Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 491
Filter
1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928598

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the molecular epidemiological characteristics of the virus in children with acute viral diarrhea in Changdu of Tibet, China.@*METHODS@#Fecal specimens were collected from 96 children with acute diarrhea who visited the People's Hospital of Changdu, Tibet, from November 2018 to November 2020 and were tested for adenovirus, norovirus, astrovirus, sapovirus, and rotavirus. Gene sequencing was performed for the genotypes of these viruses.@*RESULTS@#The overall positive rate of the five viruses was 39% (37/96), among which astrovirus had the highest positive rate of 17%, followed by norovirus (9%), rotavirus (8%), adenovirus (7%), and sapovirus (5%). There was no significant difference in the positive rate of the five viruses among different age groups (P>0.05). Only the positive rate of astrovirus was significantly different among the four seasons (P<0.05). For adenovirus, 6 children had F41 type and 1 had C2 type; for norovirus, 6 had GⅠ.3 type, 1 had GⅠ.7 type, 1 had GⅡ.3 type, and 2 had GⅡ.4 Sydney_2012 type; HAstrV-1 type was observed in all children with astrovirus infection; for sapovirus, 1 child each had sporadic GⅠ.2, GⅠ.6, and GⅡ.1 sapovirus and 2 children had unknown type; 6 children had rotavirus G9[P8].@*CONCLUSIONS@#Astrovirus and norovirus are important pathogens in children with acute diarrhea in Changdu, Tibet. The positive rate of adenovirus, norovirus, astrovirus, sapovirus, and rotavirus is not associated with age, and only the positive rate of astrovirus has obvious seasonality. F41 type is the dominant genotype of adenovirus; GⅠ.3 is the dominant genotype of norovirus; HAstrV-1 is the dominant genotype of astrovirus; sporadic GⅠ.2, GⅠ.6, and GⅡ.1 are the dominant genotypes of sapovirus; G9[P8] is the dominant genotype of rotavirus.


Subject(s)
Child , China , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Feces , Gastroenteritis , Humans , Tibet/epidemiology , Viruses/genetics
2.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(8): 3087-3098, ago. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285972

ABSTRACT

Resumo O Programa Bolsa Família e intervenções em saneamento são políticas públicas que podem ter efeito combinado positivo no enfrentamento das iniquidades em saúde. O Programa Bolsa Família busca propiciar melhoria das condições de saúde, diminuição da insegurança alimentar e aumento da renda familiar. Intervenções em saneamento objetivam garantir a saúde pública e a proteção do meio ambiente. O estudo objetivou revisar a literatura, procurando indícios de interações entre estas duas intervenções, influenciando nos desfechos morbidade e mortalidade por diarreia e desnutrição em menores de cinco anos. Foi realizada busca nas bases LILACS, SciELO e PubMed e a metodologia dos artigos foi avaliada por meio de escores da escala de Downs & Black adaptada. Foram identificados 1.658 artigos, dos quais quatro apresentaram todos os critérios para inclusão no estudo. Os estudos selecionados mostraram evidências do efeito positivo do Programa Bolsa Família e de intervenções em saneamento relacionados aos desfechos de interesse, quando analisados de forma independente um do outro. No entanto, nenhum artigo apresentou resultados que pudessem esclarecer o efeito conjunto destas políticas públicas em um modelo de interação, revelando lacuna na literatura nestas doenças particularmente atribuíveis à pobreza.


Abstract The Bolsa Família Programme and environmental health interventions are public policies that can have a combined positive effect on health inequities. The Bolsa Família Programme is designed to improve health conditions, reduce food insecurity and increase family incomes. Environmental health interventions aim to ensure public health and environmental protection. This study reviewed the literature for possible interactions between these two types of intervention that influence morbidity and mortality outcomes due to diarrhoea and malnutrition in the under-fives. A total of 1,658 articles were identified in the LILACS, SciELO and PubMed databases. The studies' methodologies were evaluated by scores on an adapted Downs & Black scale and four met all the study inclusion criteria. The findings showed evidence of the positive independent effects of the Bolsa Família Programme and of environmental health interventions in reducing illness and death from diarrhoea and malnutrition in the study age group. However, none of the articles offered results that might elucidate a joint effect of these public policies on an interaction model, revealing a gap in the literature on these diseases attributable particularly to poverty.


Subject(s)
Humans , Poverty , Malnutrition/prevention & control , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Brazil , Environmental Health , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Income
3.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 97(2): 197-203, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287031

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: Irritable bowel syndrome is a frequent functional gastrointestinal disorder. The aims of this study were to investigate its epidemiology, focusing on the role of intestinal mucosal integrity and to evaluate the impact on the quality of life. Methods: A community-based survey applying a comparative cross sectional approach was conducted in six high schools in Palembang. Subjects were recruited using multistage random sampling divided in two groups. Rome III criteria were used to establish a diagnosis of IBS in combination with a questionnaire to determine risk factors. Determination of fecal alpha-1-antitrypsin and calprotectin levels was performed to determine impaired intestinal mucosal integrity. A questionnaire was used to evaluate how quality of life was affected by irritable bowel syndrome. Results: The survey was performed in 454 14−18 years old adolescents, of whom 30.2% fulfilled the Rome III criteria for IBS, with the following subtypes: 36.5% diarrhea, 18.9% constipation, 21.9% mixed, and 22.6% unclassified. Major risk factors were female gender, bullying, age 14-16 years, history of constipation and diarrhea, eating nuts, and drinking coffee, tea, and soft drinks. There was a significant association with intestinal inflammation (p = 0.013). A significantly impaired quality of life was found (p = 0.001). Conclusions: The prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome in adolescents was high, with bullying, female gender, age 14-16 years, constipation and diarrhea, and dietary consumption of soft drinks, coffee, and tea as risk factors. A significant association with intestinal inflammation was found.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/epidemiology , Quality of Life , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Constipation/etiology , Constipation/epidemiology , Diarrhea/etiology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Indonesia/epidemiology
4.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 29(3): e2019529, 2020. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124742

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analisar a prevalência de doenças respiratórias e diarreia em trabalhadores de cooperativas de materiais recicláveis do município de São Paulo, Brasil, e fatores associados. Métodos: estudo transversal, realizado em três cooperativas, com dados coletados por meio de entrevistas estruturadas e medição da concentração fúngica ambiental; utilizou-se regressão de Poisson para estimar razões de prevalência (RP). Resultados: foram entrevistados 156 indivíduos; as maiores prevalências de asma, doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC) e diarreia ocorreram nas cooperativas de maior concentração fúngica total; observou-se maior prevalência ajustada de asma na cooperativa A (RP=8,44 - IC95% 1,09;65,37) e de diarreia na C (RP=2,09 - IC95% 1,11;3,94), em relação à cooperativa B; a maior prevalência de DPOC foi observada em fumantes e ex-fumantes (RP=8,66 - IC95% 2,84;26,35). Conclusão: medidas de controle fúngico devem ser adotadas como prevenção de doenças em cooperativas de materiais recicláveis.


Objetivo: analizar la prevalencia de enfermedades respiratorias y diarrea en trabajadores de cooperativas de materiales reciclables en São Paulo, Brasil, y factores asociados. Métodos: estudio transversal en tres cooperativas, con datos recopilados por entrevistas estructuradas y medición de la concentración fungica ambiental; se usó la regresión de Poisson para estimar las razones de prevalencia (RP). Resultados: 156 personas fueron entrevistadas; la mayor prevalencia de asma, enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC) y diarrea se produjo en cooperativas con la mayor concentración fúngica total; se observó una mayor prevalencia ajustada de asma en la cooperativa A (RP=8,44 - IC95% 1,09;65,37) y diarrea en C (RP=2,09 - IC95% 1,11;3,94), en comparación con la cooperativa B; la mayor prevalencia de EPOC se observó en los fumadores y ex fumadores (RP=8,66 - IC95% 2,84;26,35). Conclusión: se deben adoptar medidas de control fúngica como prevención de enfermedades en cooperativas de materiales reciclables.


Objective: to analyze the prevalence of respiratory diseases and diarrhea among recyclable material cooperative workers in São Paulo City, Brazil, and associated factors. Methods: this was a cross-sectional study conducted in three cooperatives, with data collected through structured interviews and measurement of environmental fungal concentration; Poisson regression was used to estimate prevalence ratios (PR). Results: 156 individuals were interviewed; the highest asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and diarrhea prevalence rates occurred in cooperatives with higher total fungal concentration; highest adjusted prevalence of asthma was found in Cooperative A (PR=8.44 - 95%CI 1.09;65.37), and highest adjusted prevalence of diarrhea was found in Cooperative C (PR=2.09 - 95%CI 1.11;3.94), compared to Cooperative B; the highest COPD prevalence was found in smokers and former smokers (PR=8.66 - 95% CI 2.84;26.35). Conclusion: fungal control measures must be adopted for disease prevention in recyclable material cooperatives.


Subject(s)
Humans , Occupational Risks , Waste Pickers , Occupational Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Health/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Recycling , Social Determinants of Health
5.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 54: 90, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1127246

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To analyze factors associated with diarrheal disease in the rural Caribbean region of Colombia. METHOD: A cross-sectional study conducted in the rural area of the Cesar Department, Colombia, between November 2017 and June 2018. Self-reported cases of diarrheal disease were surveyed, and water samples from 42 households were collected and analyzed. Descriptive statistics were employed in the analysis of socioeconomic status, environmental and sanitary conditions, and we evaluated their association with the diarrheal disease using the Poisson regression models. Each model was adjusted with variables suggested by specific directed acyclic graphs. RESULTS: Poor water supply conditions, hygiene and basic sanitation were reported in the study area. All water samples were classified either as high risk for health problems or unfit for human consumption. The diarrheal disease had a prevalence of 7.5% across all ages and of 23.5% in children under five years old. The variables rainy season (PR = 0.24; 95%CI 0.07-0.85), children under five years old (PR = 4.05; 95%CI 1.70-9.68), water from deep wells (PR = 16.90; 95%CI 2.45-116.67), water from artificial ponds (PR = 11.47; 95%CI 1.27-103.29), toilets availability (PRA = 0.23; 95%CI 0.06-0.96), and swine presence (PR = 0.20; 95%CI 0.05-0.74) were significantly associated with the occurrence of diarrheal disease. CONCLUSION: Water supply, hygiene and basic sanitation conditions have been associated with the diarrheal disease, affecting almost a quarter of the population under five years old. There is an urge for the design of effective policies that improve environmental and sanitation conditions in rural areas.


RESUMEN OBJETIVO: Analizar factores asociados con enfermedad diarreica en área rural del Caribe colombiano. MÉTODO: Estudio transversal en área rural dispersa del departamento del Cesar, Colombia, entre noviembre de 2017 y junio de 2018. Se indagó sobre morbilidad auto-reportada de enfermedad diarreica y se recolectaron y analizaron muestras de agua en 42 domicilios. Fue realizado un análisis descriptivo de condiciones socioeconómicas, ambientales y sanitarias y evaluamos su asociación con enfermedad diarreica mediante modelo robusto de regresión de Poisson. Cada modelo fue ajustado con variables sugeridas por diagramas causales específicos. RESULTADOS: Se evidenciaron condiciones precarias de abastecimiento de agua, higiene y saneamiento básico en la zona de estudio. Todas las muestras de agua se clasificaron entre los niveles de riesgo alto e inviable sanitariamente. La prevalencia de enfermedad diarreica fue 7,5% en todas las edades y 23,5% en niños menores de cinco años. Las variables estación lluviosa (RP = 0,24; IC95% 0,07-0,85), niños menores de cinco años (RP = 4,05; IC95% 1,70-9,68), abastecimiento de agua desde pozo profundo (RP = 16,90; IC95% 2,45-116,67), abastecimiento de agua desde estanco (RP = 11,47; IC95% 1,27-103,29), tenencia de baño (RPA = 0,23; IC95% 0,06-0,96) y presencia de cerdos (RP = 0,20; IC95% 0,05-0,74) mostraron asociaciones estadísticamente significativas con la ocurrencia de enfermedad diarreica. CONCLUSIÓN: Condiciones de abastecimiento de agua, higiene y saneamiento básico estuvieron asociadas con la ocurrencia de enfermedad diarreica, afectando alrededor de un cuarto de la población menor de cinco años. Urge un diseño efectivo de políticas que contribuyan al mejoramiento de condiciones ambientales y saneamiento en áreas rurales.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Health Surveys , Colombia/epidemiology , Middle Aged
6.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 54: 32, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094411

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association among characteristics of primary health care center (PHCC) with hospitalizations for primary care sensitive conditions (PCSC) in Brazil. METHOD In this study, a cross-sectional ecological study was performed. This study analyzed the 27 capitals of Brazil's federative units. Data were aggregated from the following open access databases: National Program for Access and Quality Improvement in Primary Care, the Hospital Information System of Brazilian Unified Health System and Annual Population Census conducted by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. Associations were estimated among characteristics of primary care with the number of three PCSC as the leading causes of hospitalization in children under-5 population in Brazil: asthma, diarrhea, and pneumonia. RESULTS In general, PHCC showed limited structural adequacy (37.3%) for pediatric care in Brazil. The capitals in South and Southeast regions had the best structure whereas the North and Northeast had the worst. Fewer PCSC hospitalizations were significantly associated with PHCC which presented appropriate equipment (RR: 0.98; 95%CI: 0.97-0.99), structural conditions (RR: 0.98; 95%CI: 0.97-0.99), and signage/identification of professionals and facilities (RR: 0.98; 95%CI: 0.97-0.99). Higher PCSC hospitalizations were significantly associated with PHCC with more physicians (RR: 1.23, 95%CI: 1.02-1.48), it forms (RR: 1.01, 95%CI: 1.01-1.02), and more medications (RR: 1.02, 95%CI: 1.01-1.03) CONCLUSION Infrastructural adequacy of PHCC was associated with less PCSC hospitalizations, while availability medical professional and medications were associated with higher PCSC hospitalizations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia/therapy , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Asthma/therapy , Asthma/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Diarrhea/therapy , Diarrhea/epidemiology
7.
Salud pública Méx ; 61(6): 798-808, nov.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252168

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Objetivo: Estimar y comparar las prevalencias de infecciones respiratorias agudas (IRA) y enfermedades diarreicas agudas (EDA) en menores de cinco años, residentes en localidades con menos de 100 000 habitantes, mediante análisis de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición (Ensanut) 2012 y la Ensanut 100k (2018). En la Ensanut 100k se evaluaron los factores asociados con IRA y EDA. Material y métodos: Análisis de ambas encuestas e información meteorológica de la Comisión Nacional del Agua. Resultados: La prevalencia global estimada de IRA fue de 45.1% en 2012 vs. 32.9% en 2018. La disminución fue significativa en hogares de medianas y mayores capacidades económicas (CE). No se observaron cambios significativos para las EDA. En hogares con menores CE, las IRA se asociaron con material del techo y temperatura y las EDA con privación de agua entubada. Conclusiones: Entre 2012 y 2018, la prevalencia de IRA disminuyó en hogares de medianas y mayores CE. Algunas condiciones de vivienda y meteorológicas se asocian con IRA y EDA.


Abstract: Objective: To compare the prevalence of acute respiratory infections (ARI) and acute diarrheal disease (ADD) among children younger than five years of age living in localities with less than 100 000 inhabitants in Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición (Ensanut) 2012 and Ensanut 100k (2018). In Ensanut 100k, we evaluate the associated factors. Materials and methods: Analysis of both surveys and of the Mexican Meteorological System. Results: The estimated prevalence of ARI was 45.1% in 2012 vs. 32.9% in 2018. The decrease was significant among medium and high-income households. There were no changes in trends for ADD. Among households with lower EC, ARI was associated with roofing material, temperature, and rainy precipitation while ADD was associated with lack of piped water. Conclusions: The estimated prevalence of ARI has decreased in medium and high income households. Some households and weather conditions are associated with ARI and ADD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Nutrition Surveys , Acute Disease , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Population Density , Mexico/epidemiology
8.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 155(4): 410-416, jul.-ago. 2019. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286526

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los patotipos de Escherichia coli enterotoxigénica (ETEC) y enteroagregativa (EAEC) son importantes agentes etiológicos causantes de diarrea en niños menores de cinco años de México y países en desarrollo, en quienes causan numerosas muertes. Ambos se han asociado con retraso en el crecimiento infantil y son los principales agentes causales de la "diarrea del viajero". La patogénesis de ambas bacterias se inicia cuando estas se adhieren al epitelio intestinal mediante fimbrias, denominadas factores de colonización en las cepas ETEC aisladas de humano y fimbrias de adherencia agregativa en las cepas de EAEC. Una vez que ETEC se adhiere al enterocito produce una o ambas de sus toxinas e induce la secreción de iones de cloruro, sodio y agua al lumen intestinal, produciendo su característica diarrea acusa. EAEC se une al epitelio intestinal formando una biopelícula, induce la producción de moco, libera sus toxinas y promueve inflamación. Modelos de infección de EAEC y ETEC con ratones C57BL/6 silvestres y deficientes del ligando de CD40 (con microbiotas intactas), respectivamente, revelaron que la desnutrición y la dieta baja en cinc incrementan la infección de EAEC causando retraso en el crecimiento y que ETEC coloniza, persiste e induce respuesta inmune humoral local y sistémica.


Abstract Enterotoxigenic (ETEC) and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) pathotypes are important etiological agents causative of diarrhea in children younger than 5 years of age in Mexico and in developing countries, where they cause numerous deaths. Both have been associated with delayed growth in children and are the main causative agents of traveler's diarrhea. The pathogenesis of both bacteria starts by adhering to the intestinal epithelium by means of fimbriae, called colonization factors in human ETEC isolates and aggregative adherence fimbriae in EAEC isolates. Once ETEC adheres to the enterocyte, it produces one or both of its toxins and induces the secretion of chloride and sodium ions and water into the intestinal lumen, producing its characteristic watery diarrhea. EAEC binds to the intestinal epithelium forming a biofilm, induces the production of mucus, releases its toxins and promotes inflammation. EAEC and ETEC infection models with wild-type C57BL/6 and CD40 ligand-deficient mice (with intact microbiota), respectively, revealed that undernutrition and low-zinc diet increases EAEC infection, causing growth retardation, and that ETEC colonizes, persists and induces local and systemic humoral immune response.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Child, Preschool , Rats , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Escherichia coli Infections/epidemiology , Developing Countries , Diarrhea/microbiology , Escherichia coli Infections/microbiology , Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Travel-Related Illness , Mexico/epidemiology , Mice, Inbred C57BL
9.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 155(4): 343-349, jul.-ago. 2019. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286516

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La infección por Clostridium difficile (ICD) es causa de diarrea hospitalaria potencialmente letal. Objetivo: Identificar los factores de riesgo para mortalidad en pacientes hospitalizados con ICD. Método: Estudio transversal y retrospectivo. Se analizaron factores de riesgo: edad, comorbilidades, estado nutricional, antecedente y uso de antibióticos, de inhibidores de bomba de protones, esteroides, inmunosupresores, quimioterapia y desarrollo de lesión renal aguda (LRA). Resultados: Fueron evaluados 68 casos (incidencia de 25.7/10 000 egresos hospitalarios). La edad fue de 51.4 ± 19.37 años y la mortalidad de 22.2 %. La desnutrición moderada a severa mostró RM = 20.15, IC 95 % = 1.13-35, p = 0.004; el uso de más de dos antibióticos, RM = 1.61, IC 95 % = 0.39-6.65, p = 0.01; la LRA determinada por elevación de los niveles de creatinina, RM = 1.34, IC 95 % = 0.09-2.21, p = 0.02; la hipotensión con uso de vasopresores, RM = 1.28, IC 95 % = 0.30-1.23, p = 0.001; y el desarrollo de falla orgánica múltiple (FOM), RM = 1.13, IC 95 % = 0.31-4.92, p = 0.002. Conclusiones: La desnutrición moderada a severa, el uso de más de dos antibióticos, la LRA, la hipotensión con uso de vasopresores y la FOM se asocian con incremento en la mortalidad en pacientes con ICD.


Abstract Introduction: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) causes potentially lethal diarrhea. Objective: To identify the risk factors for mortality in hospitalized patients with CDI. Method: Cross-sectional, retrospective study. The analyzed risk factors were age, comorbidities, nutritional status, past and current use of antibiotics, proton pump inhibitors, steroids, immunosuppressive therapy and chemotherapy, as well as development of acute kidney injury (AKI). Results: Sixty-eight cases were assessed. Mean age was 51.4 ± 19.37 years. Mortality was 22.2 %. Moderate to severe undernutrition (Odds ratio [OR] = 20.15; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.13-35; p = 0.004), use of more than 2 antibiotics (OR = 1.61; 95% CI = 0.39-6.65; p = 0.01), AKI as determined by creatinine levels (OR = 1.34; 95% CI = 0.09-2.21; p = 0.02), hypotension with vasopressor use (OR = 1.28; 95% CI = 0.30-1.23; p = 0.001) and multiple organ failure (OR = 1.13; 95% CI = 0.31-4.92; p = 0.002) were associated with mortality. Conclusions: CDI represents an important problem in hospitalized patients and confers them an additional morbidity and mortality risk.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Clostridioides difficile/isolation & purification , Clostridium Infections/epidemiology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Nutritional Status , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Clostridium Infections/etiology , Clostridium Infections/mortality , Diarrhea/microbiology , Hospitalization
10.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 28(2): e2018290, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012077

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: descrever casos de doença diarreica aguda por norovírus em crianças menores de 5 anos do município de São Paulo, Brasil. Métodos: estudo transversal com dados provenientes da Vigilância Epidemiológica das Gastroenterites Causadas por Rotavírus; foi definido como caso o paciente internado em unidade sentinela por doença diarreica aguda e identificação laboratorial do norovírus como agente etiológico, entre os anos de 2010 e 2016. Resultados: durante o período estudado, a proporção de casos de norovírus em menores de 5 anos de idade ultrapassou a proporção de casos de rotavírus, agente considerado predominante na infância; o norovírus foi associado a 28,4% do total de casos notificados, ocorrendo o ano todo, principalmente nos meses mais quentes. Conclusão: norovírus foi o principal agente etiológico identificado em crianças menores de 5 anos com doença diarreica aguda no município de São Paulo.


Objetivo: describir casos de enfermedad diarreica aguda por Norovirus en niños menores de 5 años provenientes del Municipio de São Paulo, Brasil. Métodos: Estudio transversal con datos de la Vigilancia Epidemiológica de las Gastroenteritis causadas por Rotavirus. Se definió como caso el paciente internado en unidad centinela por enfermedad diarreica aguda e identificación de laboratorio del Norovirus como agente etiológico entre los años de 2010 y 2016. Resultados: Durante el período estudiado, la proporción de casos de Norovirus en menores de 5 años superó la proporción de casos de Rotavirus, agente considerado predominante en la infancia. El Norovirus fue asociado al 28,4% del total de los casos notificados, ocurriendo todo el año, principalmente en los meses más cálidos. Conclusión: el Norovirus fue el principal agente etiológico identificado en niños menores de 5 años con enfermedad diarreica aguda en el Municipio de São Paulo.


Objective: to describe cases of acute diarrheal disease caused by norovirus in children under 5 years old in São Paulo city, Brazil. Methods: this was a cross-sectional study using data from Epidemiological Surveillance of Gastroenteritis due to Rotavirus; cases were defined as patients hospitalized in a sentinel unit because of acute diarrheal disease and laboratory identification of norovirus as the etiological agent between 2010 and 2016. Results: during the study period, the proportion of norovirus cases in children under 5 years old exceeded the proportion of Rotavirus, an agent considered predominant in childhood; norovirus was associated with 28.4% of total reported cases, occurring all year round, especially in warmer months. Conclusion: norovirus was the leading etiological agent identified in children under 5 years old with acute diarrheal disease in São Paulo city.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Caliciviridae Infections/diagnosis , Caliciviridae Infections/epidemiology , Norovirus/pathogenicity , Diarrhea, Infantile/epidemiology , Diarrhea, Infantile/virology , Gastroenteritis/epidemiology , Gastroenteritis/virology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/virology , Epidemiological Monitoring
11.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 55(4): 390-396, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983850

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is one of the main acute and chronic diarrhea causes both in children and adults, mainly in developing countries. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study is to characterize EAEC strains isolated from faecal samples and to identify genes potentially contributing to virulence, biofilm production and antimicrobial resistance in children admitted to a pediatric hospital in Porto Velho, Rondônia State. METHODS: The total of 1,625 E. coli specimens were isolated from 591 children in the age group 6 years or younger who were hospitalized in Cosme and Damião Children Hospital in Porto Velho, between February 2010 and February 2012, with acute gastroenteritis. Colonies suggestive of E. coli were subjected to polymerase chain reaction testing in order to identify the virulence factors. The in vitro adhesion assays using HEp-2 adherence were tests. Biofilm detection through spectrophotometry and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were conducted in the disk diffusion method. RESULTS: The mentioned study examined 591 stool samples from children with diarrhea. Diarrheogenic E. coli was found in 27.4% (162/591) of the children. EAEC was the diarreagenic E. coli most frequently associated with diarrhea 52.4% (85/162), which was followed by enteropathogenic E. coli 43.8% (71/162), enterotoxigenic E. coli 2.4% (4/162), and enterohemorrhagic E. coli 1.2% (2/162). The aggR gene was detected in 63.5% (54/85) of EAEC isolates; moreover, statistically significant correlation was observed among typical EAEC (aggR) and aatA (P<0.0001), irp2 (P=0.0357) and shf (P=0.0328). It was recorded that 69% (59/85) of the 85 analyzed EAEC strains were biofilm producers; 73% (43/59) of the biofilm producers carried the aggR gene versus 42.3% (11/26) of non-producers (P=0.0135). In addition, there was association between the aatA gene and biofilm production; 61% (36/59) of the samples presented producer strains, versus 19.2% (5/26) of non-producers (P<0.0004). Antibiotic sensitivity test evidenced that most EAEC were ampicillin 70.6% (60/85), sulfamethoxazole 60% (51/85), tetracycline 44.7% (38/85) and cefotaxime 22.4% (19/85) resistant. CONCLUSION: As far as it is known, the present study is pioneer in Northern Brazil to investigate EAEC virulence factors and to show the antimicrobial susceptibility of EAEC strains isolated from children with diarrhea.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A Escherichia coli enteroagregativa (EAEC) é um dos principais agentes causadores de diarreia aguda e crônica em crianças e adultos, principalmente em países em desenvolvimento. OBJETIVO: Caracterizar cepas de EAEC isoladas de amostras fecais e identificar genes que potencialmente contribuem para a virulência, produção de biofilme e resistência antimicrobiana em crianças internadas em um hospital pediátrico em Porto Velho, Rondônia. MÉTODOS: Um total de 1.625 cepas de E. coli foram isolados de 591 crianças com gastroenterite aguda na faixa etária de 6 anos que foram internadas no Hospital Infantil Cosme e Damião na cidade de Porto Velho, entre fevereiro de 2010 e fevereiro de 2012. Colônias sugestivas de E. coli foram submetidas a reação em cadeia da polimerase para identificação de fatores de virulência. O ensaio de adesão in vitro foi desenvolvido com célula HEp-2. A detecção de biofilme foi realizada através do teste de espectrofotometria e os testes de susceptibilidade aos antimicrobiana foram realizados através do método de difusão em disco. RESULTADOS: A E. coli diarreiogênica foi encontrada em 27,4% (162/591) das crianças e a EAEC foi a E. coli diarreiogênica mais frequentemente associada à diarreia com 52,4% (85/162), seguida pela E. coli enteropatogênica 43,8% (71/162), E. coli enterotoxigênica 2,4% (4/162) e E. coli enterohemorrágica 1,2% (2/162). O gene aggR foi detectado em 63,5% (54/85) dos isolados de EAEC com correlação estatisticamente significante entre esse gene com os genes aatA (P<0,0001), irp2 (P=0,0357) e shf (P=0,0328). Neste estudo 69% (59/85) das cepas de EAEC eram produtoras de biofilme, destas 73% (43/59) possuíam o gene aggR, ao passo que entre as não produtoras 42,3% (11/26) possuíam o gene (P=0,0135). Essa associação também foi observada com o gene aatA, presente em 61% (36/59) das cepas produtoras e em 19,2% (5/26) das não produtoras (P<0,0004). O teste de sensibilidade aos antibimicrobianos evidenciou que a maioria das EAEC eram resistentes a ampicilina 70,6% (60/85), ao sulfametoxazol 60% (51/85), a tetraciclina 44,7% (38/85) e a cefotaxima 22,4% (19/85). CONCLUSÃO: Este é o primeiro estudo no Norte do Brasil sobre a investigação dos fatores de virulência de EAEC mostrando a susceptibilidade antimicrobiana de cepas de EAEC isoladas de crianças com diarreia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Biofilms/growth & development , Diarrhea/microbiology , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Escherichia coli/physiology , Escherichia coli Infections/microbiology , Virulence/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli Infections/epidemiology , Feces/microbiology , Genes, Bacterial/genetics
12.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(10): 1890-1895, out. 2018. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-976385

ABSTRACT

Calf diarrhea causes substantial economic losses to beef cattle production worldwide. It is a complex multifactorial pathological condition influenced by infectious, nutritional and environmental factors. The present study focused on analyzing the pathological and molecular characterization of bovine rotavirus A (BoRVA) during a diarrhea outbreak in a beef cattle herd located in the state of Mato Grosso, central-western region, Brazil. The outbreak caused high morbidity (80%) and mortality (12%) among 1,100 calves up to 30 days of age. The BoRVA was identified in 53.3% (16/30) of the diarrheic fecal samples analyzed using the silver-stained polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (ss-PAGE) technique. The nucleotide sequence analysis of VP7 (G genotype) and VP4 (P genotype) via RT-PCR from eight BoRVA-positive fecal samples showed the genotypes G6P[5] (n = 6), G6P[11] (n = 1) and G6P[X] (n = 1). Three calves were necropsied and the gross findings included edema and thickened, wrinkled bowel mucosa in the small intestine. Microscopic lesions were confined to the villi of the small intestine, characterized mainly by villus fusion and moderate multifocal lymphoplasmacytic enteritis. Immunohistochemical examination of three cases was positive for BoRVA. The 53.3% of the diarrheic fecal samples that were positive for BoRVA in this study suggested that RV was the etiological agent involved in this neonatal calf diarrhea outbreak.(AU)


A diarreia neonatal provoca perdas econômicas substanciais na produção de bovinos em todo o mundo. É uma condição patológica multifatorial complexa influenciada por fatores infecciosos, nutricionais e ambientais. O presente estudo teve por objetivo caracterizar o rotavírus tipo A (BoRVA) através da análise patológica e molecular durante um surto de diarreia em um rebanho bovino localizado no estado de Mato Grosso, região centro-oeste, no Brasil. O surto causou alta morbidade (80%) e letalidade (12%) em um rebanho composto 1.100 bezerros até 30 dias de idade. O BoRVA foi identificado em 53,3% (16/30) das amostras fecais diarreicas analisadas usando a técnica de eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida corada com prata (ss-PAGE). A análise da sequência nucleotídica de VP7 (genótipo G) e VP4 (genótipo P) via RT-PCR a partir de oito amostras fecais BoRVA-positivas mostrou os genótipos G6P [5] (n = 6), G6P [11] (n = 1) e G6P [X] (n = 1). Três bezerros foram submetidos à necropsia e os achados macroscópicos incluíram edema e espessamento da mucosa do intestino delgado. As lesões microscópicas foram observadas nas vilosidades do intestino delgado, sendo caracterizadas principalmente por fusiosamento de vilosidades e enterite linfoplasmocitária multifocal moderada. O exame imunohistoquímico dos três casos foram positivos para o BoRVA. As 53,3% das amostras fecais diarreicas positivas para o BoRVA sugeriram que o rotavírus é o agente etiológico envolvido neste surto de diarreia neonatal em bezerros.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Rotavirus Infections/pathology , Rotavirus Infections/veterinary , Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cattle Diseases , Rotavirus/pathogenicity , Diarrhea/pathology , Diarrhea/veterinary , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Animals, Newborn/virology
13.
Medisan ; 22(4)abr. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-894709

ABSTRACT

Se realizó una investigación observacional, descriptiva y transversal de 95 niños en las edades de 0 a 10 años, con diagnóstico de enfermedad diarreica aguda a causa del Vibrio cholerae, atendidos en el Hospital Infantil Norte Dr Juan de la Cruz Martínez Maceira de Santiago de Cuba, durante el 2016, a fin de caracterizarles según algunas variables clínicas y epidemiológicas. Entre los principales resultados se obtuvo que el grupo etario más afectado fuera el de 0 a 11 meses y el municipio con mayor número de casos el de Santiago de Cuba, los que correspondieron fundamentalmente a las áreas de salud de los policlínicos Frank País García, José Martí Pérez y Josué País García. Asimismo se evidenció que la principal manifestación del proceso infeccioso fue la diarrea líquida y la complicación más frecuente, la deshidratación isotónica moderada. Todos los niños egresaron vivos, lo cual demuestra la eficacia de la atención médica en el territorio suroriental de Cuba


An observational, descriptive and cross-sectional investigation of 95 children aged 0 to 10, with diagnosis of acute diarrheal disease due to Vibrio cholerae, assisted in Dr Juan de la Cruz Martínez Maceira Northern Children Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, was carried out during 2016, in order to characterize them according to some clinical and epidemiological variables. Among the predominant results there were the 0 to 11 months age group as the most affected and the presence of a higher number of cases in Santiago de Cuba municipality, that corresponded mainly to the health areas of Frank País García, José Martí Pérez and Josué País García polyclinics. Also it was evidenced that the main manifestation of the infectious process was the liquid diarrhea and the most frequent complication, the moderate isotonic dehydration. None of the children died, which demonstrates the effectiveness of medical care in the southeastern territory of Cuba


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Vibrio cholerae , Dehydration/drug therapy , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea, Infantile/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dysentery , Observational Study
14.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 23(3): 715-722, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-890552

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as tendências temporais e geográficas das diarreias e suas implicações nas demandas de hospitalizações de crianças menores de cinco anos no Estado de Pernambuco, nos anos 1997 e 2006. Foram usados os bancos de dados de dois inquéritos de base populacional, com amostras probabilísticas de 2078 crianças, em 1997, e 1650 crianças, em 2006, avaliadas em 18 municípios de Pernambuco, incluindo a Região Metropolitana do Recife, Interior Urbano e Interior Rural. Considerou-se como prevalência a ocorrência de casos no dia ou nas duas semanas anteriores à entrevista e como internações o atendimento de casos com internação mínima de 24 horas, cobrindo o retrospecto de 12 meses. A prevalência das diarreias em Pernambuco teve um declínio estatisticamente não significante (19,8% para 18,1%; p = 0,192); contudo, na Região Metropolitana do Recife, foi observada uma redução estatisticamente significante (16,9% para 10,5%; p = 0,003). As internações aumentaram em mais de duas vezes (2,7% para 5,5%, no estado, e de 1,6% para 3,8%, na RMR), contrapondo-se, assim, às tendências nacionais. Portanto, as diarreias no Estado passaram a figurar como o principal componente das demandas de hospitalizações pediátricas no período analisado.


Abstract The scope of this paper was to assess the temporal and geographical trends of diarrhea and its implications on the demands of hospitalizations of children under five years of age in the state of Pernambuco in 1997 and 2006. Databases of two population-based surveys were assessed with probabilistic samples of 2078 children (1997) and 1650 children (2006) evaluated in 18 municipalities of Pernambuco, including the Metropolitan Region of Recife, Urban Interior and Rural Interior. Prevalence was considered to involve the occurrence of cases on the day or in the two weeks prior to the interview and as admissions, service cases with minimal hospital stay of 24 hours in the period, covering up to one year before the interview. The prevalence of diarrhea in Pernambuco had a statistically non-significant decline (19.8% to 18.1%; p = 0.192). However, a statistically-significant reduction was observed (16.9% to 10.5%; p = 0.003) in the Metropolitan Region of Recife. The number of admissions increased by more than double (2.7% to 5.5% in the State and from 1.6% to 3.8% within the Metropolitan Region of Recife), in contrast with national trends. Therefore, diarrhea in the State appears as the main component of the demands of pediatric hospitalizations during the period under scrutiny.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Rural Population , Urban Population , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
Medwave ; 18(4): e7233, 2018.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-912329

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN Una de las principales complicaciones de la fractura de órbita son las infecciones, ya sea por la comunicación con los senos paranasales o como complicación postoperatoria de su tratamiento. Pese a los avances en esta patología, aún existe controversia sobre el rol de los antibióticos profilácticos. MÉTODOS: Para responder esta pregunta utilizamos Epistemonikos, la mayor base de datos de revisiones sistemáticas en salud, la cual es mantenida mediante búsquedas en múltiples fuentes de información, incluyendo MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, entre otras. Extrajimos los datos desde las revisiones identificadas, reanalizamos los datos de los estudios primarios y preparamos una tabla de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. RESULTADOS Y CONCLUSIONES Identificamos sólo una revisión sistemática que incluyó cuatro estudios primarios, de los cuales tan solo uno corresponde a un ensayo aleatorizado. Concluimos que la profilaxis antibiótica postoperatoria podría no disminuir el riesgo de infección en fractura de órbita, y probablemente aumenta el riesgo de diarrea.


INTRODUCTION Infection is one of the main complications of orbital fracture, either because of the connection to the paranasal sinuses or as a postoperative complication. Despite the advances made in this condition, there is still controversy regarding the role of prophylactic antibiotics. METHODS To answer this question we used Epistemonikos, the largest database of systematic reviews in health, which is maintained by screening multiple information sources, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, among others. We extracted data from the systematic reviews, reanalyzed data of primary studies and generated a summary of findings table using the GRADE approach. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS We identified only one systematic review including four studies overall, of which only one was a randomized trial. We concluded that postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis might not decrease the risk of infection in orbital fracture, and probably increases the risk of diarrhea.


Subject(s)
Humans , Orbital Fractures/surgery , Surgical Wound Infection/prevention & control , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Databases, Factual , Treatment Outcome , Diarrhea/etiology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects
16.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 52: 48, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-903468

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Describe and compare variations of the factors associated with the prevalence of diarrhea in children under five years old in the state of Pernambuco. METHODS We used the databases of two population-based surveys from the years 1997 and 2006, with 2,078 and 1,650 children, respectively, evaluated in 18 municipalities of Pernambuco (Metropolitan Region of Recife, urban and rural interior). The variables, allocated at hierarchical levels, were analyzed using prevalence and Poisson regression ratios. RESULTS Only four variables were independently associated and were included in the final hierarchical model: geographical area, number of people per room, maternal age and the age of the child. In 1997: urban interior = 1.33 (95%CI 1.06-1.66), rural interior = 1.22 (95%CI 0.97-1.53) and in 2006: urban interior = 1.87 (95%CI 1.31-2.66), rural interior = 2.07 (95%CI 1.50-2.85); number of persons per room (1997): 1 to less than 2 = 1.29 (95%CI 0.98-1.68), two or more = 1.47 (95%CI 1.11-1.95) and in 2006: 1 to less than 2 = 0.86 (95%CI 0.68-1.09), two or more = 1.29 (95%CI 0.94-1.75); maternal age (1997): 10 to 19 years = 1.48 (95%CI 1.05-2.08), 20 to 24 years = 1.23 (95%CI 0.94-1.60), 25 to 34 years = 1.01 (95%CI 0.78-1.30) and in 2006: 10 to 19 years old = 1.70 (95%CI 1.08-2.66), 20 to 24 years old = 1.64 (95%CI 1.16-2.32), 25 to 34 years = 1.20 (95%CI 0.89-1.62); and age of the child (1997): 0-11 months = 1.57 (95%CI 1.27-1.94), 12-23 months = 1.73 (95%CI 1.41-2.12) and in 2006: 0-11 months = 1.04 (95%CI 0.76-1.41), 12-23 months = 1.77 (95%CI 1.41-2.23). CONCLUSIONS There was a great variability of the conditioners of diarrhea in children between the two periods analyzed. At the public policy level, despite changes in terms of people, time sequences, and geographic spaces, diarrhea remains on an important scale in the ranking of government power.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Descrever e comparar variações dos fatores associados à prevalência de diarreia em menores de cinco anos no estado de Pernambuco. MÉTODOS Foram utilizados os bancos de dados de dois inquéritos de base populacional nos anos de 1997 e 2006, com 2.078 e 1.650 crianças, respectivamente, avaliadas em 18 municípios de Pernambuco (Região Metropolitana do Recife, interior urbano e rural). As variáveis, alocadas em níveis hierárquicos, foram analisadas por meio de razões de prevalência e regressão de Poisson. RESULTADOS Apenas quatro variáveis se mostraram independentemente associadas e constaram no modelo final hierarquizado: área geográfica, número de pessoas por cômodo, idade materna e idade da criança. Em 1997: interior urbano = 1,33 (IC95% 1,06-1,66), interior rural = 1,22 (IC95% 0,97-1,53) e em 2006: interior urbano = 1,87 (IC95% 1,31-2,66), interior rural = 2.07 (IC95% 1.50-2.85); número de pessoas por cômodo (1997): 1 a menos de 2 = 1,29 (IC95% 0,98-1,68), dois ou mais = 1,47 (IC95% 1,11-1,95) e em 2006: 1 a menos de 2 = 0.86 (IC95% 0,68-1,09), dois ou mais = 1,29 (IC95% 0,94-1,75); idade materna (1997): 10 a 19 anos = 1,48 (IC95% 1,05-2,08), 20 a 24 anos = 1,23 (IC95% 0,94-1,60), 25 a 34 anos = 1,01 (IC95% 0,78-1,30) e em 2006: 10 a 19 anos = 1,70 (IC95% 1,08-2,66), 20 a 24 anos = 1,64 (IC95% 1,16-2,32), 25 a 34 anos = 1,20 (IC95% 0,89-1,62); e idade da criança (1997): 0-11 meses = 1,57 (IC95% 1,27-1,94), 12-23 meses = 1,73 (IC95% 1,41-2,12) e em 2006: 0-11 meses = 1,04 (IC95% 0,76-1,41), 12-23 meses = 1,77 (IC95% 1,41-2,23). CONCLUSÕES Houve uma grande variabilidade dos condicionantes das diarreias em crianças entre os dois períodos analisados. Em nível de políticas públicas, apesar de mudanças em termos de pessoas, sequências temporais e espaços geográficos, as diarreias continuam em uma escala importante no elenco de prioridades do poder governamental.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Health Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Rural Population , Socioeconomic Factors , Urban Population , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Analysis of Variance , Maternal Age , Population Density , Environment , Housing/statistics & numerical data , Mothers
17.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 22(12): 4105-4114, Dez. 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-890244

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é analisar a influência das hospitalizações por doenças infecciosas (diarreia e pneumonia) e do parasitismo na evolução nutricional, ao longo de um ano, entre crianças assistidas em creches públicas municipais. Mães de crianças de uma coorte responderam sobre a hospitalização por diarreia e pneumonia, assim como em relação ao parasitismo, durante o período de um ano de frequência à creche. Medidas antropométricas foram tomadas em cada visita. Usou-se modelo ajustado para examinar a relação entre a experiência de processos infecciosos e os desfechos do crescimento (peso e estatura). Numa amostra de 269 crianças monitoradas no período de 12 meses, a hospitalização por pneumonia e a infecção parasitária estiveram associadas com o crescimento desacelerado do peso e da estatura. Infecções parasitárias e pneumonia associaram-se ao comprometimento do crescimento em termos de peso e estatura.


Abstract The scope of this article is to analyze the influence of hospitalizations by infectious diseases (diarrhea and pneumonia) and parasitism in nutritional evolution, over the period of a year, among children enrolled in municipal public day care centers. Mothers of children in a cohort were asked about previous hospitalization due to diarrhea and pneumonia, as well as in relation to the elimination of worms, during the period of one year of attendance at day care centers. Anthropometrics were measured at each visit. An adjusted model to examine the relationship between infections experienced and growth outcomes (weight and height) was applied. In a subset analysis of 269 children followed up at every visit over the course of 12 months, hospitalization due to pneumonia and parasite infection were associated with decelerated growth in weight and height. Parasitic infection and pneumonia were associated with growth impairment in terms of weight and height.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Parasitic Diseases/epidemiology , Child Day Care Centers , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Parasitic Diseases , Pneumonia/complications , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Body Height , Body Weight , Brazil/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/complications , Follow-Up Studies , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Growth Disorders/etiology , Growth Disorders/epidemiology
18.
Rev. chil. cir ; 69(5): 376-381, oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899620

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La colecistectomía laparoscópica es una de las intervenciones quirúrgicas más frecuentes en nuestro país. La diarrea poscolecistectomía es una entidad poco reconocida, con una prevalencia descrita entre el 0,9 y 35,6%, sin embargo, en Chile esto no ha sido claramente definido. Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia y características de la diarrea poscolecistectomía laparoscópica electiva en una muestra de pacientes chilenos. Material y métodos: Se aplicó una encuesta telefónica estructurada sobre consistencia y frecuencia de deposiciones, entre 4 y 6 meses después de la intervención, a los pacientes adultos operados de colecistectomía laparoscópica electivamente entre diciembre de 2014 y marzo de 2015. Se definió como «diarrea poscolecistectomía¼ la presencia de deposiciones líquidas o inusualmente disgregadas que hubiesen comenzado posteriormente a la intervención y se estableció el término de «diarrea prolongada¼ como la duración de síntomas mayor de 4 semanas. Resultados: Se encuestó a 100 pacientes (73% de mujeres). La prevalencia global de diarrea poscolecistectomía fue del 35% (n = 35). La prevalencia de pacientes con diarrea prolongada fue del 15% (n = 15). En el grupo con diarrea prolongada, se observó resolución completa de esta en el 57% de los pacientes (n = 8) en un plazo medio de 99 ± 29 días. Conclusión: La diarrea poscolecistectomía es una entidad frecuente en nuestra población, con una alta prevalencia dentro de los primeros 28 días posteriores a la intervención. En la mayoría de los pacientes se resuelve en los primeros 6 meses.


Abstract Introduction: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is one of the most common surgical procedures in our country. Postcholecystectomy diarrhea is an unrecognized entity, with a reported prevalence between 0.9 and 35.6%, nonetheless in Chile this has not been clearly defined. Objective: To determine the prevalence and characteristics of diarrhea following elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy in our institution. Material and methods: A structured questionnaire about consistency and defecation frequency was applied to adult patients summited to an elective LC between December 2014 and February 2015, by a telephone survey within 4 and 6 months after the surgical procedure. Postcholecystectomy diarrhea was defined as the presence of liquid or unusually disrupted faecal material beginning after LC. Persistent diarrhea was established when diarrhea continued for a period longer than four weeks. Results: One hundred patients were included (73% women). The overall prevalence of postcholecystectomy diarrhea was 35% (n = 35). The prevalence of patients with persistent diarrhea was 15% (n = 15). In the group of patients with persistent diarrhea, complete resolution was observed on 57% of the cases (n = 8) within an average period of 99 ± 29 days. Conclusion: Post cholecystectomy diarrhea is a frequent condition in our population, with a high prevalence within the first 28 days after LC. In most patients it resolved within 6 months.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic/adverse effects , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Time Factors , Chile , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Postcholecystectomy Syndrome , Diarrhea/etiology
19.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(5): 613-620, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897008

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) co-infection has been a research topic of interest worldwide. In Brazil, it has been observed that there is a relative underreporting and failure in the understanding and management of this important association. The aim of this study was to analyze epidemiological and clinical aspects of patients with VL with and without HIV/AIDS. METHODS: We conducted an observational and analytical study of patients with VL followed in a Reference Service in the State of Maranhão, Brazil from 2007-2013. RESULTS: In total 126 patients were enrolled, of which 61 (48.4%) were co-infected with HIV/AIDS. There were more males among those with HIV/AIDS (85.2%, P>0.05) or with VL only (81.5%, P>0.05). These findings significantly differed based on age group (P<0.003); the majority of patients were aged 31-40 years (41.0%) and 21-30 years (32.3%) among those with and without HIV/AIDS co-infection, respectively. The incidence of diarrhea and splenomegaly significantly differed between the two groups (P=0.0014 and P=0.019, respectively). The myelogram parasitic examination was used most frequently among those with HIV/AIDS (91.8%), followed by those with VL only (69.2%). VL recurrences and mortality were significantly higher in the HIV/AIDS co-infected patients (P<0.0001 and P=0.012, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with VL with or without HIV/AIDS co-infection were mostly adult men. Diarrhea was more frequent in HIV/AIDS co-infected patients, whereas splenomegaly was more common in patients with VL only. In the group of HIV/AIDS co-infected patients, there was a higher rate of VL recurrence and mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Splenomegaly/etiology , Splenomegaly/epidemiology , Blood Cell Count , Brazil/epidemiology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/physiopathology , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Viral Load , Diarrhea/etiology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Coinfection/physiopathology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/complications , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/physiopathology , Middle Aged
20.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 34(4): 359-364, ago. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899724

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Salmonella sp puede causar infecciones asintomáticas, gastroenteritis, bacteriemia e infecciones focales como meningitis y osteomielitis. Objetivo: Describir aspectos microbiológicos y clínicos de las infecciones por Salmonella spp en niños en un hospital de referencia pediátrico Centro Hospitalario Pereira Rossell. Montevideo Uruguay. Material y Métodos: Estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo de pacientes en quienes se aislara Salmonella spp en el período 1 de enero de 2005 al 31 de diciembre de 2010. Resultados: Se aisló Salmonella spp en 46 niños menores de 15 años. Dieciocho eran menores de 2 años y 5 niños menores de tres meses. 24% de los pacientes presentaba factores de riesgo (infección por VIH; enfermedad hemato-oncológica, desnutrición) y co-morbilidades (bajo peso al nacer y neumonía). No hubo fallecidos. Los serotipos más frecuentes fueron: Typhimurium y Enteritidis. La mayoría de las cepas eran sensibles a ampicilina y cefalosporinas de tercera generación. Discusión: La presentación clínica predominante fue diarrea con sangre, no se presentaron brotes. Basados en los perfiles de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana, se pueden mantener las recomendaciones hasta el momento sugeridas. Conclusiones: Se debe tener en cuenta la infección por Salmonella sp en niños febriles con riesgo de enfermedad bacteriana invasora, con o sin focalidad.


Background: Salmonella can cause asymptomatic infections, diarrhea, bacteremia and focal infections such as meningitis and osteomyelitis. Aim: To describe clinical and microbiological aspects of infections by Salmonella spp. in children in a pediatric referral hospital: Centro Hospitalario Pereira Rossell, in Montevideo, Uruguay. Materials and Methods: Descriptive and retrospective study of 46 patients, from which Salmonella spp was isolated between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2010. Results: Salmonella spp was isolated in 46 children younger than 15 years old. 18 were below 2 years old and 5 children below three months. 24% of the children had risk factors, such as HIV infection, oncological diseases and malnutrition; low birth weight and pneumonia were associated conditions. No deaths were reported. The serotypes more frequently found were: Typhimurium and Enteritidis. Most of the strains were susceptible to ampicillin and third generation of cephalosporins. Discussion: Diarrhea with blood was the predominant clinical presentation, and there were no outbreaks. Typhimurium and Enteritidis were the most common serotypes. Based on the profiles of susceptibility antimicrobial, we could maintain the same recommendations until the moment suggested. Conclusions: we must consider the Salmonella infection in febrile children under risk of an invasive bacterial disease, with or without focal infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Salmonella Infections/microbiology , Salmonella enteritidis/isolation & purification , Salmonella Infections/epidemiology , Salmonella typhimurium/isolation & purification , Time Factors , Uruguay/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Comorbidity , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Diarrhea/microbiology , Diarrhea/epidemiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL