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1.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 88: e00482020, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1349006

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the resistance of tick populations on 16 family farms that were members of the agricultural producers' cooperative of the São Pedro region of the state of São Paulo (COOPAMSP). Bioassays were conducted on nine commercial products in 2018 and 2019. Their active agents were as follows: deltamethrin, amitraz, cypermethrin + chlorpyrifos + citronella, cypermethrin + chlorpyrifos + fenthion, cypermethrin + chlorpyrifos + piperonyl butoxide, dichlorvos + chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, chlorfenvinphos + dichlorvos, and ivermectin. On some farms, a larval packet test (LPT) was also performed. Overall, four acaricides presented mean efficacy greater than 89%, among which two were associations of pyrethroids + organophosphates and two were associations of organophosphates + organophosphates. Deltamethrin, cypermethrin and ivermectin presented mean efficacy lower than 50%. In the bioassays using the LPT, all five farms showed resistance to diazinon, while only one farm presented resistance to cypermethrin. The results were handed over to each farmer with appropriate guidance for treatments. This study demonstrated that the important points to be implemented related directly to use control strategies, based on direct assistance for farmers and diagnosis of tick population sensitivities.


Subject(s)
Ticks , Tick Control , Acaricides , Organophosphates , Biological Assay , Community-Institutional Relations , Cymbopogon , Rhipicephalus , Diazinon , Fenthion
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(2): 326-336, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989451

ABSTRACT

Abstract The catfish, Clarias gariepinus, was exposed to different acute concentrations (5-10 mg/l) of diazinon and the Lc50 value was recorded as high as 7.3 mg/l for 96 hours. The fishes exposed to three sub-lethal levels of diazinon (0.73, 1.095 and 1.46 mg/l) for 30 days showed that the pesticide induces changes in different blood parameters. Number of red blood cells (RBC), haemoglobin level and haematocrit values were elevated whereas white blood cells (WBC) count was reduced. Various blood indices like mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobine (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobine concentration (MCHC) vary insignificantly in the fish treated with diazinon. Glucose level and activity level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was increased in Clarias gariepinus exposed to diazinon. Protein level in plasma of fish treated with pesticide was changed but the change was insignificant. Histological changes in the liver, gills and kidney of fishes exposed to diazinon were apparent when compared to control. Hepatocytes necrosis and bleeding were more distinct in the fishes exposed to pesticide. Glomerulus hypertrophy and bleeding in kidneys; and fusion and degeneration of secondary lamellae and epithelial hyperplasia in gills were also observed in the exposed fish.


Resumo O peixe-gato, Clarias gariepinus, foi exposto a diferentes concentrações agudas (5-10 mg / l) de diazinon e o valor de Lc50 foi registrado tão alto quanto 7,3 mg / l por 96 horas. Os peixes expostos a três níveis sub-letais de diazinon (0,73, 1,095 e 1,46 mg / l) por 30 dias mostraram que o pesticida induz mudanças nos diferentes parâmetros sanguíneos. O número de glóbulos vermelhos, o nível de hemoglobina e os valores do hematócrito foram elevados, enquanto a contagem de leucócitos foi reduzida. Vários índices sanguíneos, como volume corpuscular médio (VCM), hemoglobina corpuscular média (HCM) e concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média (CHCM) variam insignificantemente nos peixes tratados com diazinon. Nível de glicose e nível de atividade de AST e ALT foi aumentado em Clarias gariepinus expostos a diazinon. O nível de proteína no plasma de peixes tratados com pesticidas foi alterado, mas a mudança foi insignificante. Alterações histológicas no fígado, brânquias e rins de peixes expostos ao diazinon foram aparentes quando comparados ao controle. A necrose e o sangramento de hepatócitos foram mais distintos nos peixes expostos ao agrotóxico. Hipertrofia do glomérulo e sangramento nos rins; e fusão e degeneração de lamelas secundárias e hiperplasia epitelial em brânquias também foram observadas nos peixes expostos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Catfishes/metabolism , Catfishes/blood , Diazinon/toxicity , Gills/drug effects , Gills/pathology , Kidney/drug effects , Toxicity Tests , Kidney/pathology , Liver/drug effects , Liver/pathology
3.
Braz. dent. j ; 25(6): 561-564, Nov-Dec/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-732249

ABSTRACT

The incidence of facial trauma is high. This study has the primary objective of documenting and cataloging maxillofacial fractures in polytrauma patients. From a total of 1229 multiple trauma cases treated at the Emergency Room of the Santo Antonio Hospital - Oporto Hospital Center, Portugal, between August 2001 and December 2007, 251 patients had facial wounds and 209 had maxillofacial fractures. Aged ranged form 13 to 86 years. The applied selective method was based on the presence of facial wound with Abbreviated Injury Scale ≥1. Men had a higher incidence of maxillofacial fractures among multiple trauma patients (86.6%) and road traffic accidents were the primary cause of injuries (69.38%). Nasoorbitoethmoid complex was the most affected region (67.46%) followed by the maxilla (57.42%). The pattern and presentation of maxillofacial fractures had been studied in many parts of the world with varying results. Severe multiple trauma patients had different patterns of maxillofacial injuries. The number of maxillofacial trauma is on the rise worldwide as well as the incidence of associated sequelae. Maxillofacial fractures on multiple trauma patients were more frequent among males and in road traffic crashes. Knowing such data is elementary. The society should have a key role in the awareness of individuals and in prevention of road traffic accidents.


É alta a incidência de traumas na face. Este estudo teve por objetivo documentar e catalogar as fraturas maxilofaciais em pacientes com politraumatismos. De um total de 1229 casos de politraumatizados tratados na Sala de Emergência do Hospital de Santo António - Centro Hospitalar do Porto, Portugal, entre Agosto de 2001 e Dezembro de 2007, 251 pacientes tiveram ferimentos na face e 209 apresentaram fraturas maxilofaciais. As idades variaram de 13 a 86 anos. O método de seleção baseou-se na presença de ferimentos na face com Abreviated Injury Scale ≥1. Os homens apresentaram maior incidência de fraturas maxilofaciais (86,6%) entre os pacientes com múltiplos traumatismos na face e os acidentes de trânsito foram a causa principal dos traumatismos (69,38%). A região mais afetada foi o complexo naso-órbito-etmoidal (67,46%), seguido pela maxila (57,42%). O padrão e a apresentação das fraturas maxilofaciais tem sido estudado em muitas regiões do mundo com resultados variados. Pacientes com politraumatizados graves apresentaram padrões diferentes de traumatismos maxilofaciais. O número de traumatismos maxilofaciais tem aumentado à escala mundial, assim como a incidência das sequelas associadas. Entre os pacientes com traumatismos múltiplos, a maioria pertencia ao sexo masculino, assim como a causa mais frequente foram os acidentes automobilísticos. É elementar o conhecimento destes dados. A sociedade tem um papel primordial nos cuidados individuais e na prevenção dos acidentes de trânsito.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Rats , Cholinesterase Reactivators , Choline/analogs & derivatives , Diazinon/antagonists & inhibitors , Neurotransmitter Agents/pharmacology , Physostigmine/antagonists & inhibitors , Pyrrolidines/antagonists & inhibitors , Choline/metabolism , Choline/pharmacology , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/toxicity , Diazinon/toxicity , Mice, Inbred ICR , Physostigmine/toxicity , Pyrrolidines/toxicity , Rats, Inbred Strains , Receptors, Cholinergic/drug effects , Receptors, Cholinergic/metabolism
4.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 34(7): 655-658, jul. 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-720440

ABSTRACT

Com o objetivo de determinar as causas para o súbito aumento no número de surtos de intoxicação por organofosforados foram analisados nove surtos da intoxicação diagnosticados em bovinos no Laboratório Regional de Diagnóstico da Faculdade de Veterinária da Universidade Federal de Pelotas (LRD/UFPel) entre novembro de 2013 e fevereiro de 2014. Em todos os surtos os animais foram tratados com concentrações entre duas e 151 vezes maiores que a concentração recomendada de diazinon para banho carrapaticida utilizado nas diferentes propriedades. Contribuíram, ainda, para o grande número de casos de intoxicação a via de adminstração pour on não recomendada para os produtos utilizados e o intenso calor registrado na época de ocorrência dos surtos.


In order to determine the cause of the sudden increase in the number of outbreaks of organophosphate poisoning, nine outbreaks diagnosed in cattle were analyzed at the Laboratório Regional de Diagnóstico, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Pelotas (LRD/UFPel) between November 2013 and February 2014. In all outbreaks the animals were treated with concentration from two to 151 times higher than the concentration recommended of diazinon for tick treatment. The incorrect route of application, and the intense heat recorded at the time of the outbreaks also contributed to the large number of poisoning.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Administration, Cutaneous , Atropine/administration & dosage , Diazinon/administration & dosage , Diazinon/adverse effects , Organophosphate Poisoning/veterinary , Diazinon/toxicity , Dosage/adverse effects
5.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 22(4): 554-558, Oct-Dec/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-698019

ABSTRACT

The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the efficiency of partial treatment of animals infested with horn flies. Forty-five Guzerat cows between 4 and 7 years of age were divided into three groups (15 cows per group). The treatments were as follows: in groups G33 and G100, 33.3 and 100% of the cows were treated with one insecticide-impregnated ear tag/animal (40% diazinon), respectively, while in the group GC, the cows were not treated (control). The flies on the cervico-dorsal-lumbar region of the cows, in all three groups, were counted every 14 days. The experiment lasted from September 2006 to September 2009. Over this period, six four-month ear tag treatments, with intervals of one to two months, were conducted on both treated groups. The animals of group G33 had a higher infection than those of group G100, and the number of flies ranged from 12 to 27 (group G33) and from 3 to 11 (group G100). However, groups G33 and G100 had lower infection levels than group GC, which presented from 45 to 87 flies. Partial treatment of cattle infested with horn flies using 40% diazinon insecticide is an efficient alternative for controlling this ectoparasite.


Com objetivo de avaliar a eficiência do tratamento parcial de animais infestados por mosca-dos-chifres, foram utilizadas 45 vacas da raça Guzerá, com idade entre 4 e 7 anos, divididas em três grupos de 15 animais. Os animais dos grupos G33 (33,3% tratados) e G100 (100% tratados) receberam um brinco inseticida/animal, com diazinon 40%, e os do grupo GC não receberam tratamento (controle). A cada 14 dias foram realizadas contagens das moscas sobre a região cervico-dorso-lombar das vacas dos três grupos. O estudo foi realizado de setembro de 2006 a setembro de 2009. Neste período, seis tratamentos com quatro meses cada, e com intervalo de um a dois meses, foram realizados nos animais dos grupos G33 e G100. Os animais do grupo G33 apresentaram maior infestação que os do grupo G100, o número de mosca variou de 12 a 27 no grupo G33 e de 3 a 11 no grupo G100. No entanto, os grupos G33 e G100 apresentaram menores infestações que as observadas nos animais do grupo GC, que apresentou de 45 a 87 moscas. O tratamento parcial de bovinos infestados por mosca-dos-chifres com a utilização de inseticida diazinon 40% é uma alternativa eficiente no controle deste ectoparasita.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Female , Cattle Diseases/drug therapy , Diazinon/administration & dosage , Ectoparasitic Infestations/drug therapy , Ectoparasitic Infestations/veterinary , Insecticides/administration & dosage , Muscidae , Treatment Outcome
6.
Mundo saúde (Impr.) ; 38(1): 9-15, dez. 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-756236

ABSTRACT

Atualmente, com a crescente contaminação dos ecossistemas aquáticos, muitos compostos, como pesticidas e hidrocarbonetos,são lançados de forma indevida em corpos d’água. Estudos relacionando a exposição de poluentes, individualmente,com variações bioquímicas são abundantes na literatura. Entretanto, ainda são poucos os voltados às misturas complexas.Sendo assim, o objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar se a mistura diazinon e benzo[a]pireno pode afetar as atividadesbioquímicas de biomarcadores clássicos, tais como acetilcolinesterase (AChE), carboxilesterase (CbE), catalase (CAT), glutationaperoxidase (GPx) e glutationa S-transferase (GST) em Tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) e comparar os efeitosnos sistemas enzimáticos quando estão expostos à mistura e aos compostos separadamente. Foi medida a atividade dasenzimas em brânquias e fígados de Tilápia do Nilo após 2 e 7 dias de exposição ao Diazinon (0,5 mg/L) e ao benzo[a]pireno (1,0 mg/L) individualmente e em mistura. Os resultados mostraram que no grupo mistura do fígado após 7 dias deexposição, o benzo[a]pireno aumentou a ação inibidora do Diazinon na atividade da enzima GST. Isso indica que a toxicidadedas interações ambientais entre pesticida e hidrocarboneto policíclico aromático pode apresentar efeito sinérgico.Desse modo, é importante levar em conta esse fator, pois irá auxiliar na compreensão de resultados obtidos em estudosde campo, como em um monitoramento ambiental.


Currently, with the growing contamination of aquatic ecosystems, many compounds, such as pesticides and hydrocarbons,are improperly released into rivers and lakes. Studies about the exposure of single pollutants causing biochemical variationsare abundant in the literature. However, there are few studies focused on the biological effects of complex mixtures.The aim of this investigation was to evaluate whether mixture diazinon and benzo[a]pyrene can affect the biochemicalactivities of classic biomarkers such as acetylcholinesterase (AChE), carboxylesterase (CbE), catalase (CAT), glutathioneperoxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in Nile tilapia and compare the effects on enzymatic systems of theexposure to a mixture of compounds and the effects observed when they are exposed separately. We measured the activityof enzymes in gills and liver of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) after 2 and 7 days of exposure to Diazinon (0.5 mg/L)and benzo[a]pyrene (1.0 mg/L) individually and in mixture. The results showed that in the mixture group after 7 days ofexposure, the benzo[a]pyrene increased the inhibitory action of Diazinon in GST enzyme activity, in liver tissue. This indicatesthat the toxicity of the interactions between pesticide and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon may show synergisticeffect. These results suggest the importance of studies with mixture of compounds, because these data will help to understandthe results obtained in field studies, such as those from environmental monitoring.


Subject(s)
Animals , Benzo(a)pyrene , Biomarkers, Pharmacological , Diazinon
7.
Int. j. morphol ; 29(4): 1241-1247, dic. 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-626996

ABSTRACT

Since normal sperm parameters can be altered by organophosphorous pesticides, this study intended to determine if melatonin is able to prevent the damage on sperm quality after an acute exposure to diazinon. Adult male mice were injected intraperitoneally with melatonin, diazinon (1/3 or 2/3 LD50) or both, and sperm parameters were evaluated on days 1 or 32 post injection. Groups treated with diazinon showed elevated lipid peroxidation levels on day 1 post treatment, while groups pretreated with melatonin before diazinon showed no difference compared to control. Sperm count showed a significant decrease in both diazinon-treated groups only on day 32 post injection; no differences were observed in groups pretreated with melatonin prior to diazinon compared to control. The percentage of abnormal sperm morphology increased in the diazinon-treated groups only on day 32 postinjection. The administration of melatonin prior to exposure to diazinon prevents the alteration of sperm parameters commonly caused by organophosphates, possibly due to its antioxidant properties.


Debido a que los parámetros normales de los espermatozoides pueden ser alterados por algunos contaminantes como los pesticidas organofosforados, este estudio pretende determinar si melatonina es capaz de prevenir o proteger del daño en la calidad espermática, después de una exposición aguda a diazinon. Ratones machos adultos fueron inyectados via intraperitoneal con diazinon 1/3 y 2/3 de la LD50 y otro grupo tratados con melatonina + 1/3 diazinon LD50 y melatonina + 2/3 LD50. Los parámetros espermáticos fueron evaluados al día 1 y al día 32 post tratamiento. Los grupos tratados con diazinon solo o conjugado con melatonina mostraron un incremento significativo en los niveles de lipoperoxidación en el tratamiento después de un día. Al día 32 no se observan diferencias significativas con el grupo control. El recuento espermático al día 1 no presenta diferencias entre los grupos tratados y el control. Sin embargo al día 32 los grupos tratados con diazinon solo, muestran una disminución significativa, solo el grupo de melatonina +1/3 diazinon, presenta valores similares al grupo control. La morfología espermática normal presenta una disminución significativa en grupos tratados con diazinon, pero un aumento significativo al día 32 en los grupos tratados con melatonina. Los mayores porcentajes de anormalidades se presentan en la cabeza y la cola de los espermatozoides. La administración de melatonina antes de la exposición al diazinon evita las alteraciones de los parámetros espermáticos, comúnmente causada por organofosforados, posiblemente debido a sus propiedades antioxidantes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Diazinon/toxicity , Spermatozoa , Spermatozoa/pathology , Melatonin/pharmacology , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Spermatogenesis , Insecticides, Organophosphate , Melatonin/administration & dosage , Sperm Count
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-349881

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the toxicity of joint exposure to diazinon, propoxur and bisphenol A on phagocytosis.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Flow cytometer was employed to detect the influence of diazinon and bisphenol A, propoxur and bisphenol A in mixture (mixed according to ratio of IC(50)) on mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells' function to phagocyte fluorescent microspheres, adopting the percentage of phagocytic cells (PP) and the phagocytic index (PI) as measurement indicators. The final concentrations of mixture of diazinon and bisphenol A were (0.4 + 0.1), (3.6 + 0.7), (36.2 + 7.2), (43.4 + 8.7), (52.1 + 10.4), (62.5 + 12.5), (75.0 + 15.0) µg/ml; while those of mixture of propoxur and bisphenol A were (0.2 + 2.0 × 10(-2)), (2.4 + 0.2), (23.7 + 2.0), (35.6 + 3.0), (53.3 + 4.4), (80.0 + 6.7), (120.0 + 10.0) µg/ml. Then based on the dose-response relationship, a 2 × 2 factorial design was then carried out among different doses of mixture with statistical significance to statistically evaluate the interaction between diazinon and bisphenol A, propoxur and bisphenol A.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>After the joint exposure, compared to the control group (PP = (23.6 ± 2.2)%; PI = 0.36 ± 0.03), any dose of the mixture of diazinon and bisphenol A ((52.1 + 10.4), (62.5 + 12.5), (75.0 + 15.0) µg/ml) could significantly increase the levels of PP ((29.0 ± 1.4)%, t = 3.89, P < 0.05; (30.2 ± 2.3)%, t = 4.74, P < 0.05; (35.0 ± 3.4)%, t = 8.21, P < 0.05) and PI (0.43 ± 0.03, t = 3.86, P < 0.05; 0.41 ± 0.02, t = 2.95, P < 0.05; 0.46 ± 0.03, t = 5.34, P < 0.05); while that of propoxur and bisphenol A ((35.6 + 3.0), (53.3 + 4.4), (80.0 + 6.7), (120.0 + 10.0) µg/ml) reduced the levels of PP ((20.6 ± 1.1)%, t = -3.00, P < 0.05; (20.2 ± 1.0)%, t = -3.42, P < 0.05; (19.4 ± 1.3)%, t = -4.23, P < 0.05; (18.8 ± 2.1)%, t = -4.81, P < 0.05) and PI (0.31 ± 0.01, t = -4.75, P < 0.05; 0.31 ± 0.01, t = -4.58, P < 0.05; 0.30 ± 0.01, t = -4.92, P < 0.05; 0.27 ± 0.02, t = -7.80, P < 0.05) on the contrary. The 2 × 2 factorial design was carried out between the mixture of diazinon (60.0 µg/ml; PP = (28.5 ± 3.4)%; PI = 0.49 ± 0.07) and bisphenol A (12.0 µg/ml; PP = (35.7 ± 2.7)%; PI = 0.67 ± 0.07), and the mixture of propoxur (48.0 µg/ml ; PP = (28.1 ± 2.2)%; PI = 0.48 ± 0.04) and bisphenol A (4.0 µg/ml; PP = (34.4 ± 2.7)%; PI = 0.59 ± 0.07). The mixture of diazinon and bisphenol A (PP = (30.4 ± 1.4)%, F(interaction) = 6.22, P < 0.05; PI = 0.53 ± 0.03, F(interaction) = 7.35, P < 0.05) and the mixture of propoxur and bisphenol A (PP = (27.5 ± 4.1)%, F(interaction) = 4.56, P < 0.05; PI = 0.46 ± 0.08, F(interaction) = 11.13, P < 0.05) both showed a significant antagonistic interaction on phagocytosis of RAW264.7 cell.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>It is suggested that the interactions between diazinon & bisphenol A and propoxur & bisphenol A both played the antagonistic role on phagocytic function of macrophages in vitro.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Benzhydryl Compounds , Cell Line , Diazinon , Toxicity , Drug Synergism , Environmental Exposure , Macrophages , Cell Biology , Mice , Phagocytosis , Phenols , Toxicity , Propoxur , Toxicity
9.
Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology. 2011; 41 (2): 315-326
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-154405

ABSTRACT

A preliminary survey of domestic rodent and the efficacy of bendiocarb, diazi-non and pirimiphos-methyl insecticides to their fleas were carried out in Dakahlia Governorates [Aga, Meet-Ghamr, El-Senbellawen, Temi El-Amded, Eeni-Abed, Dekernes, Nabarow, Talkha, Menia El-Nasr and El-Kordy]. Rodent index [number of rodent /trap] and percentage frequency of drodent species were recorded from October 2010 to May 2011. The main rodent species found were the Norway rat, Rattus norvegicus, the grey-bellied rat, R, rattus alex-andrinus, the white-bellied rat, R. r. frugivorus and the house mouse, Mus muscu-lus. The rodent index at Beni-Abed, Nabarow, Meet-Ghamr, Dekernes and El-Kordy centers showed 0.46, 0.39, 0.34, 0.33 and 0.33, respectively, while Menia El-Nasr center showed the lowest [0.08]. Aga, Talkha, El-Senbellawen, and Temi El-Amded centers showed moderate [0.25, 0.21, 0.2 and 0.16, respectively]. The com-monest flea species was the oriental rat flea, Xenopsylla cheopis, the mouse flea, Leptopsylla segnis, the dog flea, Ctenocephalides canis and the sticktight flea Echidnophaga gallinacea. The highest number of fleas was on R. norvegicus [Flea index=10.9] while lowest number was on Mus musculus [Flea index=0.1]. X. cheopis was the highest frequency distributed for all domestic rodent species [60.9%], while, C. canis was the lowest [1.6%]. The results showed tfiat bendiocarb was effective [Lc5o=0.389%] than diazinon [Lc5o=1.039%] and pirimiphos-methyl [Lc5o -2.056%]


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Phenylcarbamates , Diazinon , Diazinon/adverse effects , Organophosphorus Compounds , Insecticides/adverse effects , Insecticides
10.
Biol. Res ; 43(3): 357-362, 2010. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-571998

ABSTRACT

A chronic toxicity bioassay was conducted with the microcrustacean Artemia salina as the testing organism for the toxic organophosphate diazinon in order to determine if the species is an appropriate indicator of pollution in aquatic environments. Tests of animal exposure to different concentrations of the toxicant were performed for 24, 48 and 72 hours after larvae hatching. Registered mortality data was used to obtain the lethal dose 50 (LD50) of the organophosphate for each exposure time, considering the immobilization of A. salina larvae as the mortality parameter. The lethal concentration (LD50) in the same exposure times was calculated by evaluating morphological changes on the three initial stages of larval development. Both doses were determined by using probit statistical analysis. Results indicate greater dose-response exactitude after 24 hours of exposure to the toxicant. High sensitivity of the organism to the toxicant was determined, thus indicating that A. salina is an appropriate ecotoxicological bioindicator of aquatic environments polluted with pesticides, with the special consideration that this species is a natural resident of saline water bodies, and thus could be used to control pollution in these environments as a result of the unrestrained usage of such toxic substances.


Subject(s)
Animals , Artemia/drug effects , Diazinon/toxicity , Insecticides/toxicity , Biological Assay , Larva/drug effects , Toxicity Tests, Chronic
11.
Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. 2009; 19 (68): 19-26
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-103513

ABSTRACT

In Iran, Organ phosphorus pesticides such as chloropyrifos and diazinon are widely used in agriculture. These compounds inhibit activity of cholinesterase in nearly irreversible manner resulting in malfunction of nerve impulse transmission. This result in humans can produce illness or even death. Therefore, the present study aims to isolate various bacterial strains in specified contaminated regions. We selected one of the isolates that contain the highest OP-hydrolyzing capability for using such strain, in decontaminating environmentally harmful OP residues. In this study, vast waters from chemical factories and contaminated agricultural soil samples were used for isolation of several bacterial strains that contain OPAA enzyme are capable of utilizing chloropyrifos and diazinon as a source of carbon and phosphorus by selective enrichment on mineral salt medium [MSM], which contains chloropyrifos or diazinon. One strain was selected for analysis of degradation ability with growth studies and HPLC technique and characterization by Bergey's manual. From vast water and soil, ten bacterial strains were isolated using chloropyrifos and diazinon as source of carbon and phosphorus. One of them named IHU strain4; grows most rapidly and luxuriously and displays the highest organophosphate-hydrolyzing capability. On the basis of morphological and biochemical characteristics, the bacterial isolate was identified as a member of the genus pseudomonas. From these findings, it can be concluded that the isolated bacterial strain is able to utilize Organ phosphorus pesticides as a source of carbon and phosphorus. Utilization of these compounds by soil microorganisms is a crucial phenomenon by which these compounds are removed from the environment, thus, preventing environmental pollution. Results from the present study suggest that the isolated bacterial strain may be used for remediation of pesticide-contamination


Subject(s)
Diazinon , Water , Soil , Bacteria , Biodegradation, Environmental , Carbon , Phosphorus
12.
Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine [The]. 2009; 36 (9): 535-550
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-150684

ABSTRACT

Diazinon is one of widely used organophosphrous pesticides, can affect both animals and man even after a single exposure. It has a dual toxicity due to acetylcholinestrase inhibition and formation of free oxygen radicals .So, the current work aimed to evaluate the effects of diazinon on the mice testes and the possible protective effect of melatonin. Male CD-1 adult mice were divided into 6 groups, [1] control group,[2] melatonin group 10mg/kg,[3] diazinon group [30mg/kg], [4] diazinon group [60mg/kg],[5] diazinon 30mg + melatonin and [6] diazinon 60mg/kg + melatonin. Diazinon was orally administrated 1 and 28 days of treatment, whereas, melatonin was administrated intraperitoneally at a single dose. Testicular damage was examined by using hematoxyline and eosin staining. Diazinon treated groups diminished the plasma acetylcholinestrase activity on day 1 of treatment. Morphometrical analysis showed a decrease in seminiferous thickness [day 1 and 28], with increased testicular superoxide dismutase [SOD] activity [day28]. Melatonin pre-treatment prevented alterations induced by diazinon, except diminution of acetylcholinestrase activity. These results suggest that testicular damage observed post-treatment might be due to elevated concentration of free oxygen radicals [ROS] with diazinon while, pretreatment with a single dose of melatonin is a potentially beneficial agent to reduce testicular damage in adult mice probably by decreasing oxidative stress


Subject(s)
Male , Animals, Laboratory , Diazinon/toxicity , Testis/pathology , Histology , Testosterone , Protective Agents , Superoxide Dismutase , Acetylcholinesterase , Mice , Models, Animal
13.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 41(1): 79-81, jan.-fev. 2008. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-478901

ABSTRACT

Avaliações preliminares sobre uma pintura inseticida à base de diazinon, clorpirifós e piriproxifen em formulação micro-encapsulada (Inesfly 5A IGR ®) mostrou efetiva e persistente atividade contra Triatoma infestans intra e peridomiciliar, numa região altamente infestada do Chaco Boliviano. Ressaltam, além disso, a boa manuseabilidade do produto e o bom aspecto deixado pela pintura em casas e anexos tratados, bem como uma excelente aceitação pela população e autoridades sanitárias locais, o que estimula novas investigações e o emprego do produto em maior escala e contra outros vetores da doença de Chagas.


Preliminary evaluations of an insecticidal paint based on diazinon, chlorpyrifos and pyriproxyfen in a micro-encapsulated formulation (Inesfly 5A IGR ®) have shown that it has effective and persistent activity against Triatoma infestans inside homes and in areas surrounding homes, in a highly infested region of the Bolivian Chaco. Furthermore, the evaluations have highlighted that the product presents good handling characteristics and gives a good appearance to houses and outhouses that have been treated, and that its acceptance among the population and the local sanitary authorities is excellent. This encourages new investigations and the use of the product on a larger scale and against other vector species for Chagas disease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Insect Vectors , Insecticides , Paint , Triatoma , Bolivia , Chlorpyrifos , Consumer Behavior , Chagas Disease/prevention & control , Diazinon , Pyridines , Time Factors
14.
Assiut University Bulletin For Environmental Researches. 2008; 11 (2): 1-20
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-85927

ABSTRACT

The present study is dealing with the detection of pesticide residues in the ambient air of the only one factory accepted to participate in our study, among three factories specialize in manufacturing pesticides, spotted earlier during preparation for this research. The factory is one of essential locations where workers are exposed to the residues of pesticides by different routes. Air samples were also collected, using universal sample pump of the American company SKC. Also, rats were placed in the mixing and packing area of the pesticide factory, for exposure to the same residues of pesticides to which the workers are exposed during their daily work in the factory. Extracts of air samples were collected in the XAD-2 tube. Then extracts of blood samples from livers and kidneys of rats were injected in a Gas Cinematograph of nitrogen phosphorus detector and electron capture detector [GC/NPD-EOD]. The results of chemical analysis for 64 air sample extracts, showed presence of eleven kinds of pesticides belonged to three different groups: Insecticides, Herbicides, and Fungicides. The groups represented percentages of Insecticides, Herbicides, and Fungicides were 72.72%, 18.18% and 9.09% of the eleven detected pesticides respectively. The pesticide residues were also detected in the extracts of the blood, liver and kidney samples collected from the lab rats and the results showed the Mowing percentages: Insecticides 66.66%, Herbicides 16.66% and Fungicides 16.66%. No parathyroid or Carbamate Insecticides were detected in the blood, liver and kidney samples. The results of the pesticide factory air samples indicated that, workers were exposed to concentrations of pesticides which are higher than the international permissible rates in air. They are exposed to 2.78 micro g/ml of Diazinon, and this is 25.05 fold of internationally permissible limit which is 0.111 micro g/ml per day. The workers are exposed also to 62.86 fold of internationally permissible limit of Chlorpyrifos, as they are exposed daily to 0.88 micro g/ml, while the permissible rate of exposure is only 0.014 micro g/ml per day. Exposure to Carbosulfan is 0.049 micro g/ml which represents 8.31 fold of the permissible daily exposure of 0.0059 micro g/ml. The workers were exposed daily to 2.55 fold of the permissible limit daily rate of alpha-Endosulfan which is 0.014 micro g/ml, whereas the workers are exposed to 0.0055 micro g/ml. The results revealed also existence of pesticide residues in the livers, kidneys and blood samples of 48 rats [4 rats/weak] exposed to the air of the pesticide factory. It was observed also that, the air sample contained the two types of Endosulfan alpha and beta, but blood, liver and kidney samples of rats exposed to the pesticides factory air, showed existence of Endosulfan, and this might be due to assimilation of the pesticide when entered the rat's body. All pesticide residues in the extracted samples were identified by comparing compound retention time with the control compound appearance time, using the Gas Chromatography with nitrogen phosphorus detector [GC-NPB], which was used for detection of insecticides such as Diazinon, Chlorpyrifos, Dimethoate, Malathion and Carbosulfan and the herbicide Bromoxynil. The Chromatography with electron capture detector [GC ECD] was used for the detection of herbicide Pendimethalin, fungicide Propiconazole and insecticide Cypermethrin and alpha and beta Endosulfan. The results were confirmed by injection of samples in a Gas Chromatography with mass spectrometer detection [GC/MS]. The most important conclusion of this study is that, the workers are daily exposed to high concentrations of some pesticides residues exceeding the international permissible limit. The detection of pesticide residues in the livers and kidneys of rats left in the ambient air of the mixing and packing area of the factory means that the residues are existing also in the bodies of workers exposed to such residues. Many of recent studies have indicated the presence of pesticide residues in the contents of human bodies. These residues are assimilated with food in the body leading to health problems or chronic diseases sooner or later. Therefore, workers must be educated to be aware of the risks under which they are working. They must be trained how to maintain their safety, by using ail possible protective measures. However, workers in such fields must be subjected to periodical medical examination for detection of any potential harm occurring as a result of working for long periods in such environment, particularly the workers of pesticide producing factories


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Animals , Environmental Exposure , Diazinon , Endosulfan , Chlorpyrifos , Rats , Liver , Kidney , Chromatography, Gas , Pesticides/analysis , Pesticides/poisoning , Pesticides/toxicity
15.
Iranian Journal of Arthropod-Borne Diseases. 2008; 2 (1): 21-27
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-87138

ABSTRACT

The German cockroach, Blattella germanica L., is a serious household and public health pest worldwide. Control of this species has been very difficult to achieve. Toxicity of cypermethrin EC10%, deltamethrin EC5%, diazinon EC0.5%, lambda-cyhalothrin EC5% and Negon_ [permethrin+propoxur oil liquid1%] commercial formulations were investigated against adult males of German cockroaches collected from four hospitals of Bandar Abbas City, southern Iran, during 2006. These insecticides have been used for cockroach control in this city. The tests were carried out only on males by the glass jar contact method recommended by the WHO. Maximum mortality rates of 20, 35, 90, and 100% were obtained after one hour contact to label-recommended doses of cypermethrin, deltamethrin, lambad-cyhalothrin, diazinon and permethrin+propoxur insecticides, respectively. KT [50] results were different from 5.68 min for permethrin+propoxur mixture to 240.37 min for cypermethrin. German cockroach showed < 80 per cent mortality using three pyrethroid insecticides. It seems that the label-recommended concentrations of these insecticides were wrong and lower than WHO advised for cockroach control. For monitoring of resistance it is recommended to do more tests using the pure active ingredient of these insecticides


Subject(s)
Male , Insecta , Cockroaches , Insecticides/toxicity , Pest Control , Pyrethrins , Nitriles , Diazinon , Permethrin , Propoxur , Hospitals , World Health Organization
16.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 78(1): 11-14, mar. 2007. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-504775

ABSTRACT

La presentación clínica de la intoxicación organofosforada ha sido bien descrita en múltiples casos. Sin embargo, el comportamiento evolutivo de las intoxicaciones y sus requerimientos terapéuticos referidos a agentes organofosforados específicos en pediatría es escasamente reportado.En nuestro país, el diazinón es el organofosforado que causa con mayor frecuencia intoxicaciones agudas severas en niños. Nuestro trabajo tiene el objetivo de caracterizar la presentación clínica, la evolución y los requerimientos terapéuticos de las intoxicaciones por diazinón en niños. Del total de consultas registradas en el CIAT entre los años 2000 y 2004, se seleccionaron los casos de intoxicación aguda en menores de 14 años que requirieron tratamiento antidótico. Se analizaron 18 casos, con una media de edad de 4,5 años (DS 3,3). La mayoría fueron ingestas accidentales. Los síntomas más frecuentes fueron miosis, hipercrinia pulmonar y vómitos; los síntomas aparecen antes de las 3 horas, la colinesterasa está francamente descendida antes de las 6 horas y se observa un inicio de su recuperación entre el cuarto y el quinto día. El promedio de la dosis total de atropina administrada en los casos de ingestión fue de 5.176 mg y en los casos de exposición cutánea alcanzó los 42.264 mg. Los días de requerimiento de atropina estuvieron en un rango de 2 a 17 días. La intoxicación por vía cutánea mostró un perfil más grave y con evolución más prolongada.


The clinical presentation and therapeutic measures of phosphates poisoning has been well described. However, the clinical course and the therapeutic requirements of specific P agents in Pediatric patients have not. Diazinon is the most frequent phosphate involved in severe poisoning children in our country. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical presentation and therapeutic measures of Diazinon poisoning. Acute cases that required antidote treatment were selected from the PCC files between 2000 and 2004. Eighteen cases met the criteria. Average age was 4,5 years old (DS 3,3). Five cases were by dermal exposure and the rest were accidental oral exposure. The results show that the clinical presentation is similar to other phosphates although the beginning of symptoms was sooner. Miosis, pulmonary hypersecretion and emesis were the most frequent clinical features at admission (usually in the first 3 hours after exposure). Serum cholinesterase showed a dramatic decrease within the first 6 hours and started recovery between day 4 and 5.The average dose of atropine was 5.176 mg in oral exposure and reached 42.264 mg in a dermal exposure case. Treatments lasted between 2 and 17 days. Dermal exposures required more atropine and were discharged later.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Diazinon/toxicity , Insecticides, Organophosphate , Poisoning
17.
Iranian Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering. 2007; 4 (2): 127-132
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-93641

ABSTRACT

The present study investigates the removal of pesticide by electrocoagulation process. A glass tank in 1.56 L volume with four iron plate electrodes was used to perform the experiments. The electrodes connected to a DC power supply [bipolar mode]. The tank was filled with synthetic wastewater were which contained diazinon pesticide in concentration of 10, 50 and 100 mg/L. The percent of diazinon removal was measured at pH= 3, 7 and 10 and in electric potential range of 20-40V by thin layer chromatography method. The results indicated that initial concentration of diazinon can affect efficiency removal and for higher concentrations of diazinon, higher electrical potential or more reaction time is needed. The results showed that for a given time, the removal efficiency increased significantly with increase of voltage. The highest electrical potential [40V] produced the quickest treatment with >99% diazinon reduction occurring after 60 min. The final pH for iron electrodes was always higher than initial pH. Finally it can be concluded that electrocoagulation process [using iron electrodes] is a reliable, efficient and cost-effective method for removal of diazinon from aqueous environments, especially designed for pH=3 and voltage40V


Subject(s)
Electrocoagulation/methods , Diazinon/isolation & purification , Electrodes , Electroplating , Industrial Waste/prevention & control , Pesticide Residues/isolation & purification , Waste Management
18.
Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research. 2007; 62 (1): 53-56
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-146232

ABSTRACT

Two hundred and ninety four engorged female ticks were collected from 4 different geographical regions for assessment of tick resistance against acaricide compounds. The 15-21 day- old larvae have been tested in accordance with FAO recommended larvae packet test. Resistant factor for each region was calculated by LC50 and LC99. Minimum LC50 [0.008] and, Maximum LC50 [0.024] for Amitraz were seen in arid and northern regions with resistant factor equal 3. Minimum LC50 [0.001] and, Maximum LC50 [0.003] for Cypermehtrin were seen in mountainous and southern costal regions with resistant factor equal 3. Minimum LC50 [0.003] and Maximum Lc50 [0.014] for Diazinon were seen in the northern and arid regions with resistant factor equal 4.7. In comparison with Probit test results; the applied concentrations denote Amitraz and Cypermethrin at recommended concentration do not slay 100% of the larvae in the northern and arid region. However Diazinon can slay all the larvae even at concentrations lower than the recommended doses


Subject(s)
Insecta , Ticks , Toluidines , Diazinon , Insecticides
19.
KOOMESH-Journal of Semnan University of Medical Sciences. 2007; 9 (1): 75-82
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-84028

ABSTRACT

Diazinon [DZN] is an organophosphate that inhibits of acetylcolinesterase activity by phosphorylating is active site, in which could be resulted in damages of germinal cells and reproductive functions. Since this compound is extensively using in the agriculture, especially in the northern regions of Iran in order to control of pests, the present study was performed to investigate the influence of DZN on spermatogenesis in mice. Male mice were divided into three experimental, sham and control groups. The animals in the experimental group were injected with the consecutive doses of DZN [30mg/kg i.p, five consecutive days per week for one month]. The sham mice were received only water injection and no injection was performed on animals in the control group. Animals were scarified 35 days after the latest injection of DZN. Then, the mice testis sections were prepared and morphologic aspects of testis and spermatogenesis processes assessed. The DZN showed a significant decrease in number of germ cells, spermatocytes, spermatids, Leydig cells, blood vessels. In addition, the diameter of seminiferous in the testis of the mice decreased. The current finding showed that Diazinon is an environmental factor that can cause toxic effects on the morphologic parameters of germ cells. These results suggested that the DZN might be a factor that results in infertility in mice


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Male , Diazinon/adverse effects , Mice , Seminiferous Tubules , Leydig Cells
20.
Parasitol. latinoam ; 61(3/4): 176-178, dic. 2006. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-453330

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia de uma solução otológica contendo o inseticida diazinon a 1 por cento no tratamento de infestações por Otodectes cynotis em cães. Foram utilizados 10 cães da raça beagle infestados naturalmente, sendo o ácaro diagnosticado através de otoscopia bilateral. Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos iguais, um controle e o outro tratado. No tratado foi aplicado 1 ml da solução otológica em cada conduto auditivo, durante sete dias consecutivos, correspondendo a 10 mg de diazinon por orelha por dia. Todos os animais foram examinados através de otoscopia nos dias +1, +4, +10, +17 +24 e +31 após o tratamento. Os cães controle apresentavam ácaros em todos os dias de observação. No grupo tratado, o percentual de eficácia do produto foi de 100 por cento em todos os dias de observação, até o dia +31.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Diazinon/therapeutic use , Ear Diseases/parasitology , Ear Diseases/veterinary , Mite Infestations/drug therapy , Mite Infestations/veterinary , Antiparasitic Agents/therapeutic use , Case-Control Studies
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