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1.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 460-471, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888754

ABSTRACT

Lifestyle interventions, including dietary adjustments and exercise, are important for obesity management. This study enrolled adults with overweight or obesity to explore whether either low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) or exercise is more effective in metabolism improvement. Forty-five eligible subjects were randomly divided into an LCD group (n = 22) and an exercise group (EX, n = 23). The subjects either adopted LCD (carbohydrate intake < 50 g/day) or performed moderate-to-vigorous exercise (⩾ 30 min/day) for 3 weeks. After the interventions, LCD led to a larger weight loss than EX ( - 3.56 ± 0.37 kg vs. - 1.24 ± 0.39 kg, P < 0.001), as well as a larger reduction in fat mass ( - 2.10 ± 0.18 kg vs. - 1.25 ± 0.24 kg, P = 0.007) and waist circumference ( - 5.25 ± 0.52 cm vs. - 3.45 ± 0.38 cm, P = 0.008). Both interventions reduced visceral and subcutaneous fat and improved liver steatosis and insulin resistance. Triglycerides decreased in both two groups, whereas low-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased in the LCD group but decreased in the EX group. Various glycemic parameters, including serum glycated albumin, mean sensor glucose, coefficient of variability (CV), and largest amplitude of glycemic excursions, substantially declined in the LCD group. Only CV slightly decreased after exercise. This pilot study suggested that the effects of LCD and exercise are similar in alleviating liver steatosis and insulin resistance. Compared with exercise, LCD might be more efficient for weight loss and glucose homeostasis in people with obesity.


Subject(s)
Adult , Blood Glucose , Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted , Homeostasis , Humans , Pilot Projects , Weight Loss
2.
Demetra (Rio J.) ; 15(1): 43534, jan.- mar.2020. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1097303

ABSTRACT

O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar, por meio de uma revisão da literatura, evidências da utilização de dietas com restrição de carboidratos no manejo do diabetes mellitus (DM). As buscas eletrônicas e manuais foram até abril de 2019, e incluíram trabalhos publicados a partir de 2008. Foram excluídos estudos de pesquisas in vitro e em animais, revisões de literatura, livros, monografias, dissertações, teses, estudos de caso e relatos de caso. Os artigos remanescentes foram submetidos à análise de sua qualidade metodológica pela Escala JADAD cinco pontos. Um total de 19 estudos randomizados e com qualidade média de três pontos foram selecionados e analisados quanto aos tipos de dieta utilizadas, adesão, tipo de DM, tempo de intervenção, consumo reportado de carboidratos e resultados observados para os grupos controle e intervenção. Dentre os parâmetros escolhidos para mensurar os possíveis efeitos das dietas, destacaram-se alteração de peso e IMC, Hb1Ac, variabilidade ou controle glicêmico, perfil lipídico e alteração nas doses de insulina ou medicação utilizadas. Em quatro estudos não foram observadas vantagens significativas de uma dieta restrita em carboidratos, e 15 trabalhos relataram melhoras em um ou mais parâmetros. Tais resultados podem representar uma grande vantagem na adoção desta estratégia alimentar no manejo do DM e na prevenção de complicações da doença. Contudo, existem limitações nos estudos, que precisam ter suas hipóteses verificadas no longo prazo, e pesquisas adicionais devem ser realizadas para configurar uma estratégia oficial no controle do DM. (AU)


This study aimed to evaluate, through a literature review, evidence of the use of diets with carbohydrate restriction in the management of diabetes mellitus (DM). Electronic and manual searches were conducted until April 2019, including works published from 2008 onwards. Studies on in vitro and animal research, literature reviews, books, monographs, dissertations, theses, case studies and case reports were excluded. The remaining articles were submitted to analysis of their methodological quality by the five-point JADAD Scale. Nineteen randomized studies with an average quality of three points were selected and analyzed regarding the types of diet used, adherence, type of DM, time of intervention, reported consumption of carbohydrates and results observed for the control and intervention group. Among the parameters chosen to measure the possible effects of diets, weight and BMI changes, Hb1Ac, variability or glycemic control, lipid profile and changes in insulin doses or medication used stood out. In four studies, no significant advantages were observed from a carbohydraterestricted diet, and 15 studies reported improvements in one or more parameters. Such results can represent a great advantage in adopting this dietary strategy in the management of DM and in preventing complications of the disease. However, there are limitations in the studies, which need to have their hypotheses verified in the long term, and additional research must be carried out to configure an official strategy in the control of DM. (AU)


Subject(s)
Carbohydrates , Diabetes Mellitus , Diet, High-Protein Low-Carbohydrate , Dietary Carbohydrates , Diet, Fat-Restricted , Diet Therapy , Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted
4.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(6): 642-656, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056660

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: This narrative review aimed to provide practitioners a synthesis of the current knowledge on the role of a low Fermentable Oligosaccharides Disaccharides Monosaccharides and Polyols diet in reducing symptoms associated with functional abdominal pain disorders in children. This review is focused on the pathophysiology, efficacy and criticism of low Fermentable Oligosaccharides Disaccharides Monosaccharides and Polyols diet in children. Sources: Cochrane Database, Pubmed and Embase were searched using specific terms for Fermentable Oligosaccharides Disaccharides Monosaccharides and Polyols diet interventions and functional abdominal pain disorders. Summary of the findings: In children, only one Randomized Control Trial and one open-label study reported positive results of low Fermentable Oligosaccharides Disaccharides Monosaccharides and Polyols diet; one Randomized Control Trial showed exacerbation of symptoms with fructans in children with Irritable Bowel Syndrome; no effect was found for the lactose-free diet whilst fructose-restricted diets were effective in 5/6 studies. Conclusions: In children there are few trials evaluating low Fermentable Oligosaccharides Disaccharides Monosaccharides and Polyols in functional abdominal pain disorders, with encouraging data on the therapeutic efficacy particularly of fructose-restricted diet. Additional efforts are still needed to fill this research gap and clarify the most efficient way for tailoring dietary restrictions based on the patient's tolerance and/or identification of potential biomarkers of low Fermentable Oligosaccharides Disaccharides Monosaccharides and Polyols efficacy, to maintain nutritional adequacy and to simplify the adherence to diet by labeling Fermentable Oligosaccharides Disaccharides Monosaccharides and Polyols content in commercial products.


RESUMO Objetivo: Nos últimos anos, foram feitos esforços consideráveis para esclarecer o papel da dieta com baixo teor de oligossacarídeos fermentáveis, dissacarídeos, monossacarídeos e polióis (FODMAPs) para o tratamento de distúrbios gastrintestinais funcionais (DGIFs). Esta revisão narrativa teve como objetivo fornecer aos profissionais uma síntese do conhecimento atual sobre o papel de uma dieta com baixo teor de FODMAPs (BFM) na redução dos sintomas associados a distúrbios funcionais de dor abdominal (DFDA) em crianças. Esta revisão está focada na fisiopatologia, eficácia e crítica da dieta BFM em crianças. Fontes: O banco de dados Cochrane, Pubmed e Embase foram pesquisados com o uso dos termos específicos para intervenções na dieta FODMAP e DFDA. Resumo dos achados: Em crianças, apenas um estudo controlado randomizado e um estudo aberto relataram resultados positivos da dieta BFM; um estudo controlado randomizado mostrou exacerbação dos sintomas com frutanos em crianças com síndrome do intestino irritável; nenhum efeito foi encontrado para a dieta livre de lactose, enquanto dietas com restrição de frutose foram eficazes em 5/6 estudos. Conclusões: Existem poucos estudos que avaliam BFM em DFDA em crianças, com dados encorajadores sobre a eficácia terapêutica, particularmente de dietas com restrição de frutose. Esforços adicionais ainda são necessários para preencher essa lacuna de pesquisa e esclarecer a maneira mais eficiente de adaptar as restrições dietéticas com base na tolerância do paciente e/ou identificação de biomarcadores potenciais de eficácia da BFM, para manter a adequação nutricional e simplificar a adesão à dieta, ao incluir informações sobre conteúdo de FODMAPs em rótulos de produtos comerciais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Abdominal Pain/diet therapy , Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted , Oligosaccharides/metabolism , Oligosaccharides/therapeutic use , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Diet , Disaccharides/metabolism , Disaccharides/therapeutic use , Monosaccharides/metabolism , Monosaccharides/therapeutic use
5.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 29(4,Supl): 432-440, out.-dez. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047350

ABSTRACT

O diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2) é considerado um dos principais distúrbios metabólicos relacionados ao desenvolvimento de doenças cardiovasculares e outras comorbidades, com elevada incidência e prevalência no Brasil e no mundo. Apesar dos avanços em seu tratamento, a projeção mundial é de aumento no número de diagnósticos. No Brasil, o total de pessoas com a doença cresceu mais de 60% em 10 anos. Como o manejo dietético é um dos pilares no tratamento do DM2, este trabalho objetivou analisar os estudos que compararam as dietas restritas em carboidratos com outras abordagens dietéticas a fim de elucidar se esta seria a opção mais adequada para os pacientes com DM2. Assim, fez-se uma revisão de ensaios clínicos randomizados por meio das plataformas de pesquisa PubMed e Cochrane Library em outubro de 2018, selecionando os estudos segundo a estratégia PICO de pesquisa. Dos 398 artigos encontrados, 19 atenderam os critérios de elegibilidade. Após a análise, demonstrou-se que as dietas restritas em carboidratos favorecem o controle glicêmico, melhora do perfil lipídico e redução dos medicamentos para DM2 em relação às outras opções dietéticas, no entanto, os trabalhos apresentam vieses metodológicos e são, em geral, de curto prazo. Sendo assim, é precipitado afirmar que essas dietas são mais efetivas para o tratamento do DM


Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is considered one of the primary metabolic disorders related to the development of cardiovascular diseases and other comorbidities, with high incidence and prevalence in Brazil and in the world. Despite advances in its treatment, an increase in the number of diagnoses is estimated worldwide. In Brazil, the total number of people with the disease has grown more than 60% in 10 years. As dietary management is one of the mainstays in the treatment of T2DM, this study aimed to analyze the studies that compared carbohydrate-restricted diets with other dietary approaches to elucidate if this would be the most appropriate option for patients with T2DM. Thus, randomized clinical trials were reviewed through the PubMed and Cochrane Library research platforms in October 2018, selecting the studies according to the PICO research strategy. Of the 398 articles found, 19 met the eligibility criteria and had their data collected. After the analysis, it was demonstrated that carbohydrate-restricted diets support glycemic control, loss of body mass, improvement of lipid profile and reduction of medications for T2DM compared to other dietary options. However, a significant part of the studies has methodological biases and is generally short-term. Therefore, the level of evidence supporting dietary restriction of carbohydrates in the management of T2DM is considered moderate. Thus, according to the principle of the null hypothesis, it is unwise to affirm that these diets are superior in the treatment of DM2


Subject(s)
Carbohydrates , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted , Cardiovascular Diseases , Body Mass Index , Risk Factors , Glycemic Index , Diet , Obesity
6.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(4): 445-448, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019360

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Heterotaxy syndrome (HS) is a rare congenital condition with multifactorial heritance, characterized by an abnormal arrangement of thoraco-abdominal organs and vessels. Patients present with multiple cardiac, gastrointestinal, hepatosplenic, pancreatic, renal, neurological and skeletal disorders without any pathognomonic alteration. Despite the described increased risk of diabetes mellitus (DM) in patients with altered pancreatic anatomy, just one case was reported in Korea regarding the association of HS and DM in a 13-year-old girl. Our report refers to a 40-year-old female Brazilian patient with a history of DM and HS with polysplenia and agenesis of dorsal pancreas without cardiac abnormalities. She presented a worsening glycemic control associated with weight gain and signs of insulin resistance. After a proper clinical management of insulin and oral medications, our patient developed an improvement in glycemic control. Although it is a rare disease, HS with polysplenia and pancreatic disorders can be associated with an increased risk of DM. This case highlights the importance of investigating DM in patients with HS, especially those with pancreatic anatomical disorders, for proper clinical management of this rare condition.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Pancreas/abnormalities , Congenital Abnormalities/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Heterotaxy Syndrome/therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use , Blood Glucose/analysis , Insulin Resistance , Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted , Heterotaxy Syndrome/complications
7.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 62(3): 337-345, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950071

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of carbohydrate counting (CHOC) in the treatment of adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1). Materials and methods: We performed a systematic review of randomized studies that compared CHOC with general dietary advice in adult patients with DM1. The primary outcomes were changes in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), quality of life, and episodes of severe hypoglycemia. We searched the following electronic databases: Embase, PubMed, Lilacs, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. The quality of evidence was analyzed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). Results: A total of 3,190 articles were identified, and two reviewers independently screened the titles and abstracts. From the 15 potentially eligible studies, five were included, and 10 were excluded because of the lack of randomization or different control/intervention groups. Meta-analysis showed that the final HbA1c was significantly lower in the CHOC group than in the control group (mean difference, random, 95% CI: −0.49 (-0.85, −0.13), p = 0.006). The meta-analysis of severe hypoglycemia and quality of life did not show any significant differences between the groups. According to the GRADE, the quality of evidence for severe hypoglycemia, quality of life, and change in HbA1c was low, very low, and moderate, respectively. Conclusion: The meta-analysis showed evidence favoring the use of CHOC in the management of DM1. However, this benefit was limited to final HbA1c, which was significantly lower in the CHOC than in the control group.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diet therapy , Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted , Quality of Life , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome , Hypoglycemia/etiology
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129462

ABSTRACT

With the recent assertions made by certain Korean media that low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets are panaceas for weight reduction and health improvement, such diets have been in the public spotlight. Medical and nutrition professionals have claimed that the inordinate popularity of low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets may pose a significant threat to public health. The aim of this review was to explore the latest evidence on the effectiveness and safety of low-carbohydrate diets. Recent clinical trials have shown that low-carbohydrate diets result in favorable changes in body weight and biochemical cardiovascular risk factors. However, the safety of low-carbohydrate diets remains inconclusive in the long term. Although the latest guidelines for the management of obesity recommend obese adults to use low-carbohydrate diets as an alternative dietary approach to achieve weight loss depending on each patient's dietary habits and medical status, such diets cannot currently be recommended as a strategy for health promotion among the general population due to long-term safety concerns. The results of cohort studies in Japan that have shown moderate diets lower in carbohydrates to be associated with decreased risks of cardiovascular mortality, total mortality, and type 2 diabetes in Japanese women, suggest that a low-glycemic load diet might be an optimal dietary approach for Korean obese adults with insulin resistance.


Subject(s)
Adult , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Body Weight , Carbohydrates , Cohort Studies , Diet , Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted , Diet, High-Fat , Female , Feeding Behavior , Health Promotion , Humans , Insulin Resistance , Japan , Mortality , Obesity , Public Health , Risk Factors , Weight Loss
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129447

ABSTRACT

With the recent assertions made by certain Korean media that low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets are panaceas for weight reduction and health improvement, such diets have been in the public spotlight. Medical and nutrition professionals have claimed that the inordinate popularity of low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets may pose a significant threat to public health. The aim of this review was to explore the latest evidence on the effectiveness and safety of low-carbohydrate diets. Recent clinical trials have shown that low-carbohydrate diets result in favorable changes in body weight and biochemical cardiovascular risk factors. However, the safety of low-carbohydrate diets remains inconclusive in the long term. Although the latest guidelines for the management of obesity recommend obese adults to use low-carbohydrate diets as an alternative dietary approach to achieve weight loss depending on each patient's dietary habits and medical status, such diets cannot currently be recommended as a strategy for health promotion among the general population due to long-term safety concerns. The results of cohort studies in Japan that have shown moderate diets lower in carbohydrates to be associated with decreased risks of cardiovascular mortality, total mortality, and type 2 diabetes in Japanese women, suggest that a low-glycemic load diet might be an optimal dietary approach for Korean obese adults with insulin resistance.


Subject(s)
Adult , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Body Weight , Carbohydrates , Cohort Studies , Diet , Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted , Diet, High-Fat , Female , Feeding Behavior , Health Promotion , Humans , Insulin Resistance , Japan , Mortality , Obesity , Public Health , Risk Factors , Weight Loss
11.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 74(10): 842-848, Oct. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-796843

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The ketogenic diet (KD), a high-fat, low-carbohydrate, and adequate-protein diet is an established, effective nonpharmacologic treatment option for intractable childhood epilepsy. The KD was developed in 1921 and even though it has been increasingly used worldwide in the past decade, many neurologists are not familiar with this therapeutic approach. In the past few years, alternative and more flexible KD variants have been developed to make the treatment easier and more palatable while reducing side effects and making it available to larger group of refractory epilepsy patients. This review summarizes the history of the KD and the principles and efficacy of the classic ketogenic diet, medium-chain triglyceride(s) (MCT) ketogenic diet, modified Atkins diet, and low glycemic index treatment.


RESUMO A dieta cetogênica, rica em gorduras, adequada em proteínas e pobre em carboidratos é uma opção de tratamento efetiva e bem estabelecida para epilepsia de difícil controle na infância. Foi desenvolvida em 1921 e nos últimos 20 anos tem sido utilizada em diferentes países e culturas, porém ainda é desconhecida entre muitos neurologistas e outras especialidades. Recentemente, no esforço de tornar a dieta mais palatável, de fácil administração e com menos efeitos adversos, dietas cetogênicas alternativas foram criadas, possibilitando a sua administração a um maior número de pacientes. Nesta revisão abordaremos a história, príncipios e eficácia da dieta cetogênica, da dieta com triglicérides de cadeia média, da dieta modificada de Atkins e da dieta com baixos índices glicêmicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Epilepsy/diet therapy , Diet, Ketogenic/methods , Triglycerides/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Glycemic Index , Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted/methods
13.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 82(4): 372-376, July-Aug. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-794987

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Global sugar consumption has increased in the past 50 years; its abusive intake is responsible for peripheral insulin resistance, which causes the metabolic syndrome - obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and coronary heart disease. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of a fractionated diet without glucose as treatment for labyrinthine disorders associated with glucose-insulin index. METHODS: The study design was a prospective randomized controlled trial. Fifty-one patients were divided into two groups: the diet group (DG), which comprised subjects treated with a fractionated diet with glucose restriction, and the control group (CG), in which individuals were not counseled regarding diet. Patients underwent computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) and visual analog scale (VAS) on the first and 30th days of the study. RESULTS: There was improvement in the assessed posturographic conditions and VAS self-assessment in the DG group after 30 days when compared to the control group. CONCLUSION: The fractionated diet with glucose restriction was effective for the treatment of vestibular dysfunction associated with glucose metabolism disorders.


Resumo Introdução: O consumo mundial de açúcar triplicou nos últimos 50 anos e a sua ingesta abusiva é responsável pela resistência periférica à insulina que origina a síndrome metabólica-obesidade, diabetes mellitus, hipertensão arterial e doenças coronarianas. Objetivo: Avaliar de forma objetiva o efeito da dieta fracionada e sem glicose como forma de tratamento dos distúrbios labirínticos associados às alterações da curva glicoinsulinêmica. Método: Trata-se de um ensaio clínico controlado randomizado prospectivo. Estudo realizado com 51 pacientes divididos em dois grupos: Grupo Dieta composto por indivíduos tratados com dieta fracionada com restrição de glicose e Grupo Controle no qual os indivíduos não foram orientados em relação à dieta. Os pacientes realizaram Posturografia Dinâmica Computadorizada e Escala Análogo Visual no primeiro e trigésimo dias do estudo. Resultados: Foi observada melhora nas condições posturográficas avaliadas e melhora clínica do grupo dieta na análise da escala análogo visual quando comparados grupo dieta e grupo controle. Conclusão: A dieta fracionada e restritiva de glicose mostrou-se eficaz no tratamento das disfunções vestibulares associadas aos distúrbios do metabolismo da glicose.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Vertigo/diet therapy , Glucose Metabolism Disorders/diet therapy , Postural Balance/physiology , Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted , Case-Control Studies , Vertigo/physiopathology , Prospective Studies , Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted , Glycemic Index , Glucose Metabolism Disorders/complications , Glucose Metabolism Disorders/physiopathology
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-85256

ABSTRACT

A ketogenic diet (KD) is a dietary approach to treat intractable epilepsy. The KD begins with hospitalization and the child and their parents can adapt to the KD for 1-2 weeks. Recently, various type of dietary intervention such as the modified Atkins diet (MAD) and the low glycemic index treatment (LGIT) have been performed. Since 2010, we carried out the KD, MAD, and LGIT for total of 802 patients; 489 patients (61%) for the KD, 147 patients (18.3%) with the MAD, and 166 patients (20.7%) for the LGIT. In this report, application of these dietary practices in Severance Hospital is shared.


Subject(s)
Child , Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted , Epilepsy , Glycemic Index , Hospitalization , Humans , Diet, Ketogenic , Meals , Parents
15.
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 26(5): 628-633, sept. 2015. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1128562

ABSTRACT

La dieta baja en FODMAP ha mostrado ser una herramienta eficaz en el manejo de los síntomas del Síndrome de Intestino Irritable (SII). Los estudios recientes aleatorizados, controlados y prospectivos apoyan el uso de esta dieta como parte del tratamiento de esta patología. Los mecanismos mediante los que la dieta baja en FODMAP alivia los síntomas son variados y se relacionan con la fisiopatología del SII. Esta dieta puede generar cambios en la flora intestinal, efecto que aún no ha sido ampliamente estudiado.


The low FODMAP diet has been shown to be an efficacious therapy for reduction of functional gastrointestinal symptoms seen in Irritable Bowel Disease (IBS). Recent publications provide randomized controlled trial and prospective evidence in support of the diet for symptom management. The mecanisms of the low FODMAP diet to relief sympotms are assorted and in realtionship with the physiopathology of IBS. This diet can turno n changes in microbiota. This effect has not be completely understood. Further research to determine the potential health implications and microbiotal effect is required.


Subject(s)
Humans , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/diet therapy , Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted , Polysaccharides/adverse effects , Diet Therapy , Monosaccharides/adverse effects
16.
J. bras. pneumol ; 41(1): 39-47, Jan-Feb/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741566

ABSTRACT

Objective: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is mainly characterized by intermittent hypoxia (IH) during sleep, being associated with several complications. Exposure to IH is the most widely used animal model of sleep apnea, short-term IH exposure resulting in cognitive and neuronal impairment. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a hypoxia-sensitive factor acting as a neurotrophic, neuroprotective, and antiangiogenic agent. Our study analyzed performance on learning and cognitive tasks, as well as PEDF gene expression and PEDF protein expression in specific brain structures, in rats exposed to long-term IH. Methods: Male Wistar rats were exposed to IH (oxygen concentrations of 21-5%) for 6 weeks-the chronic IH (CIH) group-or normoxia for 6 weeks-the control group. After CIH exposure, a group of rats were allowed to recover under normoxic conditions for 2 weeks (the CIH+N group). All rats underwent the Morris water maze test for learning and memory, PEDF gene expression and PEDF protein expression in the hippocampus, frontal cortex, and temporal cortex being subsequently assessed. Results: The CIH and CIH+N groups showed increased PEDF gene expression in the temporal cortex, PEDF protein expression remaining unaltered. PEDF gene expression and PEDF protein expression remained unaltered in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. Long-term exposure to IH did not affect cognitive function. Conclusions: Long-term exposure to IH selectively increases PEDF gene expression at the transcriptional level, although only in the temporal cortex. This increase is probably a protective mechanism against IH-induced injury. .


Objetivo: A síndrome da apneia obstrutiva do sono caracteriza-se principalmente por episódios de hipóxia intermitente (HI) durante o sono e associa-se a diversas complicações. A exposição à HI é o mais usado modelo animal de apneia do sono, e protocolos de curta duração causam diversos prejuízos cognitivos e neuronais. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF, fator derivado do epitélio pigmentado) é um fator neurotrófico, neuroprotetor e antiangiogênico sensível à hipóxia celular. Nosso estudo analisou o desempenho em tarefas cognitivas e de aprendizagem, bem como a expressão do gene PEDF e da proteína PEDF em estruturas cerebrais específicas em ratos expostos a HI de longa duração. Métodos: Ratos Wistar foram expostos a HI (21-5% de oxigênio) durante 6 semanas - o grupo HI crônica (HIC) - ou a normóxia durante 6 semanas - o grupo controle. Após a exposição à HIC, um grupo de ratos foi exposto a normóxia durante 2 semanas (o grupo HIC+N). Todos os animais foram submetidos ao labirinto aquático de Morris para avaliação de memória e aprendizado; avaliou-se também a expressão do gene PEDF e da proteína PEDF no hipocampo e nos córtices frontal e temporal. Resultados: Os grupos HIC e HIC+N apresentaram um aumento de expressão do gene PEDF no córtex temporal, porém sem aumento dos níveis proteicos. A expressão do gene PEDF e da proteína PEDF manteve-se inalterada nas demais estruturas. A exposição de longa duração à HI não afetou a função cognitiva. Conclusões: A exposição de longa duração à HI aumenta seletivamente a expressão do gene PEDF ao nível transcricional, embora apenas no córtex temporal. Esse aumento é provavelmente um mecanismo de proteção contra a HI. .


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted , Diet, Fat-Restricted , /prevention & control , Weight Reduction Programs , Weight Loss/physiology , Body Weight , Case-Control Studies , Clinical Trial , Follow-Up Studies , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Obesity/diet therapy , Obesity/metabolism , Obesity/physiopathology , Overweight/diet therapy , Overweight/metabolism , Overweight/physiopathology , Risk Factors
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-150533

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Despite the successful use of a ketogenic diet in pediatric epilepsy, its application in adults has been limited. The aim of this meta-analysis was to summarize the findings of relevant published studies in order to identify the efficacy of and compliance with a ketogenic diet and its main subtypes (i.e., classic ketogenic diet and modified Atkins diet) in adults with intractable epilepsy, and to provide useful information for clinical practice. METHODS: Electronic searches of PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar, and the ISI Web of Science were conducted to identify studies of the efficacy of and patient compliance with a ketogenic diet in adults with intractable epilepsy; the included studies were reviewed. Meta-analyses were performed using STATA to determine combined efficacy rates and combined rates of compliance with the ketogenic diet and its main subtypes. RESULTS: In total, 12 studies qualified for inclusion, and data from 270 patients were evaluated.The results of the meta-analysis revealed combined efficacy rates of all types of ketogenic diet, a classical ketogenic diet, and a modified Atkins diet were 42%, 52%, and 34%, respectively; the corresponding combined compliance rates were 45%, 38%, and 56%. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that a ketogenic diet is a promising complementary therapy in adult intractable epilepsy, and that while a classical ketogenic diet may be more effective, adult patients are likely to be less compliant with it than with a modified Atkins diet.


Subject(s)
Adult , Compliance , Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted , Epilepsy , Humans , Diet, Ketogenic , Patient Compliance
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-195956

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a high cholesterol (HC) dietary challenge on cholesterol tissue accumulation, inflammation, adipocyte differentiation, and macrophage infiltration in guinea pigs. A second objective was to assess whether macronutrient manipulation would reverse these metabolic alterations. MATERIALS/METHODS: Male Hartley guinea pigs (10/group) were assigned to either low cholesterol (LC) (0.04g/100g) or high cholesterol (HC) (0.25g/100g) diets for six weeks. For the second experiment, 20 guinea pigs were fed the HC diet for six weeks and then assigned to either a low carbohydrate (CHO) diet (L-CHO) (10% energy from CHO) or a high CHO diet (H-CHO) (54% CHO) for an additional six weeks. RESULTS: Higher concentrations of total (P < 0.005) and free (P < 0.05) cholesterol were observed in both adipose tissue and aortas of guinea pigs fed the HC compared to those in the LC group. In addition, higher concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the adipose tissue (P < 0.005) and lower concentrations of anti-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-10 were observed in the HC group (P < 0.05) compared to the LC group. Of particular interest, adipocytes in the HC group were smaller in size (P < 0.05) and showed increased macrophage infiltration compared to the LC group. When compared to the H-CHO group, lower concentrations of cholesterol in both adipose and aortas as well as lower concentrations of inflammatory cytokines in adipose tissue were observed in the L-CHO group (P < 0.05). In addition, guinea pigs fed the L-CHO exhibited larger adipose cells and lower macrophage infiltration compared to the H-CHO group. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study strongly suggest that HC induces metabolic dysregulation associated with inflammation in adipose tissue and that L-CHO is more effective than H-CHO in attenuating these detrimental effects.


Subject(s)
Adipocytes , Adipose Tissue , Animals , Aorta , Cholesterol , Cholesterol, Dietary , Cytokines , Diet , Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted , Guinea Pigs , Humans , Inflammation , Interleukins , Macrophages , Male
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-74445

ABSTRACT

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorders. It is a multifactorial disorder with its pathogenesis attributed to abnormal gastrointestinal motility, low-grade inflammation, visceral hypersensitivity, communication in the gut-brain axis, and so on. Traditionally, IBS has been treated with diet and lifestyle modification, fiber supplementation, psychological therapy, and pharmacological treatment. Carbohydrates are intermingled with a wide range of regularly consumed food including grains such as rye and wheat, vegetables, fruits, and legumes. Short-chain carbohydrates that are poorly absorbed exert osmotic effects in the intestinal lumen increasing its water volume, and are rapidly fermented by bacteria with consequent gas production. These effects may be the basis for the induction of most of the gastrointestinal symptoms. This has led to the use of lactose-free diets in those with lactose intolerance and of fructose-reduced diets for fructose malabsorption. As all poorly absorbed short-chain carbohydrates have similar and additive effects in the intestine, a concept has been developed to regard them collectively as FODMAPs (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols) and to evaluate a dietary approach that restricts them all. Based on the observational and comparative studies, and randomized-controlled trials, FODMAPs have been shown to trigger gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with IBS. Food choice via the low FODMAPs and potentially other dietary strategies is now a realistic and efficacious therapeutic approach for managing symptoms of IBS.


Subject(s)
Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Hypersensitivity/complications , Inflammation/complications , Intestines/pathology , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/complications , Malabsorption Syndromes/complications , Monosaccharides/metabolism , Oligosaccharides/metabolism
20.
Rev. saúde pública ; 47(4): 666-674, ago. 2013. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-695411

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO Analisar a eficácia de ações de educação nutricional com merendeiras na redução da adição de açúcar na alimentação escolar e no próprio consumo. MÉTODOS Ensaio randomizado por conglomerado, controlado, conduzido em 20 escolas municipais na cidade metropolitana de Niterói, RJ, de março a dezembro de 2007. Programa de educação nutricional foi implementado nas escolas de intervenção, junto a merendeiras, usando mensagens, atividades e material educativo que encorajassem a redução da adição de açúcar na alimentação escolar e no consumo. A redução da disponibilidade de açúcar pelas escolas foi analisada por planilhas com dados da utilização dos itens do estoque. O consumo individual das merendeiras foi avaliado pelo uso de questionário de frequência de consumo alimentar. As medidas antropométricas foram realizadas de acordo com técnicas padronizadas e a variação na mudança do peso foi medida ao longo do estudo. RESULTADOS A redução da disponibilidade de açúcar ocorreu mais acentuadamente nas escolas de intervenção quando comparadas às escolas controle (-6,0 kg versus 3,4 kg), sem diferença estatisticamente significante (p = 0,21), embora o poder do estudo tenha sido baixo. Houve redução do consumo de doces e bebidas açucaradas nos dois grupos, mas o consumo de açúcar não apresentou diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre eles. Houve redução do peso e do consumo de energia total nos dois grupos, mas sem diferença estatisticamente significante entre eles e sem modificação dos percentuais de adequação dos macronutrientes em relação ao consumo de energia. CONCLUSÕES Não foi possível ...


OBJETIVO Analizar la eficacia de acciones de educación nutricional con las manipuladoras de alimentos en la reducción de la adición de azúcar en la alimentación escolar y en el propio consumo. MÉTODOS Ensayo aleatorio por conglomerado, controlado, conducido en 20 escuelas municipales en la ciudad metropolitana de Niterói, RJ, de marzo a diciembre de 2007. El programa de educación nutricional fue implementado en las escuelas de intervención, manipuladoras de alimentos, usando mensajes, actividades y material educativo de forma de incentivar la reducción en la adición de azúcar a los alimentos y en el consumo. La reducción de la disponibilidad de azúcar en las escuelas fue analizada por planillas con datos de la utilización de los ítems de almacenamiento. El consumo individual de las manipuladoras de alimentos fue evaluado a través de cuestionario de frecuencia de consumo alimentario. Las medidas antropométricas fueron realizadas de acuerdo con técnicas estandarizadas y la variación en el cambio de peso fue medida a lo largo del estudio. RESULTADOS La reducción de la disponibilidad de azúcar ocurrió de forma más acentuada en las escuelas de intervención al compararse con las escuelas control (-6,0 kg versus 3,4 kg), sin diferencia estadísticamente significativa (p= 0,21), a pesar de que el poder del estudio haya sido bajo. Hubo reducción en el consumo de dulces y bebidas azucaradas en los dos grupos, aunque el consumo de azúcar no presentó diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre ellos. Hubo reducción en el peso y en el consumo de energía total en los dos grupos, pero sin diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre ellos, y sin modificación en los porcentajes de adecuación de los macronutrientes con relación al consumo de energía. CONCLUSIONES ...


OBJECTIVE To test the efficacy of nutritional guidelines for school lunch cooks aiming to reduce added sugar in school meals and their own sugar intake. METHODS A controlled randomized cluster trial was carried out in twenty public schools in the municipality of Niteroi in Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil, from March to December 2007. A nutrition educational program was implemented in the schools in question through messages, activities and printed educational materials encouraging reduced levels of added sugar in school meals and in the school lunch cooks’ own intake. The reduced availability of added sugar in schools was evaluated using spreadsheets including data on the monthly use of food item supplies. The cooks’ individual food intake was evaluated by a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements were taken according to standardized techniques and variation in weight was measured throughout the duration of the study. RESULTS There was a more marked reduction in the intervention schools compared to the control schools (-6.0 kg versus 0.34 kg), but no statistically significant difference (p = 0.21), although the study power was low. Both groups of school lunch cooks showed a reduction in the consumption of sweets and sweetened beverages, but the difference in sugar intake was not statistically significant. Weight loss and a reduction in total energy consumption occurred in both groups, but the difference between them was not statistically significant, and there was no alteration in the percentages of adequacy of macronutrients in relation to energy consumption. CONCLUSIONS The strategy of reducing the use and consumption of sugar by school lunch cooks from public schools could not be proved to be effective. .


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted , Dietary Sucrose/administration & dosage , Feeding Behavior , Health Promotion , Schools , Body Mass Index , Brazil , Case-Control Studies , Food Services/standards , Public Sector , Socioeconomic Factors
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