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2.
Rev. ecuat. pediatr ; 22(3): 1-14, 30 de diciembre del 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352441

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El etiquetado nutricional es una herramienta gráfica para notificar al consumidor sobre las propiedades nutricionales de un alimento lo que facilita su selección. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la influencia del etiquetado nutricional y los factores socioeconómicos, culturales, demográficos, publicitarios en la selección de alimentos en un grupo de padres de niños entre 5-11 años en dos unidades educativas públicas y privadas de Quito. Métodos: Con diseño mixto, cuantitativo- transversal y cualitativa interpretativa se analizó una muestra de opiniones de 240 padres en las Unidades Educativas (UE) Nueva Aurora (Privada) y 235 padres en la UE Julio María Matovelle (Pública) de Quito. Se realizaron tres grupos focales, grabados y transcriptos de forma textual y se aplicó un cuestionario. El paquete esta-dístico usado fue SPSS v24.0. Resultados: Hubo mayor consumo de alimentos procesados en la UE Privada n=79/240 (32.9%). Selección por fácil preparación (39.2% UE Privada y 46.4% UE Pública). El 54.2 % y 57 % de los padres ven publicidad en la televisión. El conocimiento del etiquetado fue superior en la UE privada (94.9%; n=223). Asociación entre edad [OR: 2.3; IC 95%: 1.08-5.04] instrucción [OR: 3.95; IC 95%: 2.12-7.37], exposición a la publicidad [OR: 0.62; IC 95%: 0.36-1.05] y conocimientos (P<0.05). La actitud se asoció con el nivel de instrucción [OR: 2.57; IC 95%: 1.62-4.09] e ingresos (P<0.05). Análisis cualitativo: grado de conocimiento y publicidad elevados, con un impacto importante en la selección de los alimentos. Conclusiones: El conocimiento sobre el etiquetado nutricional fue elevado; pero no fue el principal factor para seleccionar alimentos. El tiempo de preparación y el sabor fueron más importantes que las especificaciones nutricionales


Introduction: Nutrition labeling is a graphic tool to notify consumers about the nutritional properties of a food, which facilitates their selection. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of nutri-tional labeling and socioeconomic, cultural, demographic, and advertising factors on food selection in a group of parents of children between 5-11 years old in two public and private educational units in Quito. Methods: With a mixed, quantitative-transversal and qualitative interpretative design, a sample of opin-ions of 240 parents in the Educational Units (EU) Nueva Aurora (Fiscal) and 235 parents in the EU Julio María Matovelle (Private) of Quito was analyzed. Three focus groups were carried out, recorded and transcribed textually, and a questionnaire was administered. The statistical package used was SPSS v24.0. Results: There was a higher consumption of processed foods in the private EU n = 79/240 (32.9%). Selection for easy preparation (39.2% Private EU and 46.4% Public EU). 54.2% and 57% of parents see advertising on television. Knowledge of labeling was higher in the private EU (94.9%; n = 223). Association between age [OR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.08-5.04] instruction [OR: 3.95; 95% CI: 2.12-7.37], exposure to advertising [OR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.36-1.05] and knowledge (P <0.05). Attitude was associated with educational level [OR: 2.57; 95% CI: 1.62-4.09] and admissions (P <0.05). Qualitative analysis: high degree of knowledge and publicity, with a significant impact on food selection. Conclusions: Knowledge about nutritional labeling was high, but it was not the main factor in selecting food. Prep time and flavor were more important than nutritional specifications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Food and Nutrition Education , Diet Therapy , Child Nutrition Sciences , Food Publicity , Nutritional Sciences , Diet, Food, and Nutrition , Nutritive Value
3.
Ludovica pediátr ; 24(1): 48-53, Ene-Jun 2021.
Article in Spanish | Redbvs, LILACS, Redbvs, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1293223

ABSTRACT

El término escorbuto procede de una palabra del antiguo escandinavo, scorbruck, que significa "hinchazones ulceradas". Es una entidad infrecuente en pediatría, causada por deficiencia nutricional exógena de ácido ascórbico. Los seres humanos, a diferencia de otros seres vivos, no pueden sintetizar la vitamina C y, en consecuencia, dependen estrictamente de su aporte exógeno. El escorbuto puede simular varios desórdenes reumatológicos. Aunque es poco común, puede presentarse como pseudovasculitis o artritis crónica. Para el diagnóstico en pacientes que presentan síntomas músculo esqueléticos se requiere un alto índice de sospecha. Se reporta el caso de un paciente masculino de 9 años que desarrolló la enfermedad por un hábito alimentario selectivo de larga evolución, sin ingesta de frutas ni verduras. El objetivo del presente reporte es alertar al pediatra acerca del desarrollo de escorbuto como potencial consecuencia de las dietas restrictivas, y la importancia de realizar una anamnesis alimentaria completa ante la sospecha diagnóstica


The term scurvy comes from a word from the old Scandinavian, scorbruck, which means ulcerated swellings. Scurvy is an infrequent entity in pediatrics caused by exogenous nutritional deficiency of ascorbic acid. Human beings, unlike other living beings, can not synthesize vitamin C and, consequently, they depend strictly on their exogenous contribution. Scurvy can simulate several rheumatological disorders. Although it is uncommon, it can present as pseudovasculitis or chronic arthritis. A high index of suspicion is required to diagnose patients with musculoskeletal symptoms. We report a case of a 9-year-old male patient who developed the disease due to a long-term selective eating habit, without fruits or vegetables intake. The objective of this report is to alert the pediatrician about the development of scurvy as a potential consequence of restrictive diets, and the importance of performing a complete dietary history to suspect diagnosis


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Ascorbic Acid , Scurvy , Diet Therapy
4.
Rev. medica electron ; 43(3): 656-668, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289811

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: el desempeño laboral en algunos puestos de trabajo, determina un alto nivel de carga física por parte de los trabajadores, por lo que se impone la necesidad de disponer de una adecuada dieta alimentaria para mantener la salud física y mental. Objetivo: se desarrolló una investigación para diseñar una dieta alimentaria para soldadores y paileros a partir del gasto energético en actividades laborales. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio de campo que partió de una muestra no probabilística de soldadores y paileros de la Empresa Industrial Ferroviaria José Valdés Reyes. Se ejecutó un procedimiento que permitió la determinación de la dieta alimentaria de los trabajadores a partir del gasto energético de las actividades que desarrollan. Se aplicaron ciertas técnicas de observación directa, entrevistas, tormenta de ideas, medición directa de variables fisiológicas y ecuaciones para el cálculo del gasto energético. Resultados: se diseñaron tres variantes de dietas ajustadas al gasto energético de tres puestos de trabajo de la mencionada empresa. Conclusiones: se espera que la aplicación de las dietas diseñadas contribuya a mantener una buena salud de los trabajadores de esos puestos de trabajo (AU).


ABSTRACT Introduction: the working performance of certain jobs determines a high level of physical load from the part of the workers, for what the necessity is imposed of having an appropriate food diet to preserve the physical and mental health. Objective: to design a food diet for welders and smiths starting from the energy expense in working activities. Materials and methods: a field study was carried out starting from a probabilistic sample of welders and smiths from the Industrial Railroad Enterprise Jose Valdes Reyes. A procedure was performed allowing to determine the energy expenditure of the activities they develop. Several techniques like direct observation, interviews, brain storm, direct measure of physiological variable and equations were used to calculate the energy expenditure. Results: three diet variants were designed adjusted to the energy expenditure of the three working places of the before mentioned enterprise. Conclusions: it is expected the application of the designed diets will contribute to keeping good health of the workers in those working places (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Diet Therapy/methods , Diet, Food, and Nutrition , Occupational Groups/classification , Energy Consumption/methods , Motor Activity/physiology , Occupational Health Services/methods , Occupational Health Services/trends
5.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(5): 822-829, set. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138619

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La enfermedad de Crohn y Colitis Ulcerosa corresponden a Enfermedades Inflamatorias Intestinales (EII). En la actualidad aún no se ha establecido la cura de estas enfermedades; sin embargo, se han desarrollado diversas terapias dirigidas a disminuir la inflamación de la mucosa (5 aminosalicílicos) y a disminuir la respuesta del sistema inmune (ejemplo: inmunomoduladores y tratamientos biológicos). Otro pilar de manejo de los pacientes con EII es la nutrición, esta es fundamental en el tratamiento por su capacidad de disminuir síntomas gastrointestinales. La alimentación tiene un impacto en la microbiota intestinal (MI), al asociarse la dieta occidental a un cambio en la biodiversidad de la microbiota. En este sentido, la MI podría tener un rol en la patogenia de la enfermedad, al existir una disminución de la biodiversidad y un aumento de bacterias que podrían favorecer la inflamación y generar una disminución en la producción de ácidos grasos de cadena corta. En EII, los hábitos alimentarios tienden a ser restrictivos y el estado nutricional se caracteriza por desnutrición, pérdida de masa muscular, sarcopenia, déficit de vitamina D y hierro. Por ello en periodos de remisión no se debe restringir la alimentación. En periodos de crisis, las dietas de exclusión de alimentos disminuyen los síntomas y, nutrientes específicos como las antocianinas y ácidos grasos w-3 podrían tener un efecto en la inflamación.


ABSTRACT Crohn's disease and Ulcerative Colitis correspond to Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD). At present, its cure is not known, however nutrition is a fundamental pillar in treatment due to its ability to reduce gastrointestinal symptoms. Food has an impact on intestinal microbiota (IM), as the Western Diet is associated with a change in microbiota biodiversity. In this sense, IM could have a role in the pathogenesis of the disease, since there is a decrease in biodiversity and an increase in bacteria that could favor inflammation and generate a decrease in the production of short-chain fatty acids. In IBD, eating habits tend to be restrictive and nutritional status is characterized by malnutrition, loss of muscle mass, sarcopenia, and vitamin D and iron deficiency. Therefore, during periods of remission, feeding should not be restricted. In periods of crisis, exclusion diets decrease specific symptoms and nutrients such as anthocyanins and w-3 fatty acids could have an effect on inflammation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Microbiota , Diet, Food, and Nutrition , Colitis, Ulcerative , Crohn Disease , Diet Therapy , Anthocyanins
6.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(4): 1545-1554, July-Aug. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131469

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different nutritional plans on the productive, physiological and metabolic parameters of F1 ½ Holstein x ½ Zebu cows in different stages of lactation. Sixty lactating cows were allotted to a completely randomized 5 x 3 factorial design with five feed allowances and three lactation periods. The dry matter intake, milk yield and heart rate were reduced by 5.69kg, 2.41kg and 10.36 beats/min (morning) and 10.25 beats/min (afternoon) for each 1% feed restriction, respectively. There was no difference in the concentration of glucose, total protein, albumin, cholesterol and non-esterified fatty acids for cows subjected to different feed allowances, with means of 95.25, 7.98, 2.95, 121.68 and 0.45mg/dL, respectively. Feed restriction of up to 2.50% BW is a cost reduction strategy that does not alter milk yield, regardless of the stage of lactation.(AU)


Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos de diferentes planos nutricionais sobre as características produtivas, fisiológicas e metabólicas de vacas F1 ½ Holandês x ½ Zebu. Foram utilizadas 60 vacas em lactação, seguindo-se o delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 5 x 3, com cinco níveis de oferta de dieta e três períodos de lactação. À medida que se aumentou 1% na restrição da oferta da dieta, houve redução linear de 5,69kg no consumo de matéria seca pelos animais, 2,41kg na produção de leite, bem como de 10,36bat/min (manhã) e 10,25 bat/min (tarde) na frequência cardíaca dos animais. Não houve diferença para a concentração de glicose, proteínas totais, albumina, colesterol e NEFA com a restrição na oferta da dieta dos animais, sendo a média de 95,25, 7,98, 2,95, 121,68 e 0,45mg/dL, respectivamente. Recomenda-se a restrição de até 2,50% de peso corporal como estratégia de redução dos custos em todos os estágios em lactação, visando não alterar, economicamente, a produção de leite.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Lactation , Cholesterol/analysis , Diet Therapy/veterinary , Glucose/analysis , Fatty Acids, Nonesterified , Respiratory Rate
7.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(4): s130-s141, agosto 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1118606

ABSTRACT

Los padres que deciden cambiar la dieta habitual de sus hijos por otra más restrictiva deben conocer los riesgos y las ventajas de la alimentación escogida y recibir información que les ayude a ofrecerles una alimentación suficiente. Las dietas vegetarianas pueden realizarse siempre que sean planificadas por especialistas con la inclusión de una amplia variedad de alimentos vegetales y fortificados, y con el suplemento adecuado indicado en cada etapa.El objetivo de este documento es dar a conocer la postura del Comité de Nutrición de la Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría y brindar a los profesionales de la salud información adecuada que permita responder a las inquietudes de los padres y los pacientes que deciden escoger una dieta vegetariana como modalidad de alimentación. Se identifican los desafíos para tener en cuenta y se destaca que, sin dichas consideraciones y un seguimiento adecuado, estas dietas no pueden realizarse de manera segura en la infancia


Parents who decide to change the usual diet of their children for a more restrictive one should know the risks and advantages of the chosen diet and receive information that helps them to offer their children a sufficient diet. Vegetarian diets can be adopted as long as they are planned by specialists with the inclusion of a wide variety of plant foods and fortified foods with the appropriate supplementation indicated at each stage. The objective of this document is to present the position of the Nutrition Committee of the Argentine Society of Pediatrics and to provide health professionals with adequate information to respond to the concerns of parents and patients who decide to choose a vegetarian diet as a modality of feeding. The challenges to be taken into account are identified, highlighting that without these considerations and proper monitoring these diets cannot be carried out safely in childhood


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Diet, Vegetarian , Pediatrics , Nutrients/administration & dosage , Child Development , Risk , Monitoring , Adolescent Development , Diet Therapy
8.
Rev. argent. coloproctología ; 31(2): 54-63, jun. 2020. ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1117010

ABSTRACT

La endometriosis es una de las patologías ginecológicas benignas más frecuente, ocurre en un 7-10% de las mujeres en edad reproductiva y es causal de dolores crónicos e infertilidad. Se trata de una población joven y sana por lo demás. La sospecha diagnóstica de esta entidad debe ser alta y su manejo multidisciplinario.La endometriosis colorrectal representa una variable altamente incapacitante y es aquí donde se plantea la necesidad de un tratamiento más agresivo para su resolución. Frente a esto nos preguntamos, ¿qué rol tiene la cirugía?, ¿cuáles serían sus ventajas y desventajas?, ¿por qué deberíamos elegirla como método terapéutico?.La presente monografía fue inspirada en todas las pacientes que nos plantearon esta controversia. Que motivaron interconsultas, ateneos, búsqueda de bibliografía. Que generaron discusiones, dudas e incertidumbres y nos hicieron salir del rol de cirujanos al que estamos habituados y nos enseñaron a acompañar, cuando no pudimos curar


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Digestive System Surgical Procedures/methods , Endometriosis/surgery , Intestinal Diseases/surgery , Patient Care Team , Diagnostic Imaging , Treatment Outcome , Laparoscopy/methods , Diet Therapy , Endometriosis/diagnosis , Endometriosis/drug therapy , Hormone Antagonists/therapeutic use , Intestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Intestinal Diseases/drug therapy
9.
Más Vita ; 2(1): 16-20, mar 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1255332

ABSTRACT

Los pacientes con insuficiencia renal crónica se realizan hemodiálisis 3 veces a la semana. Una de las principales situaciones que se da, es la ganancia de peso o sobrecarga hídrica entre una diálisis y otra, ocasionando una serie de complicaciones que ponen en riesgo la vida del paciente. Objetivo: Determinar los factores que incrementan el peso interdialisis de pacientes sometidos a hemodiálisis. Método: El diseño de la investigación que se empleó fue cuantitativo, de tipo no experimental, transversal y descriptivo. La muestra estuvo representada por 14 pacientes adultos con enfermedad renal crónica. El análisis de los resultados se realizó a través del programa de IBM SPSS Statistcs versión 22. Resultados: A pesar de que el centro de diálisis tiene un programa de educación continua con temas de alimentación orientada hacia los pacientes, estos no siguen las recomendaciones ingiriendo líquidos a libre demanda provocando sobre peso al realizarse las hemodiálisis generalmente ocasionando dificultad en su tratamiento de hemodiálisis Conclusión: Los conocimientos de autocuidado que posee cada paciente, que presenta una enfermedad crónica como la insuficiencia renal, son esenciales porque pueden evitar las repetidas hospitalizaciones(AU)


Patients with chronic renal failure are performed hemodialysis 3 times a week. One of the main situations that occurs is the weight gain or water overload between one dialysis and another, causing a series of complications that put the patient's life at risk. Objective: To determine the factors that increase the interdialisis weight of patients undergoing hemodialysis. Method: The research design was quantitative, non-experimental, transversal and descriptive. And14 adult patients with chronic kidney disease represented the sample. The analysis of the results was carried out through the IBM SPSS Statistcs version 22 program. Even though the dialysis center has a continuous education program with patient-oriented feeding issues, they do not follow the recommendations, and ingest liquids on free demand, causing overweight at hemodialysis usually causing difficulty in hemodialysis treatment. Conclusion: The self-care knowledge that each patient has, which represents a chronic disease such as kidney failure, are essential because can avoid repeated hospitalizations(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Renal Dialysis , Diet Therapy , Renal Insufficiency/complications , Kidney Diseases , Self Care , Urinary Retention , Overweight
10.
Demetra (Rio J.) ; 15(1): 43534, jan.- mar.2020. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1097303

ABSTRACT

O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar, por meio de uma revisão da literatura, evidências da utilização de dietas com restrição de carboidratos no manejo do diabetes mellitus (DM). As buscas eletrônicas e manuais foram até abril de 2019, e incluíram trabalhos publicados a partir de 2008. Foram excluídos estudos de pesquisas in vitro e em animais, revisões de literatura, livros, monografias, dissertações, teses, estudos de caso e relatos de caso. Os artigos remanescentes foram submetidos à análise de sua qualidade metodológica pela Escala JADAD cinco pontos. Um total de 19 estudos randomizados e com qualidade média de três pontos foram selecionados e analisados quanto aos tipos de dieta utilizadas, adesão, tipo de DM, tempo de intervenção, consumo reportado de carboidratos e resultados observados para os grupos controle e intervenção. Dentre os parâmetros escolhidos para mensurar os possíveis efeitos das dietas, destacaram-se alteração de peso e IMC, Hb1Ac, variabilidade ou controle glicêmico, perfil lipídico e alteração nas doses de insulina ou medicação utilizadas. Em quatro estudos não foram observadas vantagens significativas de uma dieta restrita em carboidratos, e 15 trabalhos relataram melhoras em um ou mais parâmetros. Tais resultados podem representar uma grande vantagem na adoção desta estratégia alimentar no manejo do DM e na prevenção de complicações da doença. Contudo, existem limitações nos estudos, que precisam ter suas hipóteses verificadas no longo prazo, e pesquisas adicionais devem ser realizadas para configurar uma estratégia oficial no controle do DM. (AU)


This study aimed to evaluate, through a literature review, evidence of the use of diets with carbohydrate restriction in the management of diabetes mellitus (DM). Electronic and manual searches were conducted until April 2019, including works published from 2008 onwards. Studies on in vitro and animal research, literature reviews, books, monographs, dissertations, theses, case studies and case reports were excluded. The remaining articles were submitted to analysis of their methodological quality by the five-point JADAD Scale. Nineteen randomized studies with an average quality of three points were selected and analyzed regarding the types of diet used, adherence, type of DM, time of intervention, reported consumption of carbohydrates and results observed for the control and intervention group. Among the parameters chosen to measure the possible effects of diets, weight and BMI changes, Hb1Ac, variability or glycemic control, lipid profile and changes in insulin doses or medication used stood out. In four studies, no significant advantages were observed from a carbohydraterestricted diet, and 15 studies reported improvements in one or more parameters. Such results can represent a great advantage in adopting this dietary strategy in the management of DM and in preventing complications of the disease. However, there are limitations in the studies, which need to have their hypotheses verified in the long term, and additional research must be carried out to configure an official strategy in the control of DM. (AU)


Subject(s)
Carbohydrates , Diabetes Mellitus , Diet, High-Protein Low-Carbohydrate , Dietary Carbohydrates , Diet, Fat-Restricted , Diet Therapy , Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted
11.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 432-440, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816673

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although dietary management is strongly recommended in patients with hypertension, little is known about how many manage their diet and follow the guidelines for hypertension. We investigated the prevalence of dietary management among adults with known hypertension and evaluated their compliance to the dietary guidelines.METHODS: Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013–2016 were used. Among 15,870 adults aged 30–79 years, 4,162 reported a physician-diagnosed hypertension. Diet management behavior was defined by self-report response. Actual dietary intake was assessed by a 24-hour dietary recall. Dietary quality was evaluated using the Korean Healthy Eating Index (KHEI).RESULTS: Among adults with hypertension, 28.0% reported that they were managing their diet. Those with hypertension consumed significantly less dietary sodium (p value<0.01), but also less potassium (p value<0.01), resulting in no difference of sodium-to-potassium ratio compared to those without hypertension (p value=0.66). Among those with hypertension, diet-managing adults had better KHEI score (66.9, p value<0.01) and consumed less sodium (3,354.3 mg, p value<0.01) than not-managing adults (63.6 score and 3,554.5 mg, respectively). However, total KHEI score was rather lower in those with hypertension (p value<0.01) than those without hypertension and their sodium intake was still over the recommended amount.CONCLUSIONS: More than two-thirds of Korean adults with hypertension did not manage their diet in daily life. More effective strategies are needed to increase the level of compliance with dietary recommendations for people with high blood pressure.


Subject(s)
Adult , Compliance , Diet Therapy , Diet , Eating , Humans , Hypertension , Korea , Nutrition Policy , Nutrition Surveys , Potassium , Prevalence , Self Care , Sodium , Sodium, Dietary
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811250

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study evaluated the effects of nutrition management application in a mobile device on obesity management of patients with breast cancer.METHODS: Fifty subjects, who were breast cancer survivors, aged 30 years and older, participated in an obesity management program for four weeks. They were divided randomly into two groups: a control group (n = 25) and a treatment group (n = 25). The treatment group was provided an application for nutrition management and diet consultant, while the control group maintained their ordinary life without any nutrition management.RESULTS: The weight of the treatment group decreased by 0.8 kg, but the change was not significant. In contrast, the waist-hip ratio of the treatment group decreased significantly from 0.75 to 0.71 (p = 0.012). The Nutrition Quotients of the treatment group increased significantly from 61.3 to 69.6 points (p < 0.001), whereas that of the control group decreased significantly from 61.5 to 59.0 (p = 0.002).CONCLUSION: This mobile nutrition management application for breast cancer patients is effective in managing obesity and dietary habits. These results can be used as basic information to prepare an obesity management program for breast cancer patients.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Consultants , Diet , Diet Therapy , Feeding Behavior , Humans , Mobile Applications , Obesity , Survivors , Waist-Hip Ratio
15.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 12: 737-743, jan.-dez. 2020. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1102738

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Identificar as evidências científicas acerca das condutas para o manejo da anorexia em cuidados paliativos. Métodos: Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa, cujo levantamento bibliográfico dos dados deu-se através da pesquisa em quatro bases de dados/bibliotecas virtuais. Incluíram-se artigos em português, inglês e espanhol, publicados nos últimos dez anos e com o texto completo disponível. Resultados: Foram elegíveis 25 artigos, e foram atribuídos dois eixos temáticos para melhor ilustrar os dados encontrados: o manejo farmacológico e o não-farmacológico. Corticosteroides, progestinas, anamorelina e dronabinol foram os fármacos mais pesquisados para o controle da anorexia, com maiores evidências de eficácia nos 3 primeiros. No contexto não-farmacológico, o aconselhamento nutricional foi a medida mais indicada, incluindo a fortificação de alimentos e uso de suplementos e a nutrição artificial mais controversa. Conclusão: Os achados desta revisão podem colaborar para a elaboração de protocolos para o manejo da anorexia em cuidados paliativos


Objective: The study's main goal has been to identify scientific evidence on the management of anorexia in palliative care. Methods: This is an integrative review, whose data collection occurred by researching four databases/virtual libraries. Articles in Portuguese, English, and Spanish, published over the last ten years and with the full text available, were included. Results: 25 articles were selected, and two thematic axes were assigned to better illustrate the data found: pharmacological and non-pharmacological management. Corticosteroids, progestins, anamorelin, and dronabinol were the most-researched drugs for the control of anorexia, with greater evidence of effectiveness for the first three. In the non-pharmacological treatment, nutritional counseling was the most recommended measure, including the fortification of foods and the use of supplements and the more-controversial artificial nutrition. Conclusion: The findings of this review may aid in the development of protocols for the treatment of anorexia in palliative care


Objetivo: El propósito principal del estudio ha sido identificar evidencia científica sobre el manejo de la anorexia en los cuidados paliativos. Métodos: Esta es una revisión integradora, cuya investigación bibliográfica de datos ocurrió mediante búsqueda en cuatro bases de datos/bibliotecas virtuales. Se incluyeron artículos en portugués, inglés y español, publicados en los últimos diez años y con texto completo disponible. Resultados: Fueron elegibles 25 artículos, siendo atribuidos dos ejes temáticos para ilustrar mejor los datos encontrados: el manejo farmacológico y el no farmacológico. Corticosteroides, progestinas, anamorelina y dronabinol han sido los fármacos más buscados para el control de la anorexia, con mayores evidencias de eficacia en los 3 primeros. En el contexto no farmacológico, el asesoramiento nutricional fue la medida más indicada, incluyendo la fortificación de alimentos y uso de suplementos y la nutrición artificial más controversia. Conclusión: Los hallados de esta revisión pueden colaborar para la elaboración de protocolos para el manejo de la anorexia en cuidados paliativos


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Palliative Care , Anorexia/drug therapy , Diet Therapy
16.
Autops. Case Rep ; 10(4): e2020187, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131861

ABSTRACT

We describe a scarcely reported case in which ulcerative colitis (UC) occurred in the postpartum period. The aims of this case report are to reinforce the recent assertion that a diet is a ubiquitous environmental factor in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and that a plant-based diet (PBD) is recommended for IBD. A 29-year-old woman normally delivered her first child. She first noticed bloody diarrhea 4.5 months after delivery. She was diagnosed with UC (left-sided colitis, moderate severity). Sulfasalazine induced remission. She then experienced and learned about PBD during an educational hospitalization. She resumed breast-feeding and stopped medication. An interview and questionnaire revealed a change in her diet 3 months after delivery, from a sound diet (plant-based diet score: 25) to an unhealthy diet (score: 9). It happened along with a change in residence, from her parent's home where her mother prepared traditional Japanese meals to her home where she prepared meals by herself. A feeling of release from childbirth prompted her to eat sweets and cheese despite being aware that the quality of the meals deteriorated. We described a scarcely reported case in which UC occurred in the postpartum period. It happened along with a change in her diet, from a sound diet to an unhealthy diet due to a feeling of release from childbirth. She replaced an omnivorous diet by PBD and stopped medication. The critical role of diet is largely ignored by healthcare professionals. We believe that greater appreciation of diet will change and improve management of IBD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Colitis, Ulcerative , Postpartum Period , Labor Onset , Diet Therapy
17.
Saúde Soc ; 29(1): e190476, 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094481

ABSTRACT

Resumen Este trabajo se propone describir las barreras estructurales que el personal de salud identifica para brindar atención nutricia a personas con enfermedad renal crónica (ERC). Se llevó a cabo un estudio cualitativo en la ciudad de San Luis Potosí, México. Se entrevistó a 21 profesionales de salud (nutriólogos, enfermeras y nefrólogos) que trabajan en unidades de hemodiálisis. Se realizó un análisis crítico del discurso. Los participantes del estudio señalan diversas barreras estructurales que obstaculizan la inclusión de la terapia nutricional en el tratamiento de la ERC: la falta de cobertura universal de salud en México, lo que genera que no todas las personas con ERC accedan a un tratamiento nutricio; la infraestructura inadecuada en las unidades de hemodiálisis, donde los nutriólogos carecen de un espacio físico para dar consulta o asesoría; la ausencia de normativa y protocolos para la atención nutricia y; la falta de recursos humanos en nutrición especializados en ERC. Como conclusión, se destaca que la atención nutricia para los enfermos renales en México es incipiente y poco sistematizada. Se requiere instituir una atención universal, así como modificar la normativa nacional para incluir al personal de nutrición especializado en el tratamiento interdisciplinar en beneficio de quienes padecen dicha enfermedad.


Abstract This study describes the structural barriers that the health personnel identifies to provide nutritional care to people with chronic kidney disease. A qualitative study was carried out in San Luis Potosí, Mexico. We interviewed 21 health professionals (nutritionists, nurses and nephrologists) who work in hemodialysis units. Critical discourse analysis was performed. The study participants point out various structural barriers that hinder the inclusion of diet therapy in the treatment of CKD: the lack of universal health coverage in Mexico, which means that not all people with CKD have access to nutritional treatment; inadequate infrastructure in hemodialysis units, where nutritionists lack a physical space to provide appointment or advice; absence of regulations and protocols for nutritional care; lack of human resources in nutrition, specialized in CKD. In conclusion, it is highlighted that nutritional care for kidney patients in Mexico is incipient and little systematized. It is necessary to institute universal care, as well as modify the national regulations to include specialized nutrition personnel to interdisciplinary treatment for the benefit of those who suffer from the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Health Personnel , Qualitative Research , Diet Therapy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic
18.
Audiol., Commun. res ; 25: e2262, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098092

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Caracterizar as alterações relacionadas à deglutição e as principais intervenções e condutas fonoaudiológicas em pacientes em cuidados paliativos, com disfagia orofaríngea. Métodos Estudo observacional, prospectivo, descritivo, realizado com 20 pacientes em cuidados paliativos, em internação hospitalar no Hospital Universitário da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. Foram coletados dados do histórico de saúde, dieta prescrita, tempo de internação, avaliação e intervenção fonoaudiológica. Também foi realizada avaliação funcional da deglutição no leito hospitalar, classificação na Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS) e aplicado um questionário sobre a satisfação do paciente quanto à alimentação. Resultados A maioria dos participantes era homem, com média de idade de 75 anos, que se encontrava sob cuidados paliativos por diversos tipos de doenças e agravos à saúde. O tempo médio de internação foi de 15 dias e a maioria evoluiu a óbito durante a internação. As consistências mais utilizadas para avaliação foram líquida e mel. O sinal de penetração e/ou aspiração laringotraqueal mais frequente foi voz "molhada" após a deglutição. Quanto à FOIS, metade da amostra encontrava-se no nível 5 e pequena parte no nível 1. As intervenções mais utilizadas foram modificação de consistência, manobras de múltiplas deglutições e deglutição com esforço. A partir do questionário, verificou-se que a maioria estava satisfeita com a dieta servida pelo hospital. Conclusão As alterações mais encontradas, relacionadas à deglutição, foram sinais clínicos de penetração e/ou aspiração laringotraqueal. As principais intervenções foram ajuste nas consistências das dietas e manobras compensatórias. A maioria seguiu durante a internação com alimentação por via oral, respeitando o desejo dos pacientes e seus familiares.


ABSTRACT Purpose To characterize the changes related to swallowing and the main interventions and management of speech therapy in patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia in palliative care. Methods Observational prospective descriptive study conducted with 20 patients in palliative care at the University Hospital of the Federal University of Santa Catarina. Data were collected regarding the patients health history, prescribed diet, time of hospitalization and speech therapy evaluation and intervention. Clinical evaluation of swallowing was also performed on bedside, using the Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS). A semi-structured questionnaire was applied with questions about patient's satisfaction related to feeding. Results Most of the sample was composed of men with 75 years of age on average, all under palliative care due to different diseases and health problems. The average time of hospital stay was 15 days and most patients died during hospitalization. The most common food consistencies used for evaluation were liquid and honey. The most common sign of penetration and/or laringo-tracheal aspiration was the "wet" voice after swallowing. As to FOIS, half the sample was at level 5 and part at level 1. The most common interventions used were consistency modification, multiple swallowing maneuvers and swallowing with effort. From the survey, it was found that most patients were satisfied with the diet served by the hospital. Conclusion The most frequently encountered changes related to swallowing were clinical signs of penetration and/or laringo-tracheal aspiration. The main interventions were adjustments of the prescribed diets consistency and compensatory maneuvers. Most patients continued during hospitalization with oral feeding, respecting the desire of the patients and their family members.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Palliative Care , Deglutition Disorders/rehabilitation , Diet Therapy , Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences , Patient Care Team , Quality of Life
19.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(supl.3): 2-5, set. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040540

ABSTRACT

La fenilcetonuria, también conocida como PKU, es el error congénito más frecuente del metabolismo de los aminoácidos. La forma grave o PKU clásica no tratada, causa una discapacidad intelectual, aunque los programas de detección en el período neonatal, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento evitan la aparición de los síntomas. A pesar de un diagnóstico y tratamiento temprano hemos observado cierta neurotoxicidad en los pacientes con PKU tratados. Analizamos los demás factores implicados, aparte de la toxicidad por las elevadas concentraciones cerebrales de fenilalanina (Phe), se revisan los defectos de síntesis de neurotransmisores, las alteración de la mielinización cerebral, el efecto de la elevación de Phe en los procesos de transporte y distribución de los aminoácidos neutros con una síntesis anómala de proteínas cerebrales, la deficiencia plasmática y cerebral de tirosina, la neurotoxicidad de los metabolitos de Phe, el defecto de la biosíntesis del colesterol o el aumento del estrés oxidativo. Las alteraciones de la sustancia blanca en los pacientes con PKU tienen un papel importante en las manifestaciones neurológicas. El tratamiento de la PKU es para toda la vida y se basa en la reducción del aporte de alimentos que contienen Phe combinado con la administración de una fórmula especial, o en el tratamiento con tetrahidrobiopterina (BH4). Se analizan nuevas opciones terapéuticas.


Phenylketonuria, also known as PKU, is the most frequent congenital inborn error of metabolism. The severe form or classic PKU untreated causes intellectual disability, although with the early detection programs in the neonatal period, diagnosis and treatment prevent the appearance of the symptoms. Despite early diagnosis and treatment we have observed some neurotoxicity in treated PKU patients. We analyzed the factors involved apart from the toxicity due to the high cerebral concentrations of phenylalanine (Phe), the defects of synthesis of neurotransmitters, the alteration of cerebral myelination, the effect of the elevation of Phe in the processes of transport and distribution of neutral amino acids with an abnormal synthesis of brain proteins, plasma and cerebral tyrosine deficiency, the neurotoxicity of Phe metabolites, the defect of cholesterol biosynthesis or the increase of oxidative stress. White matter alterations in early treated PKU patients have an important role in neurological manifestations. The treatment of PKU is for life and is based on the reduction of foods containing Phe combined with the administration of a special formula or tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) treatment. New therapeutic options will be analyzed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Phenylalanine/adverse effects , Phenylketonurias/diagnosis , Phenylketonurias/therapy , Tyrosine/metabolism , Neurons/pathology , Phenylketonurias/physiopathology , Biopterin/analogs & derivatives , Early Diagnosis , Diet Therapy
20.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 46(4): 460-468, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013811

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Una baja ingesta de calcio se ha asociado con mayor prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad. El objetivo fue evaluar el efecto de una intervención dietoterapéutica con diferentes aportes de calcio dietario sobre el estado nutricional, en estudiantes universitarias con sobrepeso. El diseño fue cuasi-experimental (n= 18) en dos grupos intervenidos durante 8 semanas. El grupo 1 (n= 10) restringió su consumo de lácteos a <3 porciones, mientras que el grupo 2 (n= 8) consumieron 5 porciones diarias (leche fluida UHT descremada). La intervención consideró, para ambos grupos, una restricción de 500 kcal/día respecto de su gasto energético total. Se evaluó el estado nutricional por IMC (kg/m2), circunferencia de cintura (CC) y porcentaje de masa grasa (%MG). Como resultados se obtuvo que, la ingesta de calcio dietario, aumentó en 916,4 mg/día en el grupo de "5 porciones de lácteos", pero disminuyó en −28,9 mg/día en el grupo de "3 porciones de lácteos". Al comparar los grupos, ambos redujeron significativamente (p< 0.05) su peso corporal (-3,6 vs. −3,4 kg), IMC (-1,45 vs. −1,31 kg/m2), CC (-4,5 vs. −6,2 cm) y %MG (-2,5 vs. −2,7 %). Estos resultados sugieren que aumentar el consumo de lácteos a 5 porciones diarias no presenta beneficios adicionales para la mejora del estado nutricional después de 8 semanas de intervención.


ABSTRACT A low intake of calcium has been associated with greater risk of overweight and obesity. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of different levels of calcium intake on the nutritional status of overweight female university students. This 8-week intervention included two groups who restricted their calcium intake to <3 portions or 5 portions of dairy products per day (nonfat ultra-high temperature processed milk). Height, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and body fat percentage (BF) were measured at baseline and post-intervention. The intervention considered for both groups a 500 kcal/day restriction based on their total energy expenditure. The main result of this study showed that dietary calcium intake increased to 916.4 mg/day in the group consuming 5 portions per day but decreased (-28.9 mg/day) in the group consuming 3 daily portions. Both the 3 and 5 portion intake groups significantly reduced their body weight (-3.6 vs. −3.4 kg), BMI (-1.45 vs. −1.31 kg/m2), WC (-4.5 vs. −6.2 cm) and BF (-2.5 vs. −2.7%). These findings suggest that 5 dairy portions per day compared to 3 does not have additional benefits for improved nutritional status.


Subject(s)
Female , Students , Calcium, Dietary , Nutritional Status , Education, Higher , Diet Therapy , Overweight , Weight Loss , Chile
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