Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 193
Filter
1.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 72(1): e444, ene.-abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126698

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La diarrea del viajero es causa frecuente de hospitalización en turistas internacionales. Objetivo: Describir las características sociodemográficas y clínico-epidemiológicas de los pacientes adultos ingresados por diarrea del viajero en la Clínica Internacional de Trinidad durante los años 2015 al 2017. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo de los 699 pacientes adultos con diarrea del viajero que requirieron de ingreso en el periodo de estudio. Se revisaron sus historias clínicas para analizar la frecuencia en que estuvieron presentes algunas variables sociodemográficas y clínico-epidemiológicas. Para analizar los datos se utilizó la estadística descriptiva con distribución de frecuencias y porcentajes. Resultados: El grupo etario entre 19 y 40 años tuvo un 60,52 por ciento de pacientes afectados; el 58,23 por ciento en el sexo femenino, con una incidencia mayor en los meses de julio (12,88 por ciento) y febrero (12,44 por ciento). Los viajeros procedentes de países europeos representaron el 76,97 por ciento ; el 74,96 por ciento se hospedó en casas particulares. El 1,85 por ciento de los afectados presentaba antecedentes de enfermedad gastrointestinal; el 76,11 por ciento requirió de 1 a 6 h de observación, con deshidratación leve (59,66 por ciento) y moderada (21,75 por ciento). El vómito y las náuseas se presentaron en el 58,37 por ciento de los pacientes y en el 60,73 por ciento la causa no fue precisada. Conclusiones: Las variables sociodemográficas y clínico-epidemiológicas seleccionadas permitieron describir características de los pacientes adultos ingresados por diarrea del viajero. Se recomienda profundizar en el estudio para contribuir a su prevención y optimizar la atención(AU)


Introduction: Traveler's diarrhea is a frequent cause of hospitalization of international tourists. Objective: Describe the sociodemographic and clinical-epidemiological characteristics of adult patients admitted for traveler's diarrhea to Trinidad International Clinic in the period 2015-2017. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted of the 699 adult patients with traveler's diarrhea who required hospitalization in the study period. The patients' medical records were reviewed to analyze the frequency of some sociodemographic and clinical-epidemiological variables. Data analysis was based on descriptive statistics with frequency and percentage distribution. Results: 60.52 percent of the patients affected were in the 19-40 years age group, 58.23 percent were female, and the highest incidence was observed in the months of July (12.88 percent) and February (12.4 4 percent ). Travelers from European countries represented 76.97 percent, and 74.96 percent were staying in private dwellings. Of the patients affected, 1.85 percent had a history of gastrointestinal disease; 76.11percent required 1-6 hours of observation; dehydration was mild in 59.66 percent and moderate in 21.75 percent. Vomiting and nausea were present in 58.37 percent of the patients; in 60.73 percent the cause was not determined. Conclusions: The sociodemographic and clinical-epidemiological variables selected made it possible to characterize the adult patients admitted for traveler's diarrhea. Further research is recommended to contribute to the prevention this disease. Further research is recommended to contribute to the prevention this disease and optimize care(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Dehydration/complications , Diarrhea/prevention & control , Travel-Related Illness , Demography/methods , Hospital Care/methods
2.
Gastroenterol. latinoam ; 30(supl.1): S26-S30, 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116309

ABSTRACT

Acute diarrhea (AD) is the increase in frequency and volume of bowel movements with decrease in their consistency that lasts less than 14 days. AD is a major public health problem and is still nowadays a cause of significant morbidity and mortality during childhood, especially in children with nutritional deficits. At a younger age, there is a greater susceptibility to diarrhea, which is more intense and more likely cause dehydration. The prevention and management of dehydration is the mainstay of treatment. The use of medications must be used with caution, analyzing individual cases and based on the best available evidence. We will analyze the subject with special emphasis on treatment according to scientific evidence.


La diarrea aguda (DA) se define como el aumento en la frecuencia y volumen de las deposiciones con disminución de la consistencia y que dura menos de 14 días. La DA es un gran problema de salud pública y es aún hoy en día una causa de importante morbimortalidad durante la infancia en especial en niños con déficits nutricionales. A menor edad hay mayor susceptibilidad de presentar diarrea, siendo ésta de mayor intensidad y con mayores posibilidades de producir deshidratación. La prevención y el manejo de la deshidratación es el pilar fundamental del tratamiento. El uso de medicamentos debe ser criterioso, analizando cada caso individual y basado en la mejor evidencia disponible. Analizaremos el tema con especial énfasis en el tratamiento según evidencia científica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Diarrhea/drug therapy , Rehydration Solutions/therapeutic use , Acute Disease , Ondansetron/therapeutic use , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Dehydration/etiology , Diarrhea/etiology , Diarrhea/prevention & control , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
3.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 34(10): e00189017, oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-974577

ABSTRACT

Este estudio evaluó la sostenibilidad de un conjunto de intervenciones para la prevención del dengue y la diarrea, en 33 escuelas rurales en los municipios de Anapoima y La Mesa, Colombia, dos años post-proyecto. Se midió la sostenibilidad en dos categorías: mantenimiento de los beneficios e intervenciones, e institucionalización y desarrollo de capacidades de la comunidad. Se comparó la sostenibilidad de las intervenciones que fueron distribuidas en cuatro brazos: intervenciones para prevenir la diarrea, para prevenir el dengue, combinadas para prevenir la diarrea y el dengue, y control. El puntaje final de cada brazo se clasificó en uno de cinco niveles de sostenibilidad: regresivo, no sostenible, moderadamente sostenible, sostenible y altamente sostenible. Se compararon los brazos mediante las pruebas ANOVA y Kruskal-Wallis, con un nivel de significancia de 0,05. A los dos años post-proyecto, se observa que el nivel total de sostenibilidad para la prevención de diarrea fue moderadamente sostenible en los cuatro brazos y para dengue no sostenible en tres de los cuatro brazos, sin encontrar diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre estos. También se observa que los niveles de sostenibilidad varían, en cuanto a los beneficios, intervenciones, desarrollo de capacidades e institucionalización. El mantenimiento de los beneficios y de las intervenciones en ambas enfermedades fue más sostenible que la institucionalización y desarrollo de capacidades. Es importante el análisis de estas variables para identificar los diferentes factores que influyen en la sostenibilidad de los proyectos, relacionados con el diseño y ejecución de estos, con el marco organizacional, y con el contexto social.


This study evaluated the sustainability of a set of interventions to prevent dengue and diarrhea in 33 rural schools in the municipalities (counties) of Anapoima and La Mesa, Colombia, two years post-project. The study measured sustainability in two categories: maintenance of the benefits and the interventions, and institutionalization and community capacity-building. The sustainability of the interventions was compared across four arms: interventions to prevent diarrhea, to prevent dengue, combined interventions to prevent diarrhea and dengue, and control. The final score for each arm was classified in five levels of sustainability: regressive, not sustainable, moderately sustainable, sustainable, and highly sustainable. The arms were compared with ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis test, with significance set at 0.05. At two years post-project, the overall sustainability for the prevention of diarrhea was moderate in the four arms, while dengue prevention was not sustainable in three of the four arms, without statistically significant differences. Sustainability levels also varied in terms of benefits, interventions, capacity-building, and institutionalization. Maintenance of benefits and interventions in both diseases was more sustainable than institutionalization and capacity-building. The analysis of these variables is important for identifying the different factors that influence projects' sustainability, related to their design and execution, organizational framework, and social context.


Este estudo avaliou a sustentabilidade de um conjunto de intervenções para a prevenção de dengue e diarreia, em 33 escolas rurais nos municípios de Anapoima e La Mesa, Colômbia, dois anos pós-projeto. A sustentabilidade foi medida em duas categorias: manutenção dos benefícios e intervenções, e institucionalização e desenvolvimento de capacidades da comunidade. Foi comparada a sustentabilidade das intervenções que foram distribuídas em quatro áreas: intervenções para prevenir a diarreia, e também o dengue, combinadas para prevenir a diarreia e o dengue, e o controle. A pontuação final de cada área foi classificada em um entre cinco níveis de sustentabilidade: regressivo, não sustentável, moderadamente sustentável, sustentável e altamente sustentável. As diferentes áreas foram comparadas através das provas ANOVA e Kruskal-Wallis, com um nível de significância de 0,05. Em dois anos pós-projeto, foi observado que o nível total de sustentabilidade para a prevenção de diarreia foi moderadamente sustentável nas quatro áreas e para dengue não sustentável em três das quatro áreas, sem encontrar diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre elas. Também foi observado que os níveis de sustentabilidade variam, em quanto aos benefícios, intervenções, desenvolvimento de capacidades e institucionalização. A manutenção dos benefícios e das intervenções em ambas as doenças foi mais sustentável do que a institucionalização e desenvolvimento de capacidades. É importante o análise destas variáveis para identificar os diferentes fatores que influem na sustentabilidade dos projetos, em relação com o desenho e execução destes, com o marco organizativo, e com o contexto social.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Students , Health Education/methods , Dengue/prevention & control , Diarrhea/prevention & control , Health Promotion/methods , Rural Population , Program Evaluation , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Colombia
4.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 30(3): 358-365, jul.-set. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-977979

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Para atender as necessidades nutricionais de pacientes admitidos às unidades de terapia intensiva, é necessário estabelecer um plano dietético. As complicações associadas com a nutrição enteral administrada por tubo não são incomuns e podem reduzir o fornecimento das necessidades nutricionais a pacientes internados na unidade de terapia intensiva. Encontram-se em andamento pesquisas relativas a osmolaridade, gorduras, intensidade calórica e conteúdo de fibras das fórmulas, e muitos estudos têm focado na tolerabilidade ao conteúdo de fibras ou na redução de sintomas. Conduzimos uma revisão sistemática do uso e segurança das fibras dietéticas em pacientes críticos, que envolveu oito estudos e teve como base diarreia, outros sintomas gastrintestinais (distensão abdominal, volume gástrico residual, vômitos e constipação), microbiota intestinal, tempo de permanência na unidade de terapia intensiva, e óbito. Discutimos os resultados encontrados na literatura científica, assim como as recomendações atuais. Esta abordagem contemporânea demonstrou que o uso de fibras solúveis em todos os pacientes graves hemodinamicamente estáveis é seguro e deve ser considerado benéfico para redução da incidência de diarreia nesta população.


ABSTRACT To meet the nutritional requirements of patients admitted to intensive care units, it is necessary to establish a diet schedule. Complications associated with enteral nutrition by tube feeding are not uncommon and may reduce the delivery of required nutrient to patients in intensive care units. Research on the osmolality, fat content, caloric intensity and fiber content of formulas are under way, and a substantial number of studies have focused on fiber content tolerability or symptom reduction. We conducted a systematic review of dietary fiber use and safety in critically ill patients in 8 studies based on diarrhea, other gastrointestinal symptoms (abdominal distension, gastric residual volume, vomiting and constipation), intestinal microbiota, length of stay in the intensive care unit and death. We discussed the results reported in the scientific literature and current recommendations. This contemporary approach demonstrated that the use of soluble fiber in all hemodynamically stable, critically ill patients is safe and should be considered beneficial for reducing the incidence of diarrhea in this population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dietary Fiber/administration & dosage , Enteral Nutrition/methods , Intensive Care Units , Dietary Fiber/adverse effects , Critical Illness , Enteral Nutrition/adverse effects , Critical Care/methods , Diarrhea/etiology , Diarrhea/prevention & control , Length of Stay , Nutritional Requirements
5.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 71(supl.3): 1412-1419, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-958733

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: to validate an educational primer, regarding content and design, for promoting maternal self-efficacy in preventing childhood diarrhea. Method: methodological study composed of 31 mothers of children under five years of age, in which the validation of the primer You can prevent diarrhea in your child! was carried out from the Content Validity Index (CVI), being evaluated as to the domains understanding, attractiveness, self-efficacy, cultural acceptance, and persuasion. Results: the primer was considered relevant and clear, with average concordance of 99.4% and 99.8%, respectively. The overall CVI was of 0.99, evidencing satisfactory level of agreement between the mothers. The assessment of domains generated satisfactory results. Conclusion: the primer was considered valid by the target audience; thus, it can be implemented for promoting maternal confidence to prevent childhood diarrhea.


RESUMEN Objetivo: validar una cartilla educativa, cuanto al contenido y la apariencia, elaborada para promocionar la autoeficacia materna en la prevención de la diarrea infantil. Método: Estudio metodológico con participación de 31 madres de niños menores de cinco años de edad, en el cual se ha procedido a la validez de la cartilla ¡Usted es capaz de prevenir la diarrea en su hijo! (en portugués: Você é capaz de prevenir a diarreia no seu filho!) desde el Índice de Validez de Contenido (IVC), siendo evaluada cuanto a los dominios comprensión, atracción, autoeficacia, aceptación cultural y persuasión. Resultados: La cartilla ha sido considerada clara y relevante, con el promedio de concordancia del 99,4% y del 99,8%, respectivamente. El IVC global ha sido de 0,99, evidenciando nivel satisfactorio de concordancia entre las madres. La evaluación de los dominios ha generado resultados satisfactorios. Conclusión: La cartilla ha sido considerada válida por el público-objetivo, pudiendo ser implementada para promoción de la confiabilidad materna en prevenir la diarrea infantil.


RESUMO Objetivo: validar uma cartilha educativa, quanto a conteúdo e aparência, elaborada para promover a autoeficácia materna na prevenção da diarreia infantil. Método: estudo metodológico com participação de 31 mães de crianças menores de cinco anos de idade, no qual se procedeu à validação da cartilha Você é capaz de prevenir a diarreia no seu filho! a partir do Índice de Validade de Conteúdo (IVC), sendo avaliada quanto aos domínios compreensão, atratividade, autoeficácia, aceitação cultural e persuasão. Resultados: a cartilha foi considerada clara e relevante, com média de concordância de 99,4% e 99,8%, respectivamente. O IVC global foi de 0,99, evidenciando nível satisfatório de concordância entre as mães. A avaliação dos domínios gerou resultados satisfatórios. Conclusão: a cartilha foi considerada válida pelo público-alvo, podendo ser implementada para promoção da confiança materna em prevenir a diarreia infantil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Self Efficacy , Diarrhea/prevention & control , Health Promotion/methods , Mothers/education , Infection Control/methods , Health Promotion/standards
6.
HU rev ; 43(2): 155-161, abr-jun 2017.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-946496

ABSTRACT

A infecção causada por Clostridium difficile (C. difficile), um dos agentes causadores de diarréia aguda e recorrente, tem como principal fator de risco o uso de antimicrobianos. Recentemente, houve um aumento da incidência e da mortalidade desta afecção. Clinicamente, a mesma pode manifestar-se desde um quadro de diarreia aquosa leve até a forma grave de colite pseudomembranosa. O objetivo deste artigo é apontar as mudanças epidemiológicas da infecção pelo C. difficile, além de rever fatores de risco, manifestações clínicas, métodos diagnósticos, tratamento e prevenção desta infecção. O aumento na gravidade da infecção causada pelo C. difficile é relacionado a uma nova cepa hipervirulenta, BI/NAPI/Ribotipo 027, que apresenta maior capacidade de produção de toxinas. Essa nova cepa, mais virulenta, ainda não foi detectada no Brasil, porém como já foi identificada em outros países da América, alerta para a preocupante capacidade de disseminação universal. Essa revisão é baseada em artigos publicados nos últimos 10 anos, utilizando como base de dados o PubMed e o Scielo (Scientific Eletronic Library Online), com as palavras-chave: Epidemiologia, diarreia, Clostridium difficile e cepa hipervirulenta.


Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a causative agent of diarrhea and its main risk factor is the use of antimicrobials. Recently, there was an increase in incidence and mortality. Clinical symptoms can manifest from mild watery diarrhea to severe pseudomembranous colitis. The purpose of this article is to make a literature review of C. difficile -associated diarrhea including its recent epidemiological changes. The increase in the severity of infection caused by Clostridium difficile was related to a new hypervirulent strain, BI/NAPI/ribotype 027, with greater capacity for production of toxins, responsible for clinical manifestations. This new strain, more virulent, has not yet been detected in Brazil, but it was already identified in other countries of America, warns the disturbing ability to universal dissemination. This review is based on articles published in the last 10 years, using as database PubMed and Scielo (Scientific Electronic Library Online), with the keywords: Epidemiology, diarrhea, Clostridium difficile and hypervirulent strain.


Subject(s)
Clostridioides difficile , Diarrhea , Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous , Risk Factors , Clostridium , Diarrhea/prevention & control
7.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 32(10): e00080515, Oct. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-797014

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Diarrhea by rotavirus is one of the main causes of mortality in children in developing countries, although the hospitalization rates (HR) for acute diarrhea have been found to have fallen since the introduction of the rotavirus vaccine. However, the patterns of the rotavirus are still not well understood and seasonal peaks occur throughout the year, with variations between countries and over time. The main objective of this study was to analyze the temporal behavior of HR caused by acute diarrhea in children under the age of one in the south of Brazil, between 2000 and 2011, and to explore changes in seasonality patters after the introduction of the vaccine against the rotavirus in 2006. Harmonic and multiscale wavelet analyses were used to detect seasonality and the points of change in the temporal scale. The statistical significance of each seasonality that was identified was tested using Fisher's test. The harmonic and wavelet analyses show annual seasonal and six-monthly patterns for HR, as well as a clear change after the introduction of the vaccine in 2006.


Resumo: A diarreia por rotavírus é uma das principais causas de mortalidade em crianças nos países em desenvolvimento, embora tenha sido observada a redução nas taxas de hospitalização (HR) por diarreias aguda desde que a vacina do rotavírus foi introduzida. A dinâmica do rotavírus, no entanto, ainda é mal compreendida e picos sazonais ocorrem durante todo o ano, com variações entre países e ao longo do tempo. O principal objetivo foi analisar o comportamento temporal das HR devido a diarreia aguda em crianças menores de um ano de idade no sul do Brasil, de 2000 a 2011, e investigar mudanças no padrão de sazonalidade após a introdução da vacina contra o rotavírus em 2006. Análises harmônica e multiescala wavelet foram utilizadas para detectar a sazonalidade e pontos de mudança na série temporal. A significância estatística de cada sazonalidade identificada foi testada pelo teste de Fisher. As análises harmônica e wavelet mostraram padrões sazonais anual e semestral das HR, bem como a nítida mudança após a introdução da vacina em 2006.


Resumen: La diarrea por rotavirus es una de las principales causas de mortalidad en niños en los países en desarrollo, aunque se haya observado una reducción en las tasas de hospitalización (HR) por diarreas agudas, desde que se introdujo la vacuna del rotavirus. La dinámica del rotavirus, no obstante, aunque está mal comprendida -y se producen picos estacionales- tiene lugar durante todo el año, con variaciones entre países y a lo largo del tiempo. El principal objetivo fue analizar el comportamiento temporal de las HR, debido a la diarrea aguda en niños menores de un año de edad en el sur de Brasil, de 2000 a 2011, e investigar cambios en el patrón de estacionalidad tras la introducción de la vacuna contra el rotavirus en 2006. Los análisis harmónico y multiescala wavelet se utilizaron para detectar la estacionalidad y puntos de cambio en la serie temporal. La significancia estadística de cada estacionalidad identificada fue testada por el test de Fisher. Los análisis harmónico y wavelet mostraron patrones estacionales anual y semestral de los HR, así como un nítido cambio tras la introducción de la vacuna en 2006.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Rotavirus Infections/prevention & control , Rotavirus Vaccines/administration & dosage , Diarrhea/prevention & control , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology , Seasons , Brazil/epidemiology , Acute Disease , Diarrhea/epidemiology
8.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 62(6): 506-512, Sept. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829500

ABSTRACT

Summary Introduction: Acute diarrheal disease is the second cause of death in children under 5 years. In Brazil, from 2003 to 2009, acute diarrhea was responsible for nearly 100,000 hospital admissions per year and 4% of the deaths in children under 5 years. Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe acute diarrhea worldwide. In 2006, the rotavirus monovalent vaccine (RV1) was added to the Brazilian National Immunization Program. Objectives: To analyze the impact of the RV1 on emergency department (ED) visits and hospital admissions for acute diarrhea. Method: A retrospective ecologic study at the University Hospital, University of São Paulo. The study analyzed the pre-vaccine (2003–2005) and the post-vaccine (2007–2009) periods. We screened the main diagnosis of all ED attendances and hospital admissions of children under 5 years in an electronic registry system database and calculated the rates of ED visits and hospital admissions. The reduction rate was analyzed according to the following formula: reduction (%) = (1 - odds ratio) x 100. Results: The rates of ED visits for acute diarrhea was 85.8 and 80.9 per 1,000 total ED visits in the pre and post vaccination periods, respectively, resulting in 6% reduction (95CI 4 to 9%, p<0.001). The rates of hospital admissions for acute diarrhea was 40.8 per 1,000 in the pre-vaccine period and dropped to 24.9 per 1,000 hospitalizations, resulting in 40% reduction (95CI 22 to 54%, p<0.001). Conclusion: The introduction of the RV1 vaccine resulted in 6% reduction in the ED visits and 40% reduction in hospital admissions for acute diarrhea.


Resumo Introdução: a doença diarreica aguda é a segunda causa de morte em crianças abaixo de 5 anos de idade. No Brasil, entre 2003 e 2009, a diarreia aguda foi responsável por cerca de 100 mil internações por ano e por 4% das mortes em crianças abaixo de 5 anos de idade. O rotavírus é a principal etiologia de diarreia aguda grave. A vacina monovalente (RV1) contra o rotavírus foi introduzida em 2006. Objetivos: verificar o impacto da vacina monovalente contra rotavírus nas consultas de pronto-socorro e internações por doença diarreica aguda em crianças menores de 5 anos de idade. Método: foi realizado um estudo ecológico retrospectivo no Hospital Universitário da Universidade de São Paulo. O período foi dividido em pré-vacina (2003 a 2005) e pós-vacina (2007 a 2009). Foram incluídas todas as crianças abaixo de 5 anos que passaram em consulta no pronto-socorro. Foram obtidas as taxas de consultas no pronto-socorro e internações por doença diarreica aguda. A redução nas taxas foi obtida através da fórmula: redução (%) = (1 - odds ratio) x 100. Resultados: no período pré-vacina, a taxa de consultas por diarreia aguda foi de 85,8 consultas por 1.000 consultas gerais, enquanto no período pós-vacina a taxa de consultas por diarreia aguda foi 80,9 por 1.000, uma redução de 6% (IC95% 4-9, p<0,001). A taxa de internação por diarreia aguda era 40,8 internações por 1.000 e caiu para 24,9 por 1.000, redução de 40% (IC95% 22-54, p<0,001). Conclusão: após a introdução da vacina contra rotavírus houve uma redução de 6% nas consultas por diarreia aguda no pronto-socorro e de 40% nas internações por diarreia aguda.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Rotavirus Infections/prevention & control , Rotavirus Vaccines/administration & dosage , Diarrhea/virology , Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology , Seasons , Brazil/epidemiology , Acute Disease , Retrospective Studies , Immunization Programs , Diarrhea/prevention & control , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data
9.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(1): 243-250, Jan.-Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-775111

ABSTRACT

Abstract Human adenovirus species F (HAdV-F) type 40 and 41 are commonly associated with acute diarrheal disease (ADD) across the world. Despite being the largest state in southeastern Brazil and having the second largest number of inhabitants, there is no information in the State of Minas Gerais regarding the role of HAdV-F in the etiology of ADD. This study was performed to determine the prevalence, to verify the epidemiological aspects of infection, and to characterize the strains of human adenoviruses (HAdV) detected. A total of 377 diarrheal fecal samples were obtained between January 2007 and August 2011 from inpatient and outpatient children of age ranging from 0 to 12 years. All samples were previously tested for rotavirus, norovirus, and astrovirus, and 314 of 377 were negative. The viral DNA was extracted, amplified using the polymerase chain reaction and the HAdV-positive samples were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. Statistical analyses were performed using the Chi-square test (p < 0.05), considering two conditions: the total of samples tested (377) and the total of negative samples for the remaining viruses tested (314). The overall prevalence of HAdV was 12.47% (47/377); and in 76.60% (36/47) of the positive samples, this virus was the only infectious agent detected. The phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences of 32 positive samples revealed that they all clustered with the HAdV-F type 41. The statistical analysis showed that there was no correlation between the onset of the HAdV infection and the origin of the samples (inpatients or outpatients) in the two conditions tested: the total of samples tested (p = 0.598) and the total of negative samples for the remaining viruses tested (p = 0.614). There was a significant association in the occurrence of infection in children aged 0–12 months for the condition 1 (p = 0.030) as well as condition 2 (p = 0.019). The occurrence of infections due to HAdV did not coincide with a pattern of seasonal distribution. These data indicate the significant involvement of HAdV-F type 41 in the etiology of ADD in Minas Gerais, which demonstrates the importance of other viral agents in the development of the disease after the introduction of rotavirus vaccine immunization.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Adenovirus Vaccines/administration & dosage , Adenoviruses, Human/isolation & purification , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/prevention & control , Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology , Rotavirus Infections/prevention & control , Adenovirus Vaccines/immunology , Adenoviruses, Human/classification , Adenoviruses, Human/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , Cluster Analysis , DNA, Viral/chemistry , DNA, Viral/genetics , DNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Feces/virology , Genotype , Phylogeny , Prevalence , Sequence Analysis, DNA
10.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 50: 77, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-962240

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the contributions of the socioeconomic, hygienic, and sanitation improvements in reducing the prevalence of diarrhea in a city of the Amazon. METHODS In this population-based cross-sectional study, we analyzed data from surveys conducted in the city of Jordão, Acre. In 2005 and 2012, these surveys evaluated, respectively, 466 and 826 children under five years old. Questionnaires were applied on the socioeconomic conditions, construction of houses, food and hygienic habits, and environmental sanitation. We applied Pearson's Chi-squared test and Poisson regression to verify the relationship between origin of water, construction of homes, age of introduction of cow's milk in the diet, place of birth and the prevalence of diarrhea. RESULTS The prevalence of diarrhea was reduced from 45.1% to 35.4%. We identified higher probability of diarrhea in children who did not use water from the public network, in those receiving cow's milk in the first month after birth, and in those living in houses made of paxiúba. Children born at home presented lower risk of diarrhea when compared to those who were born in hospital, with this difference reversing for the 2012 survey. CONCLUSIONS Sanitation conditions improved with the increase of bathrooms with toilets, implementation of the Programa de Saúde da Família (PSF - Family Health Program), and water treatment in the city. The multivariate regression model identified a statistically significant association between use of water from the public network, construction of houses, late introduction of cow's milk, and access to health service with occurrence of diarrhea.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar as contribuições das melhorias socioeconômicas, higiênicas e de saneamento na redução da prevalência de diarreia em uma cidade na Amazônia. MÉTODOS Neste estudo transversal de base populacional, foram analisados dados dos inquéritos realizados no município de Jordão, Acre. Em 2005 e 2012, foram avaliadas, respectivamente, 466 e 826 crianças menores de cinco anos. Foram aplicados questionários sobre as condições socioeconômicas, construção dos domicílios, hábitos higiênicos e alimentares e saneamento ambiental. Foi aplicado o teste Qui-quadrado de Pearson e a Regressão de Poisson para verificar a relação existente entre procedência da água, tipo de construção do domicílio, idade de introdução de leite de vaca na dieta e local de nascimento e a prevalência de diarreia. RESULTADOS A prevalência de diarreia foi reduzida de 45,1% para 35,4%. Foi identificada maior probabilidade de desenvolvimento de diarreia em crianças que não utilizaram água da rede pública, as que receberam leite de vaca no primeiro mês após o nascimento e as residentes em domicílios de paxiúba. As crianças que nasceram no domicílio apresentaram menor risco de diarreia quando comparadas às que nasceram em hospital, com essa diferença se invertendo para o inquérito de 2012. CONCLUSÕES Ocorreu melhora nas condições de saneamento com aumento no número de banheiro com vasos sanitários, implantação do Programa de Saúde da Família e tratamento de água na sede do município. O modelo de regressão multivariada identificou associação estatisticamente significativa entre utilização de água da rede pública, construção da moradia, introdução tardia de leite de vaca e acesso a serviço de saúde com ocorrência de diarreia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diarrhea/prevention & control , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Chi-Square Distribution , Sanitation , Hygiene , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies
11.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 47(4): 368-379, dic. 2015.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1141154

ABSTRACT

Los rotavirus del grupo A (RVA) constituyen la principal causa de diarrea grave y mortalidad infantil. La porción variable de los anticuerpos de cadena pesada derivados de camélidos presentan una amplia capacidad de unión antigénica (reconocen sitios antigénicos no accesibles a los anticuerpos tradicionales, con elevada afinidad) tienen bajos costos de producción y resultan ideales para las terapias orales. A la fecha, se desarrollaron 2 pares de nanoanticuerpos VHH contra RVA: ARP1-ARP3 y 2KD1-3B2. En este trabajo, exploramos el potencial de ambos grupos de nanoanticuerpos como estrategias de prevención complementarias a la vacunación y como una opción de tratamiento frente a la diarrea asociada a RVA en poblaciones de riesgo. Ambos pares de nanoanticuerpos fueron expresados en diferentes sistemas de producción y mostraron amplia capacidad neutralizante contra diversas cepas de RVA in vitro. También fueron usados en el modelo de ratón lactante, en el que evidenciaron distintos grados de éxito en la prevención o el tratamiento de la diarrea inducida por RVA. Es interesante destacar que la mitigación de los síntomas también se logró con ARP1 liofilizado y conservado, por lo que podría ser utilizado en áreas donde es difícil mantener la cadena de frío. Asimismo, 3B2 fue testeado en una prueba preclínica utilizando como modelo al cerdo gnotobiótico, al cual confirió completa protección contra la diarrea inducida por RVA. ARP1 fue usado en la primera prueba clínica de nanoanticuerpos VHH contra RVA, donde redujo significativamente las deposiciones en pacientes pediátricos con diarrea positivos para RVA, sin evidenciar ninguna reacción adversa


Group A Rotavirus (RVA) remains a leading cause of severe diarrhea and child mortality. The variable domain of camelid heavy chain antibodies (VHH) display potent antigen-binding capacity, have low production costs and are suitable for oral therapies. Two sets of anti-RVA VHHs have been developed: ARP1-ARP3; 2KD1-3B2. Here, we explore the potential of both sets as a prevention strategy complementary to vaccination and a treatment option against RVA-associated diarrhea in endangered populations. Both sets have been expressed in multiple production systems, showing extensive neutralizing capacity against strains of RVA in vitro. They were also tested in the neonatal mouse model with various degrees of success in preventing or treating RVA-induced diarrhea. Interestingly, mitigation of the symptoms was also achieved with freeze-dried ARP1, so that it could be applied in areas where cold chains are difficult to maintain. 3B2 was tested in a pre-clinical trial involving gnotobiotic piglets where it conferred complete protection against RVA-induced diarrhea. ARP1 was used in the first clinical trial for anti-RVA VHHs, successfully reducing stool output in infants with RVA diarrhea, with no detected side effects


Subject(s)
Rotavirus/drug effects , Diarrhea/prevention & control , Single-Domain Antibodies/therapeutic use , Antibodies/therapeutic use , Primary Prevention/trends , Child Mortality , Single-Domain Antibodies/administration & dosage
12.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 48(2): 129-135, mar-apr/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-746222

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Rotavirus is the main etiologic agent of acute infectious diarrhea in children worldwide. Considering that a rotavirus vaccine (G1P8, strain RIX4414) was added to the Brazilian vaccination schedule in 2006, we aimed to study its effectiveness and safety regarding intestinal intussusception. METHODS: A quasi-experimental trial was performed in which the primary outcome was the number of hospitalizations that were presumably due to acute infectious diarrhea per 100,000 children at risk (0-4 years old). The secondary outcomes included mortality due to acute infectious diarrhea and the intestinal intussusception rates in children in the same age range. We analyzed three scenarios: Health Division XIII of the State of São Paulo (DRS XIII) from 2002 to 2008, the State of São Paulo, and Brazil from 2002 to 2012. RESULTS: The averages of the hospitalization rates for 100,000 children in the pre- and post-vaccination periods were 1,413 and 959, respectively, for DRS XIII (RR=0.67), 312 and 249, respectively, for the State of São Paulo (RR=0.79), and 718 and 576, respectively, for Brazil (RR=0.8). The mortality rate per 100,000 children in the pre- and post-vaccination periods was 2.0 and 1.3, respectively, for DRS XIII (RR=0.66), 5.5 and 2.5, respectively, for the State of São Paulo (RR=0.47), and 15.0 and 8.0, respectively, for Brazil (RR=0.53). The average annual rates of intussusception for 100,000 children in DRS XIII were 28.0 and 22.0 (RR=0.77) in the pre- and post-vaccination periods, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A monovalent rotavirus vaccine was demonstrated to be effective in preventing the hospitalizations and deaths of children that were presumably due to acute infectious diarrhea, without increasing the risk of intestinal intussusception. .


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Diarrhea/prevention & control , Intussusception/prevention & control , Rotavirus Infections/prevention & control , Rotavirus Vaccines/administration & dosage , Acute Disease , Brazil/epidemiology , Diarrhea/mortality , Diarrhea/virology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intussusception/mortality , Intussusception/virology , Rotavirus Infections/mortality
13.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 91(1): 6-21, Jan-Feb/2015.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741570

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Triggered by the growing knowledge on the link between the intestinal microbiome and human health, the interest in probiotics is ever increasing. The authors aimed to review the recent literature on probiotics, from definitions to clinical benefits, with emphasis on children. SOURCES: Relevant literature from searches of PubMed, CINAHL, and recent consensus statements were reviewed. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: While a balanced microbiome is related to health, an imbalanced microbiome or dysbiosis is related to many health problems both within the gastro-intestinal tract, such as diarrhea and inflammatory bowel disease, and outside the gastro-intestinal tract such as obesity and allergy. In this context, a strict regulation of probiotics with health claims is urgent, because the vast majority of these products are commercialized as food (supplements), claiming health benefits that are often not substantiated with clinically relevant evidence. The major indications of probiotics are in the area of the prevention and treatment of gastro-intestinal related disorders, but more data has become available on extra-intestinal indications. At least two published randomized controlled trials with the commercialized probiotic product in the claimed indication are a minimal condition before a claim can be sustained. Today, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Saccharomyces boulardii are the best-studied strains. Although adverse effects have sporadically been reported, these probiotics can be considered as safe. CONCLUSIONS: Although regulation is improving, more stringent definitions are still required. Evidence of clinical benefit is accumulating, although still missing in many areas. Misuse and use of products that have not been validated constitute potential drawbacks. .


OBJETIVO: Motivado pelo conhecimento cada vez maior da associação entre o microbioma intestinal e a saúde humana, o interesse nos probióticos vem crescendo cada vez mais. Os autores visaram analisar a última literatura a respeito dos probióticos, de definições a benefícios clínicos com ênfase nas crianças. FONTES DOS DADOS: Foi analisada a literatura relevante de pesquisas do PubMed, do CINAHL e dos últimos consensos. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Apesar de um equilíbrio no microbioma estar relacionado à saúde, um desequilíbrio no microbioma ou disbiose está relacionado a vários problemas de saúde no trato gastrointestinal, como diarreia e doença inflamatória intestinal, e fora do trato gastrointestinal, como obesidade e alergia. Nesse contexto, a regulamentação rigorosa dos probióticos a alegações de saúde é urgente, pois a grande maioria desses produtos é comercializada como alimentação (suplementos), alegando benefícios à saúde que frequentemente não são comprovados com evidências clinicamente relevantes. As principais indicações de probióticos são feitas na área da prevenção e tratamento de doenças gastrointestinais, porém mais dados têm sido disponibilizados a respeito de indicações extraintestinais. Pelo menos dois ensaios clínicos controlados e randomizados publicados com o probiótico comercializado na indicação declarada são a condição mínima antes de uma afirmação poder ser mantida. Atualmente, o Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG e Saccharomyces boulardii são as melhores cepas estudadas. Apesar de efeitos adversos terem sido esporadicamente relatados, os probióticos podem ser considerados seguros. CONCLUSÕES: Apesar de a regulamentação estar aumentando, ainda são necessárias definições mais rigorosas. As evidências de benefícios clínicos estão aumentando, apesar de ainda ausentes em várias áreas. O uso inadequado e a utilização de produtos não validados constituem possíveis desvantagens. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Dietary Supplements/standards , Gastrointestinal Tract/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/therapy , Saccharomyces/physiology , Bifidobacterium/physiology , Dietary Supplements/microbiology , Dermatitis, Atopic/prevention & control , Diarrhea/prevention & control , Diarrhea/therapy , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/physiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/prevention & control
14.
Cad. saúde pública ; 30(10): 2101-2111, 10/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-727727

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of rotavirus vaccine on hospitalization rates for acute diarrhea in children younger than 5 years old after the introduction of the vaccine in 2006. A descriptive analytical observational study was carried out of the hospitalization rates occurred between 2000 and 2011 in 22 Regional Health Centers of Paraná State, Brazil. The effect of the vaccine was assessed by applying the SARIMA/Box-Jenkins time series methodology of intervention analysis, which allows verifying the slopes of the series are different after the introduction of the vaccine and estimating the magnitude of these effects for children younger than five years of age, by age group, for each region center. It was verified a statistically significant reduction by center/month on hospitalization rates for children 1 year old and younger, with averages of 47% and 58%, respectively, in December 2011.


O objetivo desse estudo é investigar o impacto da vacina do rotavírus nas taxas de internação por diarreia aguda em crianças menores de cinco anos após a introdução da vacina em 2006. Foi realizado um estudo analítico observacional descritivo das taxas de hospitalização ocorridas entre 2000 e 2011, em 22 Centros Regionais de Saúde do Estado do Paraná, Brasil. O efeito da vacina foi avaliado por séries temporais aplicando a metodologia SARIMA/Box-Jenkins com análise da intervenção, a qual permite verificar que os declives das séries são diferentes após a introdução da vacina, bem como estimar a magnitude desses efeitos para crianças menores de cinco anos de idade, por faixa etária, para cada região. Verificou-se redução estatisticamente significativa por centro/mês nas taxas de internação por diarreia aguda para as crianças menores de 1 ano de idade e de 1 ano de idade, com médias de 47% e 58%, respectivamente, em dezembro de 2011.


El objetivo de este estudio es investigar el impacto de la vacuna contra el rotavirus en las tasas de hospitalización, relacionadas con diarrea aguda en niños menores de 5 años, después de que se introdujese la vacuna en 2006. Se trata de un estudio observacional, analítico descriptivo de las tasas de hospitalización acaecidas entre 2000 y 2011 en 22 centros regionales de salud del estado de Paraná, Brasil. El efecto de la vacuna se evaluó mediante la aplicación de la serie de tiempo SARIMA/metodología de Box-Jenkins de análisis de intervención, lo que demuestra que los declives de las series son diferentes después de la introducción de la vacuna, con el fin de estimar la magnitud de estos efectos en los niños menores 5 años de edad, por grupos de edad para cada región. Se ha encontrado una reducción estadísticamente significativa de centro/mes en las tasas de hospitalización para niños menores de 1 año de edad y de 1 año de edad, con un promedio de 47% y 58%, respectivamente, en diciembre de 2011.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Diarrhea/prevention & control , Gastroenteritis/prevention & control , Rotavirus Infections/prevention & control , Rotavirus Vaccines/administration & dosage , Acute Disease , Brazil , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/virology , Gastroenteritis/epidemiology , Gastroenteritis/virology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology
15.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 34(1): 79-91, ene.-mar. 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-708892

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El déficit de zinc es común en niños de poblaciones en desarrollo. La deficiencia de zinc altera el sistema inmunológico y la resistencia a las infecciones. Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de dos compuestos de zinc en la prevención de la infección respiratoria y la diarrea agudas. Materiales y métodos. Se llevó a cabo un ensayo comunitario triple ciego en 301 niños entre dos y cinco años de edad de centros infantiles de Medellín. Fueron seis conglomerados distribuidos aleatoriamente en tres grupos de intervención que recibieron zinc aminoquelado, sulfato de zinc y placebo durante cinco días de la semana a lo largo de 16 semanas. Se evaluaron diariamente los síntomas de infección respiratoria, diarrea aguda y efectos secundarios. Resultados. La incidencia de la infección respiratoria fue menor con el zinc aminoquelado (1,42 por 1.000 días-niño) comparado con el sulfato de zinc (1,57 por 1.000 días-niño) (RR=0,90, IC 95% : 0,382 a 2,153 , p=0,999) y con el placebo (3,3 por 1.000 días-niño) ( RR=0,43, IC 95% : 0,196 a 0,950 , p=0,049). La incidencia de diarrea aguda con el zinc aminoquelado (0,15 por 1.000 días-niño) fue menor que con el sulfato de zinc (1,18 0,78 por 1.000 días-niño) (RR=0,20, IC 95% : 0,0043 a 1,662, p=0,361) y que la del grupo placebo (0,49 por 1.000 días-niño) (RR=0,32, IC 95% : 0,006 a 3,990 , p=0,346). Conclusiones. El zinc aminoquelado tuvo mejor efecto en la disminución de la incidencia de la infección respiratoria y la diarrea agudas en niños preescolares comparado con los otros grupos de estudio.


Introduction: Zinc deficiency is common in children among populations in developing areas. Zinc deficiency alters the immune system and the resistance to infections. Objective: To evaluate the effect of two zinc compounds in the prevention of acute respiratory infection and acute diarrhea. Materials and methods: Randomized triple-blind community trial with 301 children between 2-5 years of age from six child daycare centers in Medellin, Colombia. Children were distributed in three groups receiving zinc amino acid chelate, zinc sulfate and placebo five days a week for 16 weeks. Daily symptoms of respiratory infection, acute diarrhea and side effects were evaluated. Results: The incidence of respiratory infection was lower with zinc amino acid chelate (1.42 per 1,000 child-days) compared with placebo (3.3 per 1,000 child-days) (RR=0.43, 95% CI: 0.196 to 0.950, p=0.049) and with zinc sulfate (1.57 per 1,000 child-days) (RR=0.90, 95% CI 0.382 to 2.153, p=0.999). The incidence of acute diarrhea with zinc amino acid chelate (0.15 per 1,000 child-days) was lower than with placebo (0.49 per 1,000 child-days) (RR=0.32, 95% CI 0.006 to 3.990, p=0.346) and with zinc sulfate (0.78 per 1,000 child-days) (RR=0.20, 95% CI: 0.0043 to 1.662, p=0.361). Conclusions: Zinc amino acid chelate had a better effect in reducing the incidence of acute respiratory infection and acute diarrhea in preschool children when compared with the other groups.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Chelating Agents/therapeutic use , Deficiency Diseases/complications , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Zinc Compounds/therapeutic use , Zinc Sulfate/therapeutic use , Zinc/deficiency , Child Day Care Centers , Double-Blind Method , Diarrhea/etiology , Incidence , Respiratory Tract Infections/etiology
16.
Assiut Medical Journal. 2014; 38 (1): 31-54
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-154198

ABSTRACT

This study was carried out to investigate the possible existence of these emerging pathogens and the parasitic profile in stool samples in the district city of Lahaj, Yemen. All stool samples submitted to the Microbiology and Parasitological departments of the Ibn-Koldon Hospital in Lahaj Governorate, and Faculty of Education Aden laboratory within the period of the January - June 2012. Fecal parasites were identified according to the standard ufpurasitological methods. Stool samples were cultured for bacterial pathogens and colonies morphologically, were further identified based on appropriate biochemical reactions and the results were confirmed by using HIMEDIA[TM[Biochemical Test Kit. Samples in which fungi grown on Sabouraud dextrose media were inoculated to corn meal agar, fungi were typed according to the morphological appearance under the microscope. Microscopic identification showed 90/686 [13.1%], 25 [3.6%], 11 [1.6%] and 4 [0.6%] respectively infections by parasitic diarrhea! infection [protozoa and worms], bacteria, fungus and unknown agents among the 686 [100.0%]patients who had provided a slool specimen. The parasites demonstrated were A. lumbricoides [17], Amebea spp., [6], Ikilanriciiuin coli [1], Cryptosporidium spp., [10], E. histolytica [50], E. vermicularis [6], Entunweha coli [5], F. hepatica [1], G. lamblia [17], If. nana [3], Hookworm[7], Schisjosoma spp., [2], and T. trichiura [6]. The lowest number of patients with parasitic protozoa and worms found in January 7 [6.2%] cases, and the highest number of patients with parasitic protozoa and worms found in June with 23 [41.8%] cases. Males showed a slightly higher infection rate [51.1% 46/90] than females 48.9% [44/90]. There was a predominance of single infection 55/90 [61.1%] in relation to multiple infections 35/90 [38.9%]. The incidence of parasitic diarrheal infection was highest [45.6% 41/90] in the age group II to 20 years and the lowest incidence was seen in the age group 31 to 40 years [0.0%]. The rate of infection by E. histolytica 49/134 [36.7%] and G. lamblia 17/134 [12.69%], were higher in parasitic diarrheal infection compared to the other age groups. Blood was collected from the patients and examined by ELISA test for the detection of IgG in the serum, only 73.46% [36/49] samples were positive for E. histolytica and 13 were negative. The most often isolated microorganisms in diarrheal patients were E. coli 14 [56.0%], and S. uureus, Citrobacter spp,, S. typhi and Campilobcter spp., were found in lower percentage each one 4.0%. Distributed of 11 fungi isolated were C. albicans 9 [81.8%] and C. tropicalis 2[18.2%]. The prevalence study revealed a high prevalence of parasites [E. histolytica, G. tciinhlia and A. lumbricoides and of bacteria diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli finally C. a/bicans] as the predominant cause of diarrheal infection in this region of the country. These microbes should therefore he considered when designing preventive strategies for people living in this district


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Entamoeba histolytica , Ascaris lumbricoides , Escherichia coli Infections , Diarrhea/prevention & control , Prevalence
17.
Rev. salud bosque ; 4(1): 75-90, 2014. mapas, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-772941

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes. Las enfermedades diarreicas y el dengue son graves problemas de salud pública a nivel global. Cuando el suministro de agua potable es inadecuado, el almacenamiento de agua es crucial. La contaminación fecal del agua almacenada es una fuente común de las enfermedades diarreicas y, al mismo tiempo, el agua almacenada proporciona criaderos para los mosquitos vectores del dengue. Un manejo deficiente del agua doméstica y del saneamiento son, por lo tanto, determinantes potenciales de ambas enfermedades. Poco se sabe de la importancia del agua almacenada para el riesgo combinado de la diarrea y el dengue, sin embargo, una intervención compartida podría ser importante para el desarrollo de esfuerzos en gestión y control integrado. Aun menos conocidos son los efectos de un control integrado de estas enfermedades en los entornos escolares. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar si las intervenciones contra la diarrea y el dengue reducían significativamente las enfermedades diarreicas y los factores de riesgo entomológico de dengue, en las escuelas primarias rurales de dos municipios de Cundinamarca. Metodología y diseño. Se trata de un ensayo por conglomerados, factorial de 2 x 2, controlado y de asignación aleatoria. Las instituciones elegibles fueron las escuelas rurales de los municipios de La Mesa y Anapoima en el departamento de Cundinamarca. Los estudiantes elegibles fueron los niños de las escuelas de los grados 0 a 5. Las escuelas fueron asignadas aleatoriamente a uno de los cuatro grupos del estudio: intervenciones de diarrea, intervenciones de dengue, las dos intervenciones, diarrea y dengue, y control. Las escuelas fueron estratificadas por municipio y asignadas mediante un acto público al inicio del ensayo. La variable de respuesta primaria para la diarrea fue la tasa de incidencia de diarrea en los niños de las escuelas, y para dengue, la densidad de adultos hembra de Aedes aegypti por escuela. Aproximadamente...


Background: Diarrheal diseases and dengue fever are major global health problems. Where provision of clean water is inadequate, water storage is crucial. Fecal contamination of stored water is a common source of diarrheal illness, but stored water also provides breeding sites for dengue vector mosquitoes. Poor household water management and sanitation are therefore potential determinants of both diseases. Little is known of the role of stored water for the combined risk of diarrhea and dengue, yet a joint role would be important for developing integrated control and management efforts. Even less is known of the effect of integrating control of these diseases in school settings. The objective of this trial was to investigate whether interventions against diarrhea and dengue will significantly reduce diarrheal disease and dengue entomological risk factors in rural primary schools. Methods/design: This is a 2×2 factorial cluster randomized controlled trial. Eligible schools were rural primary schools in La Mesa and Anapoima municipalities, Cundinamarca, Colombia. Eligible pupils were school children in grades 0 to 5. Schools were randomized to one of four study arms: diarrhea interventions (DIA); dengue interventions (DEN); combined diarrea and dengue interventions (DIADEN); and control (C). Schools were allocated publicly in each municipality (strata) at the start of the trial, obviating the need for allocation concealment. The primary outcome for diarrea is incidence rate of diarrhea in school children and for dengue it is density of adult female Aedes aegypti per school. Approximately 800 pupils from 34 schools were enrolled in the trial with eight schools in the DIA arm, nine in the DEN, eight in the DIADEN, and nine in the control arms. The trial was funded by the Research Council of Norway and the Lazos de Calandaima Foundation. Discussion: This is the first trial investigating...


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Aedes/virology , Dengue/prevention & control , Diarrhea/prevention & control , Risk Factors , School Health Services , School Health Services , Colombia , Dengue/ethnology , Vector Control
18.
Rev. cuba. hig. epidemiol ; 51(3): 311-319, sep.-dic. 2013.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-699702

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: realizar la investigación epidemiológica de terreno acerca de la aparición de casos de diarreas agudas acuosas profusas y el control epidemiológico correspondiente. Métodos: se efectuó el análisis del brote de esta enfermedad con la participación del personal de salud cubano que laboraba en la comuna de Mirebalais, y se intercambiaron informaciones y criterios con el Director Departamental de Salud de Haití. Con toda la información recopilada, se comenzó la investigación epidemiológica de este evento de salud que estaba ocurriendo. Se elaboró la cronología de la aparición de los casos de la enfermedad en la comuna de Mirebalais, del Departamento Centro. Se inspeccionaron las áreas de hospitalización de los enfermos y se comprobó su estado clínico. Se dictaron otras medidas para la prevención y el control de otros casos similares. Fueron visitados, inspeccionados y analizados por el equipo de investigación cubano los asentamientos donde aparecieron casos o fallecidos por el evento epidemiológico y se efectuó la investigación ambiental en el terreno. Resultados: la rápida y oportuna alerta emitida por la brigada médica cubana sobre el aumento inusual de casos de diarreas agudas acuosas profusas permitió realizar la investigación y establecer las medidas para la prevención y el control del brote epidemiológico por el equipo de investigación cubano. Conclusiones: Al equipo médico cubano le corresponde el mérito de haber identificado precozmente el verdadero lugar donde se originaron y aparecieron los primeros casos de la epidemia de cólera en Haití.


Objective: The purpose of this study was to conduct field epidemiological research into the appearance of profuse acute watery diarrhea and the corresponding epidemiological control. Methods: An analysis was made of the outbreak of this disease with the participation of Cuban health personnel working in the commune of Mirebalais. Data and criteria were exchanged with the Haitian Departmental Director of Health. When all the required information had been gathered, the epidemiological research started. A chronology was developed of the occurrence of cases of the disease in the commune of Mirebalais, in the Central Department. Hospitalization areas were inspected and their clinical status checked. Other measures were instructed aimed at the prevention and control of similar cases. The Cuban research team visited, inspected and examined the settlements with cases or deaths caused by the epidemiological event, and a field environmental analysis was conducted. Results: The swift and timely alert issued by the Cuban medical brigade about the unusual increase in cases of profuse acute watery diarrhea made it possible to conduct the research and adopt the measures required to prevent and control the epidemiological outbreak. Conclusions: The Cuban research team had the merit of identifying at an early stage the origin and the true place where the first cholera cases appeared during the Haiti epidemic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/prevention & control , Environmental Research/methods , Environmental Research/prevention & control
19.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 89(3): 286-293, maio-jun. 2013. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-679309

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Avaliar a incidência de doenças diarreicas (DA) e infecção respiratória aguda (IRA) em crianças submetidas à suplementação de zinco e outros micronutrientes através dos sprinkles, bem como a aceitação destes pelos participantes. MÉTODO: Ensaio clínico, duplo cego, randomizado, realizado com 143 crianças institucionalizadas, saudáveis, de seis a 48 meses. As mesmas foram randomizadas em dois grupos e receberam diariamente zinco + micronutrientes - grupo teste (sprinkles), ou apenas micronutrientes sem zinco - grupo controle. As crianças foram suplementadas por 90 dias e acompanhadas quanto aos desfechos de DA e IRA. RESULTADOS: Das crianças randomizadas, 52,45% pertenciam ao grupo teste e 47,55% ao controle. A incidência de DA no teste foi de 14,7%, e no controle, 19,1%. O grupo teste apresentou menor risco de desenvolver DA em relação ao controle, porém esse achado não foi estatisticamente significante (RR = 0,77 [0,37-1,6]; p = 0,5088). A IRA apresentou incidência elevada em ambos os grupos, sendo 60% no teste e 48,5% no controle, com risco maior de apresentar a doença no grupo teste, porém sem significância estatística (RR=1,24 [0,91-1,68]; p = 0,1825). Quanto à aceitação, o percentual médio de consumo, em dias, de todo conteúdo dos sachês contendo sprinkles foi 95,72% (DP = 4,9) e 96,4% (DP = 6,2), para o teste e controle, respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES: A suplementação de zinco através dos sprinkles não reduziu a incidência de DA ou IRA entre as crianças avaliadas. Os sprinkles foram bem aceitos por todos os participantes do estudo.


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence of diarrheal disease (DD) and acute respiratory infection (ARI) in children undergoing supplementation of zinc and other micronutrients through the use of sprinkles, as well as their acceptance by these participants. METHOD: This was a randomized double-blinded clinical trial of 143 healthy institutionalized children, aged 6 to 48 months. They were randomized into two groups and received daily zinc and micronutrients - test group (sprinkles), or micronutrients without zinc - control group. Children were supplemented for 90 days and followed regarding the outcomes of DD and ARI. RESULTS: Of the randomized children, 52.45% belonged to the test and 47.55% to the control group. The incidence of DD in the test group was 14.7% and was 19.1% in the control group. The test group showed a lower risk of developing DD when compared to controls, but this finding was not statistically significant (RR = 0.77 [0.37 to 1.6], p = 0.5088). ARI had high incidence in both groups, 60% in the test group and 48.5% in the control group, with an increased risk of developing the disease in the test group, but with no statistical significance (RR = 1.24 [0.91 to 1.68], p = 0.1825). Regarding acceptance, the mean percentage of consumption, in days, of the entire content of the sachets containing sprinkles was 95.72% (SD = 4.9) and 96.4% (SD = 6.2) for the test and control groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Zinc supplementation through the use of sprinkles did not reduce the incidence of DD or ARI among the evaluated children. The sprinkles were well accepted by all study participants.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Child, Institutionalized , Dietary Supplements , Diarrhea/prevention & control , Micronutrients/administration & dosage , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Zinc/administration & dosage , Zinc/deficiency , Child, Institutionalized/statistics & numerical data , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Dietary Supplements/adverse effects , Dietary Supplements/classification , Epidemiologic Methods , Food, Preserved/adverse effects , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology
20.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 50(1): 56-63, Jan-Mar/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-671331

ABSTRACT

Context Glutamine is the main source of energy of the enterocyte and diarrhea and weight loss are frequent in HIV infected patients. Objective To determine the effect of alanyl-glutamine supplementation on intestinal permeability and absorption in these patients. Methods Randomized double-blinded, placebo-controlled study using isonitrogenous doses of alanyl-glutamine (24 g/day) and placebo (glycine, 25 g/day) during 10 days. Before and after this nutritional supplementation lactulose and mannitol urinary excretion were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Results Forty six patients with HIV/AIDS, 36 of whom were male, with 37.28 ± 3 (mean ± standard error) years were enrolled. Twenty two and 24 subjects were treated with alanyl-glutamine and with glycine respectively. In nine patients among all in the study protocol that reported diarrhea in the 14 days preceding the beginning of the study, mannitol urinary excretion was significantly lower than patients who did not report this symptom [median (range): 10.51 (3.01–19.75) vs. 15.37 (3.93–46.73); P = 0.0281] and lactulose/mannitol ratio was significantly higher [median (range): 0.04 (0.00–2.89) vs. 0.02 (0.00–0.19); P = 0.0317]. There was also a significant increase in mannitol urinary excretion in the group treated with alanyl-glutamine [median (range): 14.38 (8.25–23.98) before vs 21.24 (6.27–32.99) after treatment; n = 14, P = 0.0382]. Conclusion Our results suggest that the integrity and intestinal absorption are more intensely affected in patients with HIV/AIDS who recently have had diarrhea. Additionally, nutritional supplementation with alanyl-glutamine was associated with an improvement in intestinal absorption. .


Contexto A glutamina é a principal fonte de energia do enterócito e diarreia e perda de peso são frequentes em pacientes infectados pelo HIV. Objetivo Determinar o efeito da alanil-glutamina sobre a permeabilidade e a absorção intestinais nesses pacientes. Métodos Estudo duplo-cego, randomizado, controlado por placebo, utilizando doses isonitrogênicas de alanil-glutamina (24 g/dia) e de placebo (glicina, 25 g/dia) durante 10 dias. Antes e depois dessa suplementação nutricional a excreção urinária de lactulose e manitol foi determinada por cromatografia líquida de alta performance. Resultados Quarenta e seis pacientes com HIV/AIDS, sendo 36 do sexo masculino, com 37,28 ± 3 anos (média ± erro padrão) foram incluídos. Vinte e dois e 24 indivíduos foram tratados com alanil-glutamina e com glicina, respectivamente. Nos nove pacientes que relataram ter apresentado diarreia nos 14 dias anteriores ao início do estudo, a excreção urinária de manitol foi significativamente menor do que nos pacientes que não referiram essa queixa [mediana (intervalo): 10,51 (3,01-19,75) vs 15,37 (3,93-46,73), P = 0,0281] e a razão lactulose/manitol foi significativamente mais elevada [mediana (intervalo): 0,04 (0,00-2,89) vs 0,02 (0,00-0,19), P = 0,0317]. Constatou-se também aumento significativo na excreção urinária de manitol no grupo tratado com alanil-glutamina [mediana (intervalo): 14,38 (8,25-23,98), antes vs 21,24 (6,27-32,99) após o tratamento, n = 14, P = 0,0382]. Conclusão Os resultados do presente estudo sugerem que a integridade e a absorção intestinais são mais intensamente afetadas em pacientes com HIV/AIDS que tiveram diarreia recentemente. Adicionalmente, a suplementação ...


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Dietary Supplements , Diarrhea/prevention & control , Dipeptides/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/metabolism , Intestinal Absorption/drug effects , Intestinal Mucosa/drug effects , Double-Blind Method , Diarrhea/etiology , HIV Infections/complications , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Permeability , Prospective Studies
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL