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1.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(3): 394-398, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345296

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Diverticulitis is an acute inflammatory process that affects individuals with diverticular disease. Given the sharp increase in the diagnostic rate of such a pathological process, there was also an increased interest in elucidating the possible causes related to the development of this clinical condition. Among the main factors investigated, diet excels, the object of study of this integrative literature review. METHODS: After searching the virtual health library and PubMed databases, five prospective cohort studies were selected that best answered the guiding question: "Is there a relationship between diet and the incidence of diverticulitis?". RESULTS: It was observed that the high intake of red meat and the low intake of dietary fiber were the most strongly associated dietary factors with the incidence of this inflammatory process. CONCLUSION: Therefore, it is evident that choosing healthy eating habits can considerably reduce the incidence of diverticulitis and, consequently, potentially more serious complications directly related to it.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A diverticulite é um processo inflamatório agudo que afeta indivíduos com doença diverticular. Diante do acentuado aumento da taxa diagnóstica desse processo patológico, também houve o aumento do interesse em elucidar as possíveis causas relacionadas ao desenvolvimento dessa condição clínica. Entre os principais fatores investigados, destaca-se a dieta; objeto de estudo desta revisão integrativa da literatura. MÉTODOS: Após pesquisa nas bases de dados da biblioteca virtual em saúde e PubMed, foram selecionados cinco estudos de coorte prospectivos que melhor responderam à questão norteadora "Há relação entre dieta e incidência de diverticulite?". RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÃO: Observou-se que o alto consumo de carnes vermelhas e o baixo consumo de fibra alimentar são os fatores dietéticos mais fortemente associados à incidência desse processo inflamatório. Fica evidente, portanto, que a escolha de hábitos alimentares saudáveis pode reduzir consideravelmente a incidência de diverticulite e, consequentemente, de possíveis complicações mais graves diretamente relacionadas a ela.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diverticulitis/etiology , Dietary Fiber , Prospective Studies , Diet/adverse effects , Feeding Behavior
2.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1093-1100, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878150

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Although osteopontin (OPN) is expressed in the liver and pigment gallstones of patients with hepatolithiasis, its role in pigment gallstone formation remains unclear. This study aimed to explore the function of OPN in pigment gallstone formation.@*METHODS@#Rats were fed a chow diet (CD) or lithogenic diet (LD) for 10 consecutive weeks; blocking tests were then performed using an OPN antibody (OPN-Ab). Incidence of gallstones and levels of several bile components, OPN, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) were analyzed. To determine TNF-α expression in hepatic macrophages and both CYP7A1 and bile acid (BA) expression in liver cells, recombinant rat OPN and recombinant rat TNF-α were used to treat rat hepatic macrophages and rat liver cells, respectively. Chi-square or Fisher exact tests were used to analyze qualitative data, Student t-test or one-way analysis of variance were used to analyze qualitative data.@*RESULTS@#Incidence of gallstones was higher in LD-fed rats than in CD-fed rats (80% vs. 10%, P < 0.05). BA content significantly decreased in bile (t = -36.08, P < 0.01) and liver tissue (t = -16.16, P < 0.01) of LD-fed rats. Both hepatic OPN protein expression (t = 9.78, P < 0.01) and TNF-α level (t = 8.83, P < 0.01) distinctly increased in the LD group; what's more, CYP7A1 mRNA and protein levels (t = -12.35, P < 0.01) were markedly down-regulated in the LD group. Following OPN-Ab pretreatment, gallstone formation decreased (85% vs. 25%, χ2 = 14.55, P < 0.01), liver TNF-α expression (F = 20.36, P < 0.01) was down-regulated in the LD group, and CYP7A1 expression (F = 17.51, P < 0.01) was up-regulated. Through CD44 and integrin receptors, OPN promoted TNF-α production in macrophage (F = 1041, P < 0.01), which suppressed CYP7A1 expression (F = 48.08, P < 0.01) and reduced liver BA synthesis (F = 119.4, P < 0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#We provide novel evidence of OPN involvement in pigmented gallstone pathogenesis in rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diet/adverse effects , Gallstones/etiology , Lithiasis , Liver , Liver Diseases , Osteopontin/genetics , Rats
3.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(6): e9031, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132523

ABSTRACT

Malnutrition is still considered endemic in many developing countries. Malnutrition-enteric infections may cause lasting deleterious effects on lipid metabolism, especially in children living in poor settings. The regional basic diet (RBD), produced to mimic the Brazilian northeastern dietary characteristics (rich in carbohydrate and low in protein) has been used in experimental malnutrition models, but few studies have explored the effect of chronic RBD on liver function, a central organ involved in cholesterol metabolism. This study aimed to investigate whether RBD leads to liver inflammatory changes and altered reverse cholesterol metabolism in C57BL6/J mice compared to the control group, receiving a standard chow diet. To evaluate liver inflammation, ionized calcium-binding adapter protein-1 (IBA-1) positive cell counting, interleukin (IL)-1β immunohistochemistry, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-10 transcription levels were analyzed. In addition, we assessed reverse cholesterol transport by measuring liver apolipoprotein (Apo)E, ApoA-I, and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) by RT-PCR. Furthermore, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was measured to assess liver function. RBD markedly impaired body weight gain compared with the control group (P<0.05). Higher hepatic TNF-α (P<0.0001) and IL-10 (P=0.001) mRNA levels were found in RBD-challenged mice, although without detectable non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Marked IBA-1 immunolabeling and increased number of positive-IBA-1 cells were found in the undernourished group. No statistical difference in serum ALT was found. There was also a significant increase in ApoA mRNA expression in the undernourished group, but not ApoE and LCAT, compared with the control. Altogether our findings suggested that chronic RBD-induced malnutrition leads to liver inflammation with increased ApoA-I activity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Rabbits , Rats , Apolipoprotein A-I/blood , Malnutrition/metabolism , Diet/adverse effects , Inflammation/metabolism , Brazil , Chronic Disease , Apolipoprotein A-I/metabolism , Malnutrition/pathology , Malnutrition/blood , Inflammation/pathology , Inflammation/blood , Liver/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL
4.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 46(6): 735-745, dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058136

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional and behavioral effects of a cafeteria diet in dams during the breastfeeding period and in their offspring from weaning until early adulthood (70 days old). Pregnant Wistar rats were fed a chow diet until delivery. Postnatally (D0), litters were culled to 8 pups and lactating dams received control (CTRL n= 6) or cafeteria (CAF n= 6) diets and water ad libitum. At the end of the breastfeeding period, male offspring were placed in individual boxes receiving the same treatment from their respective dams (CTRL or CAF) until adulthood (70 days). All nutritional and behavioral evaluations were performed with the dams (n= 12) during the breastfeeding phase and with the male offspring (n= 24) after weaning to adulthood. CAF dams demonstrated a lower caloric and protein intake; higher intake of fats; loss of weight; greater accumulation of adipose tissue; and an anxiolytic effect. CAF male offspring showed lower caloric intake; higher intake of fats; and accumulation of adipose tissue. In addition, these animals continued to have decreased body weight, body length and tibia-femur length in relation to CTRL. In dams, a cafeteria diet promoted alterations in body composition and anxiety, and in offspring the diet resulted in adequate development.


El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar los efectos nutricionales y de comportamiento de la dieta de la cafetería en las madres durante el período de lactancia materna y en su descendencia desde el destete hasta la edad adulta temprana (70 días de edad). Ratas Wistar embarazadas fueron alimentadas con una dieta estándar hasta el parto. Postnatalmente (D0), las camadas se ajustaron en 8 crías y las madres lactantes recibieron las dietas control (CTRL n= 6) o cafetería (CAF n= 6) además de agua ad libitum. Al final del período de lactancia materna, las proles machos fueron colocados en cajas individuales recibiendo el mismo tratamiento de sus respectivas madres (CTRL o CAF) hasta la edad adulta (70 días). Todas las evaluaciones nutricionales y comportamentales se realizaron con las madres (n= 12) durante la fase de lactancia y con la prole masculina (n= 24) después del destete hasta la edad adulta. Las madres CAF demostraron una menor ingesta calórica y proteica; mayor ingestión de grasas; pérdida de peso; mayor acumulación de tejido adiposo; y un efecto ansiolítico. La prole masculina CAF presentó menor consumo calórico; mayor ingestión de grasas; y la acumulación de tejido adiposo. Además, estos animales presentaron menor peso corporal, longitud corporal, y longitud de la tibia-fémur, en relación a CTRL. En las madres, la dieta de cafetería promovió cambios en la composición corporal y ansiedad, y en la prole la dieta comprometió el desarrollo adecuado.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Diet/adverse effects , Feeding Behavior , Anxiety/etiology , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/etiology , Weaning , Behavior, Animal , Breast Feeding , Nutrition Assessment , Adipose Tissue , Analysis of Variance , Rats, Wistar
5.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 56(4): 431-439, Oct.-Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055159

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects approximately 20%-30% of general population and is even more prevalent among obese individuals. The risk factors mainly associated with NAFLD are diseases related to the metabolic syndrome, genetics and environment. In this review, we provide a literature compilation evaluating the evidence behind dietary components, including calories intake, fat, protein, fibers and carbohydrate, especially fructose which could be a trigger to development and progression of the NAFLD. In fact, it has been demonstrated that diet is an important factor for the development of NAFLD and its association is complex and extends beyond total energy intake.


RESUMO A doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica (DHGNA) afeta aproximadamente de 20% a 30% da população geral sendo prevalente entre os indivíduos obesos. Os fatores de risco associados à DHGNA são: doenças relacionadas à síndrome metabólica, fatores genéticos e meio ambiente. Nesta revisão, fornecemos uma compilação bibliográfica avaliando como as evidências relacionadas aos componentes da dieta, incluindo ingestão calórica, de gorduras, de proteínas, de fibras e de carboidratos, especialmente a frutose, poderiam ser um estímulo para o desenvolvimento e progressão da DHGNA. Foi demonstrado que a dieta é um fator importante para o desenvolvimento da DHGNA e sua associação se estende além do consumo total de calorias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Energy Intake , Diet/adverse effects , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/etiology , Risk Factors , Disease Progression
6.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(3): 374-380, Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038553

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Stress is a state of threat to the balance of the organism, which can cause biological and psychological changes. In hypertensive patients, stress can interfere with blood pressure levels, influence on food choices and neglect of the diet. Objective: This study aims to describe the relationship between stress and dietary intake of hypertensive patients. Methods: A transversal study was carried out at the Arterial Hypertension Clinic of the Cardiology Institute of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The participants were aged ≥ 18 years and hypertensive. Blood pressure, food consumption and anthropometric measurements were collected. The variables related to stress were evaluated by the Lipp's Stress Symptoms Inventory (LSSI) for adults. Significance level of 5% has been considered for all analyzed data. Results: The number of participants was 100. There was a higher prevalence of the female sex (67%), the mean age of the study population was 55.87 ± 12.55 years. Among the participants, 86% were classified in some of the stress phases, on which 57% were in the resistance phase. It was observed that there was no correlation between the presence of stress (as well as their actions), pressure levels and food consumption. The consumption of foods rich in lipids and individuals with a prevalence of psychological symptoms of stress displayed a significant association. Conclusions: Rich in fat dietary has been the first choice in patients with psychological symptoms of stress. Further studies regarding remodeled dietary intake and blood pressure levels in relation to the stress phases are suggested. These findings are important to contribute to the development of prevention and treatment strategies for cardiovascular diseases.


Resumo Fundamento: O estresse é um estado de ameaça ao equilíbrio do organismo, podendo causar alterações biológicas e psicológicas. No paciente hipertenso o estresse pode interferir nos níveis pressóricos e gerar influência nas escolhas alimentares e negligência da dieta. Objetivo: Este estudo tem como objetivo descrever a relação entre o estresse e consumo alimentar de pacientes hipertensos. Métodos: Estudo transversal, desenvolvido no Ambulatório de Hipertensão Arterial do Instituto de Cardiologia do Rio Grande do Sul. Participaram da pesquisa indivíduos hipertensos com idade > 18 anos. Foram coletados dados de pressão arterial, consumo alimentar e medidas antropométricas. As variáveis relacionadas ao estresse foram avaliadas pelo inventário de sintomas de stress para adultos de Lipp (ISSL). Em todas as análises foi considerando um nível de significância 5% (p < 0,05). Resultados: O número de participantes foi de 100. Houve maior prevalência no sexo feminino (67%), a idade média da população estudada foi 55,87 ± 12,55 anos. Dos participantes, 86% se classificaram em alguma das fases do estresse, sendo que destes, 57% estavam na fase de resistência. Observou-se que não houve correlação entre a presença de estresse (bem como suas fases), níveis pressóricos e consumo alimentar. O consumo de alimentos ricos em lipídios em hipertensos com sintomas de estresse apresentou significância estatística. Conclusão: Os alimentos ricos em gordura prevaleceram entre as escolhas alimentares nos pacientes com sintomas psicológicos de estresse. Sugere-se mais estudos em relação a alteração do consumo alimentar e níveis pressóricos em relação às fases do estresse.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Stress, Psychological , Diet/psychology , Food Preferences/psychology , Hypertension/psychology , Blood Pressure/physiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Diet/adverse effects , Feeding Behavior , Hypertension/etiology
7.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(8): 573-579, Aug. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1040737

ABSTRACT

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a condition that affects the myocardium, seldom reported in pigs. The DCM is characterized by ventricular dilation, which results in systolic and secondary diastolic dysfunction and can lead to arrhythmia and fatal congestive heart failure. This study described the clinical, pathological, chemical and toxicological findings of nutritional dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in nursery pigs through natural and experimental studies. Naturally occurring cases of DCM in three swine farms were investigated through necropsy (fourteen pigs), microscopic, virological, chemical and toxicological exams for the detection of the etiology. The experimental study was conducted with nine 40 days-old piglets, which were divided into three groups of three piglets each. Group 1 was fed with the suspected diet of the naturally occurring cases, Group 2 with half of the suspected diet and half of a control diet, and Group 3 received only the control diet. Clinical signs were recorded. All pigs were submitted of euthanized, necropsie and collection sample for laboratories exams, after 15 days of experiment onset. At the necropsy, all naturally occurring cases had bilateral cardiac dilatation associated to hepatic enhanced lobular pattern (nutmeg liver) and lungs edema. Microscopically, the heart revealed severe hypertrophy and vacuolization of cardiomyocytes, as well as myofiber disarray. Feed analysis revealed low-quality standard soybean meal. After the suspected feed was replaced, clinically ill pigs recovered, and mortality ceased. At the experimental study, two piglets from Group 1 had cough, dyspnea and diarrhea. At the necropsy, these animals had similar gross and microscopic lesions to the natural cases. The nutritional DCM in pigs may be associated to the diet with low-quality soybean meal, as it was further confirmed through an experimental study.(AU)


Cardiomiopatia dilatada (CMD) é uma condição que afeta o miocárdio, raramente relatada em porcos. A DCM é caracterizada por dilatação ventricular, que resulta em disfunção sistólica e disfunção diastólica secundária e pode levar a arritmias e insuficiência cardíaca congestiva fatal. Este estudo descreve os achados clínicos, patológicos, químicos e toxicológicos da CMD em suínos de creche através de estudos naturais e experimentais. Investigaram-se três granjas com surtos de mortalidade por CMD através de exames de necropsia (catorze suínos), microscópicos, virológicos, químicos e toxicológicos para a detecção da etiologia. O estudo experimental foi conduzido com nove leitões de 40 dias de idade, divididos em três grupos de três leitões cada. O grupo 1 foi alimentado com a dieta suspeita dos casos naturais; o 2 com metade da dieta suspeita e metade de dieta controle; e o 3 recebeu apenas a dieta controle. Sinais clínicos foram registrados. Todos os suínos foram submetidos a eutanásia, necropsia para a coleta de amostras para exames laboratoriais após 15 dias do início do experimento. Na necropsia, todos os leitões dos casos naturais apresentavam dilatação cardíaca bilateral associada a padrão lobular hepático aumentado (fígado de noz-moscada) e edema pulmonar. Microscopicamente, o coração revelou hipertrofia severa e vacuolização de cardiomiócitos, bem como desordem de miofibras. A análise da ração demonstrou que o farelo de soja apresentava baixa solubilidade o que indica baixa qualidade. Após a substituição da ração suspeita, os porcos clinicamente doentes recuperaram e a mortalidade cessou. No estudo experimental, dois leitões do grupo 1 apresentaram tosse, dispneia e diarreia. Na necropsia, esses animais apresentavam lesões macroscópicas e macroscópicas similar aos casos naturais. A CMD nutricional em suínos pode estar associado à dieta com farelo de soja de baixa qualidade, como foi confirmado através de um estudo experimental.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Swine , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/veterinary , Diet/adverse effects , Heart Failure/veterinary , Animal Feed/analysis , Brazil , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary
8.
Salud pública Méx ; 61(4): 448-455, Jul.-Aug. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099320

ABSTRACT

Abstract: With increased globalization, Latin America is experiencing transitions from traditional lifestyle and dietary practices to those found in higher income countries. Healthy diets, physical activity and optimal body fat can prevent approximately 15% of cancers in low-income and 20% in high-income countries. We discuss links between diet, obesity, physical activity and cancer, emphasizing strategies targeting children to decrease risk of obesity, control obesity-related risk factors, and reduce sedentary lifestyles, as this will have high impact on adult cancer risk. We focus on individual behaviors, economic, cultural and societal changes that may guide future interventions in the Americas.


Resumen: América Latina está experimentando transiciones desde estilos de vida tradicional y prácticas dietéticas a las de países de ingresos altos. Las dietas saludables, la actividad física y la grasa corporal óptima pueden prevenir aproximadamente el 15% de cánceres en países de bajos ingresos y 20% en países de ingresos altos. Discutimos los vínculos entre la dieta, obesidad, actividad física y cáncer; haciendo hincapié en estrategias dirigidas a niños, para disminuir el riesgo de obesidad y reducir la vida sedentaria. Nos enfocamos en comportamientos individuales, cambios económicos, culturales y sociales que pueden guiar futuras intervenciones en las Américas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Exercise , Sedentary Behavior , Diet, Healthy , Neoplasms/prevention & control , Obesity/prevention & control , United States , Energy Intake , Health Behavior , Developed Countries , Internationality , Developing Countries , Diabetes Mellitus/prevention & control , Diet/adverse effects , Adiposity , Emigrants and Immigrants , Fast Foods/adverse effects , Guatemala
9.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(6): 693-702, jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020717

ABSTRACT

Background: Seventy four percent of Chileans replaced the traditional dinner for the consumption of "five o'clock tea" (5CT), a mealtime that includes bread and is simliar to western breakfast. The latter favors the intake of unhealthy foods. Aim: To study whether the consumption of "5CT", instead of dinner, could be a risk factor for the development of metabolic syndrome (MetSyn). Material and Methods: Anthropometric parameters, mean blood pressure, lipid profile, thyroid stimulating hormone and fasting glucose were measured in 489 subjects aged 39 ± 12 years (33% women) who attended a primary cardiovascular prevention (CV) program. A 24-hour recall and usual meal times were registered during a dietary interview. To determine the association between the consumption of "5CT" or dinner and the probability of presenting two or more components of MetSyn, we built an odds proportional model adjusted by age and sex. In addition, severity for MetSyn was calculated. Results: Nineteen percent of participants had MetSyn and 39%, two or more MetSyn components. Those who consumed "5CT" instead of dinner, had 54% more probability of having 2 or more MetSyn components (Odds ratio = 1.54, confidence intervals 1.032.32, p = 0.04). Participants who included processed carbohydrates in their last meal had a higher probability of having components of MetSyn. This probability decreased among participants who ate dinner with a low proportion of refined carbohydrates. Conclusions: Subjects who eat "5CT", instead of dinner as the last meal, have a higher cardiometabolic risk and MetSyn severity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Tea/metabolism , Metabolic Syndrome/etiology , Diet/adverse effects , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Meals/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Logistic Models , Chile , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Risk Assessment
10.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(2): 212-220, Feb. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1004334

ABSTRACT

Environmental factors may influence the development of Inflammatory Bowel Disease and modify its natural history. The objective of this review is to evaluate current evidence about environmental factors associated with the disease. A better knowledge about the pathogenesis of the disease can lead to better treatment strategies and suggestions to prevent the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/etiology , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Tobacco/adverse effects , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Probiotics , Diet/adverse effects , Protective Factors , Obesity/complications
11.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 53: 52, jan. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1014536

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To investigate the relationship between the dietary patterns of pregnant women with maternal excessive body weight and gestational diabetes mellitus. METHODS A cross-sectional study conducted with a convenience sample of 785 adult pregnant women attended by the Unified Health System of Ribeirão Preto, state of São Paulo, between 2011 and 2012. Two 24-hour dietary recalls, corrected by the multiple source method, were employed . For the classification of the body mass index and the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus, the criteria by Atalah and the World Health Organization were used, respectively. Dietary patterns were obtained by principal component analysis using the Varimax rotation method. The relationship between adherence to patterns, overweight and obesity was analyzed by multinomial logistic regression models and the relationship with gestational diabetes mellitus by adjusted unconditional logistic regression models. RESULTS We identified four dietary patterns: "traditional Brazilian"; "snacks"; "coffee" and "healthy". Women with a higher adherence to the "Healthy" (OR = 0.52; 95%CI 0.33-0.83) and "Brazilian Traditional" patterns (OR = 0.61; 95%CI 0.38-0.96) presented a lower chance of obesity, when compared to women with lower adherence, regardless of confounding factors. After adjustment for maternal excessive body weight, there was no association between dietary patterns and gestational diabetes mellitus. CONCLUSIONS Among the pregnant women, greater adherence to "traditional Brazilian" and "healthy" patterns was inversely associated with obesity, but no relationship was identified with gestational diabetes mellitus after adjusting for excessive body weight. Prospective studies are recommended to investigate the relationship between dietary patterns, overweight and gestational diabetes mellitus, reducing the chance of reverse causality.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Investigar a relação entre os padrões alimentares de gestantes com o excesso de peso materno e o diabetes mellitus gestacional. MÉTODOS Estudo transversal conduzido em uma amostra de conveniência de 785 gestantes adultas atendidas pelo Sistema Único de Saúde de Ribeirão Preto, SP, entre 2011 e 2012. Dois inquéritos recordatórios de 24 horas, corrigidos pelo multiple source method, foram empregados . Para a classificação do índice de massa corporal e do diagnóstico do diabetes mellitus gestacional, utilizou-se os critérios de Atalah e da Organização Mundial da Saúde, respectivamente. Os padrões alimentares foram obtidos por análise de componentes principais, utilizando o método de rotação Varimax . A relação entre a adesão aos padrões e sobrepeso e obesidade foi analisada por modelos de regressão logística multinomial e a relação entre adesão aos padrões e diabetes mellitus gestacional, por modelos de regressão logística não condicional ajustados. RESULTADOS Identificamos quatro padrões alimentares: "tradicional brasileiro"; "lanches"; "café" e "saudável". Observou-se que mulheres com maior adesão ao padrão "saudável" (OR = 0,52; IC95% 0,33-0,83) e "tradicional brasileiro" (OR = 0,61; IC95% 0,38-0,96) apresentaram menor chance de obesidade que as mulheres com menor adesão, independentemente de fatores de confusão. Após ajuste pelo excesso de peso materno, não houve associação entre os padrões alimentares e o diabetes mellitus gestacional. CONCLUSÕES Entre as gestantes, a maior adesão aos padrões "tradicional brasileiro" e "saudável" foi inversamente associada à obesidade, mas nenhuma relação foi identificada com o diabetes mellitus gestacional após ajuste pelo excesso de peso. Estudos prospectivos são recomendados para investigar a relação entre padrões alimentares e excesso de peso e diabetes mellitus gestacional, reduzindo a chance de causalidade reversa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Young Adult , Diabetes, Gestational/etiology , Diet/adverse effects , Overweight/complications , Obesity/complications , Brazil , Weight Gain , Body Mass Index , Epidemiologic Methods , Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Feeding Behavior
12.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 35(4): e00049318, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001646

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the relationship between food intake (considering the nature, extent, and purpose of food processing) during pregnancy and overweight, obesity, and gestational diabetes mellitus conditions. This is a cross-sectional study conducted among 785 adult women in singleton pregnancies (between 24th and 39th weeks of gestation) in Brazil. Usual food intake was estimated by the Multiple Source Method, using two 24-hour dietary recalls. The food groups of interest in this study were the unprocessed or minimally processed foods and ultra-processed foods. The World Health Organization criteria for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus and the Atalah criteria for excess weight were used. Adjusted multinomial logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship between energy contribution (%E) from foods with overweight and obesity conditions and, adjusted logistic regression models for gestational diabetes mellitus. In total, 32.1% participants were overweight, 24.6% were obese, and 17.7% of women were diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus . After adjustments, an inverse association between the highest tertile of %E from the intake of unprocessed or minimally processed foods and obesity was found [0.49 (0.30-0.79)]. Moreover, a positive association between the highest tertile of %E from ultra-processed food intake [3.06 (1.27-3.37)] and obesity was observed. No association between food intake (considering the nature, extent, and purpose of food processing) during pregnancy and overweight or gestational diabetes mellitus was found. The findings suggest a role of food processing in obesity but not in gestational diabetes mellitus. Further research is warranted to provide robust evidence on the relationship between the role of processed foods in obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus.


O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a relação entre o consumo de alimentos (considerando a natureza, extensão e propósito do processamento de alimentos) durante a gestação e sobrepeso, obesidade e diabetes mellitus gestacional. Estudo transversal realizado com 785 mulheres adultas com gestações únicas (24ª-39ª semanas de gestação) no Brasil. O consumo usual de alimentos foi estimado usando o Multiple Source Method, usando recordatórios alimentares de 24 horas. Os grupos alimentares de interesse neste estudo foram os alimentos não-processados e minimamente processados e os alimentos ultraprocessados. Os critérios da Organização Mundial da Saúde para diagnóstico de diabetes mellitus gestacional e critérios de Atalah para excesso de peso foram usados. Modelos de regressão logística multinomial foram empregados para avaliar a relação entre a contribuição energética (%E) de alimentos e sobrepeso e obesidade, e modelos de regressão logística ajustados foram usados para diabetes mellitus gestacional. No total, 32,1% das gestantes estavam com sobrepeso, 24,6% com obesidade e 17,7% foram diagnosticadas com diabetes mellitus gestacional. Após ajustes, uma associação inversa entre obesidade e o maior tercil de %E do consumo de alimentos não-processados ou minimamente processados foi encontrada [0,49 (0,30-0,79)]. Além disso, uma associação positiva entre obesidade e o maior tercil de %E do consumo de alimentos ultraprocessados [3,06 (1,27-3,37)] foi observada. Nenhuma associação entre consumo de alimentos (considerando a natureza, extensão e propósito do processamento de alimentos) durante a gestação e sobrepeso ou diabetes mellitus gestacional foi encontrada. Os resultados sugerem o papel do processamento de alimentos na obesidade, mas não na diabetes mellitus gestacional. Pesquisas adicionais são necessárias para fornecer evidências robustas sobre a relação entre o papel do processamento de alimentos na obesidade e na diabetes mellitus gestacional durante a gestação.


El objetivo del presente estudio fue investigar la relación entre el consumo de comida (considerando la naturaleza, alcance, y propósito del procesamiento de comida) durante el embarazo y el sobrepeso, obesidad, y diabetes mellitus gestacional. Se realizó un estudio transversal con 785 mujeres adultas de embarazos únicos (24ª-39ª semanas de gestación) en Brasil. El consumo habitual se estimó mediante un Multiple Source Method, usando dos encuestas de 24-hour en relación con los hábitos alimentarios. Los grupos de comidas de interés en el presente estudio fueron los mínimamente procesados o sin procesar y los productos de comida ultraprocesada. Se utilizaron criterios de la Organización Mundial de la Salud para el diagnostico de diabetes mellitus gestacional, y los criterios Atalah para el sobrepeso. Se utilizaron modelos ajustados de regresión logística multinomial para evaluar la relación entre la contribución energética (%E) de comidas con el sobrepeso y la obesidad, y modelos ajustados de regresión logística para la diabetes mellitus gestacional . En total, un 32,1% sufrían sobrepeso, un 24,6% eran obesas, y un 17,7% de las mujeres fueron diagnosticadas con diabetes mellitus gestacional. Tras los ajustes, se encontró una asociación inversa entre el tercil más alto de %E, procedente del consumo de comidas sin procesar o mínimamente procesadas con la obesidad [0,49 (0,30-0,79)]. Asimismo, se encontró una asociación positiva entre el tercil más alto de %E de comida ultraprocesada [3,06 (1,27-3,37)] y la obesidad. No se encontró ninguna asociación entre el consumo de comida (considerando la naturaleza, alcance, y propósito de la comida procesada) durante el embarazo y el sobrepeso, respecto a la diabetes mellitus gestacional. Los resultados sugieren la importancia de la comida procesada en la obesidad pero no así en la diabetes mellitus gestacional. Son necesarias más investigaciones para proporcionar evidencias sólidas sobre la relación entre el papel de la comida procesada en la obesidad y diabetes mellitus gestacional durante el embarazo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Young Adult , Diabetes, Gestational/etiology , Diet/adverse effects , Overweight/etiology , Fast Foods/adverse effects , Obesity/etiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Energy Intake , Weight Gain , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Gestational Age , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Overweight/epidemiology , Feeding Behavior , Obesity/epidemiology
13.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2019. 64 p. tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1015324

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Dentre as diferentes manifestações de saúde que acometem os idosos, pode-se destacar os Transtornos Mentais Comuns (TMC). Sugere-se que a adesão a padrões alimentares específicos, como a dieta MIND (Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay), possa atenuar ou reduzir os riscos relacionados ao envelhecimento. A Dieta MIND tem como princípio ingestão elevada de frutas vermelhas, vegetais verdes folhosos e demais vegetais, aves, peixes, oleaginosas, leguminosas, grãos integrais, azeite de oliva extra-virgem, vinho tinto, e por sua vez, uma ingestão baixa de carnes vermelhas, doces e massas, queijos, manteiga, margarina, além dos alimentos convencionalmente chamados de "fast food". Objetivo: este estudo tem como objetivo identificar, em idosos, a pontuação do padrão dietético MIND e investigar a associação entre essa pontuação e a presença de TMC. Métodos: a amostra para o presente estudo é derivada do Inquérito de Saúde - ISA Capital Nutrição, no período de 2015. Foram estudados, nessa amostra, 545 idosos (acima de 60 anos), de ambos os sexos. Os dados alimentares da amostra foram obtidos a partir de dois recordatórios alimentares de 24 horas, que foram corrigidos para identificação da dieta habitual, e calculados quanto à ingestão dos grupos alimentares que constituem a dieta MIND. Além disso, a pontuação à dieta MIND foi identificada a partir da mediana da ingestão dos grupos determinados. A presença de TMC foi avaliada por meio da aplicação do SRQ-20 (Self-Reported Questionnaire). Foram ainda consideradas algumas variáveis de ajuste (sexo, idade, raça, nível de atividade física de lazer, presença de doenças crônicas como hipertensão arterial sistêmica, dislipidemia e diabetes mellitus, renda familiar total, Índice de Massa Corporal e escolaridade). Resultados: os participantes avaliados eram em sua maioria mulheres, inativas, com presença de doenças crônicas. Não houve associação significativa quanto a adesão à pontuação da dieta MIND e TMC, contudo, alguns componentes da dieta, quando associados isolados, mostraram associação significativa e protetora (vegetais verdes folhosos, outros vegetais não folhosos e leguminosas). Por sua vez, o consumo de carnes vermelhas mostrou correlação negativa para TMC. Conclusão: O presente estudo não encontrou associação significativa entre a pontuação 7 da dieta MIND e TMC entre os idosos, entretanto, quando se analisou os componentes do padrão dietético MIND isolados em relação a TMC, encontrou-se correlação positiva para os grupos de vegetais verdes folhosos, outros vegetais e leguminosas e correlação negativa para o grupo de carnes vermelhas. Desse modo, estratégias nutricionais voltadas à saúde da função cerebral, com foco em um maior consumo de alimentos protetores e menor consumo de alimentos não-protetores presentes na dieta MIND, podem auxiliar beneficamente a população, especialmente os idosos


Introduction: Among the different health manifestations that affect the elderly, we can highlight Common Mental Disorders (CMD). In turn, it is suggested that adherence to specific dietary patterns, such as the Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay, may attenuate or prevent mental disorders related to aging. The MIND Diet has as a principle a relatively high intake of healthy foods such as red fruits, leafy green vegetables and other vegetables, poultry, fish, oilseeds, legumes, whole grains, extra virgin olive oil, red wine, a relatively low intake of unhealthy foods such as red meats, sweets and pasta, cheeses, butter, margarine, and food conventionally called fast food. Objective: This study aims at analyzing, in the elderly, the score of the MIND dietary pattern, and to investigate the association between this score and the presence of CMD. Methods: The sample for the present study is derived from the Health Survey - ISA Capital Nutrition, in the period of 2015. In this sample, 545 elderly (over 60 years) of both sexes were studied. The dietary data of the sample were obtained from two 24-hour dietary reminders that were corrected for intrapersonal variability to identify the usual diet and calculated for the intake of the dietary groups that constitute the MIND diet. In addition, adherence to the MIND diet was identified from the median ingestion of the previously determined groups. The presence of CMD was assessed by the application of SRQ-20. Some adjustment variables (gender, age, physical activity pattern, presence of chronic diseases, income and schooling) were also considered. Results: the participants were mostly female, inactive, with chronic diseases. There was no significant association with adherence to the MIND and CMD scores, however, some dietary components, when associated alone, showed a significant and protective association (green leafy vegetables, other no-leafy vegetables and legumes). In turn, the consumption of red meat showed a significant and harmful association. Conclusion: The present study did not find a significant association between the MIND and TMC diet scores among the elderly, however, when analyzing the components of the isolated MIND dietary pattern in relation to the TMC, a positive correlation was found for the leafy green vegetable groups, other vegetables and legumes and negative correlation for the red meat group. Thus, nutritional strategies focused on brain function health, with a focus on higher consumption of protective foods and lower consumption of non-protective foods present in the MIND diet, can benefit the population, especially the elderly


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aged , Diet/adverse effects , Mental Disorders/diet therapy , Aging
14.
Salud colect ; 14(3): 579-595, jul.-sep. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-979094

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Con el objetivo de describir la relación entre la disponibilidad alimentaria y la tasa de mortalidad por cáncer colorrectal en los países de América en el año 2010, se analizaron datos provistos por la International Agency for Research on Cancer y la Food and Agriculture Organization mediante un estudio ecológico. Se observó una gran variabilidad excepto en disponibilidad calórica. La disponibilidad alimentaria fue abundante para calorías, grasas totales, grasa animal, carnes rojas y bebidas alcohólicas. Para frutas y vegetales fue crítica en un 80% de los países. Los países con más alta tasa de mortalidad por cáncer colorrectal fueron Uruguay, Barbados, Argentina y Cuba, y con las tasas más bajas fueron Guatemala, Canadá, México y Honduras. Las relaciones más fuertes se dieron entre la tasa de mortalidad por cáncer colorrectal y la disponibilidad alimentaria de grasa animal, carne roja, bebidas alcohólicas y calorías. No se encontró efecto protector de la disponibilidad alimentaria de frutas y vegetales sobre la tasa de mortalidad por cáncer colorrectal. Sería recomendable mejorar los registros de incidencia de tumores y de formas directas de evaluar la dieta para ser analizados en futuros estudios en lugar de los datos aquí utilizados.


ABSTRACT With the aim of describing the association between food availability and the mortality rate due to colorectal cancer in the countries of the Americas in 2010, data provided by the International Agency for Research on Cancer and the Food and Agriculture Federation were analyzed in an ecological study. Great variability was observed except in caloric supply. Food availability was abundant for calories, total fats, animal fat, red meat and alcoholic beverages. Availability was critically low for fruits and vegetables in 80% of the countries. The countries with the highest colorectal cancer mortality rates were Uruguay, Barbados, Argentina and Cuba, while those with the lowest rates were Guatemala, Canada, Mexico and Honduras. The strongest relationships were found between colorectal cancer mortality rate and the availability of animal fat, red meat, alcoholic beverages and calories. No protective effect of availability of fruits and vegetables on the colorectal cancer mortality rate was found. It would be advisable to improve the records of tumor incidence and direct ways of evaluating diet to be analyzed in future studies instead of the data used here.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Colorectal Neoplasms/mortality , Diet/adverse effects , Food Supply , Americas/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/etiology , Risk Factors , Protective Factors
15.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 93(3): 214-222, May.-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841359

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the association between dietary patterns and cardiometabolic risk factors in children and adolescents. Data source: This article followed the recommendations of PRISMA, which aims to guide review publications in the health area. The article search strategy included searches in the electronic databases MEDLINE via PubMed, Scopus, and LILACS. There was no date limitation for publications. The descriptors were used in English according to MeSH and in Portuguese according to DeCS. Only articles on dietary patterns extracted by the a posteriori methodology were included. The question to be answered was: how much can an "unhealthy" dietary pattern influence biochemical and inflammatory markers in this population? Data synthesis: The studies showed an association between dietary patterns and cardiometabolic alterations. The patterns were characterized as unhealthy when associated to the consumption of ultraprocessed products, poor in fiber and rich in sodium, fat, and refined carbohydrates. Despite the associations, in several studies, the strength of this association for some risk markers was reduced or lost after adjusting for confounding variables. Conclusion: There was a positive association between "unhealthy" dietary patterns and cardiometabolic alterations in children and adolescents. Some unconfirmed associations may be related to the difficulty of assessing food consumption. Nevertheless, studies involving dietary patterns and their association with risk factors should be performed in children and adolescents, aiming at interventions and early changes in dietary habits considered to be inadequate.


Resumo Objetivo: Avaliar a associação encontrada nos estudos entre padrão alimentar e fatores de risco cardiometabólicos em crianças e adolescentes. Fonte dos dados: Este artigo seguiu as recomendações do Prisma, que objetiva orientar as publicações de revisão na área da saúde. A estratégia de busca dos artigos incluiu pesquisas nas bases eletrônicas Medline via PubMed, Scopus e Lilacs. Não houve data limite de publicação. Os descritores foram usados em inglês de acordo com MeSH e em português segundo os DeCS. Apenas artigos de padrão alimentar extraídos pela metodologia a posteriori foram incluídos. A pergunta a ser respondida foi: quanto um padrão alimentar "não saudável" pode influenciar nos marcadores bioquímicos e inflamatórios dessa população? Síntese dos dados: Os estudos demonstraram haver associação entre os padrões alimentares e alterações cardiometabólicas. Os padrões eram caracterizados como não saudáveis marcados pelo consumo de produtos ultraprocessados, pobres em fibras e ricos em sódio, gordura e carboidratos refinados. Apesar das associações, em vários estudos, a força dessa associação para alguns marcadores de risco era reduzida ou perdida após os ajustes para as variáveis de confusão. Conclusão: Houve associação positiva entre os padrões alimentares "não saudáveis" e as alterações cardiometabólicas em crianças e adolescentes. Algumas associações não confirmadas podem estar relacionadas à própria dificuldade de avaliar o consumo alimentar. Apesar disso, estudos que envolvem padrões alimentares e sua associação com fatores de risco devem ser feitos em crianças e adolescentes com objetivo de intervenções e modificações precoces nos hábitos alimentares tidos como não adequados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Diet/adverse effects , Feeding Behavior , Metabolic Diseases/complications , Risk Factors
16.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 33(12): e00136616, 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-889642

ABSTRACT

Resumo: O objetivo do estudo foi investigar a associação entre o consumo alimentar inadequado de micronutrientes e indicadores de obesidade geral e abdominal. Análise transversal, da segunda onda do estudo longitudinal EpiFloripa Adultos, incluindo 1.222 indivíduos de 22-63 anos, residentes em Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Sul do Brasil. Os dados de consumo alimentar foram obtidos mediante aplicação de dois recordatórios de 24 horas, sendo o consumo habitual e as prevalências de inadequação no consumo de cálcio, ferro, zinco, e das vitaminas A, C, D e E estimadas conforme as recomendações do Instituto de Medicina e do Conselho Nacional de Pesquisa dos Estados Unidos. O estado nutricional de obesidade geral foi determinado considerando-se valores do índice de massa corporal (IMC), e a obesidade abdominal, considerando-se valores da circunferência da cintura (CC). Para a maioria dos micronutrientes investigados (cálcio, vitaminas A, C, D e E), as médias de consumo mostraram-se aquém dos valores recomendados, com prevalências elevadas de inadequação para toda a amostra. Somente a inadequação no consumo de vitamina C foi maior entre indivíduos obesos (geral ou abdominal). Além disso, associação inversa foi observada entre o menor consumo de cálcio e ferro com valores maiores do IMC e da CC, e entre o menor consumo das vitaminas A e D com valores maiores da CC (β = -0,92cm; IC95%: -1,76; -0,08 e β = -0,69cm; IC95%: -1,32; -0,06, respectivamente), principalmente entre adultos jovens. Foi possível identificar a existência de associação inversa entre o consumo alimentar inadequado de micronutrientes e o estado nutricional de obesidade geral e abdominal também em uma amostra de adultos residentes no Sul do Brasil.


Abstract: The study's objective was to investigate the association between inadequate dietary consumption of micronutrients and indicators of general and abdominal obesity. Cross-sectional analysis of the second wave of the EpiFloripa Adults longitudinal study, including 1,222 individuals, aged 22-63 years and residing in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil. Food consumption data was obtained from two 24-hour food recalls, and habitual consumption and prevalence rates of inadequate consumption of calcium, iron, zinc, and vitamins A, C, D, and E were estimated according to the Institute of Medicine and National Research Council guidelines. General obesity was defined based on the body mass index (BMI) values and abdominal obesity was based on waist circumference (WC) values. For most of the micronutrients investigated (calcium and vitamins A, C, D, and E), consumption levels were below the recommendations, with high prevalence of inadequate consumption in the sample as a whole. Only inadequate vitamin C intake was higher among obese individuals (general or abdominal). In addition, there was an inverse association between lower consumption of calcium and iron and higher BMI and WC, and between lower consumption of vitamins A and D and higher WC levels (β = -0.92cm; 95%CI: -1.76; -0.08 and β = -0.69 cm; 95%CI: -1.32; -0.06, respectively), especially in young adults. The study showed an inverse association between inadequate dietary consumption of micronutrients and general and abdominal obesity in a sample of adults in Southern Brazil.


Resumen: El objetivo del estudio fue investigar la asociación entre el consumo alimentario inadecuado de micronutrientes e indicadores de obesidad general y abdominal. Métodos: análisis transversal, de la segunda fase del estudio longitudinal EpiFloripa Adultos, incluyendo 1.222 individuos de 22-63 años, residentes en Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Sur de Brasil. Los datos de consumo alimentario fueron obtenidos mediante aplicación de dos recordatorios de 24 horas, siendo estimados, conforme las recomendaciones del Instituto de Medicina y del Consejo Nacional de Investigación, de los EEUU. El estado nutricional de obesidad general fue determinado considerándose valores del índice de masa corporal (IMC), y la obesidad abdominal, considerándose valores de la circunferencia de la cintura (CC). Para la mayoría de los micronutrientes investigados (calcio, vitaminas A, C, D y E), las medias de consumo fueron menores que las recomendaciones, con prevalencias elevadas de inadecuación para toda la muestra. Solamente la inadecuación en el consumo de vitamina C fue mayor entre individuos obesos (general o abdominal). Además, asociación inversa fue observada entre el menor consumo de calcio e hierro con valores mayores de IMC y de la CC, y entre el menor consumo de vitaminas A y D con valores mayores de la CC (β = -0,92cm; IC95%: -1,76; -0,08 y β = -0,69cm; IC95%: -1,32; -0,06), principalmente entre adultos jóvenes. Fue posible identificar la existencia de asociación inversa entre el consumo alimentario inadecuado de micronutrientes y el estado nutricional de obesidad general y abdominal en una muestra de adultos residentes en el Sur de Brasil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Trace Elements/metabolism , Vitamins/metabolism , Body Mass Index , Diet Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Waist Circumference/physiology , Obesity/etiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Reference Values , Socioeconomic Factors , Avitaminosis/complications , Trace Elements/deficiency , Brazil/epidemiology , Energy Intake , Linear Models , Sex Factors , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Age Factors , Diet/adverse effects , Middle Aged , Obesity/metabolism
17.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 53(3): e00200, 2017.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889407

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Recent findings in amino acid metabolism and the differences between normal, healthy cells and neoplastic cells have revealed that targeting single amino acid metabolic enzymes in cancer therapy is a promising strategy for the development of novel therapeutic agents. Arginine is derived from dietary protein intake, body protein breakdown, or endogenous de novo arginine production and several studies have revealed disturbances in its synthesis and metabolism which could enhance or inhibit tumor cell growth. Consequently, there has been an increased interest in the arginine-depleting enzymes and dietary deprivation of arginine and its precursors as a potential antineoplastic therapy. This review outlines the most recent advances in targeting arginine metabolic pathways in cancer therapy and the different chemo- and radio-therapeutic approaches to be co-applied.


Subject(s)
Arginine/analysis , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Diet/adverse effects , Enzymes/analysis
18.
Rev. costarric. salud pública ; 25(2): 28-35, jul.-dic. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-844769

ABSTRACT

ResumenEn abril del 2002, un grupo de investigadores suecos dio a conocer que algunos alimentos ricos en almidón y pobres en proteínas, sometidos a procesos con temperaturas mayores a 120°C (fritura, horneado, asado y tostado) contenían el pro-cancerígeno conocido como acrilamida. A partir de ese momento, se desató una verdadera carrera investigativa en torno al tema, generando más de 7000 publicaciones científicas relacionadas con el tema, solo en los últimos 4 años.Al día de hoy, las investigaciones realizadas dejan en claro que la formación de acrilamida en los alimentos involucra al aminoácido asparragina y a azúcares reductores, los cuales mediante la reacción de Maillard dan como resultado el mencionado compuesto, denominado actualmente como un contaminante del proceso o un contaminante neo formado.La investigación realizada, se puede decir tiene tres vertientes claramente definidas, una es explicar porque se da la presencia de acrilamida en los alimentos, otra se enfoca en el desarrollo de protocolos y tecnología de punta para la detección de la sustancia en diversos alimentos y la tercera tiene que ver con las medidas a tomar para mitigar la aparición de acrilamida en sustratos alimenticios. Esta revisión tiene como objetivo, brindar al lector una visión actualizada sobre estas tres vertientes anteriormente citadas.


AbstractIn April 2002, a Swedish group or researches informed that some food products with high starch and low protein constitution and submitted to temperature processes above 120°C contained a pro cancerigenous substance known as acrylamide. From this moment on, and until actual times, a research race around the theme has been established.Up to the date, research done clearly describes the formation of acrylamide in food from asparagine and reducing sugars, through Maillard's reaction, and is known as a process contaminant or a neo formed contaminant.Actual research on the theme has three different approaches, one that explains the presence of acrylamide in food, a second one that focusses in the development of protocols and technology for its detection in food and a third one that tries to develop mitigating measures for the appearance of acrylamide in food substrates. The aim of this review is to bring to the reader an actualized vision of these three approaches.


Subject(s)
Acrylamides/adverse effects , Maillard Reaction , Costa Rica , Diet/adverse effects
19.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 86(4): 326-334, oct.-dic. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-838396

ABSTRACT

Resumen El propósito de esta revisión es analizar la progresión bioquímica de la placa aterosclerótica y la relación que presenta con la diabetes y la alimentación. Se exponen las evidencias científicas de pacientes con diabetes, que a diferencia de pacientes no diabéticos presentan niveles más elevados de algunos ácidos grasos en la placa de ateroma (como el palmítico, linoleico y oleico), elevada incidencia de trombosis coronaria relacionada con el incremento en el tamaño de la base necrótica y la disminución del tamaño de la capa fibrosa de los ateromas. Entre ambos grupos de pacientes se expone la diferencia en el perfil de lípidos de la placa aterosclerótica, así como los cambios celulares involucrados en la formación de la misma y la influencia de la alimentación sobre su desarrollo.


Abstract The purpose of this review is to analyze the biochemical progression of atherosclerotic plaque and its association with diet and diabetes. This study shows the scientific evidence of demonstrating that diabetic patients present high levels of fatty acids like palmitic acid and linoleic acid in their atheroma plaques in comparison with non-diabetic patients. This study also establishes how patients with diabetes mellitus have a higher prevalence of atherosclerotic heart diseases in the form of Coronary Thrombosis and have different anatomopathological appearance like higher necrotic core and thin fibrotic layer than the general population. Furthermore this review describes the different anatomopathological appearance and cellular changes involved in the formation of these plaques and how diet can affect the development of these plaques.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetes Complications/etiology , Diet/adverse effects , Atherosclerosis/etiology , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/etiology , Disease Progression
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