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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e240724, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249270

ABSTRACT

Abstract Developing a captive breeding system for the widely hunted Caribbean species of opossum Didelphis marsupialis insularis can greatly aide in the management and conservation of this species in the neo-tropics. Although this species possesses ideal traits for captive breeding in this region (tolerance to high heat and humidity, high reproductive rate, and resistance to disease), challenges due to its aggressive behaviour and limited information on its breeding behaviour have prevented a system from being developed for this species. The present study describes a breeding system, and the reproductive behaviour of this species under captive conditions. Six (1 male; 5 females) adult opossums were maintained and managed for breeding over a ten (10) month period. Pouch litter sizes averaged 5±2.5 with a range of 2 to 8. Gestation length was found to be 13.25±0.96 days and 4 litters (n=23) were successfully weaned at 11-13 weeks. It was found that the male D. m. insularis exhibits behaviours of interest that can serve as indicators for receptivity of the female, and overall, that this species can be successfully reared and bred under captive conditions in the neo-tropics.


Resumo O desenvolvimento de um sistema de criação em cativeiro para as espécies de gambá do Caribe amplamente caçadas, Didelphis marsupialis insularis, pode auxiliar bastante no manejo e conservação dessa espécie nos neotrópicos. Embora essa espécie possua características ideais para a criação em cativeiro nessa região (tolerância a altas temperaturas e umidade, alta taxa de reprodução e resistência a doenças), alguns fatores, como o seu comportamento agressivo e informações limitadas sobre seu comportamento reprodutivo, impediram o desenvolvimento de um sistema para D. m. insularis. O presente estudo descreve um sistema de criação e o comportamento reprodutivo dessa espécie em condições de cativeiro. Seis gambás adultos (1 macho e 5 fêmeas) foram mantidos para reprodução durante um período de 10 meses. O tamanho da ninhada em bolsa foi em média de 5 ± 2,5 com um intervalo de 2 a 8. A duração da gestação foi de 13,25 ± 0,96 dias, e 4 ninhadas (n = 23) foram desmamadas com sucesso de 11 a 13 semanas. Verificou-se que o macho D. m. insularis exibe comportamentos de interesse que podem servir como indicadores de receptividade da fêmea, e, em geral, essa espécie pode ser criada com sucesso em condições de cativeiro nos neotrópicos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Reproductive Behavior , Didelphis , Opossums , Reproduction , Caribbean Region , Litter Size
2.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e0471-2020, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155586

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: This communication reports the colonization of Panstrongylus megistus in an urban area of the municipality of Taboão da Serra in the metropolitan region of São Paulo. METHODS: After receiving a notification from the population, entomological research comprising active search, collection, identification, and examination of triatomines was conducted. Wild animals were captured and examined. RESULTS: A colony of triatomines was found to be associated with dogs in the backyard of the property. CONCLUSIONS: The colonization of P. megistus shows the potential for their occupation of artificial ecotopes, which may pose a risk to the human population.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Panstrongylus , Triatominae , Chagas Disease/veterinary , Didelphis , Brazil , Cities , Insect Vectors
3.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(10): 814-817, Oct. 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1143414

ABSTRACT

Two young opossums were necropsied and diagnosed with rickets. This study aims to describe the clinical-pathological aspects of rickets in Didelphis albiventris. Macroscopically, the opossums presented kyphosis and scoliosis, lateral deviation of the limbs in varus, locomotion difficulty, and enlargement with softening of costochondral junctions (rickety rosary). Samples of bones and joints were processed for hematoxylin and eosin staining and Masson's trichrome. Microscopically, we observed thickening of the epiphyseal plate, characterized by irregular and multifocal proliferation of serialized and hypertrophic cartilage zones, which formed circular groups of large, dysplastic chondrocytes towards the spongy zone, often surrounded by non-mineralized osteoid tissue. In the cortical bone, there were pale eosinophilic zones around the Havers channels consistent with non-mineralized osteoid. The staining of Masson's trichrome evidenced the accumulation of osteoid tissue in cortical and trabecular bones. It is possible that a mixed cause of absorption deficiency of vitamin D3 associated with an unbalanced Ca:P diet based on lactose-free milk and fruits may have triggered the disease.(AU)


Dois gambás jovens foram necropsiados e diagnosticados com raquitismo. O objetivo do trabalho é descrever os aspectos clínico-patológicos de raquitismo em Didelphis albiventris. Macroscopicamente os gambás apresentaram cifose e escoliose, desvio lateral dos membros em varus, dificuldade de locomoção e alargamento com amolecimento das junções costocondrais (rosário raquítico). Amostras dos ossos e articulações foram processadas para coloração de hematoxilina e eosina e Tricrômico de Masson. Microscopicamente havia espessamento da placa epifisária, caracterizada pela proliferação irregular e multifocal das zonas de cartilagem seriada e hipertrófica, que formavam grupos circulares de condrócitos grandes, displásicos em direção a zona esponjosa frequentemente cercados por tecido osteoide não mineralizado. No osso cortical haviam zonas eosinofílicas pálidas ao redor dos canais de Havers consistentes com osteoide não mineralizado. A coloração de Tricrômico de Masson evidenciou o acúmulo de tecido osteoide no nosso cortical e trabecular. Acredita-se que uma causa mista de déficit de absorção de vitamina D3 associada a uma dieta desbalanceada em Ca:P a base de leite sem lactose e frutas tenha desencadeado a doença.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Phosphorus , Rickets/veterinary , Vitamin D Deficiency/veterinary , Calcium , Didelphis
4.
Acta amaz ; 50(3): 246-251, jul. - set. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118846

ABSTRACT

The common opossum, Didelphis marsupialis thrives near human settlements. Understanding its ecology could help planning management decisions about this species, especially in anthropogenic landscapes. Yet, there are no density estimations for this species throughout its distribution range in Bolivia. We estimated the density of D. marsupialis in a rural agricultural community, where agroforestry plantations and fallows cover most of the land. We counted individuals in line transects and used DISTANCE software to calculate density. We covered a total of 70.21 km in 143 night counts, obtaining 38 records of D. marsupialis. We estimated a density of 0.30 individuals ha-1 (SE = 0.062; range: 0.20 - 0.45 individuals ha-1), with a mean encounter rate of 0.54 individuals km-1. Encounter rate varied between habitats, with mean values of 0.20 in secondary forests and 0.64 in agroforestry plantations. Our density estimate is near the lower range of previously reported values for the common opossum in other countries. We argue that our results may reflect the response to the availability of food resources and predation pressure in agroforestry plantations. (AU)


Subject(s)
Human Settlements , Residence Characteristics , Population Density , Food Resources , Didelphis
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(3): 529-534, July-Sept. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132425

ABSTRACT

Abstract Wildlife rehabilitation facilities in the Caribbean region are limited, yet they can provide relevant information on wild populations. Didelphis marsupialis insularis is a popularly hunted, under-studied, neo-tropical marsupial species that is increasingly being admitted for rehabilitation. The aim of this study was 1. To record the experiences of rehabilitating D. marsupialis insularis in the neo-tropical island of Trinidad and Tobago and 2. To extract and highlight information on the biology of this opossum sub-species. Using admission records, obtained over a roughly four year period, two breeding periods (February to March and August to October) were illustrated. Litter sizes averaged five individuals, with a range of 1 to 8 young. This species was found to be common in urban areas of the country, with dog attacks reported as the major cause for admission. Thus the information recorded by this wildlife rehabilitation facility has provided great insight on the sparsely studied opossum, D. marsupialis insularis.


Resumo As instalações de reabilitação e assistência à vida selvagem na região neotropical do Caribe são limitadas, mas informações relevantes sobre populações selvagens podem ser obtidas nesses locais. Didelphis marsupialis insularis é uma espécie de marsupial neotropical, subestimada e popularmente caçada; no entanto, essa espécie está sendo cada vez mais admitida para a reabilitação. Os objetivos deste estudo foram: 1. Registrar as experiências de reabilitação de D. marsupialis insularis na ilha neotropical de Trinidad e Tobago; e 2. Extrair e destacar informações sobre a biologia dessa subespécie de gambá. Utilizando registros de admissão, obtidos ao longo de um período de aproximadamente quatro anos, foram mostrados dois períodos de reprodução, de fevereiro a março e de agosto a outubro. O tamanho da ninhada foi em média de cinco indivíduos, variando de um a oito jovens. Comumente encontrado em áreas urbanas do país, os ataques de cães foram relatados como a principal causa de internação dessa espécie. Assim, a informação registrada por essa instalação de reabilitação de vida selvagem forneceu uma grande visão sobre o gambá D. marsupialis insularis, que tem sido pouco estudado.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Bites and Stings , Didelphis , Opossums , Trinidad and Tobago , Caribbean Region , Animals, Wild
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(3): 589-593, July-Sept. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132423

ABSTRACT

Abstract In January 2018, a young male of Didelphis aurita (Wied-Neuwied, 1826), the Brazilian common opossum, was admitted for veterinary evaluation at the Recovery Clinic of Wild Animals of Estácio de Sá University, CRAS, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, due to the presence of a partially duplicated right hind limb. After x-ray evaluation, polymelia associated with syndactyly was diagnosed. The images revealed the following alterations on the right limb: single femur with increased diameter, two tibiae, two fibulae and absence of hallux. The observed malformations were restricted to the hind right limb, which remains functional. This is the first report of such anomalies in an individual of Didelphis aurita.


Resumo Em janeiro de 2018, um macho jovem de Didelphis aurita (Wied-Neuwied, 1826), o gambá-de-orelha-preta, foi recebido para atendimento veterinário na Clínica de Recuperação de Animais Silvestres (CRAS) da Universidade Estácio de Sá, no Rio de Janeiro, por ser portador de membro posterior direito parcialmente duplicado. Após exame radiográfico, constatou-se a ocorrência de polimelia associada a sindactilia. As imagens radiográficas revelaram as seguintes alterações no membro posterior direito: um fêmur com diâmetro aumentado, duas tíbias, duas fíbulas e ausência de hálux. As malformações observadas restringiram-se apenas ao membro posterior direito, o qual mantém sua funcionalidade. Essas alterações nunca antes foram descritas na espécie Didelphis aurita.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Syndactyly , Didelphis , Brazil
7.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(7): 559-563, July 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135658

ABSTRACT

Osteosarcoma is characterized by the production of osteoid or woven bone, using neoplastic osteoblasts. It is the most common primary bone neoplasm in canines and humans. This neoplasm was previously reported in all vertebrate classes, including a wide variety of mammals. However, there is no case report describing this neoplasm in Didelphis albiventris. Therefore, the objective of this manuscript is to describe the clinical-pathological aspects of fibroblastic osteosarcoma in D. albiventris. A wild adult male white-eared opossum (D. albiventris) arrived at the zoological park of the "Universidade de Caxias do Sul" with a swollen left thoracic limb. After a general clinical examination, the animal was transferred to the Veterinary Clinic of "Universidade de Caxias do Sul" for radiographic examination of the left thoracic limb and thorax. Additionally, some material was collected through fine needle aspiration (FNA) for cytologic evaluation. The radiographic findings and cytologic evaluation indicated osteosarcoma. The animal was euthanized due to severe clinical conditions and guarded prognosis. During necropsy, macroscopic analysis of the viscera was performed, fragments of various organs were collected and fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin. All fragments were processed following routine histological techniques. The histopathological evaluation confirmed osteosarcoma, which was classified as a fibroblastic subtype. Case reports are crucial for the knowledge of incidence, prevalence, and behavior of the current mentioned disease, as well as other diseases, in species with such limited information. In order to obtain a decisive diagnosis, a few different examination methods were associated. Although the observations presented are based on a single case, this neoplasm had a similar clinical presentation to that described in other species.(AU)


O osteossarcoma é caracterizado pela produção de osteoide ou osso imaturo, por osteoblastos neoplásicos. É a neoplasia óssea primária mais comum em caninos e humanos. Essa neoplasia já foi relatada em todas as classes de vertebrados, incluindo uma grande variedade de mamíferos. Não havendo descrição dessa neoplasia até o momento em Didelphis albiventris. O objetivo deste trabalho é descrever aspectos clínico-patológicos de um caso de osteossarcoma fibroblástico em D. albiventris. Chegou para atendimento no Zoológico da Universidade de Caxias do Sul um gambá-de-orelha-branca (D. albiventris), macho, adulto, de vida livre com aumento de volume no membro torácico esquerdo. Após avaliação clínica geral, o animal foi encaminhado para a Clínica Veterinária da Universidade de Caxias do Sul para realização de radiografia do membro torácico esquerdo e de tórax, sendo também realizada coleta de material por punção aspirativa por agulha fina (PAAF) para avaliação citológica. Os achados radiográficos e da avaliação citológica foram sugestivos de osteossarcoma. Devido ao estado clínico grave e prognóstico reservado optou-se pela eutanásia. Durante a necropsia realizou-se a análise macroscópica das vísceras, foram coletados fragmentos de diversos órgãos, fixados em formalina 10%, processados pelas técnicas histológicas de rotina. Na avaliação histopatológica confirmou-se a suspeita de osteossarcoma sendo classificado no subtipo fibroblástico. A descrição de relatos é fundamental para conhecimento da incidência, prevalência e comportamento desta e de outras doenças em espécies que as informações são limitadas. A associação de diferentes métodos de exames foram necessários para a obtenção de um diagnóstico definitivo. Embora as observações apresentadas se baseiem em um caso único, esta neoplasia possuiu apresentação clínica semelhante a descrita em outras espécies.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Bone Neoplasms/veterinary , Osteosarcoma/diagnosis , Osteosarcoma/veterinary , Osteosarcoma/diagnostic imaging , Didelphis , Radiography, Thoracic/veterinary
8.
Rev. MVZ Córdoba ; 24(3): 7366-7371, sep.-dic. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115263

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo. Determinar la abundancia relativa y los patrones de actividad de la zarigüeya común (Didelphis marsupialis) en una zona periurbana del municipio de Medellín, departamento de Antioquia. Materiales y métodos. El estudio se desarrolló en la sede de prácticas y clínica veterinaria Remington ubicada en el corregimiento de Santa Elena. Para el registro de datos se empleó la metodología de fototrampeo durante 3 meses (junio-agosto de 2017), invirtiendo un esfuerzo total de 166 días/trampa. Resultados. Se obtuvieron un total de 275 registros independientes de la especie y se estimó una abundancia relativa de 52.88. El patrón de actividad muestra un primer pico de actividad al comienzo de la noche (19:00) y un segundo pico en la madrugada (3:00), con una posterior disminución hacia las horas de la madrugada. Conclusiones. Los resultados muestran una abundancia relativa alta con respecto a otras localidades en Colombia, además de evidenciar una población reproductivamente activa. Al mismo tiempo se convierten en una herramienta para el fortalecimiento de estrategias de conservación y sensibilización a los pobladores locales sobre la fauna de la región.


ABSTRACT Objective. The relative abundance and activity patterns of the common opossum Didelphis marsupialis were determined in a peri-urban area of Medellín municipality, Antioquia department. Materials and methods. The study was developed in the Remington Veterinary practice at Santa Elena Corregimiento. The data recording was carried out through camera trapping methodology for three months (June-August 2017) with a total effort of 166 days-camera. Results. With a total of 275 independent records, we calculate the relative abundance index (52.88 UNITS). The activity patterns show a first activity peak beginning the night (19:00) and a second one after midnight (3:00), reducing the activity in the sunrise hours. Conclusions. These results present a high relative abundance in comparison to another Colombian localities, besides a population active reproductively. At the same time, they become a tool to support conservation strategies and sensitizing local people about the wildlife of this region.


Subject(s)
Didelphis , Opossums
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(4): 594-602, Nov. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001493

ABSTRACT

Abstract Didelphis albiventris are found throughout Northeast and Central Brazil to central-southern Uruguay and it was subject of few studies in a population level. Given this, the present study investigated the genetic variability of the species using the mitochondrial molecular marker cytochrome oxidase c subunit I. We analyzed samples from the different biomes within three Brazilian regions: Northeast (Caatinga , Cerrado, and Atlantic Forest), Southeast (Cerrado , Atlantic Forest, Cerrado/Atlantic Forest, and Cerrado/Caatinga ecotones) and South (Pampa and Atlantic Forest). Software BAPs retrieved five distinct demes: dm 1, dm 2, and dm 5 that occurs in South, Northeast and Southeast regions respectively and the dm 3 and dm 4 are wide distributed in Northeast and Southeast. Population analysis performed with AMOVA, haplotype network and Mantel test estimated the veracity of the demes. The FST shows structuring for the five demes, with dm 1 (South region) isolated from the others, however the other analysis showed the Northeast/Southeast demes (dm 2-5) united, diagnosing gene flow between them, mainly at the transitional zones, in areas as far away as areas with similar latitude interval (Southeast vs South) that was not detected gene flow. In the haplotype network, the mutational steps was conclusive in split dm1 from dm 2-5 with 15 mutational steps and the Mantel test was moderated, which is explained by genetic similarity despite the great geographic distances (Northeast/Southeast). Thus, our analysis recognized two different lineages (South and Northeast/Southeast) and indicate that the biomes were not decisive in their isolation. The sharing of demes at the transitional zones and in areas with high latitudinal intervals reflects a recent ancestral polymorphism for D. albiventris. The plasticity in the occupation of the space by this species contributes in its wide dispersion capability, that is, geographical distribution. Our results revealed important implications for the management of D. albiventris in these transitional zones areas where demes were shared.


Resumo Didelphis albiventris é encontrada em todo o Nordeste e região central do Brasil até o centro-sul do Uruguai e foi alvo de poucos estudos em nível populacional. Dessa forma, o presente estudo, investiga a variabilidade genética da espécie usando o marcador molecular citocromo c oxidase subunidade I. Analisou-se amostras de diferentes biomas de três regiões brasileiras: Nordeste (Caatinga, Cerrado e Floresta Atlântica), Sudeste (Cerrado, Floresta Atlântica, ecótonos Cerrado/Floresta Atlântica e Cerrado/Caatinga) e Sul (Pampa e Floresta Atlântica). O software BAPs recuperou cinco demes distintos: dm 1, dm 2 e dm 5, que ocorrem nas regiões Sul, Nordeste e Sudeste, respectivamente, e os dm 3 e dm 4, que são amplamente distribuído no Nordeste e Sudeste. Análises populacionais realizadas com AMOVA, rede de haplótipo e teste de Mantel estimaram a veracidade das demes. O FST mostrou estruturação para as cinco demes, com dm 1 (região Sul) isolada das demais, entretanto as outras análises mostraram as demes Nordeste/Sudeste (dm 2-5) unidos, diagnosticando fluxo gênico entre elas, principalmente em zonas de transição, em áreas tão distante quanto áreas com similar intervalo de latitude (Sudeste e Sul), onde não foram detectado fluxo gênico. Na rede de haplótipo, os passos mutacionais foram conclusivos em separar dm 1 do dm 2-5 com 15 passos mutacionais, e o teste de Mantel foi moderado, o que é explicado pela similaridade genética apesar da grande distância geográfica (Nordeste/Sudeste). Assim, duas linhagens diferentes (Sul e Sudeste/Nordeste) foram encontradas, indicando que os biomas não foram decisivos em seus isolamentos. Os compartilhamentos das demes, em zonas de transição e em áreas com elevados intervalos de latitude, refletem um polimorfismo ancestral recente para D. albiventris. A plasticidade na ocupação do espaço por esta espécie contribui em sua ampla capacidade de dispersão, ou seja, distribuição geográfica. Nossos resultados revelam importantes implicações para o manejo de D. albiventris nessas áreas de zonas de transição, onde as demes são compartilhadas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Genetic Variation , Didelphis/genetics , Brazil , Electron Transport Complex IV/analysis
10.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(3): 838-844, Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012362

ABSTRACT

Natural anatomical pieces of wild animals are rare and teachers seek alternatives in satisfactory quantity and quality to inform their students. This article aims to describe the use of multiplanar reconstructions and 3D volume rendering computed tomography (CT) images, rapid prototyping and 3D printing of opossum head to create a biomodel to veterinary education in descriptive anatomy of wild animals. A six-step method study was conducted to construct the biomodel: (1) selection of opossum head from museum; (2) CT scanning of bones structures in veterinary hospital; (3) DICOM visualization medical images in multiplanar reconstructions and 3D volume rendering; (4) .dicom file conversion to .stl; (5) 3D printing of opossum head by rapid prototyping; (6) comparison of 3D model printed with the original anatomical piece. The use of CT images with their different forms of reconstruction can provide a more comprehensive 3D view of opossum craniofacial region and allow a better understanding of head anatomy of this species. The 3D printed biomodel can be a viable alternative to original bone specimens when used in anatomy education. However, further studies must be continued to validate the method in Veterinary Medicine courses.


Las piezas anatómicas naturales de animales salvajes son raras y los profesores buscan alternativas satisfactorias, en cantidad y calidad, para enseñar a sus alumnos. Este artículo tuvo como objetivo describir el uso de la reconstrucción volumétrica por tomografía computarizada, la creación rápida de prototipos y la impresión 3D de la cabeza de zarigüeya para obtener un biomodelo en anatomía descriptiva de animales salvajes para educación veterinaria. Se realizó un estudio en seis pasos para construir el biomodelo: (1) selección de cabeza de zarigüeya del museo; (2) tomografía computarizada de estructuras óseas en hospital veterinario; (3) visualización de las imágenes médicas en DICOM por reconstrucciones multiplanares y renderización de volumen 3D; (4) conversión de archivos .dicom a .stl; (5) impresión 3D de cabeza de zarigüeya mediante prototipado rápido; (6) comparación del modelo 3D impreso con la pieza anatómica original. El uso de imágenes de tomografía computarizada, con sus diferentes formas de reconstrucción, puede proporcionar una vista 3D más completa de la región craneofacial de zarigüeya y permitir una mejor comprensión de la anatomía de la cabeza de esta especie. El biomodelo 3D impreso puede ser una alternativa viable a las muestras óseas originales cuando se utiliza en la educación de la anatomía. Sin embargo, se deben continuar los estudios para validar el método en los cursos de Medicina Veterinaria.


Subject(s)
Animals , Opossums/anatomy & histology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Head/diagnostic imaging , Didelphis/anatomy & histology , Education, Veterinary , Head/anatomy & histology
11.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(1): 140-144, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042500

ABSTRACT

Abstract Erlichiosis affects humans and animals worldwide. Its distribution and prevalence depends on the presence of tick vectors and hosts in one geographic area. The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of Ehrlichia spp. and Anaplasma spp. in opossums (Didelphis sp.) from the State of Rio de Janeiro, southeast Brazil. Blood samples from 37 animals were tested for these two pathogens using molecular methods. One animal (2.7%) was positive for Ehrlichia sp. by 16S rRNA-based nested PCR. In a phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene using the maximum likelihood method and the GTRGAMMA+I evolutionary model, we detected a novel Ehrlichia sp. genotype closely related to genotypes of E. canis previously reported in dogs from Brazil. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first molecular detection of Ehrlichia sp. in opossums from this State in the southeastern region of the country.


Resumo A erliquiose afeta seres humanos e animais em todo o mundo. Sua distribuição e prevalência dependem da presença de vetores de carrapatos e hospedeiros em uma área geográfica. O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar a ocorrência de Ehrlichia sp. e Anaplasma sp. em gambás (Didelphis sp.) do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil. Amostras de sangue de 37 animais foram testadas para estes dois patógenos usando métodos moleculares. Um animal (2,7%) foi positivo para Ehrlichia sp. baseado em 16S rRNA-nested PCR. Em uma análise filogenética baseada no gene 16S rRNA usando o método de máxima verossimilhança e o modelo evolutivo GTRGAMMA + I, detectamos um novo genótipo de Ehrlichia sp. intimamente relacionado a genótipos de E. canis previamente relatados em cães do Brasil. Para o conhecimento dos autores, esta é a primeira detecção molecular de Ehrlichia sp. em gambás deste estado na região sudeste do país.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Didelphis/microbiology , Ehrlichia/isolation & purification , Anaplasma/isolation & purification , Phylogeny , Brazil , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Ehrlichia/genetics , Anaplasma/genetics
12.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 26(1): 8-11, jan.-mar. 2019. il
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1016189

ABSTRACT

El Didelphis aurita, conocido como comadreja de orejas negras, es un marsupial con amplia distribución en la América del Sur, frecuente tanto en los ambientes silvestres como antrópicos debido a su gran plasticidad ecológica. Animales de esta especie son comúnmente atendidos en la medicina de animales silvestres y vienen siendo empleados como modelos experimentales alternativos a especies tradicionales. El objetivo de ese trabajo fue relatar la ocurrencia de un caso de vena renal doble en un espécimen adulto, macho, de D. aurita. Para eso, se ha disecado un cadáver fijado y conservado en solución de formaldehído 10%, previamente inyectado con látex de color azul por la porción torácica de la arteria aorta para facilitar la disección. El espécimen poseía dos venas renales derechas, una vena craneal (11,3 mm) y otra caudal (10,0 mm) que drenaban distintamente para una vena cava caudal. La vena renal izquierda y las arterias renales eran únicas. Aunque la duplicidad de la vena renal es reportada en otras especies como perros, gatos y felideos silvestres, este es el primer relato en el género Didelphis. El conocimiento de las variaciones anatómicas vasculares es relevante para la correcta ejecución de procedimientos veterinarios y en la interpretación de hallazgos experimentales en relación con el sistema urogenital.


Didelphis aurita, known as black eared oposum, is a marsupial widely distributed in South America, frequently seen in both wild and anthropogenic environments due to its great ecological plasticity. This species is commonly treated in wildlife veterinary services and has been used as alternative experimental models instead of conventional species. The aim of this report was to describe a case of double renal vein in a male, adult, specimen of D. aurita. In order to make the dissection easier, the cadaver was fixed and preserved in 10 % formaldehyde solution, and previously injected with latex in blue color by the thoracic aorta to facilitate dissection. The specimen had two right renal veins, one cranial (11.3 mm) and other caudal (10.0 mm) that drained distinctly for caudal vena cava. The left renal vein and the renal arteries were single. Although double renal vein has been reported in other species, such as dogs, cats and wild felids, this is the first mention in the genus Didelphis. The knowledge of the vascular anatomical variations is relevant for the correct execution of veterinary procedures and the interpretation of experimental findings in urogenital system research.


Subject(s)
Animals , Opossums , Animals, Wild , Cardiovascular System , Didelphis , Marsupialia
13.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(1): 45-55, Jan. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894884

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Didelphis spp. are a South American marsupial species that are among the most ancient hosts for the Trypanosoma spp. OBJECTIVES We characterise a new species (Trypanosoma janseni n. sp.) isolated from the spleen and liver tissues of Didelphis aurita in the Atlantic Rainforest of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS The parasites were isolated and a growth curve was performed in NNN and Schneider's media containing 10% foetal bovine serum. Parasite morphology was evaluated via light microscopy on Giemsa-stained culture smears, as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Molecular taxonomy was based on a partial region (737-bp) of the small subunit (18S) ribosomal RNA gene and 708 bp of the nuclear marker, glycosomal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) genes. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods were used to perform a species coalescent analysis and to generate individual and concatenated gene trees. Divergence times among species that belong to the T. cruzi clade were also inferred. FINDINGS In vitro growth curves demonstrated a very short log phase, achieving a maximum growth rate at day 3 followed by a sharp decline. Only epimastigote forms were observed under light and scanning microscopy. Transmission electron microscopy analysis showed structures typical to Trypanosoma spp., except one structure that presented as single-membraned, usually grouped in stacks of three or four. Phylogeography analyses confirmed the distinct species status of T. janseni n. sp. within the T. cruzi clade. Trypanosoma janseni n. sp. clusters with T. wauwau in a well-supported clade, which is exclusive and monophyletic. The separation of the South American T. wauwau + T. janseni coincides with the separation of the Southern Super Continent. CONCLUSIONS This clade is a sister group of the trypanosomes found in Australian marsupials and its discovery sheds light on the initial diversification process based on what we currently know about the T. cruzi clade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Trypanosoma , Trypanosomatina , Didelphis/classification , Phylogeography , Brazil
14.
Arq. ciênc. vet. zool. UNIPAR ; 20(1): 19-22, jan-mar. 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-849153

ABSTRACT

Entre fevereiro de 2009 a abril de 2011, nove exemplares adultos (sete machos e duas fêmeas) de Didelphis albiventris (Lund, 1841), foram encontrados mortos por atropelamento no município de Palotina, Paraná. Os animais foram encaminhados para necropsia e coleta de material. Os parasitos encontrados foram fixados em formol acético e, posteriormente identificados. Os nove gambás estavam parasitados por helmintos, com predominância para o filo Nemathelminthes (66%), seguido por Acanthocephala (17%) e Platyhelminthes (17%). Foram isolados os seguintes helmintos e respectivas prevalências: Turgida turgida (89%) no estômago; Cruzia tentaculata (44%), Aspidodera sp. (22%) e Trichuris sp. (11%) no intestino grosso; Hamanniella microcephala (78%) e Rhopalias coronatus (11%) no intestino delgado. Em 80% dos D. albiventris ocorreu a associação parasitária entre, no mínimo, duas espécies de helmintos.(AU)


From February 2009 to April 2011, nine adult specimens (seven male and two female) of Didelphis albiventris (Lund, 1841) were found dead by roadkill in Palotina, Paraná. The animals were submitted for necropsy and collection of material. The parasites found were fixed in formalin acetic acid and subsequently identified. The nine opossums were parasitized by helminths, predominantly belonging to the Nemathelminthes (66%) phylum, followed by Acanthocephala (17%) and Platyhelminthes (17%). The following helminths were isolated and their prevalences were as follows: Turgida turgida (89%) in the stomach; Cruzia tentaculata (44%), Aspidodera sp. (22%) and Trichuris sp. (11%) in the large intestine; Hamanniella microcephala (78%) and Rhopalias coronatus (11%) in the small intestine.Parasitic association between at least two helminth species occurred in 80% of D. albiventris samples.(AU)


De febrero de 2009 a abril de 2011, nueve ejemplares adultos (siete machos y dos hembras) de Didelphis albiventris (Lund, 1841), fueron encontrados muertos por arrollamiento en el municipio de Palotina, Paraná. Los animales fueron enviados para necropsia y colecta de material. Los parásitos encontrados fueron fijados en formol acético, y posteriormente identificados. Las nueve zarigüeyas estaban parasitadas por helmintos, especialmente por Nemathelminthes (66%), seguido de Acanthocephala (17%) y Platyhelminthes (17%). Fueron aislados los siguientes helmintos y sus respectivas prevalencias: Turgida turgida (89%) en el estómago; Cruzia tentaculata (44%), Aspidodera sp. (22%) y Trichuris sp. (11%) en el intestino grueso; Hamanniella microcephala (78%) y Rhopalias coronatus (11%) en el intestino delgado. En 80% de los D. albiventris ocurrió la asociación parasitaria entre al menos dos especies de helmintos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Didelphis/parasitology , Nematode Infections/diagnosis , Nematode Infections/parasitology
15.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 36(11): 1132-1138, Nov. 2016. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-842017

ABSTRACT

This study was made to investigate the anatomical features of the white-eared opossum skull, by osteology and radiographic anatomy. For this, five animals were used without sexual distinction. The skull was examined by radiographic and macroscopic characteristics. The skulls were then subjected to maceration. The skull was described macroscopically according to standard views, i.e. dorsal and caudal, lateral, ventral, and midsagittal. The skull can be divided into facial (viscerocranium) and cranial (neurocranium) regions. The facial region was elongated and more developed than neurocranium. The supraorbital foramen was absent. The tympanic bulla is not well developed. The zygomatic arch was formed by zygomatic process of the temporal bone, zygomatic process of the maxilla, and temporal process of the zygomatic bone. There was no significant difference between bones found in this study when compared with those described for others mammals. These findings may contribute to the better understanding of the anatomy and biology of the white-eared opossum.(AU)


Este estudo objetivou investigar as características anatômicas do crânio do gambá-de-orelha-branca, através da anatomia óssea e radiográfica. Para tanto, cinco animais foram usados sem distinção sexual. O crânio foi estudado através de análises radiográficas e macroscópicas. Para esta última, os crânios foram macerados. O crânio foi descrito macroscopicamente de acordo com as vistas ou normas rotineiras, isto é, dorsal e caudal, lateral, ventral e sagital. O crânio pode ser dividido em regiões facial (viscerocrânio) e cranial (neurocrânio). A região facial se mostrou alongada e mais desenvolvida que o neurocrânio. O forame supraorbital estava ausente. A bula timpânica não era bem desenvolvida. O arco zigomático era formado pelo processo zigomático do osso temporal, processo zigomático da maxila, e pelo processo temporal do osso zigomático. Não houve diferenças significativas entre os ossos estudados quando comparados com os já descritos para outros mamíferos. Estes resultados podem contribuir com um melhor entendimento da anatomia e biologia deste animal.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cephalometry/veterinary , Didelphis/anatomy & histology , Skull/anatomy & histology , Skull/diagnostic imaging , Zygoma/anatomy & histology , Animals, Wild/anatomy & histology , Marsupialia/anatomy & histology , Opossums/anatomy & histology
16.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 25(3): 348-352, July-Sept. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-795082

ABSTRACT

Abstract This work involved a serological investigation of tick-borne pathogens in opossums in eight municipalities of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Serum samples from 109 opossums (91 Didelphis aurita and 18 Didelphis albiventris) were tested to detect antibodies to Rickettsia rickettsii (Taiaçu strain, 1:64 cut-off) and Ehrlichia canis (São Paulo strain, 1:40 cut-off), by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA); and against Borrelia burgdorferi (strain G39/40) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The presence of antibodies to anti-R. rickettsii, anti-E. canis and anti-B. burgdorferi was detected in 32 (29.35%), 16 (14.67%) and 30 (27.52%) opossums, respectively. Opossum endpoint titers ranged from 64 to 1,024 for R. rickettsii, from 40 to 160 for E. canis, and from 400 to >51,200 for B. burgdorferi. These serological results suggest that opossums have been exposed to Rickettsia spp., Ehrlichia spp., and B. burgdorferi-related agents in the state of São Paulo. Our study underscores the need for further research about these agents in this study area, in view of the occurrence of Spotted Fever and Baggio-Yoshinari Syndrome disease in humans in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.


Resumo O presente estudo investigou evidência sorológica de agentes transmitidos por carrapatos em gambás em oito municípios do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Amostras de soro de 109 gambás (91 Didelphis aurita e 18 Didelphis albiventris) foram testadas para detecção de anticorpos contra Rickettsia rickettsii (cepa Taiaçu, ponto de corte 1:64) Ehrlichia canis (cepa São Paulo, ponto de corte 1:40), pela reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI); e contra Borrelia burgdorferi (cepa G39/40) pelo teste imunoenzimático (ELISA). A presença de anticorpos anti-R. rickettsii, anti-E. canis e anti-B. burgdorferi foi detectada em 32 (29,35%), 16 (14,67%) e 30 (27,52%) gambás, respectivamente. Os títulos finais variaram de 64 a 1.024 para R. rickettsii, de 40 a 160 para E. canis, e de 400 a >51.200 para B. burgdorferi. Esses resultados sugerem que os gambás foram expostos a agentes relacionados à Rickettsia spp., Ehrlichia spp., e B. burgdorferi no Estado de São Paulo. Neste estudo salienta a necessidade de novas pesquisas sobre esses agentes nessas áreas de trabalho, devido à ocorrência da Febre Maculosa e da Síndrome Baggio-Yoshinari em humanos no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rodent Diseases/microbiology , Rodent Diseases/epidemiology , Didelphis/microbiology , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Rodent Diseases/diagnosis , Ticks , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Brazil , Didelphis/immunology , Didelphis/blood
17.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-875135

ABSTRACT

South American opossums are the definitive hosts of Sarcocystis neurona, Sarcocystis falcatula, Sarcocystis speeri and Sarcocystis lindsayi. The sporocysts of these species of Sarcocystis are morphologically similar and methods like infectivity and pathogenicity for intermediate hosts (immunodeficient mice and psittacine birds) and molecular tools are used for identification. Opossums are synanthropic wild animals, and widely distributed in Brazilian territory. Previous studies have shown high environmental contamination with S. neurona sporocysts in several Brazilian regions. This paper reviews information on Sarcocystis spp. shed by various opossum species and its occurrence in Brazil.(AU)


Os gambás Sul-americanos são os hospedeiros definitivos de Sarcocystis falcatula, Sarcocystis neurona, Sarcocystis speeri e Sarcocystis lindsayi. Estas espécies de Sarcocystis são morfologicamente similares, mas podem ser distinguidas por sua patogenicidade e infectividade em hospedeiros intermediários (aves e camundongos imunodeficientes) e técnicas moleculares. Os gambás são animais silvestres e sinantrópicos e amplamente distribuídos no território nacional. Estudos anteriores demonstraram uma alta contaminação ambiental com esporocistos de S. neurona em diversas regiões brasileiras. Este artigo revisa informações sobre Sarcocystis spp. excretados por gambás e sua ocorrência no Brasil.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Didelphis/parasitology , Opossums/parasitology , Parasite Egg Count/veterinary , Sarcocystis/parasitology , Sarcocystis/pathogenicity , Brazil
18.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-875309

ABSTRACT

Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common zoonoses worldwide. It was initially described in rodents and rabbits. There are few data on the morbidity and mortality of this disease among Brazilian marsupial fauna, such as opossums. These animals are of great importance regarding the epidemiology of this disease, given that they are prey for felids and other carnivores. With the aim of ascertaining the serological response to Toxoplasma gondii among marsupials (Didelphis spp.), 38 animals that had been caught in 14 districts of the urban area of the municipality of Bauru, state of São Paulo, were evaluated. The modified agglutination test (MAT) showed that 26.3% (10/38) of the samples analyzed were seropositive. It can be suggested that the opossums' behavior and persistent proximity to human housing results in contact with cats and T. gondii infection, based on the frequency found in this study. This was the first study on the seroprevalence of T. gondii in opossums caught in the urban area of the municipality of Bauru, SP, and it highlights the need for environmental and health authorities of the municipality to monitor this zoonosis.(AU)


A toxoplasmose é uma das zoonoses mais comuns no mundo, tendo sido descrita inicialmente em roedores e em coelhos. Todavia, poucos são os dados sobre morbidade e mortalidade da toxoplasmose nos marsupiais da fauna brasileira, como os gambás, sendo de grande importância na epidemiologia da doença, como presas para felídeos e outros carnívoros. Com o objetivo de verificar a resposta sorológica para Toxoplasma gondii em marsupiais (Didelphis spp.), foram avaliados 38 animais capturados em 14 regiões da área urbana do município de Bauru-SP. Foi encontrada uma frequência, de acordo com o teste de aglutinação modificada (MAT), de 26,3% (10/38) nas amostras analisadas. Pode-se sugerir que o comportamento dos gambás e sua permanência próxima a habitações humanas resultam em contato com gatos e infecção por T. gondii, tendo em vista a frequência encontrada neste estudo. Este é o primeiro estudo de soroprevalência de T. gondii em gambás capturados na área urbana do município de Bauru-SP, alertando-se para a necessidade do monitoramento desta zoonose pelas autoridades de vigilância ambiental e sanitária do município.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Didelphis/immunology , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/prevention & control , Urban Area , Serologic Tests/veterinary , Zoonoses/immunology
19.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 47(3): 174-182, set. 2015. tab, graf, mapas
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-843123

ABSTRACT

El control y la erradicación de la tuberculosis bovina basados en la detección de los animales infectados y su inmediata faena permitió lograr progresos satisfactorios en varios países y regiones, pero no todos pudieron lograrlo debido principalmente a la presencia de fauna silvestre infectada con Mycobacterium bovis. La Argentina aplica desde 1999 estas mismas premisas y ha logrado avances en los rodeos lecheros, aunque no se ha evaluado el factor ambiental como la fauna silvestre. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar si la fauna silvestre de la cuenca lechera de Santa Fe está infectada con M. bovis. Se realizó la captura/sacrificio de fauna silvestre presente en 5 rodeos lecheros con altos niveles de reaccionantes positivos a la prueba de tuberculina. Sobre 95 mamíferos silvestres examinados, se aisló M. bovis de 7 individuos de comadreja overa (Didelphis albiventris), de uno de zorro gris (Lycolapex gimnocercus) y de uno de rata (Rattus norvegicus). Los sitios anatómicos que produjeron estos aislamientos variaron de acuerdo con las especies; en ninguno de los ejemplares evaluados se observaron lesiones macroscópicas de tuberculosis. Los espoligotipos de M. bovis aislados con mayor frecuencia de los animales silvestres correspondieron a los tipos 34 (4 aislamientos) y 12 (3 aislamientos); el primero es el más corrientemente aislado del ganado en Argentina. Se discute en este estudio el papel de la comadreja overa (D. albiventris) como hospedador circunstancial de M. bovis


Control eradication campaigns of bovine tuberculosis based on the «test and slaughter¼ approach were successful in many countries and regions; however, in some areas the infection persists and one of the main reasons is Mycobacterium bovis infection in wild life species. Argentina has applied the same approach since 1999, achieving progress in dairy cattle herds. Nonetheless, the wildlife role has never been investigated. The objective of this study was to determine if wildlife from the Santa Fe dairy area is infected with M. bovis. Wildlife species having a positive tuberculin skin test were captured in five dairy farms. Ninety five wildlife mammals were captured; M. bovis was recovered from 7 possums (Didelphys albiventris), from one fox (Lycolapex gimnocercus) and from one rat (Rattus norvegicus). None of the animals exhibited macroscopic lesions. The most frequently isolated M. bovis spoligotypes were types 34 (4 isolates) and 12 (3 isolates). Spoligotype 34 is the most frequently isolated type in Argentine cattle. The role of D. albiventris as spillover host of M. bovis is discussed in this study


Subject(s)
Tuberculin/analysis , Didelphis/microbiology , Animals, Wild/microbiology , Mycobacterium bovis/isolation & purification , Tuberculosis, Bovine/prevention & control , Bacteriological Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Determination/analysis , Mycobacterium bovis/growth & development
20.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(7): 887-898, 11/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-728796

ABSTRACT

The role played by different mammal species in the maintenance of Trypanosoma cruzi is not constant and varies in time and place. This study aimed to characterise the importance of domestic, wild and peridomestic hosts in the transmission of T. cruzi in Tauá, state of Ceará, Caatinga area, Brazil, with an emphasis on those environments colonised by Triatoma brasiliensis. Direct parasitological examinations were performed on insects and mammals, serologic tests were performed on household and outdoor mammals and multiplex polymerase chain reaction was used on wild mammals. Cytochrome b was used as a food source for wild insects. The serum prevalence in dogs was 38% (20/53), while in pigs it was 6% (2/34). The percentages of the most abundantly infected wild animals were as follows: Thrichomys laurentius 74% (83/112) and Kerodon rupestris 10% (11/112). Of the 749 triatomines collected in the household research, 49.3% (369/749) were positive for T. brasiliensis, while 6.8% were infected with T. cruzi (25/369). In captured animals, T. brasiliensis shares a natural environment with T. laurentius, K. rupestris, Didelphis albiventris, Monodelphis domestica, Galea spixii, Wiedomys pyrrhorhinos, Conepatus semistriatus and Mus musculus. In animals identified via their food source, T. brasiliensis shares a natural environment with G. spixii, K. rupestris, Capra hircus, Gallus gallus, Tropidurus oreadicus and Tupinambis merianae. The high prevalence of T. cruzi in household and peridomiciliar animals reinforces the narrow relationship between the enzootic cycle and humans in environments with T. brasiliensis and characterises it as ubiquitous.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Dogs , Mice , Chagas Disease/transmission , Disease Reservoirs/parasitology , Insect Vectors/physiology , Triatoma/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/physiology , Animal Distribution , Brazil , Chagas Disease/blood , Chickens/parasitology , Didelphis/parasitology , Ecosystem , Family Characteristics , Goats/parasitology , Host-Parasite Interactions , Lizards/parasitology , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Mephitidae/parasitology , Monodelphis/parasitology , Rural Population , Rodentia/parasitology , Swine/parasitology , Triatoma/classification
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