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Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(1): 46-: I-53, III, feb 2022. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1353491


Introducción. El tratamiento de la diarrea aguda se basa en prevenir la deshidratación, reducir la duración y gravedad de la enfermedad. El objetivo fue conocer los patrones de tratamiento ambulatorio de la diarrea aguda en <5 años. Métodos. Estudio observacional, analítico, mediante encuestas autoadministradas a pediatras de un hospital de niños de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires. Se indagó: edad, sexo, lugar de trabajo, fuentes bibliográficas, indicación de tratamientos farmacológicos, no farmacológicos y medidas de prevención e higiene. Se evaluó la asociación entre prescripciones farmacológicas y características de los encuestados. Resultados. Respondieron 182/216 pediatras; la edad media fue 42,4 ± 10,24 años (el 78,6 %, mujeres); el 59,2 %, del sector público; el 22,4 %, de servicios de guardia. El 91,2 % consultaba guías/consensos. El 92,9 % prescribió fórmulas de rehidratación oral; el 46,2 %, antieméticos; el 43,4 %, antiácidos y/o protectores gástricos; el 35,7 %, probióticos, y el 30,7 %, cinc. El 91,7 % indicó realimentación precoz; el 96,7 %, lactancia materna y el 96-100 %, medidas de prevención e higiene. En el análisis multivariado, tener >40 años se asoció con prescribir antiácidos/protectores gástricos (odds ratio [OR] 2,6; 1,22-5,61), probióticos (OR 3,03; 1,34-6,83) y cinc (OR 0,39; 0,17-0,87); trabajar en el sector privado con prescribir probióticos (OR 3,05; 1,56-5,94) y en servicios de guardia, con prescribir antiácidos/ protectores gástricos (OR 2,60; 1,22-5,54). Conclusiones. El tratamiento se basó principalmente en hidratación, alimentación precoz y lactancia. La edad y el lugar de desempeño de los pediatras modifican el patrón de prescripción.

Introduction. The management of acute diarrhea is based on preventing dehydration and reducing disease duration and severity. The study objective was to establish the patterns for the outpatient management of acute diarrhea in children younger than 5 years. Methods. Observational, analytical study using a self-administered survey among pediatricians from a children's hospital in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires. Age, sex, place of work, bibliographic sources, indication of drug and non-drug therapies, and preventive and hygiene measures were recorded. The association between drug prescription and the characteristics of surveyed pediatricians was assessed. Results. In total, 182/216 pediatricians completed the survey. Their mean age was 42.4 ± 10.24 years; 78.6% were females; 59.2% worked in the public sector; 22.4% worked in the emergency department; and 91.2% consulted guidelines and/or consensuses. Also, 92.9% prescribed oral rehydration solutions; 46.2%, antiemetics; 43.4%, antacids and/or gastric protectors; 35.7%, probiotics; and 30.7%, zinc. Early food reintroduction was indicated by 91.7%; breastfeeding, by 96.7%; and preventive and hygiene measures, by 96-100%. The multivariate analysis showed an association between age > 40 years and prescribing antacids/ gastric protectors (odds ratio [OR]: 2.6; 1.22-5.61), probiotics (OR: 3.03; 1.34-6.83), and zinc (OR: 0.39; 0.17-0.87); between working in the private sector and prescribing probiotics (OR: 3.05; 1.565.94); and between working in the emergency department and prescribing antacids/gastric protectors (OR: 2.60; 1.22-5.54). Conclusions. Treatment was mainly based on hydration, early food reintroduction, and breastfeeding. Age and work sector affected the prescription pattern.

Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Adult , Middle Aged , Outpatients , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Pediatricians/psychology , Diarrhea/prevention & control , Diarrhea/therapy , Hospitals, Pediatric
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939510


OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of moxibustion on the regulation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and inflammatory factors by multiple microRNAs (miRNAs) in rats with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D), and to explore the anti-inflammatory mechanism of moxibustion on IBS-D.@*METHODS@#Twelve of 52 newborn rats were randomly selected into a normal group. The remaining rats were made into IBS-D model. A total of 36 rats with successful model were randomly divided into a model group, a medication group and a moxibustion group, 12 rats in each group. The rats in the medication group were intraperitoneally injected with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC). The rats in the moxibustion group were treated with moxibustion at "Tianshu" (ST 25) and "Shangjuxu" (ST 37) for 20 min each time. All the intervention was given once a day for 7 days. Before and after modeling as well as after intervention, the body mass, loose stool rate and the minimum volume threshold of abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) were measured. After intervention, the contents of serum tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-8 were detected by ELISA method; the morphology of colon tissues was observed by HE staining, and the expressions of miR-155, miR-125b, miR-29b, miR-31, miR-18a and NF-κB p65 mRNA in colon tissues were detected by real-time PCR. The expressions of NF-κB p65, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-8 protein in colon tissues were detected by immunofluorescence.@*RESULTS@#After modeling, the body mass and the minimum volume threshold of AWR in the model group were lower than those in the normal group (P<0.01); the rates of loose stool in the model group were higher than those in the normal group (P<0.01); after intervention, in the model group, the inflammatory infiltration of colon tissues was obvious, and the serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1 β, IL-8 were higher than those in the normal group (P<0.05); the expression of miR-155, miR-125b, miR-29b, miR-31, miR-18a and NF-κB p65 mRNA in colon tissues was higher than that in the normal group (P<0.05); the protein expression of NF-κB p65, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8 was also higher than that in the normal group (P<0.01). After intervention, the body mass and the minimum volume threshold of AWR in the medication group and the moxibustion group were both higher than those in the model group (P<0.05); the loose stool rate in the medication group and the moxibustion group were lower than those in model group (P<0.05); the inflammatory cells infiltration in the colon tissues was less, the serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-8 as well as the protein expression of NF-κB p65, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-8 in the colon tissues in the medication group and the moxibustion group were lower than those in the model group (P<0.05, P<0.01). The expression of miR-125b, miR-31, miR-18a and NF-κB p65 mRNA in the medication group were lower than those in the model group (P<0.05). The expression of miR-155, miR-125b, miR-29b, miR-31, miR-18a and NF-κB p65 mRNA in the moxibustion group were lower than those in the model group (P<0.05). The miR-155, miR-125b, miR-29b, miR-31, miR-18a were positively correlated with NF-κB p65 mRNA (0<r<1, P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#The anti-inflammatory mechanism of moxibustion at "Tianshu" (ST 25) and "Shangjuxu" (ST 37) for IBS-D rats may be related to regulating multiple miRNAs to inhibit NF-κB signal pathway and reduce the expression of inflammatory factors.

Animals , Rats , Diarrhea/therapy , Interleukin-8/genetics , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/therapy , MicroRNAs/genetics , Moxibustion , NF-kappa B/metabolism , RNA, Messenger , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927356


Professor CHU Hao-ran believes that the clinical diagnosis and treatment of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome with acupuncture and moxibustion should concentrate on the integration of disease and syndrome differentiation. According to the evolution of pathogenesis, this disease is divided into 4 stages, i.e. invasion of exogenous pathogens, liver stagnation and spleen deficiency, spleen and kidney yang deficiency and interaction of cold and heat. Hence, the treatment should be provided by stages. Focusing on regulating the spleen and stomach, a specific acupuncture-moxibustion prescription is proposed, including Tianshu (ST 25), Zhongwan (CV 12), Zusanli (ST 36) and Shangjuxu (ST 37). Additionally, the combination of distal and nearby acupoints is considered and an unique needling manipulation, named the fight between dragon and tiger, is exerted. On the base of syndrome and meridian differentiation, the modern medicine is combined, stressing on the mind regulation and the mutual application of acupuncture and moxibustion in treatment. Eventually, a distinctive treatment system with acupuncture and moxibustion is formed for "regulating the spleen and stomach and differentiating meridians".

Humans , Acupuncture , Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Diarrhea/therapy , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/therapy , Meridians , Moxibustion
Rev. Soc. Clín. Med ; 20(1): 22-27, 202203.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1428635


Background: The treatment of Clostridioides difficile is based on an antibiotics cycle, but for individuals who have more than two recurrences, fecal microbiota transplantation can be considered as a therapeutic option. Objective: To describe the technique and results of fecal microbiota transplantation performed for recurrent infection by Clostridioides difficile. Methods: Retrospective, cross-sectional study based on a review of medical records of patients undergoing transplantation of fecal microbiota. Data were obtained on the criteria used to select the donor, the preparation of stools in the laboratory and the method of delivery of the material offered, as well as information regarding the characteristics of the recipient, such as: gender, age, comorbidities, hospitalizations, use of antibiotics prior to infection, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatments performed for Clostridioides difficile. After transplantation, data on efficacy, outcome, follow-up time and procedure complications were considered. Results: Between 2012 and 2019, 11 patients underwent fecal microbiota transplantation. The use of antibiotics prior to infection occurred in 9 patients, no patient was hospitalized in the previous 6 months due to another etiology. All had at least 2 cycles of vancomycin for recurrent disease. Of the total of 11 patients, 2 required 2 infusions and 1 patient required 3, totaling 15 fecal microbiota transplants. The success rate was 81.8% with only one infusion and 90.9% resolution considering patients who needed more than one infusion. Conclusion: Fecal microbiota transplantation is a feasible therapy with resolution in 90.9% of cases as a treatment for recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection.

Contexto: O tratamento do Clostridioides difficile é baseado em ciclo antimicrobiano, mas para os indivíduos que apresentam mais de duas recorrências, pode-se considerar o transplante de microbiota fecal como opção terapêutica. Objetivo: Descrever a técnica e os resultados do transplante de microbiota fecal realizados para infecção recorrente por Clostridioides difficile. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo, transversal, baseado em revisão de prontuários de pacientes submetidos ao transplante de microbiota fecal. Foram obtidos dados sobre os critérios empregados para seleção do doador, o preparo das fezes e o método de entrega do material, além de informações referentes às características do receptor, como: sexo, idade, comorbidades, internamentos, uso de antimicrobiano prévio à infecção, apresentação clínica, diagnóstico e tratamentos realizados para o Clostridioides difficile. Após o transplante, dados sobre eficácia, desfecho, tempo de seguimento e complicações do procedimento foram considerados. Resultados: Entre 2012 e 2019, 11 pacientes foram submetidos ao transplante de microbiota fecal. O uso de antimicrobiano prévio à infecção ocorreu em 9 pacientes, nenhum paciente internou nos 6 meses anteriores por outra etiologia. Todos fizeram pelo menos 2 ciclos de vancomicina para doença recorrente. Do total de 11 pacientes, 2 necessitaram de 2 infusões e 1 paciente necessitou de 3, totalizando 15 transplantes de microbiota fecal. O sucesso foi de 81,8% com apenas uma infusão e resolução de 90,9% considerando pacientes que necessitaram de mais de uma infusão. Conclusão: O transplante de microbiota fecal é uma terapia factível e com resolução em 90,9% dos casos como tratamento de infecção recorrente por Clostridioides difficile.

Humans , Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections , Diarrhea/therapy , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation , Dysbiosis , Observational Study , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920997


OBJECTIVE@#To compare the clinical therapeutic effect on diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) of spleen deficiency and damp excess among fire needling therapy with filiform needle combined with acupoint application therapy, simple acupoint application therapy and pinaverium bromide tablets, and explore the mechanism on the improvements in IBS-D.@*METHODS@#A total of 150 patients with IBS-D of spleen deficiency and damp excess were randomized into a combined treatment group (50 cases, 14 cases dropped off), an acupoint application group (50 cases, 16 cases dropped off ) and a western medication group (50 cases, 13 cases dropped off ). In the western medication group, pinaverium bromide tablets were prescribed for oral administration, 50 mg per time, three times a day. In the acupoint application group, the herbal plaster of @*RESULTS@#Except the score for abdominal pain in the acupoint application group and the scores for abdominal pain and abdominal distention in the western medication group after 7 days of treatment, the scores for abdominal pain, abdominal distention, defecation frequency, stool form and incomplete bowel movement after 7 and 28 days of treatment were all reduced as compared with those before treatment in each group separately (@*CONCLUSION@#The combined treatment with the fire needling therapy with filiform needle and the acupoint application therapy effectively relieves the clinical symptoms, improves the quality of life and strengthens the immunity in the patients with IBS-D. The therapeutic effect of this combined regimen is better than either simple acupoint application therapy or the oral medication of pinaverium bromide. The mechanism may be related to the regulation of the levels of T lymphocyte subsets and the modulation of the expressions of 5-HT3R and 5-HT4R mRNA in colon tissue.

Humans , Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Diarrhea/therapy , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/therapy , Quality of Life , Spleen , Treatment Outcome
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877622


OBJECTIVE@#To compare the curative effect on diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) between acupuncture for regulating @*METHODS@#A total of 231 patients with IBS-D were randomized into an acupuncture group (154 cases) and a western medication group (77 cases) at the ratio of 2 to 1. In the acupuncture group, acupuncture was applied to acupoint regimen for regulating @*RESULTS@#After treatment and in follow-up, the total scores of IBS-SSS in the patients of the two groups were all reduced as compared with those before treatment (@*CONCLUSION@#Acupuncture for regulating

Humans , Acupuncture Therapy , Diarrhea/therapy , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/therapy , Quality of Life , Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins/genetics , Spleen , Treatment Outcome
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 23(1): e002045, 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1103172


Una mujer de 36 años, diagnosticada con síndrome de intestino irritable a predominio de diarrea (SII-D) acude a la consulta médica. Ella pregunta si el uso de probióticos sería útil para controlar los episodios de diarrea, ya que los fármacos con los que está siendo tratada no le resultan eficaces. Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica con el objetivo de en contrar evidencia en respuesta a su consulta, tras la cual se seleccionaron dos ensayos clínicos y una revisión sistemática. Se evidenciaron diversos resultados en cuanto al uso de probióticos en el SII-D y se discutieron los riesgos y beneficios del tratamiento, así como las implicancias en la vida de la paciente. (AU)

A 36-year-old woman diagnosed with diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS) goes to meet the doctor. She raises whether the use of probiotics would be useful for controlling diarrhea episodes, since the drugs which she is being treated with, are not effective. A bibliographic search was conducted with the objective of finding evidence in response toher query. Two clinical trials and a systematic review were found. Variable results were found regarding the use of probioticsin D-IBS. The risks and benefits of the treatment were discussed, as well as the implications in the patient's lifestyle. (AU)

Humans , Female , Adult , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/therapy , Diarrhea/therapy , Parasympatholytics/therapeutic use , Quality of Life , Review Literature as Topic , Abdominal Pain/therapy , Cholestyramine Resin/therapeutic use , Clinical Trials as Topic , Probiotics/administration & dosage , Probiotics/adverse effects , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/diagnosis , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/etiology , Diarrhea/complications , Duration of Therapy , Gastrointestinal Motility/immunology , Intestinal Mucosa/immunology , Loperamide/therapeutic use , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 54: 32, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094411


ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association among characteristics of primary health care center (PHCC) with hospitalizations for primary care sensitive conditions (PCSC) in Brazil. METHOD In this study, a cross-sectional ecological study was performed. This study analyzed the 27 capitals of Brazil's federative units. Data were aggregated from the following open access databases: National Program for Access and Quality Improvement in Primary Care, the Hospital Information System of Brazilian Unified Health System and Annual Population Census conducted by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. Associations were estimated among characteristics of primary care with the number of three PCSC as the leading causes of hospitalization in children under-5 population in Brazil: asthma, diarrhea, and pneumonia. RESULTS In general, PHCC showed limited structural adequacy (37.3%) for pediatric care in Brazil. The capitals in South and Southeast regions had the best structure whereas the North and Northeast had the worst. Fewer PCSC hospitalizations were significantly associated with PHCC which presented appropriate equipment (RR: 0.98; 95%CI: 0.97-0.99), structural conditions (RR: 0.98; 95%CI: 0.97-0.99), and signage/identification of professionals and facilities (RR: 0.98; 95%CI: 0.97-0.99). Higher PCSC hospitalizations were significantly associated with PHCC with more physicians (RR: 1.23, 95%CI: 1.02-1.48), it forms (RR: 1.01, 95%CI: 1.01-1.02), and more medications (RR: 1.02, 95%CI: 1.01-1.03) CONCLUSION Infrastructural adequacy of PHCC was associated with less PCSC hospitalizations, while availability medical professional and medications were associated with higher PCSC hospitalizations.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia/therapy , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Asthma/therapy , Asthma/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Diarrhea/therapy , Diarrhea/epidemiology
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(4): 291-294, ago. 2019. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040525


La diarrea por Clostridium difficile es reconocida de manera creciente en pacientes hospitalizados y se asocia con alta mortalidad. La vancomicina por vía enteral es el tratamiento antibiótico recomendado para las diferentes formas, incluso las más graves. Sin embargo, un grupo pequeño de pacientes desarrolla formas refractarias a ese tratamiento y no existen esquemas antibióticos alternativos recomendados para estos casos. El trasplante de microbiota fecal ha demostrado ser exitoso en una serie de casos de diarrea grave asociada a este microorganismo. Presentamos un caso de diarrea refractaria por C. difficile que fue tratada con éxito con una infusión de microbiota fecal.

Clostridium difficile infection is an increasingly recognized cause of diarrhea in inpatients, frequently associated to high mortality. Vancomycin is the treatment of choice for all Clostridium difficile- associated diarrheas, with different degrees of severity. However, some patients develop refractory forms to that treatment and there are no alternative antibiotic schemes recommended for these cases. Fecal microbiota transplantation has been shown to be successful in a series of cases of severe diarrhea associated with this organism. We present a case of refractory C. difficile infection successfully treated with fecal microbiota transplantation.

Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections/therapy , Diarrhea/therapy , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation , Treatment Outcome , Clostridium Infections/complications , Diarrhea/microbiology
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 41: e8, 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-845713


ABSTRACT Objective Diarrhea remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality for children in low- and middle-income countries throughout the Americas. The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed guidelines on incorporating zinc supplementation (ZS) with traditional oral rehydration therapy (ORT) in order to shorten the duration of diarrheal episodes and to reduce poor health outcomes. Guatemala adopted these guidelines in 2011, but they have not yet been fully implemented at the community level. The objectives of this study were: (1) to co-design an ORT/ZS training program for community members with local health promoters that is appropriate to the local context and (2) to understand how attitudes and behaviors of community members changed after receiving training from the study promoters. Methods In an observational study, community health promoters in rural Guatemala were trained according to WHO guidelines, and they worked collaboratively with the study team to develop a training curriculum to implement in their community. Community-based surveys, interviews, and focus group discussions were used to assess acceptability, accessibility, and availability of oral rehydration therapy and zinc supplementation. Results Use of ORT increased from 63% to 95% among community members following training by local health promoters. Satisfaction with the service offered by health promoters increased from 63% to 90% amongst community members trained by the study promoters. However, knowledge and use of zinc supplementation remained low, which was attributable to unavailability of zinc in the study community. Conclusions Use of trained community health promoters is an effective way to translate WHO guidelines to local contexts and overcome sociocultural barriers to care. However, the health system’s structure must support availability of essential medicines in order to effectively implement those guidelines.

RESUMEN Objetivo La diarrea sigue siendo una de las causas principales de morbilidad y mortalidad en los niños de países de ingresos bajos y medianos en toda la Región de las Américas. La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) ha formulado directrices relativas a la incorporación de los suplementos de cinc al tratamiento tradicional de rehidratación oral (TRO) para acortar la duración de los episodios diarreicos y disminuir los resultados deficientes en materia de salud. Guatemala adoptó estas directrices en el 2011, pero todavía no se las aplica plenamente a nivel de la comunidad. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron: 1) codiseñar un programa de capacitación sobre el TRO y los suplementos de cinc dirigido a los miembros de la comunidad por intermedio de promotores locales de salud que sea apropiado para el contexto local y 2) comprender cómo las actitudes y los comportamientos de los miembros de la comunidad cambiaron después de recibir la capacitación de los promotores que formaban parte del estudio. Métodos Como parte de un estudio de observación, se capacitó a un grupo de promotores comunitarios de salud en zonas rurales de Guatemala sobre las directrices de la OMS, quienes trabajaron conjuntamente con el equipo del estudio para elaborar un programa de capacitación que se ejecutaría en su comunidad. Se usaron encuestas, entrevistas y debates con grupos de sondeo en las comunidades para evaluar la aceptabilidad, accesibilidad y disponibilidad del tratamiento de rehidratación oral y la administración de suplementos de cinc. Resultados El uso de la TRO aumentó de 63% a 95% entre los miembros de la comunidad después de la capacitación a cargo de los promotores locales de salud. La satisfacción con el servicio ofrecido por los promotores de salud aumentó de 63% a 90% entre los miembros de la comunidad capacitados por los promotores del estudio. Sin embargo, el conocimiento y uso de los suplementos de cinc siguieron siendo bajos, lo que se atribuyó a la falta de disponibilidad de cinc en la comunidad del estudio. Conclusiones El uso de promotores comunitarios de salud capacitados es una manera eficaz de traducir las directrices de la OMS a los contextos locales y superar los obstáculos socioculturales a la atención. Sin embargo, la estructura del sistema de salud debe apoyar la disponibilidad de los medicamentos esenciales para aplicar eficazmente estas directrices.

Zinc/therapeutic use , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Dietary Supplements , Diarrhea/therapy , Fluid Therapy/trends , Guatemala
Salud pública Méx ; 58(6): 648-656, nov.-dic. 2016. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-846018


Resumen: Objetivo: Analizar las desigualdades en indicadores de atención a niños de 0 a 9 años en México, documentando los cambios en las brechas y gradientes. Material y métodos: Análisis de encuestas nacionales de salud estimando las brechas absoluta y relativa así como el gradiente de desigualdad para cuatro indicadores seleccionados (cobertura de vacunación, atención a infecciones respiratorias agudas (IRA), prácticas saludables en enfermedad diarreica aguda (EDA) y atención por accidentes). Resultados: El análisis documenta el logro de la equidad inmunológica en México y la eliminación de la brecha por condiciones socioeconómicas relacionadas con la atención a accidentes, en tanto que persiste la relacionada con la atención a IRA, misma que también persistente por ámbito de residencia y para la población indígena. Conclusión: En México han disminuido las brechas en los indicadores de salud en niños. Si bien persisten en particular para intervenciones que requieren la participación de los establecimientos de salud, es necesario dirigir acciones específicas para asegurar el acceso homogéneo en todo el país a los servicios e intervenciones.

Abstract: Objective: To analyze inequalities in health care indicators of children 0 to 9 years old in Mexico reporting gap and gradient measures. Materials and methods: Cross-sectional analysis of national health surveys in 2000, 2006 and 2012, measuring absolute and relative gap measures as well as the Slope Index of Inequality for four health care indicators (vaccination, care for acute respiratory infections, care for acute diarrheal diseases, and care for accidents) with socioeconomic stratification, as well as absolute gaps by sex, urbanicity and ethnic background. Results: Between 2000 and 2012, immunological equity was reached in Mexico, as well as elimination in the socioeconomic gap related to care for accidents; nevertheless, there is a persistent socioeconomic gap of care for acute respiratory infections that is also there regarding rural residence and indigenous population. Conclusion: In Mexico, there is a trend to the elimination of socioeconomic differences in the probability of receiving adequate health care among children, although some socioeconomic gaps remain in particular related to provision of services that require more participation of health personnel. There is a need to ensure homogenous access to effective services for all.

Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Health Surveys , Health Status Disparities , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , Socioeconomic Factors , Accidents , Cross-Sectional Studies , Vaccination , Diarrhea/therapy , Mexico
Rev. gastroenterol. Perú ; 36(4): 340-349, oct.-dic. 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-991206


Desde hace más de 70 años se conoce la asociación de diarrea con diabetes mellitus. En pacientes diabéticos su prevalencia es de alrededor del 20%. Sus manifestaciones clínicas son diversas, y representa un reto diagnóstico y terapéutico. Existen ciertos diagnósticos de mayor prevalencia en pacientes diabéticos que en la población general. Las distintas etiologías relacionadas pueden ser diagnosticadas adecuadamente a través de la historia clínica y pruebas diagnósticas complementarias. Los medicamentos utilizados por el paciente diabético para el manejo de su enfermedad, frecuentemente causan diarrea crónica, por lo que se debe profundizar en los antecedentes farmacológicos al momento de estudiar la diarrea. Los pacientes diabéticos pueden presentar otras condiciones patológicas asociadas, como enfermedad celíaca o colitis microscópica, cuya molestia única es la diarrea. La función del páncreas exocrino puede estar disminuida en el paciente diabético, frecuentemente llevando a insuficiencia pancreática exocrina. Factores dietarios, como los edulcorantes libres de azúcar y otros agentes, pueden causar diarrea en el paciente diabético. La presencia de condiciones como la neuropatía autonómica y neuropatía periférica secundarias a la diabetes mellitus, pueden explicar desordenes como la disfunción anorrectal y la incontinencia fecal. Finalmente, la enteropatía diabética per se o con sobrecrecimiento bacteriano asociado, puede causar diarrea. Lograr un control glicémico adecuado constituye el pilar del tratamiento de la diarrea en el diabético, después de esto existen medidas adicionales que se aplican según el contexto especifico del paciente. En el presente artículo se revisan las causas de mayor incidencia diarrea en el paciente diabético y los mecanismos fisiopatológicos implicados

The association of diarrhea with diabetes mellitus has been known for more than 70 years. In diabetic patients its prevalence is around 20%.Its clinical manifestations are diverse, and represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge.There are certain diagnoses of higher prevalence in diabetic patients than in the general population.The different related etiologies can be adequately diagnosed through the clinical history and complementary diagnostic tests.The medications used by the diabetic patient to manage their disease often cause chronic diarrhea, so the pharmacological background should be studied at the time of the study of diarrhea.Diabetic patients can present other associated pathological conditions, such as celiac disease or microscopic colitis, which only discomfort is diarrhea.Exocrine pancreatic function may be decreased in the diabetic patient, frequently leading to exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Dietary factors, such as sugar-free sweeteners and other agents, can cause diarrhea in the diabetic patient.The presence of conditions such as autonomic neuropathy and peripheral neuropathy secondary to diabetes mellitus may explain disorders such as anorectal dysfunction and faecal incontinence. Finally, diabetic enteropathy alone or with associated bacterial overgrowth can cause diarrhea.Achieving adequate glycemic control is the pillar of the treatment of diarrhea in the diabetic, after which there are additional measures that are applied according to the specific context of the patient.This article reviews the causes of higher diarrhea incidence in the diabetic patient and the pathophysiological mechanisms involved

Humans , Diabetes Complications/etiology , Diarrhea/etiology , Chronic Disease , Risk Factors , Diabetes Complications/diagnosis , Diabetes Complications/physiopathology , Diabetes Complications/therapy , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Diarrhea/physiopathology , Diarrhea/therapy
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 92(3,supl.1): 46-56, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787519


ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the development and prevalence of gastrointestinal signs and symptoms associated with the development of the digestive tract, and to assess the measures aimed to reduce their negative impacts. Source of data: Considering the scope and comprehensiveness of the subject, a systematic review of the literature was not carried out. The Medline database was used to identify references that would allow the analysis of the study topics. Synthesis of results: Infants frequently show several gastrointestinal signs and symptoms. These clinical manifestations can be part of gastrointestinal functional disorders such as infantile colic, infant regurgitation, and functional constipation. Allergy to cow's milk protein and gastroesophageal reflux disease are also causes of these clinical manifestations and represent an important and difficult differential diagnosis. The diseases that course with gastrointestinal signs and symptoms can have an impact on family dynamics and maternal emotional status, and may be associated with future problems in the child's life. Comprehensive pediatric care is essential for diagnosis and treatment. Maternal breastfeeding should always be maintained. Some special formulas can contribute to the control of clinical manifestations depending on the established diagnosis. Conclusion: During the normal development of the digestive tract, several gastrointestinal signs and symptoms may occur, usually resulting from functional gastrointestinal disorders, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and allergy to cow's milk protein. Breastfeeding should always be maintained.

RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar o desenvolvimento e a prevalência de sinais e sintomas gastrintestinais associados com o desenvolvimento do tubo digestivo e as medidas que visam a diminuir suas repercussões negativas. Fontes dos dados: Considerando a abrangência e amplitude do tema, não foi feita revisão sistemática da literatura. Usou-se a base de dados do Medline para a identificação de referências bibliográficas que permitissem contemplar os temas de estudo. Síntese dos resultados: O lactente apresenta com elevada frequência sinais e sintomas gastrintestinais. Essas manifestações clínicas podem fazer parte de distúrbios funcionais gastrintestinais, como cólica, regurgitação e constipação intestinal funcional. A alergia à proteína do leite de vaca e a doença do refluxo gastroesofágico também são causas dessas manifestações clínicas e representam um importante e difícil diagnóstico diferencial. As doenças que cursam com sintomas e sinais gastrintestinais podem ter consequências na dinâmica familiar e no estado emocional das mães. Podem se associar com problemas na vida futura da criança. A atenção pediátrica completa é fundamental para o diagnóstico e o tratamento. O aleitamento natural deve sempre ser mantido. Algumas fórmulas especiais podem contribuir para o controle das manifestações clínicas na dependência do diagnóstico estabelecido. Conclusão: Durante o desenvolvimento normal do tubo digestivo podem ocorrer sinais e sintomas gastrintestinais em geral decorrentes dos distúrbios gastrintestinais funcionais, da doença do refluxo gastroesofágico e da alergia à proteína do leite de vaca. Aleitamento natural deve sempre ser mantido.

Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Gastrointestinal Tract/growth & development , Gastrointestinal Tract/physiopathology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/physiopathology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/therapy , Milk Hypersensitivity/complications , Age Factors , Constipation/etiology , Constipation/physiopathology , Constipation/therapy , Crying/physiology , Diarrhea/etiology , Diarrhea/physiopathology , Diarrhea/therapy , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology
Belo Horizonte; s.n; 2016. 96 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-942598


O crescente surgimento de resistência bacteriana aos antibióticos convencionais é um grave problema que precisa ser enfrentado, seja pela descoberta de novas substâncias antimicrobianas, naturais ou sintéticas, ou através da pesquisa de terapias alternativas que sejam economicamente acessíveis. A terapia de fagos é uma dessas alternativas. Trata-se de uma forma de controle biológico, baseado em vírus específicos que infectam e destroem células bacterianas: os bacteriófagos. No entanto, esta é uma fonte terapêutica ainda pouco explorada. Esse trabalho utilizou o cultivo, isolamento e sequenciamento do genoma, além de técnicas de genômica de alto desempenho para isolar e caracterizar o genoma de bacteriófagos específicos para a linhagem enteroinvasiva de Escherichia coliATCC 43893, visando o entendimento e a definição do ciclo de infecção desses vírus (líticos ou lisogênicos).

A metodologia utilizada nessa pesquisa possibilitou o isolamento de 12 vírus. 8 diferentes linhagens virais tiveram seu material genético extraído e purificado, apresentando bom rendimento e quantidade reduzida de DNA bacteriano contaminante. O sequenciamento do genoma desses 8 vírus foi realizado usando a plataforma de nova geração MiSeq. Foi analisada a diversidade genética desses bacteriófagos e verificou-se que são vírus da ordem Caudovirales, sendo 2 da família Siphoviridae e 6 da família Myoviridae. Apenas um deles mostrou potencial de ter ciclo lisogênico, os outros sete vírus não continham nenhum gene que sugerisse isso. Entretanto, apesar dos bacteriófagos isolados não terem apresentado genes relacionados ao ciclo lisogênico, análises mais aprofundadas devem ser realizadas para comprovar que são realmente exclusivamente líticos, já que muitos não apresentam seu genoma completo e mais de 50% dos genes anotados não têm função definida

Male , Female , Humans , Bacteriophages/isolation & purification , Diarrhea/therapy , Escherichia coli/genetics , Genomics/methods
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 91(6,supl.1): S36-S43, nov.-dez. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769805


Resumo Objetivos: Descrever as recomendações atuais sobre a melhor maneira de conduzir o paciente pediátrico com doença diarreica aguda. Fonte dos dados: PubMed, Scopus, Scholar Google. Síntese dos dados: Houve pouco avanço no uso dos sais de reidratação oral (SRO) nas últimas décadas apesar de ser amplamente divulgado por meio de diretrizes internacionais. Vários estudos vêm sendo feitos na tentativa de melhorar a eficácia do SRO. Hidratação venosa com solução salina isotônica, infundida de forma rápida, deve ser indicada em casos de desidratação grave. A nutrição deve ser assegurada logo após a resolução da desidratação e é primordial para a saúde intestinal e imunológica. Restrições alimentares usualmente não são benéficas e podem ser prejudiciais. As medicações sintomáticas têm indicação restrita e antibióticos são indicados em casos específicos, cólera e shiguelose moderada a grave. Conclusões: A hidratação e a nutrição continuam a ser as intervenções com melhor impacto sobre o curso da diarreia aguda.

Abstract Objectives: To describe the current recommendations on the best management of pediatric patients with acute diarrheal disease. Data source: PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar. Data summary: There has been little progress in the use of oral rehydration salts (ORS) in recent decades, despite being widely reported by international guidelines. Several studies have been performed to improve the effectiveness of ORS. Intravenous hydration with isotonic saline solution, quickly infused, should be given in cases of severe dehydration. Nutrition should be ensured after the dehydration resolution, and is essential for intestinal and immune health. Dietary restrictions are usually not beneficial and may be harmful. Symptomatic medications have limited indication and antibiotics are indicated in specific cases, such as cholera and moderate to severe shigellosis. Conclusions: Hydration and nutrition are the interventions with the greatest impact on the course of acute diarrhea.

Child , Humans , Diarrhea/therapy , Evidence-Based Practice/standards , Fluid Therapy/standards , Rehydration Solutions/administration & dosage , Acute Disease , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Salts/administration & dosage
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 26(5): 676-686, sept. 2015. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1128587


En este artículo se enfocará la diarrea aguda del adulto desde una perspectiva clínica, incorporando definiciones básicas de epidemiología, fisiopatología, enfrentamiento clínico, estudio cuando corresponda y tratamiento. Se presentarán nuevas herramientas diagnósticas basadas en biología molecular, de reciente introducción en clínica y que han significado un aporte en casos seleccionados. Además, se enfrentan situaciones especiales como la diarrea del viajero y de los pacientes inmunocomprometidos. La diarrea asociada a antibióticos se tratará en un artículo aparte.

In this article of acute diarrhea in adults, will present from a clinical perspective, including different basic definitions from epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical approach, corresponding studies and treatment. It includes new diagnostic tools based on molecular biology, of recent use in medical practice, that have had a relevant effect in selected cases. It also includes special situations, such as traveler's diarrhea and immunosuppressed patients. We exclude from this article antibiotics-related diarrhea.

Humans , Adult , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Diarrhea/therapy , Physical Examination , Acute Disease , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Diarrhea/physiopathology , Diarrhea/microbiology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Feces/microbiology , Medical History Taking
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 26(5): 687-695, sept. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1128588


La diarrea asociada a antibióticos es una entidad clínica que ha aumentado de manera considerable los últimos años a nivel mundial. Lo anterior se ha visto favorecido por el incremento en el uso de antibióticos de amplio espectro, los que fundamentalmente alteran la flora intestinal habitual, actuando también por otros mecanismos como la alteración de la motilidad intestinal y acción tóxica directa sobre la mucosa intestinal. La presentación clínica varía desde un cuadro leve hasta de mayor gravedad, llegando incluso a la muerte. Lo anterior dependerá de algunas variables, siendo fundamental el estado inmunitario del paciente. La diarrea asociada a antibióticos por Clostridium Difficile tiene mayor relevancia dado su mayor morbimortalidad. Se han utilizado diversos métodos diagnósticos para evaluar esta patología como así también, diferentes estrategias terapéuticas de enfrentamiento, las que se exponen en la presente revisión

Antibiotic-associated diarrhea is a clinical entity showing a significantly greater presence in past years worldwide. These has been favored by the intensification of treatments based on the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, which alter intestinal flora and act through other mechanisms like alteration of intestinal motility and direct toxic action on the intestinal mucosa. Clinical symptoms vary from mild to severe and may even cause death. The severity of this condition depends on different variables, mainly the immune status of the patient. Clostridum difficile antibiotic-associated diarrhea is the most relevant since it causes greater mobility and mortality. This article is a review of various diagnostic methods used to evaluate this pathology and multiple therapeutical strategies for management of same.

Humans , Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous/diagnosis , Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous/therapy , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Diarrhea/microbiology , Diarrhea/therapy , Recurrence , Severity of Illness Index , Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous/chemically induced , Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous/prevention & control , Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Clostridioides difficile , Diarrhea/chemically induced , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 91(4): 392-396, July-Aug. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-759345


OBJECTIVE: Two randomized controlled clinical trials have shown thatLactobacillus (L) reuteri DSM 17938 reduces the duration of diarrhea in children hospitalized due to acute infectious diarrhea. This was the first trial evaluating the efficacy of L. reuteri DSM 17938 in outpatient children with acute infectious diarrhea.METHODS: This was a multicenter, randomized, single-blinded, case control clinical trial in children with acute watery diarrhea. A total of 64 children who presented at outpatient clinics were enrolled. The probiotic group received 1 × 108 CFU L. reuteri DSM 17938 for five days in addition to oral rehydration solution (ORS) and the second group was treated with ORS only. The primary endpoint was the duration of diarrhea (in hours). The secondary endpoint was the number of children with diarrhea at each day of the five days of intervention. Adverse events were also recorded.RESULTS: The mean duration of diarrhea was significantly reduced in the L. reuteri group compared to the control group (approximately 15 h, 60.4 ± 24.5 h [95% CI: 51.0-69.7 h] vs. 74.3 ± 15.3 h [95% CI: 68.7-79.9 h], p < 0.05). The percentage of children with diarrhea was lower in the L. reuteri group (13/29; 44.8%) after 48 h than the control group (27/31; 87%; RR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.34-0.79,p < 0.01). From the 72nd hour of intervention onwards, there was no difference between the two groups in the percentage of children with diarrhea. No adverse effects related to L. reuteri were noted.CONCLUSION:L. reuteri DSM 17938 is effective, safe, and well-tolerated in outpatient children with acute infectious diarrhea.

OBJETIVO: Dois ensaios clínicos randomizados controlados demonstraram que oLactobacillus (L) reuteri DSM 17938 reduz a duração de diarreia em crianças hospitalizadas devido a diarreia infecciosa aguda. Este é o primeiro ensaio que avalia a eficácia do L. reuteri DSM 17938 em crianças com diarreia infecciosa aguda no ambulatório.MÉTODOS: Ensaio clínico multicêntrico, randomizado, único cego, com grupos paralelos e controlado em crianças com diarreia aguda. Foram inscritas 64 crianças internadas na clínica ambulatorial. O grupo probiótico recebeu 1 × 108 CFU L. reuteri DSM 17938 por cinco dias, além de uma solução de reidratação oral (SRO), e o segundo grupo foi tratado apenas com SRO. O desfecho principal foi a duração da diarreia (em horas). O desfecho secundário foi o número de crianças com diarreia em cada um dos cinco dias da intervenção. Os eventos adversos também foram registrados.RESULTADOS: A duração média da diarreia foi significativamente reduzida no grupoL. reuteri em comparação com o grupo de controle (aproximadamente 15 horas; 60,4 ± 24,5 horas [51,0-69,7 horas, IC de 95%] em comparação com 74,3 ± 15,3 horas [68,7-79,9 horas, IC de 95%], p < 0,05). O percentual de crianças com diarreia foi menor no grupo L. reuteri (13/29; 44,8%) após 48 horas do que no grupo de controle (27/31; 87%) (RR: 0,51; 0,34-0,79; IC de 95%, < 0,01). A partir da 72a hora de intervenção, não havia diferença entre os dois grupos no percentual de crianças com diarreia. Nenhum efeito adverso com relação ao L. reuteri foi observado.CONCLUSÃO: O L. reuteri DSM 17938 é eficaz, seguro e bem tolerado por crianças com diarreia infecciosa aguda no ambulatório.

Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Diarrhea, Infantile/therapy , Diarrhea/therapy , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Acute Disease , Limosilactobacillus reuteri , Outpatients/statistics & numerical data , Single-Blind Method , Time Factors
Rev. méd. Chile ; 143(4): 531-535, abr. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-747559


Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has an incomparable efficacy to treat recurrent Clostridium difficile infection, with near 90% of success. We report a 57 years old woman who developed an antibiotic associated diarrhea with a positive polymerase chain reaction test for Clostridium Difficile toxin. She was successfully treated with Vancomycin trice but diarrhea recurred. Therefore a fecal microbiota transplant was performed using solid stools from a relative, diluted in saline and instilled in the distal ileon, with a good clinical response, without recurrence of diarrhea, during a 6-month follow-up.

Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections/therapy , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation , Diarrhea/chemically induced , Diarrhea/therapy , Recurrence , Vancomycin/therapeutic use