the different pathogen types was as follows: 61 (34%) ETEC, 40 (22%) EAEC, 41 (23%) EPEC, 27 (15%) EIEC, 7 (4%) STEC and 3 (2% ETEC/EAEC, 1 (0.5%) ETEC/EAEC/EIEC. The percentage of DEC detected is similar to that reported in other countries of the region, which indicates that these pathogens are an important part of the etiology of acute infectious diarrheal disease in children in our country. It should be noted that for the diagnosis of different DEC categories, it is necessary to have a specific diagnostic procedure aimed at the detection of virulence factors using molecular methods or immunodiagnostic methods.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Dysentery/diagnosis , Escherichia coli/genetics , Paraguay , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Dysentery/epidemiology
8.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1272744

ABSTRACT

Background: Giardia lamblia, a flagellate protozoa, is a one of the most common causes of non-viral (parasitic) diarrheal illness in humans. Laboratory diagnosis mainly consists of direct microscopic examination of stool specimen for trophozoites and cysts. However, due to intermittent fecal excretion of the parasite, the patient may be misdiagnosed, continue excreting the parasite and infecting others. Therefore, other methods of diagnosis should be looked for, which overcome the drawbacks of microscopy when used alone for diagnosis. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of coproantigen detection by ELISA test in comparison to direct microscopy in the diagnosis of G. lamblia in stool specimens from patients with diarrhea and other gastrointestinal symptoms. Patients and methods: stool samples were collected form 250 child included in the present study (150 symptomatic and 100 apparently healthy as a control group) aged between 1-10 years old, and subjected for direct microscopic examination and ELISA test for copro-antigen detection. Results: out of 250 stool samples, 53 specimens (21.2%) were positive for Giardia by direct microscopy, while 68 specimens (27.2%) were positive by ELISA test. Conclusion: ELISA test for copro-antigen detection in stool samples is a rapid and effective method with high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of giardiasis in stool specimens even when the parasitic count is low, thus reducing the chances of missing even in the asymptomatic cases


Subject(s)
Diarrhea/diagnosis , Egypt , Enzymes , Giardia lamblia , Pathology, Clinical , Patients
9.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(supl.1): 3-30, Oct.-Dec. 2016.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839325

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Most Escherichia coli strains live harmlessly in the intestines and rarely cause disease in healthy individuals. Nonetheless, a number of pathogenic strains can cause diarrhea or extraintestinal diseases both in healthy and immunocompromised individuals. Diarrheal illnesses are a severe public health problem and a major cause of morbidity and mortality in infants and young children, especially in developing countries. E. coli strains that cause diarrhea have evolved by acquiring, through horizontal gene transfer, a particular set of characteristics that have successfully persisted in the host. According to the group of virulence determinants acquired, specific combinations were formed determining the currently known E. coli pathotypes, which are collectively known as diarrheagenic E. coli. In this review, we have gathered information on current definitions, serotypes, lineages, virulence mechanisms, epidemiology, and diagnosis of the major diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Diarrhea/microbiology , Escherichia coli/classification , Escherichia coli/physiology , Escherichia coli Infections/diagnosis , Escherichia coli Infections/microbiology , Prevalence , Virulence Factors/genetics , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Escherichia coli Infections/epidemiology
10.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 36(1): 21-26, Jan.-Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-780061

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Colonoscopy is part of the current diagnostic armamentarium. However, in some patients with chronic diarrhea, a colonoscopy may show normal mucosa; in these cases, serial biopsies can provide important information for the diagnosis and treatment of patients. AIM: To analyze patients with chronic diarrhea having a macroscopically normal colonoscopy, by evaluating histological changes. METHODS: 30 patients with chronic diarrhea and normal colonoscopy were prospectively evaluated and submitted to serial biopsies of the terminal ileum, ascending colon and rectum. RESULTS: The sample of 30 patients showed a ratio of 18 men (60%) and 12 women (40%). On histological types, it was found that 13 patients (43.3%) had lymphoid hyperplasia, eosinophilic inflammation in 4 (13.3%), nonspecific inflammation in 4 (13.3%), regenerative changes in 3 (10%), lymphocytic colitis in 2 (6.6%) and changes consistent with Crohn's disease in 1 (3.3%). CONCLUSIONS: One can observe that even chronic diarrhea patients, without other associated factors, benefited from colonoscopy with biopsy, because it held the etiologic diagnosis in some cases as also excluded by histopathology. It was noticed that the frequency of patients with altered biopsy and less dragged diarrheal episodes (84.2%) was large, should consider their achievement.


INTRODUÇÃO: A colonoscopia faz parte do arsenal de diagnóstico atual. Porém, em alguns pacientes com diarreia crônica, a colonoscopia pode evidenciar mucosa normal; nesses casos biópsias seriadas podem trazer informações importantes para o diagnóstico e tratamento dos pacientes. OBJETIVO: Analisar pacientes com diarreia crônica submetidos à colonoscopia macroscopicamente normal, avaliando assim histologicamente as alterações. MÉTODOS: Análise prospectiva da histologia 30 pacientes com diarreia crônica e colonoscopias normais, submetidos a biópsias seriadas de íleo terminal, cólon ascendente e reto. RESULTADOS: A amostra de 30 pacientes mostrou uma proporção de 18 homens (60%) e 12 mulheres (40%). Sobre os tipos de alterações histológicas, foi verificado que 13 pacientes (43,3%) apresentaram hiperplasia linfóide, inflamação eosinofílica em 4 (13,3%), inflamação inespecífica em 4 (13,3%), alterações regenerativas em 3 (10%), colite linfocítica em 2 (6,6%) e alterações compatíveis com Doença de Crohn em 1 (3,3%). CONCLUSÕES: Observou-se que mesmo pacientes com diarreia crônica, sem outros fatores associados, beneficiaram-se da colonoscopia com biópsia, pois a mesma realizou o diagnóstico etiológico em alguns casos como também o excluiu através da histopatologia. Verificou-se que a frequência de pacientes com biópsia alterada e quadros diarreicos menos arrastados (84,2%) foi grande, devendo-se considerar a realização do exame.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Rectum/surgery , Crohn Disease/surgery , Pseudolymphoma , Colon, Ascending/surgery , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Diarrhea/pathology , Rectum/pathology , Crohn Disease/pathology , Colonoscopy , Colon, Ascending/pathology , Colitis, Lymphocytic , Diarrhea/microbiology , Inflammation
11.
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 26(5): 676-686, sept. 2015. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1128587

ABSTRACT

En este artículo se enfocará la diarrea aguda del adulto desde una perspectiva clínica, incorporando definiciones básicas de epidemiología, fisiopatología, enfrentamiento clínico, estudio cuando corresponda y tratamiento. Se presentarán nuevas herramientas diagnósticas basadas en biología molecular, de reciente introducción en clínica y que han significado un aporte en casos seleccionados. Además, se enfrentan situaciones especiales como la diarrea del viajero y de los pacientes inmunocomprometidos. La diarrea asociada a antibióticos se tratará en un artículo aparte.


In this article of acute diarrhea in adults, will present from a clinical perspective, including different basic definitions from epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical approach, corresponding studies and treatment. It includes new diagnostic tools based on molecular biology, of recent use in medical practice, that have had a relevant effect in selected cases. It also includes special situations, such as traveler's diarrhea and immunosuppressed patients. We exclude from this article antibiotics-related diarrhea.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Diarrhea/therapy , Physical Examination , Acute Disease , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Diarrhea/physiopathology , Diarrhea/microbiology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Feces/microbiology , Medical History Taking
12.
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 26(5): 687-695, sept. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1128588

ABSTRACT

La diarrea asociada a antibióticos es una entidad clínica que ha aumentado de manera considerable los últimos años a nivel mundial. Lo anterior se ha visto favorecido por el incremento en el uso de antibióticos de amplio espectro, los que fundamentalmente alteran la flora intestinal habitual, actuando también por otros mecanismos como la alteración de la motilidad intestinal y acción tóxica directa sobre la mucosa intestinal. La presentación clínica varía desde un cuadro leve hasta de mayor gravedad, llegando incluso a la muerte. Lo anterior dependerá de algunas variables, siendo fundamental el estado inmunitario del paciente. La diarrea asociada a antibióticos por Clostridium Difficile tiene mayor relevancia dado su mayor morbimortalidad. Se han utilizado diversos métodos diagnósticos para evaluar esta patología como así también, diferentes estrategias terapéuticas de enfrentamiento, las que se exponen en la presente revisión


Antibiotic-associated diarrhea is a clinical entity showing a significantly greater presence in past years worldwide. These has been favored by the intensification of treatments based on the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, which alter intestinal flora and act through other mechanisms like alteration of intestinal motility and direct toxic action on the intestinal mucosa. Clinical symptoms vary from mild to severe and may even cause death. The severity of this condition depends on different variables, mainly the immune status of the patient. Clostridum difficile antibiotic-associated diarrhea is the most relevant since it causes greater mobility and mortality. This article is a review of various diagnostic methods used to evaluate this pathology and multiple therapeutical strategies for management of same.


Subject(s)
Humans , Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous/diagnosis , Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous/therapy , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Diarrhea/microbiology , Diarrhea/therapy , Recurrence , Severity of Illness Index , Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous/chemically induced , Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous/prevention & control , Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Clostridioides difficile , Diarrhea/chemically induced , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects
15.
J. bras. med ; 102(2)março-abril 2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-712224

ABSTRACT

Diarreia aguda é a passagem de quantidade acima do normal de fezes amolecidas associada ao aumento do número de evacuações. No diagnóstico diferencial das diarreias agudas devem ser enfocados as infecções, as alergias alimentares, a intoxicação alimentar, o uso de medicações e a apresentação inicial de diarreia crônica. Dentre estas possíveis etiologias, especialmente em nosso meio, as causas infecciosas devem sempre vir à mente e constituir uma das primeiras opções na investigação diagnóstica. As infecções intestinais associadas a quadros diarreicos são a segunda causa de mortes de origem infecciosa em todo o mundo, com prevalência estimada de 3 a 5 bilhões de casos/ano. Os autores atualizam as novidades e peculiaridades a respeito do diagnóstico e dos tratamentos — geral e/ou específico — dos diferentes agentes associados à diarreia aguda infecciosa.


Acute diarrhea is the passage of above normal quantities of soft faeces also associated with increased bowel movements. Differential diagnosis of acute diarrhea should be focused on infections, food allergies, food poisoning, use of medications and the initial presentation of chronic diarrhea. Among these possible etiologies, given the environment we live in, infectious causes should always be taken into account and be one of the first options in diagnostic investigation. Intestinal infections associated with diarrheal frames are the second leading cause of infectious deaths worldwide, with an estimated to 3-5 billion cases/per year. In this review, the authors intend to review the new features and aspects concerning diagnosis and treatment — general and/or specific — of the different agents associated with acute infectious diarrhea.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Diarrhea/etiology , Diarrhea/therapy , Gastroenteritis/microbiology , Gastroenteritis/virology , Drug Utilization , Parasitic Diseases/diagnosis , Food Hypersensitivity , Foodborne Diseases , Fluid Therapy , Immunologic Tests , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Microscopy, Electron/methods , Thiazoles/therapeutic use
16.
Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology. 2014; 44 (2): 455-466
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-166027

ABSTRACT

Cryptosporidiosis represents a major public health problem which transmitted by contamination of food or water by sporulated Cryptosporidial oocyst. Causing self- limited diarrhea in immuno-competent person and chronic and life threatening diarrhea among immunocompromised individuals. It can be diagnosed by concentration and detection of its Oocyst in different environmental samples and water by microscopic and immunological examination such as enzyme immunoas-say [ELISA] for parasite antigens and nucleic acid amplification assay as well as use of molecular techniques such as Polymerase Chain Reaction [PCR].Treatment is face challenges, Macrolides, Paramomycin, Nitazoxanide and Mirazid. All these drugs have partial efficacy in reducing disease severity in immunocompetent individuals. Nitazoxanide has partial efficacy in immunocompromised individuals. Resolution of Cryptosporidiosis can be maintained with effective Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy [HAART]


Subject(s)
Humans , Cryptococcosis/drug therapy , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Diarrhea/drug therapy , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Treatment Outcome
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-69675

ABSTRACT

Calf diarrhea is a commonly reported disease in young animals, and still a major cause of productivity and economic loss to cattle producers worldwide. In the report of the 2007 National Animal Health Monitoring System for U.S. dairy, half of the deaths among unweaned calves was attributed to diarrhea. Multiple pathogens are known or postulated to cause or contribute to calf diarrhea development. Other factors including both the environment and management practices influence disease severity or outcomes. The multifactorial nature of calf diarrhea makes this disease hard to control effectively in modern cow-calf operations. The purpose of this review is to provide a better understanding of a) the ecology and pathogenesis of well-known and potential bovine enteric pathogens implicated in calf diarrhea, b) describe diagnostic tests used to detect various enteric pathogens along with their pros and cons, and c) propose improved intervention strategies for treating calf diarrhea.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/diagnosis , Diarrhea/diagnosis
19.
Rev. méd. hered ; 24(1): 54-61, ene.-mar. 2013. tab
Article in Spanish | LIPECS, LILACS, LIPECS | ID: lil-673509

ABSTRACT

La diarrea del viajero es una de las condiciones que con mayor frecuencia afecta a los viajeros de países industrializados que visitan las zonas tropicales y subtropicales del planeta. El 20 a 50% de viajeros se van afectar por esta condición, siendo en ocasiones tan severa como para afectar los planes del viajero en la quinta parte de pacientes. El cuadro se manifiesta por la aparición de diarrea asociada a síntomas entéricos como dolor abdominal, nauseas, vómitos y en caso de diarrea inflamatoria fiebre y deposiciones con sangre. Entre los agentes etiológicos bacterianos más frecuentes están Escherichia coli enterotoxigénica, Salmonella, Shigella, entre otros agentes, aunque en cerca de la mitad de los casos no se aísla un agente etiológico. En caso de diarrea persistente debe descartarse parásitos y en zonas endémicas debe realizarse las pruebas especiales para descartar infección por Cyclospora cayetanensis. En pacientes con diarrea del viajero está indicado el manejo empírico con antibióticos, lo cual disminuye la duración de la enfermedad. En ausencia de fiebre o diarrea con sangre puede usarse loperamida. La prevención es importante en especialmente en pacientes de alto riesgo o en quienes sea importante que no se afecte el viaje.


TravelersÆ diarrhea is one of the most common conditions that affect travelers from industrialized countries who visit tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Twenty to fifty percent of travelers will suffer from this condition, and one fifth of these subjects will have diarrhea severe enough to affect their travel plans. Illness is characterized by the occurrence of diarrhea, associated with other gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and sometimes, in association of inflammatory diarrhea, fever and bloody stools. Among the most common etiologic agents Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Shigella are among the most common bacterial pathogens, although in close to one half of cases culture results are negative. In cases of persistent diarrhea parasites must be ruled out, and in endemic areas special stains must be ordered to rule agents like Cyclospora cayetanensis. In patients with TravelersÆ diarrhea empiric treatment with antibiotics is indicated, reducing the duration of illness. In the absence of fever or bloody diarrhea loperamide can be used. Prevention is important, especially in high risk patients or those in whom the trip must not be affected by the illness.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Cyclospora , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Diarrhea/prevention & control , Diarrhea/therapy , Escherichia coli , Risk Factors , Loperamide
20.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 17(1): 32-40, Jan.-Feb. 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-665772

ABSTRACT

In this study, Entamoeba histolytica had high prevalence and unusual presentation by affecting high proportion of infants under 1 year; severe clinical manifestations, and laboratory findings that were known to be usually encountered in invasive amebiasis as significant leukocytosis for age, neutrophilic leukocytosis for age, and positive C-reactive protein were found among more than 50% of admitted Saudi infants and children with E. histolytica infection in our locality. E. histolytica can be a re-emerging serious infection when it finds favorable environmental conditions and host factors which are mainly attributed to inadequate breastfeeding in this study. This may occur in any other area of the world with the same risk factors, so we must be ready to tackle it with effective and more powerful preventive measures.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/parasitology , Diarrhea/parasitology , Entamoeba histolytica/isolation & purification , Entamoebiasis/epidemiology , Gastroenteritis/parasitology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/diagnosis , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Entamoebiasis/diagnosis , Feces/parasitology , Gastroenteritis/diagnosis , Gastroenteritis/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
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