Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 159
Filter
1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(4): S77-S106, agosto 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1282794

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La prevalencia del vegetarianismo aumenta a nivel mundial y no hay consenso acerca de si este tipo de alimentación es adecuado durante el período de crecimiento. Objetivo. Se realizó una revisión descriptiva de la literatura con el objetivo de conocer si los niños e hijos de madres que siguen dietas vegetarianas crecen de manera diferente a los niños con dietas omnívoras. Métodos. Se incluyen 25 artículos publicados entre los años 1995-2020, que describen el crecimiento prenatal, postnatal y desarrollo puberal en niños vegetarianos e hijos de madres vegetarianas. Conclusión. La escasez de estudios longitudinales y resultados en el largo plazo, la heterogeneidad en la clasificación y el registro de las dietas, además de deficiencias metodológicas, no permiten concluir que el crecimiento de estos niños sea diferente al de los niños que siguen dietas omnívoras. Se requieren estudios longitudinales en el largo plazo para contribuir a dirimir esta controversia


The prevalence of vegetarianism is rising worldwide and there is no consensus about whether it is adequate during the growth period. The objective of this descriptive review is to find out if vegetarian children and children born from mothers who follow vegetarian diets, grow different from those who follow omnivorous diets. Results. 25 articles published between 1995 and 2020 were included describing prenatal and postnatal growth and pubertal development in vegetarian children and children of vegetarian mothers. Conclusion. The scarcity of longitudinal studies and long-term results, the heterogeneity in the classification and registration of the diets, in addition to methodological deficiencies, do not allow to conclude that the growth of these children is different from children on omnivorous diets. Long-term longitudinal studies are required to help to solve this controversy


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Diet, Vegetarian , Child Development , Adolescent Development , Mothers , Infant Formula , Body Size , Prenatal Nutrition , Diet, Vegan
2.
Diaeta (B. Aires) ; 39(174): 59-71, mayo 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1339815

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: la popularidad de las dietas vegetarianas y veganas está aumentando en países occidentales y son adoptadas por niños, niñas y adolescentes (NNyA). Las principales asociaciones de nutrición y dietética del mundo avalan este tipo de práctica alimentaria en estos grupos etáreos si son supervisados y acompañados por profesionales idóneos. Objetivo: tomar posicionamiento como Asociación Argentina de Dietistas y Nutricionistas Dietistas acerca de la implementación de dietas vegetarianas en edad pediátrica y adolescencia, considerando recomendaciones basadas en evidencias científicas. Materiales y método: revisión y actualización bibliográfica, no sistemática con búsquedas en Google Scholar, PudMed y Medline entre diciembre 2018 y marzo 2019. Resultados: la valoración nutricional, evaluando ingesta alimentaria utilizando recordatorio de 24 horas y frecuencia de consumo, orientará sobre cuáles son las potenciales deficiencias nutricionales que puede presentar para adecuar la dieta y/o suplementación de nutrientes específicos. La alimentación vegetariana tiene una densidad energética más baja que la no vegetariana, pero se logran alcanzar las recomendaciones. Las necesidades proteicas se satisfacen fácilmente cuando la dieta incluye variedad de alimentos y las calorías son adecuadas. Algunos autores sugieren aumentar un 10 a 15% la recomendación proteica. Además, considerar el aporte de ácidos grasos omega 3 (EPA y DHA) para lograr el equilibrio óptimo entre los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados omega3/omega6. Los requerimientos nutricionales de calcio no varían con respecto a los omnívoros. Es imprescindible suplementar vitamina B12 oral a todos los NNyA vegetarianos, incluso en ovolactovegetarianos o en NNyA que consuman habitualmente alimentos fortificados. La suplementación adecuada es la mejor forma de garantizar unos niveles óptimos de esta vitamina. Se recomienda evaluar el estado de la vitamina D suplementando según edad. Conclusiones: La Asociación Argentina de Dietistas y Nutricionistas Dietistas (AADYND) plantea que la alimentación vegetariana y/o vegana planificada, supervisada y suplementada por un profesional de la nutrición idóneo, son saludables en la niñez y adolescencia. Los profesionales de la alimentación y nutrición pueden desempeñar un papel clave en la educación y acompañamiento de las personas vegetarianas acerca de fuentes específicas de nutrientes, preparación de alimentos, y modificaciones dietéticas necesarias para satisfacer sus necesidades(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: the popularity of vegetarian and vegan diets is increasing in western countries and are adopted by children and adolescents (Ch&A). The main nutrition and dietetic associations in the world approve this type of dietary practice in these age groups if they are supervised and accompanied by qualified professionals. Objective: take a position as the Argentine Association of Dietitians and Dietitian Nutritionists about the implementation of vegetarian diets in pediatric and adolescent age, considering recommendations based on scientific evidence. Materials and Method: review and bibliographic update, non-systematic, with searches on Google Scholar, PudMed and Medline between December 2018 and March 2019. Results: The nutritional assessment, evaluating food intake using a 24-hour reminder and frequency of consumption, will provide guidance on what are the potential nutritional deficiencies that may come up, adapt the diet and/or supplementation of specific nutrients. The vegetarian diet has a lower energy density than the non-vegetarian diet but manages to meet the recommendations. Protein needs are easily met when the diet includes a variety of foods and calories are adequate. Some authors suggest increasing the protein recommendation by 10 to 15%. Considering the contribution of omega 3 fatty acids (EPA and DHA) to achieve the optimal balance between omega3/omega6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. The nutritional requirements of calcium do not vary with respect to omnivores. It is essential to supplement oral vitamin B12 to all vegetarian Ch&A, even in ovolactovegetarians or in Ch&A that habitually consume fortified foods. Proper supplementation is the best way to ensure optimal levels of this vitamin. It is recommended to evaluate the status of vitamin D by supplementing according to age. Conclusions: Argentine Association of Dietitians and Dietitian Nutritionists states that vegetarian and/or vegan food, planned, supervised and supplemented by a suitable nutrition professional, are healthy in childhood and adolescence. Food and nutrition professionals can play a key role in educating and mentoring vegetarians about specific sources of nutrients, food preparation, and dietary modifications necessary to meet their needs(AU)


Subject(s)
Adolescent Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Child Nutrition , Food , Diet, Vegetarian , Diet, Vegan
3.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(6): e536-e539, dic 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1146212

ABSTRACT

El déficit de vitamina B12 es una de las complicaciones más importantes que puede producir el vegetarianismo. Los lactantes hijos de madres vegetarianas tienen riesgo aumentado de deficiencia y de presentar compromiso neurológico irreversible si esta no se identifica y corrige adecuadamente.Se describe el caso de un lactante de un mes y veinte días que consultó por episodios paroxísticos de mecanismo epileptógeno, en el cual los estudios complementarios permitieron identificar un déficit de vitamina B12 como causa de estos. Tras la confirmación diagnóstica, se instauró el tratamiento con vitamina B12 intramuscular, con remisión completa de los síntomas, buena evolución posterior y desarrollo psicomotor sin alteraciones.Teniendo en cuenta las tendencias alimentarias actuales, es necesario incorporar, en la práctica clínica habitual, la anamnesis nutricional materna detallada para detectar precozmente el riesgo de déficit de esta vitamina y prevenirlo


Vitamin B12 deficiency is one of the main complications of vegetarianism. Infants of vegetarian mothers have greater risk of deficiency and irreversible neurological compromise if deficiency is not identified and treated. We describe the case of a 1 month 20 days-old infant who consulted due to paroxysmal episodes of epileptogenic mechanism; laboratory tests identified a deficiency in vitamin B12 as the cause. After confirmation of diagnosis, treatment with intramuscular vitamin B12 was established with full remission of symptoms, good evolution and psychomotor development without alterations.Considering current alimentary trends, it is necessary to include a detailed maternal nutritional anamnesis in regular clinical practice, in order to detect the risk of this vitamin deficiency at an early stage and to prevent it.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Vitamin B 12 Deficiency , Pediatrics , Diet, Vegetarian/adverse effects , Vegetarians , Mothers
4.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(5): 705-710, oct. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144269

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Se ha observado un aumento en la popularidad de las dietas vegetarianas, en especial en la población adolescente y adulto joven. Estas dietas se presentan como saludables y balanceadas pero las recomendaciones son controversiales en cuanto a los potenciales déficit nutricionales. OBJETIVO: Identificar la frecuencia y tipos de dieta vegetariana utilizada, su motivación y fuentes de información. PACIENTES Y MÉTODO: Estudio transversal y analítico en universitarios de primer año de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile (PUC). Se realizó una encuesta vía online obteniendo información demográfica y caracterización de dietas de aquellos que se consideraban vegetarianos. Las variables fueron analizadas mediante el software IDM SPSS Statistics® y en planilla Excel® de forma cuantitativa. RESULTADOS: 152 alumnos respondieron la encuesta (15,2% del total), siendo el 49,4% de estos vegetariano. El 32,4% inició este patrón alimentario entre los 12-18 años; sus motivaciones más frecuentes fueron las medio ambientalistas (91,9%) y animalistas (72,9%). El 52,9% de los vegetarianos reciben suplementación de vitamina b 12 pero solo un 15,9% reportó presentar este déficit. El 75,7% obtiene información relacionada acerca de las dietas vegetarianas a través de medios digitales. CONCLUSIÓN: Se encontró un alto porcentaje de estudiantes vegetarianos en las encuestas contestadas, lo que hace necesario que los profesionales de salud estén capacitados en esta área para asegurar una adecuada educación nutricional, suplementación si es necesario, y seguimiento.


INTRODUCTION: There has been an increase in the popularity of vegetarian diets, especially among adolescents and young adults. These diets seem to be healthy and balanced, but the recommendations are contro versial regarding potential nutritional deficits. OBJECTIVE: To identify the frequency and types of ve getarian diet used, their motivation, and sources of information. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Cross-sec tional analytical study in freshmen students from the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile (PUC). Through an online survey, we collected demographic information and diet characterization of those who considered themselves as vegetarians. Variables were analyzed using IDM SPSS Statistics® soft ware and in Excel® spreadsheet in a quantitative way. RESULTS: 152 students answered the survey (15.2% of the sample) and, out of these, 49.4% were vegetarian. 32.4% started this eating pattern bet ween the ages 12 and 18 and among their most frequent motivations were environmentalists (91.9%) and animalists (72.9%). 52.9% of vegetarians take vitamin B 12 supplementation but only 15.9% reported having this deficiency. 75.7% obtain information related to vegetarian diets through digital media. CONCLUSION: In the surveys answered, we found a high percentage of vegetarian students, the refore, health professionals need to be trained in this area to assure adequate nutritional education, supplementation if necessary, and follow-up.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Diet, Vegetarian/psychology , Diet, Vegetarian/statistics & numerical data , Health Behavior , Students/psychology , Universities , Diet, Vegetarian/adverse effects , Diet, Vegetarian/methods , Vitamin B 12/therapeutic use , Vitamin B Complex/therapeutic use , Vitamin B 12 Deficiency/etiology , Vitamin B 12 Deficiency/prevention & control , Chile , Diet Surveys , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Serial Cross-Sectional Studies , Dietary Supplements , Motivation
5.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(5): 782-791, set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138615

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Una dieta vegetariana se define por la exclusión total o parcial de alimentos de origen animal. Cuando es planificada adecuadamente puede prevenir y tratar enfermedades. Sin embargo, una dieta restrictiva en ciertos alimentos debe ser evaluada. El propósito de esta investigación fue describir parámetros antropométricos, hábitos de alimentación y de estilo de vida en ovo-lácteo-vegetarianos y veganos y explorar diferencias en la ingesta de nutrientes críticos entre ambos grupos. Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, realizado en ovo-lácteo-vegetarianos y veganos de Asunción, Paraguay, durante el 2015. Se evaluaron parámetros antropométricos,, ingesta y hábitos de estilo de vida saludable. Participaron 17 ovo-lácteo-vegetarianos y 14 veganos. El 67,7 % (n= 21) se encontró normopeso, el 29 % (n= 9) presentó exceso de peso, y el 3,2% (n=1) bajo peso. Se presentó una ingesta inferior a los requerimientos en energía, carbohidratos, proteínas y grasas en ambos grupos de vegetarianos, e ingesta muy limitada de calcio y vitamina B12 en veganos. Las mujeres presentaron ingesta muy por debajo de las recomendaciones para hierro y calcio. Ninguna mujer vegana cumplió con la recomendación dietaria de vitamina B12. Al comparar grupos, se hallaron diferencias significativas en proteínas, calcio (menor consumo en veganos) y fibra (menor en ovo-lácteo-vegetarianos). La suplementación con vitaminas y suplementos también fue muy baja. Los resultados resaltan la importancia de una evaluación constante de la ingesta de nutrientes en una dieta vegetariana, a modo de evitar deficiencias o excesos, y la insoslayable tarea del nutricionista para el asesoramiento alimentario-nutricional a los individuos que expresen interés en adoptar este tipo de dieta.


ABSTRACT A vegetarian diet is defined by the total or partial exclusion of foods of animal origin. When properly planned it can prevent and treat disease. However, a restrictive diet in certain foods must be evaluated. The purpose of this research was to describe anthropometric parameters, eating and lifestyle habits of lacto-ovo-vegetarians and vegans, and to explore differences in critical nutrient intake between both groups. We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study, carried out among lacto-ovo-vegetarians and vegans in the city of Asunción, Paraguay, during 2015. Anthropometric parameters,, intake and healthy lifestyle habits were evaluated. Seventeen lacto-ovo-vegetarians and 14 vegans participated. 67.7% (n= 21) were normal weight, 29.1% (n= 9) were overweight, and 3.2% (n= 1) were underweight. There was an intake lower than the requirements in terms of energy, carbohydrates, proteins and fats in both groups of vegetarians, and very limited intake of calcium and vitamin B12 in vegans. Women particularly had intake well below the recommendations for iron and calcium. No woman on a vegan diet met the dietary recommendation for vitamin B12. When comparing groups, significant differences were found in terms of protein and calcium, (lower consumption in vegans), fiber (lower in lacto-ovo-vegetarians). Vitamin supplementation was also very low. The results highlight the importance of constant evaluation of nutrient intake in a vegetarian diet in order to avoid deficiencies or excesses, and the very important work of the nutritionist for food and nutritional advice for individuals who express interest in adopting this type of diet.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Diet, Vegetarian , Nutrients , Nutritional Status , Carbohydrates , Proteins , Life Style
6.
Psico USF ; 25(3): 533-545, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1135736

ABSTRACT

O vegetarianismo é uma prática que exclui carnes e pode evitar outros produtos de origem animal. Esta última modalidade está muito associada ao veganismo, uma filosofia que defende a libertação animal. Aderir a tais condições implica no seguimento de algumas normas que norteiam comportamentos alimentares e interações sociais. Partindo desse pressuposto, objetivou-se avaliar o nível de concordância, entre vegetarianos e veganos, quanto a regras que descrevem comportamentos alimentares. A pesquisa contou com 398 participantes, sendo 198 não estritos e 200 estritos, que responderam a um questionário on-line autoaplicável. Os dados, analisados via teste t, apontaram maiores níveis de concordância com comportamentos mais restritos entre vegetarianos estritos e veganos os quais também relataram maior embasamento em valores. Este estudo, que trouxe uma ótica de análise para os comportamentos alimentares em termos de localização de reforços, pode contribuir com novas práticas em saúde direcionadas às pessoas vegetarianas e veganas. (AU)


Vegetarianism is a practice that excludes meat and can avoid other products of animal origin. This latter modality is closely associated with veganism, a philosophy that advocates animal liberation. Adherence to these conditions implies following some norms that guide eating behaviors and social interactions. Based on this assumption, we aimed to evaluate the agreement level, between vegetarians and vegans, regarding rules that describe food behaviors. The survey included 398 participants, 198 non-strict and 200 strict vegetarians, who answered a self-administered online questionnaire. The data, analyzed by t-test, showed higher agreement level with more restricted behaviors between strict vegetarians and vegans, who also reported a higher base on values. This study, which provided an analysis perspective on eating behaviors in terms of reinforcement location, may contribute to new health practices aimed at vegetarians and vegans. (AU)


El vegetarianismo es una práctica que excluye carnes y también puede evitar otros productos de origen animal de la alimentación. Esta última modalidad está muy asociada al veganismo, una filosofía que defiende la liberación animal. Adherirse a tales condiciones implica el seguimiento de algunas normas que guían los comportamientos alimentarios e interacciones sociales. A partir de esta suposición, el objetivo fue evaluar el nivel de acuerdo, entre vegetarianos y veganos, en cuanto a las reglas que describen conductas alimentarias. La encuesta contó con 398 participantes, siendo 198 no estrictos y 200 estrictos, que respondieron a un cuestionario online autoaplicable. Los datos, analizados vía test T, señalaron mayores niveles de acuerdo con comportamientos más restringidos entre vegetarianos estrictos y veganos, los cuales también señalaron una mayor base en los valores. Este estudio, que trae una óptica de análisis para los comportamientos alimentarios en términos de localización de refuerzos, puede contribuir con nuevas prácticas en salud dirigidas a personas vegetarianas y veganas. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Diet, Vegetarian/psychology , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Vegetarians/psychology , Vegans/psychology , Social Interaction , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(4): s130-s141, agosto 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1118606

ABSTRACT

Los padres que deciden cambiar la dieta habitual de sus hijos por otra más restrictiva deben conocer los riesgos y las ventajas de la alimentación escogida y recibir información que les ayude a ofrecerles una alimentación suficiente. Las dietas vegetarianas pueden realizarse siempre que sean planificadas por especialistas con la inclusión de una amplia variedad de alimentos vegetales y fortificados, y con el suplemento adecuado indicado en cada etapa.El objetivo de este documento es dar a conocer la postura del Comité de Nutrición de la Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría y brindar a los profesionales de la salud información adecuada que permita responder a las inquietudes de los padres y los pacientes que deciden escoger una dieta vegetariana como modalidad de alimentación. Se identifican los desafíos para tener en cuenta y se destaca que, sin dichas consideraciones y un seguimiento adecuado, estas dietas no pueden realizarse de manera segura en la infancia


Parents who decide to change the usual diet of their children for a more restrictive one should know the risks and advantages of the chosen diet and receive information that helps them to offer their children a sufficient diet. Vegetarian diets can be adopted as long as they are planned by specialists with the inclusion of a wide variety of plant foods and fortified foods with the appropriate supplementation indicated at each stage. The objective of this document is to present the position of the Nutrition Committee of the Argentine Society of Pediatrics and to provide health professionals with adequate information to respond to the concerns of parents and patients who decide to choose a vegetarian diet as a modality of feeding. The challenges to be taken into account are identified, highlighting that without these considerations and proper monitoring these diets cannot be carried out safely in childhood


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Diet, Vegetarian , Pediatrics , Nutrients/administration & dosage , Child Development , Risk , Monitoring , Adolescent Development , Diet Therapy
8.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 29(4): e2019378, 2020. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124753

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Analisar a prevalência de vegetarianismo e fatores associados em estudantes de uma universidade pública no sul do Brasil. Métodos: Estudo transversal realizado em 2017-2018, incluindo ingressantes universitários. Questionário foi aplicado para avaliar o tipo de dieta (onívora ou vegetariana). Regressão logística foi utilizada para estimar razões de odds (RO) e intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC95%). Resultados: De 2.706 indivíduos elegíveis, 1.841 fizeram parte da amostra. O tipo de dieta predominante foi a onívora (93,6%), seguida por ovolactovegetariana (5,4%), vegetariana estrita (0,7%), ovovegetariana (0,2%) e lactovegetariana (0,1%). Mulheres (RO=0,58 - IC95% 0,38;0,89), ingressantes que referiram uso prejudicial de álcool (RO=2,02 - IC95% 1,34;3,04) e matriculados na área de Linguística, Letras e Artes - comparados aos matriculados em Ciências Sociais Aplicadas e Humanas (RO=2,59 - IC95% 1,42;4,71) - tiveram maior chance de serem vegetarianos. Conclusão: A dieta vegetariana associou-se ao sexo feminino, uso de álcool e ingresso em cursos de linguística, letras e artes.


Objetivos: Identificar la prevalencia del vegetarianismo y factores asociados entre estudiantes de una universidad pública en el sur del Brasil. Métodos: Estudio transversal realizado entre 2017-2018, incluyendo a estudiantes de primer año de una universidad pública. Se aplicó el cuestionario para evaluar el tipo de dieta (omnívora o vegetariana). Se utilizó la regresión logística para verificar factores asociados (demográficos, socioeconómicos, curso, comportamientos relacionados con la salud y estado nutricional) e intervalos de confianza de 95% (IC95%). Resultados: De 2,706 individuos elegibles, 1,841 hicieron parte de la muestra. El tipo de dieta predominante fue omnívora (93.6%), seguida de ovolactovegetariana (5.4%), vegetariana estricta (0.7%), ovo vegetariana (0.2%) y lactovegetariana (0.1%). Mujeres (RO=0,58 - IC95% 0,38;0,89), estudiantes que relataron uso perjudicial de alcohol (RO=2.02 - IC95% 1.34;3.04) e inscritos en Lingüística, Letras y Artes fueron más propensos a ser vegetarianos comparados con los inscritos en Ciencias Sociales Aplicadas y Humanas (RO=2,59 - IC95% 1,42;4,71). Conclusión: la dieta vegetariana se asoció al sexo femenino, consumo de alcohol y al ingreso a cursos de Lingüística, Letras y Artes.


Objective: To identify vegetarianism prevalence and associated factors among students at a public university in Southern Brazil. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study carried out in 2017-2018 with first-year university students. A questionnaire was administered to assess diet type (omnivorous or vegetarian). Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Results: Of 2,706 eligible individuals, 1,841 formed part of the sample. The predominant type of diet was omnivorous (93.6%), followed by lacto-ovo vegetarian (5.4%), strict vegetarian (0.7%), ovo vegetarian (0.2%) and lacto vegetarian (0.1%). Females (OR=0.58 - 95%CI 0.38;0.89), students reporting harmful use of alcohol (OR=2.02 - 95%CI 1.34;3.04) and students enrolled in Linguistics, Modern Languages and Arts courses - compared to those enrolled in Applied Social Sciences and Humanities courses (OR=2.59 - 95%CI 1.42;4.71) - were more likely to be vegetarians. Conclusion: Vegetarian diet was associated with the female sex, alcohol use, and taking linguistics, modern language and arts courses.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Diet, Vegetarian/trends , Feeding Behavior , Vegetarians/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Student Health , Cross-Sectional Studies
9.
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 22(3): e002013, nov. 2019. tab.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047069

ABSTRACT

Basándonos en una consulta de una niña que desea realizar una dieta vegetariana se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica para identificar evidencia sobre el impacto de este tipo de dieta en la salud. La evidencia actual indica que la dieta vegetariana es una opción saludable que no produciría un impacto negativo en el crecimiento y desarrollo de los niños, si bien existiría la posibilidad de déficit de micronutrientes. (AU)


Based on a consultation of a girl who wishes to make a vegetarian diet, a literature search was conducted to identify evidence on the impact of this type of diet on health. Current evidence indicates that the vegetarian diet is a healthy option that would not have a negative impact on the growth and development of children, although there is a possibility of micronutrient deficits. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Child , Adolescent , Diet, Vegetarian/adverse effects , Vitamin B 12 Deficiency/diet therapy , Child Development , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/diet therapy , Socioeconomic Factors , Diet, Vegetarian/classification , Diet, Vegetarian/trends , Micronutrients/deficiency , Diet, Food, and Nutrition , Diet, Healthy/trends
10.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 117(4): e420-e424, ago. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1054949

ABSTRACT

La deficiencia de vitamina B12 es una de las complicaciones más graves del vegetarianismo. Los lactantes hijos de madres veganas tienen mayor riesgo de deficiencia grave y son más lábiles ante sus efectos. La deficiencia de B12 no es, por lo general, sospechada por el pediatra en lactantes previamente sanos con síntomas neurológicos, ya que las manifestaciones iniciales son inespecíficas: apatía, rechazo del alimento y pérdida de pautas madurativas. La anamnesis nutricional es fundamental para detectar riesgo de déficit de esta vitamina en lactantes. El objetivo de este trabajo es describir a un grupo de lactantes, hijos de madres veganas, con déficit de B12 y compromiso neurológico grave: apneas centrales, convulsiones, hipotonía, pérdida de conexión con el medio y de pautas madurativas. Nuestro propósito es alertar sobre la importancia de suplir B12 a las madres veganas desde antes de la concepción hasta el fin de la lactancia.


Vitamin B12 deficiency is one of the most serious complications of vegetarianism and its variants. Infants born to vegan mothers are at greater risk of serious deficiency, being more vulnerable to their effects. B12 deficiency is not usually suspected by the pediatrician in healthy infants with neurological symptoms. The manifestations are nonspecific: apathy, rejection of food and loss of maturational patterns. A nutritional history of the mother, mainly if she is vegetarian, to estimate her reserves is fundamental to detect risk of deficiency of this vitamin in the small child. The objective of this work is to describe a group of infants, children of vegan mothers, with B12 deficiency and serious neurological compromise: central apneas, seizures, hypotonia, loss of connection with the environment and maturational patterns. Our purpose is to alert about the importance of supplying vegan mothers with B12 before conception until the end of breastfeeding.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Pediatrics , Diet, Vegetarian , Vitamin B 12 Deficiency , Infant , Nervous System Diseases
11.
Actual. nutr ; 20(1): [24-32], Enero-Marzo 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087596

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la alimentación vegetariana es una práctica cada vez más frecuente en la población. Objetivos: esta investigación tuvo la finalidad de identificar y analizar las publicaciones desarrolladas en los últimos años que describan los nutrientes que son considerados críticos en las mujeres embarazadas que realizan dietas vegetarianasveganas, y los riesgos que este tipo de alimentación pudiera presentar tanto para la gestante como para la descendencia. Materiales y métodos: se realizó una investigación de tipo narrativa, de información científica, publicada en relación a la alimentación en embarazadas vegetarianas/veganas. Se utilizaron las bases de datos de Medline, Scielo y Cochrane. Resultados: se analizaron 29 publicaciones que respondieron a los criterios de búsqueda e incluyeron artículos originales, metaanálisis, artículos de revisión y casos clínicos de diferentes contextos geográficos publicados desde 2000 hasta 2018 inclusive. La información disponible considera importante monitorear y evaluar la suplementación con vitaminas D y B12, hierro, zinc y ácidos grasos EPA (ácido eicosapentaenoico) y DHA (ácido docosahexaenoico), en las mujeres vegetarianas que cursan un embarazo, dado que las investigaciones llevadas a cabo en los últimos años revelan que en este grupo es frecuente encontrar menores concentraciones de estos nutrientes en comparación con las embarazadas omnívoras. Los estudios sugieren que las embarazadas vegetarianas/veganas tendrían un mayor riesgo de presentar deficiencia de vitaminas B12 y hierro que las omnívoras. Varios casos clínicos describen en los hijos de embarazadas vegetarianas con deficiencia de vitamina B12 diversos grados de compromiso neurológico. Los niveles de ingesta de magnesio y ácido fólico habitualmente son mayores en las embarazadas vegetarianas que en las omnívoras. Conclusiones: la información actual sugiere que si la dieta es planeada y desarrollada con asesoramiento profesional para suplementar los nutrientes considerados críticos en el embarazo, las embarazadas vegetarianas-veganas no presentan riesgos nutricionales diferentes a los posibles en las mujeres omnívoras


Introduction: vegetarian feeding is an increasingly common practice in the population. Objectives: this research aimed to identify and analyze the publications carried out in recent years that describe nutrients that are considered critical in pregnant women who perform vegetarian-vegan diets, and the risks that this type of feeding could present both for the pregnant woman and for the offspring. Materials and methods: a narrative-type investigation of scientific information published in relation to food in vegetarian/vegan pregnant women was carried out. The Medline, Scielo, and Cochrane databases were used. Results: we analyzed 29 publications that responded to the search criteria and included original articles, meta-analyzes, review articles and clinical cases from different geographical contexts published from 2000 to 2018 inclusive. The available information considers important to monitor and evaluate the supplementation with vitamins D and B12, iron, zinc and fatty acids EPA and DHA, in vegetarian women who are pregnant, since the investigations carried out in recent years reveal that in this group of pregnant women lower concentrations of these nutrients are frequent, compared with omnivores pregnant. Studies suggest that pregnant vegetarians/vegans have a higher risk of vitamin B12 and iron deficiency than omnivores. Several clinical cases describe varying degrees of neurological impairments in children of pregnant vegetarians with vitamin B12 deficiency. Magnesium and folic acid intake are usually higher in vegetarian pregnant women than in pregnant women with omnivores practices. Conclusions: current information suggests that if the diet is planned and carried out with professional advice in order to supplement the nutrients considered critical in pregnancy, pregnant vegetarian-vegans do not present nutritional risks different from those possible in omnivorous women.


Subject(s)
Diet, Vegetarian , Pregnancy , Diet, Vegan , Diet, Food, and Nutrition
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760607

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Aging is an imperative problem for many countries in this century, and presents several challenges for the maintenance of good nutritional status. This study aims to assess the impact of socio-demographic factors, lifestyle and health status on the nutritional status among the elderly in Taiwan. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Taiwan. Data were obtained from the Mei Jau Health Management Institution, which is a private health evaluation provider with multiple health screening centers in Taiwan and Asia. This study included 7947 adults aged 65 years or above. The data were extracted between 2001 to 2010. Nutritional status was assessed using anthropometric data, biochemical data and dietary intake information. RESULTS: Among the 7947 participants with mean age of 70.1 (SD = 4.5) years, 20.2%, 6.6%, 10.5% and 52.5% experienced underweight, protein malnutrition, anemia and inadequate dietary intake in the past month, respectively. Age was negatively correlated with body weight (r = −0.19, P = 0.02), body mass index (r = −0.41, P < 0.001), albumin level (r = −0.93, P < 0.001) and hemoglobin level (r = −0.30, P = 0.008). Age above 70 years, gender, unmarried status, retirement, lack of education, low family income, smoking, alcohol drinking, sleep duration of 6-8 hours, vegetarian diet, multiple medications, comorbidity and dysphagia were positively associated with malnutrition in older adults. CONCLUSIONS: Underweight and inadequate dietary intake are prevalent among the elderly in Taiwan. Vegetarian diet, multiple medications, comorbidity, dysphagia and lifestyle factors such as smoking, alcohol drinking and sleep duration of 6–8 hours are risk factors for undernutrition in older adults.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aging , Alcohol Drinking , Anemia , Asia , Body Mass Index , Body Weight , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Deglutition Disorders , Diet , Diet, Vegetarian , Education , Humans , Life Style , Malnutrition , Mass Screening , Nutritional Status , Retirement , Risk Factors , Single Person , Smoke , Smoking , Taiwan , Thinness
13.
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 32: e180249, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041312

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective The chia seed, an ancient pseudocereal, is rich in omega-3 fatty acids and polyphenols, and has been suggested to possess several health benefits. Although it has gained popularity among nutritionists, little is known about the systemic effects of chia and their interactions. Hence, hepatorenal indicators and plasma vitamin concentrations in chia-supplemented aluminum-exposed rats were investigated. Methods Wistar albino rats were either fed on a chia-rich- or standard-diet for 21 days and exposed to aluminum. Liver function tests (Alanine Aminotransferase, Aspartate Aminotransferase, Alkaline Phosphatase, Lactate Dehydrogenase), kidney function tests (Urea Nitrogen, Creatinine), and vitamin B12 and folic acid measurements were performed by using an automated analyzer. Results Aluminum exposure had no influence on renal function, as did chia supplementation. However, liver function was disturbed with the exposure to Aluminum and chia was of no use against it. Surprisingly, it was found that the animals fed on a chia-rich diet displayed higher concentrations of vitamin B12 which was not the case for folic acid. Conclusion It was deduced that a chia-rich diet has no effect on the renal function and is not able to reverse aluminum-induced hepatotoxicity; however, it may be of benefit against vitamin B12 insufficiency and thus, it may offer a novel treatment option which is particularly important in the vegan diet.


RESUMO Objetivo A semente de chia, um antigo pseudocereal, é rica em ácidos graxos ômega-3 e polifenóis e tem sido sugerida como tendo vários benefícios para a saúde. Embora tenha ganhado popularidade entre os nutricionistas, na verdade, pouco se sabe sobre os efeitos e interações sistêmicas da chia. Assim, investigamos os indicadores hepatorrenais e as concentrações plasmáticas de vitamina em ratos expostos ao alumínio suplementados com chia. Métodos Ratos albinos Wistar foram alimentados com dieta rica em chia ou padrão por 21 dias e expostos ao alumínio. Testes de função hepática (Alanina Aminotransferase, Aspartato Aminotransferase, Fosfatase Alcalina, Lactato Desidrogenase), testes de função renal (ácido úrico, Creatinina) e medições de vitamina B12 e ácido fólico realizada usando um analisador automático. Resultados A exposição ao alumínio não influenciou a função renal, assim como a suplementação de chia. No entanto, a função hepática foi perturbada com a exposição e a chia foi inútil contra ela. Surpreendentemente, descobrimos que os animais que se alimentavam de uma dieta rica em chia apresentavam concentrações mais elevadas de vitamina B12, o que não era o caso do ácido fólico. Conclusão Deduzimos que a dieta rica em chia não tem efeito sobre a função renal e não é capaz de reverter a hepatotoxicidade induzida pelo alumínio; no entanto, pode ser benéfico contra a insuficiência de vitamina B12 e, portanto, pode oferecer uma nova opção de tratamento que é particularmente importante na dieta vegana.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Salvia , Diet, Vegetarian , Food, Fortified , Rats, Wistar , Aluminum , Folic Acid , Kidney Function Tests , Liver Function Tests
15.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 110(5): 430-437, May 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950148

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Recent studies have shown a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MSyn) in vegetarians (VEG) despite the inconclusive evidence from others. Objective: To verify the association between diet and other lifestyle characteristics and the prevalence of MSyn, cardiovascular risk factors (CRF), and Framingham Risk Score (FRS) in apparently healthy VEG and omnivorous (OMN) men. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 88 apparently healthy men ≥ 35 years, 44 VEG and 44 OMN, were assessed for anthropometric data, blood pressure, blood lipids, glucose, C-reactive protein (CRP) and FRS. To test the association between lifestyle and MSyn, Student t test, chi-square test, and multiple logistic regression model were used. A significance level of 5% was considered in all statistical analyses. Results: Several CRF were significantly lower in VEG than in OMN: body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, fasting serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein b, glucose, and glycated hemoglobin (all p < 0.05). The FRS mean was lower in VEG than in OMN (2.98 ± 3.7 vs 4.82 ± 4.8, p = 0.029). The percentage of individuals with MSyn was higher among OMN than among VEG (52.3 vs.15.9%) (p < 0.001). The OMN diet was associated with MSyn (OR: 6.28 95%CI 2.11-18.71) and alterations in most MSyn components in the multiple regression model independently of caloric intake, age and physical activity. Conclusion: The VEG diet was associated with lower CRF, FRS and percentage of individuals with MSyn.


Resumo Fundamento: Estudos recentes mostraram menor prevalência de Síndrome Metabólica (SM) em vegetarianos (VEG), apesar de evidências inconclusivas de outros. Objetivo: Verificar associação entre dieta e características do estilo de vida e a prevalência de SM, fatores de risco cardiovascular (FRCV) e Escore de Framingham (EF) em homens VEG e onívoros (ONI) aparentemente saudáveis. Métodos: Neste estudo transversal, 88 homens aparentemente saudáveis ≥ 35 anos, VEG (n = 44) e ONI (n = 44), foram avaliados quanto a dados antropométricos, pressão arterial, lípides plasmáticos, glicemia, proteína C reativa e EF. Para testar associação entre estilo de vida e SM, o teste t de Student, o teste qui-quadrado e a regressão logística múltipla foram utilizados. Foi considerado nível de significância de 5% em todas as análises estatísticas. Resultados: Os níveis dos FRCV avaliados foram menores nos VEG do que nos ONI: índice de massa corporal, pressão arterial sistólica e diastólica, colesterol total, LDL-colesterol, apolipoproteína b, glicemia e hemoglobina glicada (p < 0,05). O EF foi menor nos VEG do que nos ONI (2,98 ± 3,7 vs. 4,82 ± 4,8; p = 0,029). A porcentagem de indivíduos com SM foi maior entre ONI do que entre VEG (52,3 vs.15,9%) (p < 0,001). A dieta ONI foi associada com a SM (OR: 6,28 IC95% 2,11-18,71) e alterações na maioria dos componentes da SM no modelo de regressão logística múltipla, independentemente de ingestão calórica, idade e atividade física. Conclusão: A dieta VEG foi associada com menores taxas de FRC e menores EF e porcentagem de indivíduos com SM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Vegetarians , Diet, Vegetarian , Brazil/epidemiology , Energy Intake , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Body Mass Index , Anthropometry , Cholesterol , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Metabolic Syndrome/prevention & control , Life Style , Cholesterol, LDL
16.
Mem. Inst. Invest. Cienc. Salud (Impr.) ; 16(1): 19-25, abr. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-997238

ABSTRACT

El auge de las dietas vegetarianas se encuentra relacionado principalmente a beneficios para la salud, tratamiento de ciertas patologías y la obtención de una dieta equilibrada, a su vez con principios animalistas o morales. El objetivo fue evaluar el conocimiento, describir las prácticas y actitudes alimentarias de vegetarianos en Paraguay entre mayo a julio del 2017. Se realizaron 141 encuestas, de las cuales 132 cumplieron las exigencias del estudio. La mayor parte de los encuestados fue del sexo femenino (79%), la edad promedio fue de 28,7±8,1 años, 93% de ellos eran del nivel educativo terciario, gran parte de los participantes eran residentes del área central (87%), su fuente principal de obtención de información eran los profesionales de la salud (12%) seguidos de internet (11%). Un 44% consumía suplementos alimentarios, y la razón principal de haber optado por el estilo de vida vegetariano fueron principios animalistas, morales o de protección animal (51%). Por otro lado, a un 25% le resultaba difícil asistir a comidas o reuniones sociales. Los encuestados presentaron conocimiento regular seguido de insuficiente en lo que respecta a su estilo de vida y conocimiento insuficiente sobre nutrientes críticos. Respecto a sus prácticas, gran parte de ellos reemplazaron las proteínas por las de origen vegetal obteniendo información de diversas fuentes. Actitudinalmente creían que su alimentación favorecía a su salud e imagen corporal y la recomendaban, habiendo sufrido discriminación en algún momento de su vida mediante críticas o burlas hacia su estilo de vida(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Diet, Vegetarian , Health Behavior , Paraguay , Cross-Sectional Studies , Life Style
17.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(1): 35-40, Mar. 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-893183

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: Hace aproximadamente once mil años el ser humano pasó de alimentarse de los animales que cazaba o pescaba y los frutos y plantas que recolectaba, a aquellos que podía crecer a voluntad mediante la agricultura. Este cambio alteró dramáticamente la forma de la cabeza ósea y particularmente de la cara, que se hizo más grácil, y además se redujo el aporte de nutrientes claves. Con la industrialización, hubo un gran deterioro de la salud oral. Al abandono de una dieta cazadora recolectora incluso se le ha atribuido el origen de maloclusiones dentales, debido a la reducción del estrés masticatorio y con ello un menor tamaño relativo del maxilar y la mandíbula respecto a los dientes. Hoy en día, existiendo una mayor conciencia de la población respecto de sus cuidados y de su entorno, la adopción de dietas que excluyen cierto tipo de alimentos como los animales ha ganado adeptos. La dieta vegetariana presenta varias características que pueden afectar el metabolismo general y el óseo en particular, de manera similar a como lo hizo la agricultura en el pasado. La presente revisión busca analizar los cambios de la dieta humana, del punto de vista nutricional y mecánico y cómo estos afectaron la forma de la cara. Esto con el objetivo de comprender los posibles efectos de la introducción de alimentaciones de tipo restrictivas, como la vegetariana, en el organismo y particularmente en la anatomía facial.


SUMMARY: Approximately eleven thousand years ago humans beings went from feeding on animals they hunted or fished and fruits and plants they gathered, to crops they could grow through agriculture. This change dramatically altered the shape of the skull, particularly the face, which became more gracile, and also reduced the contribution of key nutrients. Along with industrialization, there was great deterioration of oral health. Leaving behind the hunter-gatherer diet has even been attributed to the origins of dental malocclusions, as masticatory stress was reduce, and reducing the size of the maxilla and mandible with respect to the teeth. Nowadays, there is greater awareness in the general population regarding personal care and their surroundings. Diets that exclude certain types of foods such as animal products are becoming more prevalent. The vegetarian diet has several characteristics that can affect metabolism, particularly the bones, as did the change from hunter-gatherer to agriculture in the past. The present review seeks to analyze the changes of the human diet, from the nutritional and mechanical point of view and how these have affected the shape of the face. This in order to understand the possible effects of the introduction of restrictive type feeds, such as the vegetarian diet in the body, particularly in facial anatomy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Skull/anatomy & histology , Diet, Vegetarian , Nutritional Transition , Face/anatomy & histology , Feeding Behavior , Mastication/physiology
18.
Asian Nursing Research ; : 231-236, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716785

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Low muscle strength is central to geriatric physical disabilities and mortality. The purpose of the present study was to examine handgrip strength (HGS) and its associated factors among community-dwelling older people in Sri Lanka. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Kandy district using multistage sampling. A total of 999 older people were recruited, with a female preponderance. Data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires on demographic characteristics, depression, and physical activity. Anthropometric measurements including weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, calf circumference, and HGS were recorded. Complex sample general linear model was used to examine the association between HGS and its associated factors. RESULTS: The mean highest HGS of the study group was 12.56 kg (95% confidence interval: 11.94–13.19). Male older people had a higher HGS (17.02, 95% confidence interval: 15.55–18.49 kg) than females (10.59, 95% confidence interval: 10.12–11.06 kg). For both men and women, older age was associated with lower HGS, while mid-upper arm circumference was associated with better HGS. Diabetes mellitus, vegetarian diet, and alcohol consumption were associated with HGS for women only. CONCLUSION: Men had a higher HGS compared with women. Age, mid-upper arm circumference, diabetes mellitus, vegetarian diet, and alcohol consumption were factors associated with HGS among community-dwelling older people in Kandy district, Sri Lanka. HGS can be used as a feasible strategy to improve health status of older people by community health nurses.


Subject(s)
Aged , Alcohol Drinking , Arm , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Diabetes Mellitus , Diet, Vegetarian , Female , Hand Strength , Humans , Independent Living , Linear Models , Male , Mortality , Motor Activity , Muscle Strength , Nurses, Community Health , Sri Lanka
19.
Braspen J ; 33(2): 127-140, 2018. tab, fig
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-910066

ABSTRACT

Objective: Vegetarians might be at nutritional risk due to their food preferences. The goal of this study was to compare nutritional status and food intake of vegetarians and omnivores that use restaurants at the Federal University of Parana in Brazil. Methods: Clinical cross-sectional observational study performed between May 2014 and March 2015, assessing 84 vegetarians and 131 omnivores, adults, of both sexes. Anthropometric and body composition characteristics were evaluated on the total sample. In a subsample of 38 vegetarians and 63 omnivores, food intake of macronutrients, fibers, vitamin B12, vitamin D, calcium, iron and zinc were evaluated. Blood tests for vitamin B12, iron, and ferritin were performed in a subsample of 40 individuals of each group. Results: The studied groups presented similar anthropometric data and body composition, although both had individuals classified as at risk for cardiovascular diseases according to body mass index (BMI) (16.7% and 24.4% above 25 kg/m2 among vegetarians and omnivores, respectively). The caloric intake did not differ as well, although the main sources of energy intake among vegetarians were carbohydrates as compared to omnivores that had lipids as the main source of energy in their meals. Vegetarians reached the recommended intake of fibers, and the omnivores, had a lower intake of this nutrient as expected. For vitamin B12 the prevalence of inadequate intake was 37.8% on the vegetarians group and 0.6% on the omnivores, and for calcium, 49% for both groups. Both presented vitamin D intake below the estimated average requirement. The intake of iron did not differ among groups, however, in the vegetarian group the inadequacy reached 50% for men and 100% for women; and in the omnivore group 93% for women. For zinc, the inadequacy risk was 100% for men and 90% for women in the vegetarian group and 25% of men and 4.5% for women on the omnivore group. Regarding the biochemical exams, the most evident deficiency was of serum vitamin B12 on vegetarians. Conclusions: The food choices among the investigated undergraduate vegetarians do not guarantee nutritional security as detected in this study. Except for calcium, the prevalence of inadequate intake of macro and micronutrients was higher among vegetarians as compared to omnivores, stablishing a nutritional risk status to this group regarding to intake of sources of vitamin B12, vitamin D, iron and zinc.


Objetivo: Os vegetarianos podem estar em risco nutricional devido às suas preferências alimentares. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar o estado nutricional e a ingestão alimentar de vegetarianos e onívoros que utilizam restaurantes da Universidade Federal do Paraná, no Brasil. Método: Estudo clínico observacional de corte transversal realizado entre maio de 2014 e março de 2015, avaliando 84 vegetarianos e 131 onívoros, adultos, de ambos os sexos. As características antropométricas e de composição corporal foram avaliadas na amostra total. Em uma subamostra de 38 vegetarianos e 63 onívoros, a ingestão alimentar de macronutrientes, fibras, vitamina B12, vitamina D, cálcio, ferro e zinco foram avaliados. Exames de sangue para vitamina B12, ferro e ferritina foram realizados em uma subamostra de 40 indivíduos de cada grupo. Resultados: Os grupos estudados apresentaram dados antropométricos e composição corporal semelhantes, embora ambos apresentassem indivíduos classificados como de risco para doenças cardiovasculares de acordo com o índice de massa corporal (IMC) (16,7% e 24,4% acima de 25 kg/m2 entre vegetarianos e onívoros, respectivamente). A ingestão calórica também não diferiu, embora as principais fontes de ingestão de energia entre os vegetarianos fossem carboidratos em comparação aos onívoros que tinham lipídios como principal fonte de energia em suas refeições. Os vegetarianos atingiram a ingestão recomendada de fibras, e os onívoros tiveram uma ingestão menor desse nutriente como esperado. Para a vitamina B12, a prevalência de ingestão inadequada foi de 37,8% no grupo dos vegetarianos e de 0,6% nos onívoros, e para o cálcio de 49% nos dois grupos. Ambos apresentaram ingestão de vitamina D abaixo do requisito médio estimado. A ingestão de ferro não diferiu entre os grupos, no entanto, no grupo vegetariano a inadequação chegou a 50% para os homens e 100% para as mulheres; e no grupo onívoro, 93% para as mulheres. Para o zinco, o risco de inadequação foi de 100% para homens e 90% para mulheres no grupo vegetariano e 25% de homens e 4,5% para mulheres no grupo onívoro. Em relação aos exames bioquímicos, a deficiência mais evidente foi de vitamina B12 sérica nos vegetarianos. Conclusões: As escolhas alimentares entre os vegetarianos de graduação investigados não garantem a segurança nutricional, como detectado neste estudo. Com exceção do cálcio, a prevalência de ingestão inadequada de macro e micronutrientes foi maior entre os vegetarianos em relação aos onívoros, estabelecendo um risco nutricional para esse grupo em relação à ingestão de fontes de vitamina B12, vitamina D, ferro e zinco.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Body Composition , Diet, Vegetarian , Eating , Nutrition Assessment
20.
Rev. urug. enferm ; 12(2): 44-54, nov. 2017.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF, InstitutionalDB | ID: biblio-875751

ABSTRACT

La dieta vegetariana se define como aquella que excluye el alimento cárnico de su alimentación, pudiendo incluir o no huevos y derivados de la leche. El trabajo tuvo como objetivo identificar el conocimiento de los vegetarianos sobre la implicación de su dieta sobre su salud. El muestreo fue compuesto por 65 vegetarianos seleccionados en iglesias adventistas de Ji-Paraná, Rondônia, Brasil. Los resultados apuntaron que el 50,8% de los vegetarianos eran del sexo masculino y el 75,4% ovolactovegetarianos. En cuanto a los beneficios de la dieta vegetariana a la salud, el 80,0% creía que prevenía el cáncer, 78,4% la diabetes, dislipidemias y obesidad, 72,3% cardiopatías y 53,8% relataron que la dieta aumentaría la inteligencia. En cuanto a los posibles riesgos y carencias que la dieta vegetariana podría ocasionar el 80,0% afirmaron que no existían. Se concluye que los vegetarianos estudiados poseían buenos conocimientos sobre su patrón alimentario. Principalmente en relación a los beneficios de su dieta en la prevención de enfermedades. Sin embargo, se percibe que los vegetarianos desconocen los riesgos que una dieta vegetariana puede ocasionar cuando no es planificada y equilibrada


A dieta vegetariana é definida como aquela que exclui o alimento cárneo de sua alimentação, podendo incluir ou não ovos e derivados do leite. O trabalho objetivou identificar o conhecimento dos vegetarianos sobre a implicação da sua dieta sobre a sua saúde. A amostragem foi composta por 65 vegetarianos selecionados em igrejas adventistas. Os resultados apontaram que 50,8% dos vegetarianos eram do sexo masculino e 75,4% ovolactovegetarianos. Em relação aos benefícios da dieta vegetariana à saúde, 80,0% acreditavam que preveniria o câncer, 78,4% a diabetes, dislipidemias e obesidade, 72,3% cardiopatias e 53,8% relataram que a dieta aumentaria a inteligência. Quanto aos possíveis riscos e carências que a dieta vegetariana poderia ocasionar 80,0% afirmaram que não existiam. Conclui-se que os vegetarianos estudados possuíam bons conhecimentos sobre seu padrão alimentar. Principalmente em relação aos benefícios da sua dieta na prevenção de doenças. Todavia, percebe-se que os vegetarianos desconhecem os riscos que uma dieta vegetariana pode ocasionar quando não planejada e desequilibrada


A vegetarian diet is defined as one that excludes animal products, which may or may not include eggs and dairy. The study aimed to identify the knowledge among vegetarians of the impact of their diet on their health. The sample comprised 65 vegetarians selected in Adventist churches, from one city in Western Brazil. The results showed that 50.8% of the vegetarians were male and 75.4% ovolactovegetarians. Regarding the benefits of a vegetarian diet to health, 80.0% believed that it would prevent cancer; 78.4% - diabetes, dyslipidemia and obesity; 72.3% - heart disease; and 53.8% reported that the diet would increase intelligence. Regarding the possible risks of a vegetarian diet, 80.0% said they did not exist. It is concluded that the vegetarians studied had good knowledge about their food pattern. Particularly in relation to the benefits of your diet in disease prevention. However, vegetarians are unaware of the risks that a vegetarian diet can cause when is unplanned and unbalanced


Subject(s)
Humans , Diet, Vegetarian , Vegetarians , Health Promotion , Nutrition Disorders , Health Education
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL