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Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-14, 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468843


The study was aimed to assess impact of high fat diet (HFD) and synthetic human gut microbiota (GM) combined with HFD and chow diet (CD) in inducing type-2 diabetes (T2D) using mice model. To our knowledge, this is the first study using selected human GM transplantation via culture based method coupled dietary modulation in mice for in vivo establishment of inflammation leading to T2D and gut dysbiosis. Twenty bacteria (T2D1-T2D20) from stool samples of confirmed T2D subjects were found to be morphologically different and subjected to purification on different media both aerobically and anerobically, which revealed seven bacteria more common among 20 isolates on the basis of biochemical characterization. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, these seven isolates were identified as Bacteroides stercoris (MT152636), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152637), Lactobacillus salivarius (MT152638), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152639), Klebsiella aerogenes (MT152640), Bacteroides fragilis (MT152909), Clostridium botulinum (MT152910). The seven isolates were subsequently used as synthetic gut microbiome (GM) for their role in inducing T2D in mice. Inbred strains of albino mice were divided into four groups and were fed with CD, HFD, GM+HFD and GM+CD. Mice receiving HFD and GM+modified diet (CD/HFD) showed highly significant (P<0.05) increase in weight and blood glucose concentration as well as elevated level of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1) compared to mice receiving CD only. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing of 11 fecal bacteria obtained from three randomly selected animals from each group revealed gut dysbiosis in animals receiving GM. Bacterial strains including Bacteroides gallinarum (MT152630), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152631), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152632), Parabacteroides gordonii (MT152633), Prevotella copri (MT152634) and Lactobacillus gasseri (MT152635) were isolated from mice [...].

O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o impacto da dieta rica em gordura (HFD) e da microbiota intestinal humana sintética (GM) combinada com HFD e dieta alimentar (CD) na indução de diabetes tipo 2 (T2D) usando modelo de camundongos. Para nosso conhecimento, este é o primeiro estudo usando transplante de GM humano selecionado através do método baseado em cultura acoplada à modulação dietética em camundongos para o estabelecimento in vivo de inflamação que leva a T2D e disbiose intestinal. Vinte bactérias (T2D1-T2D20) de amostras de fezes de indivíduos T2D confirmados verificaram ser morfologicamente diferentes e foram submetidas à purificação em meios diferentes aerobicamente e anaerobicamente, o que revelou sete bactérias mais comuns entre 20 isolados com base na caracterização bioquímica. Com base no sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA, esses sete isolados foram identificados como Bacteroides stercoris (MT152636), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152637), Lactobacillus salivarius (MT152638), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152639), Klebsiella aerogenides (MT152640), Bacteroides fragilis (MT152909), Clostridium botulinum (MT152910). Esses sete isolados foram, posteriormente, usados como microbioma intestinal sintético (GM) por seu papel na indução de T2D em camundongos. Linhagens consanguíneas de camundongos albinos foram divididas em quatro grupos e foram alimentadas com CD, HFD, GM + HFD e GM + CD. Camundongos que receberam a dieta modificada com HFD e GM + (CD / HFD) mostraram um aumento altamente significativo (P < 0,05) no peso e na concentração de glicose no sangue, bem como um nível elevado de citocinas inflamatórias (TNF-α, IL-6 e MCP-1) em comparação com os ratos que receberam apenas CD. O sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA de 11 bactérias fecais obtidas de três animais selecionados aleatoriamente de cada grupo revelou disbiose intestinal em animais que receberam GM. Cepas bacterianas, incluindo Bacteroides gallinarum (MT152630), Ruminococcus [...].

Humans , Adult , Mice , /etiology , /prevention & control , /veterinary , Dysbiosis/veterinary , Dietary Fats/adverse effects , Gastrointestinal Microbiome
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-12, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468976


Galaxias maculatus aquaculture objectives is to produce millions of eggs. Wild females are small (2 g), have quick sexual maturity and low mean fecundity (500 eggs/female), requiring larger fishes with higher fecundity. This study aim is to evaluate experimentally the effect of the levels of protein, lipid and dietary energy on weight increases in adults. Five independent experiments were performed at different sequential time periods at the UCT hatchery, Chile. Specimens were obtained from a) Crystalline sea return specimen catches in the Tolten estuary (4 -6 cm, 0.3-0.4 g.). b) Hatchery cultured fish. Fish were fed by hand ad libitum. In experiments 1 to 4, pelleted diets were prepared with 3 to 5 levels of protein (treatments 27 up to 57%), crumble size, three 100 L fibre ponds replicates. In experiment 5 the effect of two lipid levels (8 and 21%) was evaluated with commercial extruded Salmon Nutra Starter isoproteic crumble 1 diet at 63%, replicated in 4 ponds. The results show: A tendency to increased weight in all sizes with an increased protein level in the pelleted diet.A maximal adult growth is obtained with a diet containing a minimum of 37% crude protein, with 40% the optimal value. A higher % protein in the diet or growth in weight lower feed conversion ratio. The feed conversion ratio in the extruded diet reaches up to 0.5 and in the pelleted vary from 0.7 to 1.5. Fish 0.6 g fed with 63% protein, extruded commercial diet with two different lipid levels (8 and 21%, 20.40 and 23.84 MJ kg-1, PE/TE 0.62 and 0.71) increased weight the first month 67 and 105% each. It has been established that high-energy diets with optimal levels of protein and lipid are a good short-term solution to obtain G. maculatus of higher weight.

O objetivo da aquicultura de Galaxias maculatus é produzir milhões de ovos. As fêmeas selvagens são pequenas (2 g) e têm maturidade sexual rápida e fecundidade média baixa (500 ovos/fêmea), necessitando de peixes maiores e com fecundidade superior. O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar experimentalmente o efeito dos níveis de proteínas, lipídios e energia da dieta sobre o aumento de peso em adultos. Cinco experimentos independentes foram realizados em diferentes períodos sequenciais de tempo no incubatório UCT, Chile. Os espécimes foram obtidos a partir de: a) capturas de espécimes de retorno do mar cristalino no estuário de Tolten (4-6 cm, 0,3-0,4 g); b) peixes de cultura em incubatório. Os peixes foram alimentados à mão ad libitum. Nos experimentos de 1 a 4, dietas peletizadas foram preparadas com três a cinco níveis de proteína (tratamentos 27 a 57%), tamanho do crumble, três repetições de tanques de fibra de 100 L. No experimento 5, o efeito de dois níveis de lipídios (8 e 21%) foi avaliado com dieta comercial isoproteica crumble 1 de Salmon Nutra Starter extrusada a 63%, replicada em quatro tanques. Os resultados mostram: uma tendência ao aumento de peso em todos os tamanhos, com um aumento do nível de proteína na dieta peletizada; um crescimento adulto máximo com uma dieta contendo um mínimo de 37% de proteína bruta, com 40% do valor ideal; uma porcentagem maior de proteína na dieta ou crescimento em peso com menor taxa de conversão alimentar. A taxa de conversão alimentar na dieta extrusada chega a 0,5, e na peletizada varia de 0,7 a 1,5. Peixes de 0,6 g alimentados com 63% de proteína e dieta comercial extrusada com dois níveis lipídicos diferentes (8 e 21%; 20,40 e 23,84 MJ kg-1; PE / TE 0,62 e 0,71) aumentaram de peso no primeiro mês em 67 e 105% cada, respectivamente. Foi estabelecido que dietas de alta energia com níveis ótimos de proteínas e lipídios são uma boa solução de curto prazo para obter G. maculatus de peso mais alto.

Animals , Diet, High-Protein , Dietary Fats/adverse effects , Osmeriformes/growth & development , Dietary Proteins/administration & dosage
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 23: e20210239, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1449147


Abstract Objectives: to evaluate the association of pre-pregnancy and current body mass index and the density of dietary macronutrients on underreporting of energy intake at pregnancy. Methods: cross-sectional analysis of 327 postpartum women from the city of Mesquita, in Rio de Janeiro. A food frequency questionnaire was administered at maternity ward having the last six months of the pregnancy as the time frame. Energy balance was considered as the outcome, and it was calculated as the division of energy intake by basal metabolic rate (underreport <1.35). Multivariate logistic regression was applied to test the associations between body mass index (pre-gestational and postpartum) on energy balance (underreport or not). Dietary density of protein (4th quartile), carbohydrate (1st quartile) and fat intake (1st quartile) were tested. Results: mean energy intake was 2,894 kcal and near of 25% of the women were considered as underreported during pregnancy. Obese women had higher chance (OR=1.90; CI95%=1.09-3.33) of being underreported at pregnancy. Underreported women presented greater chance of report dietary intake with higher contents of protein (OR=2.37; CI95%=1.37-4.09) and lower density of fat (OR= .81; CI95%=1.04-3.15). Conclusion: underreported pregnant women had higher chance of report great and lower amounts of protein and fat dietary densities.

Resumo Objetivos: avaliar a associação entre o índice de massa corporal pré-gestacional e pós-parto e a densidade de macronutrientes da dieta com o sub-relato de energia da dieta na gestação. Métodos: análise transversal com 327 puérperas da cidade de Mesquita, no Rio de Janeiro. Aplicou-se o questionário de frequência alimentar na primeira semana após o parto tendo como base o consumo dos dois últimos trimestres gestacionais. O balanço energético foi calculado a partir da divisão da ingestão de energia pela taxa metabólica basal (sub-relato<1,35). Adotou-se a regressão logística multivariada para analisar as associações entre os índices de massa corporal e a densidade dos macronutrientes da dieta (proteína, carboidratos e lipídios) com o balanço energético (sub-relato ou não). Resultados: a ingestão média de energia foi de 2.894 kcal e 25% das mulheres foram classificadas com sub-relato. Mulheres obesas no pós-parto tiveram maiores chances (OR=1,90; IC95%=1,09-3,33) de sub-relato de energia na gravidez e gestantes com balanço energético <1,35 apresentaram dieta com maior densidade de proteína (OR=2,37; IC95%=1,37-4,09) e menor densidade de gordura (OR=1,81; IC95%=1,04-3,15). Conclusão: a obesidade no pós-parto foi associada ao sub-relato de energia na gravidez e o balanço energético associou-se a densidade dos macronutrientes da dieta

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Energy Intake/physiology , Dietary Fats , Body Mass Index , Feeding Behavior , Gestational Weight Gain , Obesity, Maternal , Brazil
Rev. Méd. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 60(2): 211-223, abr. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1367402


El retículo endoplásmico es un organelo abundante, dinámico y sensor de energía. Sus abundantes membranas, rugosa y lisa, se encuentran distribuidas en diferentes proporciones dependiendo del linaje y requerimiento celular. Su función es llevar a cabo la síntesis de proteínas y lípidos, y es el almacén principal de Ca2+ intracelular. La sobrecarga calórica y la glucolipotoxicidad generada por dietas hipercalóricas provoca la alteración del retículo endoplásmico, activando la respuesta a proteínas mal plegadas (UPR, Unfolded Protein Response, por sus siglas en inglés) como reacción al estrés celular relacionado con el retículo endoplásmico y cuyo objetivo es restablecer la homeostasis del organelo al disminuir el estrés oxidante, la síntesis de proteínas y la fuga de Ca2+. Sin embargo, durante un estrés crónico, la UPR induce formación de especies reactivas de oxígeno, inflamación y apoptosis, exacerbando el estado del retículo endoplásmico y propagando un efecto nocivo para los demás organelos. Es por ello que el estrés del retículo endoplásmico se ha considerado un inductor del inicio y desarrollo de enfermedades metabólicas, incluido el agravamiento de COVID-19. Hasta el momento, existen pocas estrategias para reestablecer la homeostasis del retículo endoplásmico, las cuales son dirigidas a los sensores que desencadenan la UPR. Por tanto, se justifica con urgencia la identificación de nuevos mecanismos y terapias novedosas relacionadas con mitigar el impacto del estrés del retículo endoplásmico y las complicaciones asociadas.

The endoplasmic reticulum is an abundant, dynamic and energy-sensing organelle. Its abundant membranes, rough and smooth, are distributed in different proportions depending on the cell lineage and requirement. Its function is to carry out protein and lipid synthesis, and it is the main intracellular Ca2+ store. Caloric overload and glycolipotoxicity generated by hypercaloric diets cause alteration of the endoplasmic reticulum, activating the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) as a reaction to cellular stress related to the endoplasmic reticulum and whose objective is to restore the homeostasis of the organelle by decreasing oxidative stress, protein synthesis and Ca2+ leakage. However, during chronic stress, the UPR induces reactive oxygen species formation, inflammation and apoptosis, exacerbating the state of the endoplasmic reticulum and propagating a deleterious effect on the other organelles. This is why endoplasmic reticulum stress has been considered an inducer of the onset and development of metabolic diseases, including the aggravation of COVID-19. So far, few strategies exist to reestablish endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis, which are targeted to sensors that trigger UPR. Therefore, the identif ication of new mechanisms and novel therapies related to mitigating the impact of endoplasmic reticulum stress and associated complications is urgently warranted.

Humans , Dietary Carbohydrates/adverse effects , Dietary Fats/adverse effects , Endoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress/physiology , COVID-19/complications , Metabolic Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/therapy , Homeostasis
Med. infant ; 29(1): 17-22, Marzo 2022. Tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1366851


Objetivo: evaluar la efectividad de la técnica de conteo de grasas y ajuste de enzimas pancreáticas en un grupo de pacientes con insuficiencia pancreática secundaria a fibrosis quística (FQ). Materiales y métodos: En un grupo de pacientes con FQ, sin otra patología asociada, mayores de 1 año, con >10 000 UKD (unidades por kilo por día) de lipasa; se realizó educación y aplicación de técnica de conteo de grasas con ajuste enzimático, solicitando Van de Kamer y registro alimentario de 5 días durante la recolección de la muestra con un intervalo de 3 meses entre ambas determinaciones. Se evaluó la efectividad de la misma y las dosis de enzimas utilizadas mediante el porcentaje de excreción grasa (PEG), así como las variaciones en la cantidad de enzimas utilizadas y la ganancia de peso. Los datos se registraron en RED Cap (Research Electronic Data Capture) y se analizaron mediante Stata 12. Resultados: De un total de 21 pacientes, 16 completaron la intervención. El 50% presentó un índice de masa corporal (IMC) mayor del Plo 25 antes y después, un 87% alcanzó adecuación calórica mayor del 120% de la ingestas diarias recomendadas (RDA) al final, logrando un aumento promedio de z score de peso de 0,28 con una media inicial de 17 kg y final de 18,2 kg. En cuanto a la media del requerimiento enzimático fue de 14 800 UKD antes y 10 145 UKD después (z=0,002), asimismo el porcentaje de excreción grasa (PEG) tuvo una disminución del 38% (p=0,1705). Conclusiones: La implementación de la técnica de conteo de grasas y ajuste enzimático, podría ser una estrategia válida para aquellos pacientes con FQ que tienen dosis altas de enzimas e inadecuada ganancia de peso (AU)

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of the fat counting technique and pancreatic enzyme adjustment in a group of patients with pancreatic insufficiency secondary to cystic fibrosis (CF). Materials and methods: A group of patients with CF without other associated diseases, older than 1 year of age, lipase dose >10 000 UKD (units per kilo per day), received education on the fat counting technique with enzyme adjustment followed by its implementation of the intervention. Van de Kamer was requested and a 5-day food record was kept during the sample collection with an interval of 3 months between both measurements. The effectiveness of the technique and the enzyme doses used were evaluated based on the percentage of fat excretion (PFE), as well as the variations in the amount of enzymes used and weight gain. Data were recorded in RED Cap (Research Electronic Data Capture) and analyzed using Stata 12. Results: Of a total of 21 patients, 16 completed the intervention. Fifty percent had a body mass index (BMI) greater than Plo 25 before and after the intervention; 87% had achieved a caloric increase greater than 120% of the recommended daily intake (RDA) at the end of the study and an average increase in weight z score of 0.28 with an initial mean of 17 kg and a final mean of 18.2 kg. Mean enzyme requirement was 14 800 UKD before and 10 145 UKD after the intervention (z=0.002). PFE decreased by 38% (p=0.1705). Conclusions: The implementation of the technique of fat counting and enzyme adjustment may be a valid strategy for CF patients with high enzyme doses and inadequate weight gain. (AU)

Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Pancreas/enzymology , Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency , Dietary Fats/administration & dosage , Cystic Fibrosis/diet therapy , Exocrine Glands/abnormalities , Enzyme Replacement Therapy
Braz. j. biol ; 82: 1-12, 2022. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468550


The current investigation was carried out to estimate the protective effect of aqueous extract of Cheatomorpha gracilis (AEC) against High fat Diet (HFD) induced liver damage in mice. The results of the in vitro study showed that AEC have higher antioxidant capacities in the DPPH and hydroxyl radical-scavenging assays. Indeed, many phenolic compounds (gallic acid, quercetin, naringenin, apigenin, kaempferol and rutin) were identified in the AEC. In the animal studies, during 6 weeks, HFD promoted oxidative stress with a rise level of malonaldehyde (MDA), protein carbonyls (PCOs) levels and a significant decrease of the antioxidant enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Interestingly, the treatment with AEC (250 mg/kg body weight) significantly reduced the effects of HFD disorders on some plasmatic liver biomarkers (AST, ALT and ALP) in addition to, plasmatic proteins inflammatory biomarkers (α2 and β1 decreases / β2 and γ globulins increases). It can be suggest that supplementation of MECG displays high potential to quench free radicals and attenuates high fat diet promoted liver oxidative stress and related disturbances.

A presente investigação foi realizada para estimar o efeito protetor do extrato aquoso de Cheatomorpha gracilis (AEC) contra o dano hepático induzido por dieta rica em gordura (HFD) em camundongos. Os resultados do estudo in vitro mostraram que os AEC têm maiores capacidades antioxidantes nos ensaios DPPH e de eliminação de radicais hidroxila. De fato, muitos compostos fenólicos (ácido gálico, quercetina, naringenina, apigenina, kaempferol e rutina) foram identificados no AEC. Nos estudos em animais, durante 6 semanas, HFD promoveu estresse oxidativo com aumento do nível de malonaldeído (MDA), níveis de proteína carbonil (PCOs) e diminuição significativa das atividades de enzimas antioxidantes como superóxido dismutase, catalase e glutationa peroxidase. Curiosamente, o tratamento com AEC (250 mg / kg de peso corporal) reduziu significativamente os efeitos dos distúrbios de HFD em alguns biomarcadores hepáticos plasmáticos (AST, ALT e ALP), além de biomarcadores inflamatórios de proteínas plasmáticas (reduções α2 e β1 / β2 e γ aumenta as globulinas). Pode-se sugerir que a suplementação de MECG apresenta alto potencial para extinguir os radicais livres e atenua o estresse oxidativo do fígado promovido pela dieta rica em gordura e distúrbios relacionados.

Mice , Oxidative Stress , Liver , Dietary Fats/toxicity , Hepatoprotector Drugs
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 26(11): 5765-5776, nov. 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350449


Resumo O presente artigo objetivou estimar a prevalência de dislipidemias e sua associação e adequação da ingestão de gorduras saturadas, monoinsaturadas, trans, ômega-3 e carboidratos, em adultos de Viçosa-MG. Trata-se de um estudo transversal com 884 adultos com idades entre 20 e 59 anos. Foram coletados dados sociodemográficos, de consumo alimentar, antropométricos e bioquímicos da população. As associações entre as variáveis foram verificadas utilizando-se o teste qui-quadrado. Verificou-se elevada prevalência de dislipidemias na população (64,25%), com pelo menos um dos lipídeos séricos alterados. Houve predomínio de inadequação na ingestão de gorduras saturadas, trans, monoinsaturadas e carboidratos. Ressalta-se que a ingestão de ômega-3 esteve adequado para a maioria dos indivíduos. Adultos eutróficos apresentaram maiores prevalências de ingestão excessiva de gorduras saturadas e trans. Observou-se que 38,7% dos indivíduos com HDL-c reduzido apresentaram ingestão acima do recomendado de gordura saturada. A maioria dos indivíduos com triglicerídeos e razão TG/HDL-c elevada possuíam ingestão insatisfatória de gordura monoinsaturada. Faz-se necessária a avaliação de outros fatores que podem influenciar o padrão alimentar.

Abstract This study aimed to assess the prevalence of dyslipidemia and its association with an adequate intake of carbohydrates, saturated, monounsaturated, trans, and omega-3 fats among adults living in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. This is a cross-sectional study with 884 adults aged 20 to 59 years. Sociodemographic, food intake, anthropometric, and biochemical data were collected. Associations between study variables were investigated by the chi-square test. There was a high prevalence of dyslipidemia in the study population (64.25%), with most individuals having abnormal levels of at least one serum lipid component. Inadequate intakes of saturated, trans, and monounsaturated fats and carbohydrates were predominant. It is noteworthy that omega-3 intake levels were adequate in most individuals. Eutrophic adults showed a higher prevalence of excessive intake of saturated and trans fats. It was found that 38.7% of individuals with low levels of High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) had an excessive intake of saturated fat. Most individuals with high triglyceride levels or high triglyceride/HDL-c ratios had an insufficient intake of monounsaturated fat. Further studies are needed to evaluate other factors that may influence dietary patterns.

Humans , Pregnancy , Dietary Fats , Dyslipidemias/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cholesterol, HDL
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(5): 1194-1208, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345265


The aim of this study was to evaluate the variations in the stability and nutrient concentration in concentrates for piglet feeding. Five treatments were established: T1 - Control, standard concentrate formulation (SCF); T2 - PXMore5, SCF with more 5% vitamin-mineral premix (VMP); T3 - PXLess5, SCF with less 5% VMP. All these three treatments used 400kg batches in an INTECNIAL mixer; T4 - FeedMixer, SCF using a 4,000kg batch in an IMOTO mixer; T5 - PremixMixer, SCF using a 1,200kg batch in an MUYANG mixer. For each treatment, bags of 20kg were stored in three storage places for four months where room temperature and relative humidity was recorded daily. The concentration of nutrients was evaluated through centesimal and mineral analysis. The water activity of concentrate was affected by temperature and relative air humidity in different storage places. The greatest variation in concentration of crude protein, mineral residue, copper, zinc, and selenium was due to the PremixMixer treatment. Regarding the guaranteed levels, the critical value was verified only for the chrome concentration.(AU)

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as variações na estabilidade e na concentração de nutrientes em concentrados para alimentação de leitões. Foram estabelecidos cinco tratamentos: T1 - controle, concentrado com formulação padrão (CFP); T2 - PXMais5, CFP com 5% a mais de vitaminas e minerais da pré-mistura (PVM); T3 - PXMenos5, CFP com 5% a menos de PVM (todos os três tratamentos utilizaram lotes de 400kg em um misturador INTECNIAL); T4 - FeedMixer, CFP usando um lote de 4.000kg em um misturador IMOTO; T5 - PremixMixer, CFP usando um lote de 1.200kg em um misturador MUYANG. Para cada tratamento, sacos de 20kg foram armazenados em três ambientes distintos por quatro meses, onde a temperatura ambiente e a umidade relativa do ar foram registradas diariamente. A concentração de nutrientes foi avaliada por meio de análises centesimal e mineral. A atividade de água do concentrado foi afetada pela temperatura e a umidade relativa do ar nos diferentes locais de armazenamento. A maior variação na concentração de proteína bruta, resíduo mineral, cobre, zinco e selênio foi devido ao tratamento "MistPremix". Em relação aos níveis de garantia, foi verificado valor crítico apenas para a concentração de cromo.(AU)

Animals , Sus scrofa , Date of Validity of Products , Food Storage , Animal Feed/analysis , Dietary Fats/analysis , Food Quality
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 40(2): e733, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347460


Introducción: Desde sus inicios, las guías alimentarias han recomendado que el consumo de grasa saturada en la dieta no sobrepase el 10 por ciento, con la finalidad de disminuir las enfermedades cardiovasculares. En aquel entonces, la evidencia sobre la cual se tomó dicha recomendación fue sobreestimada. Aún hoy en día se sigue recomendando dicha reducción a pesar de la gran cantidad de estudios que recomiendan que se reconsidere este límite. Objetivo: Demostrar que el consumo de grasas saturadas en la dieta no representa problemas para la salud humana y que las recomendaciones alimentarias respecto a su limitación deben ser reconsideradas. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda de artículos en Pubmed y Google Académico, con las palabras clave: grasas saturadas, recomendaciones dietéticas, enfermedades cardiovasculares, colesterol, evolución humana. Conclusiones: Los metaanálisis y revisiones sistemáticas presentados en este trabajo evidencian que las grasas saturadas no tienen relación con la enfermedad cardiovascular. Su reducción o sustitución con grasas poliinsaturadas omega 6 no previenen los riesgos de desarrollar enfermedades cardiovasculares(AU)

Introduction: Ever since they first appeared, food guides have recommended that saturated fat intake should not exceed 10 percent, with the purpose of reducing the occurrence of cardiovascular disease. At that time the evidence upon which the recommendation was based was overestimated. Even today such reduction continues to be recommended despite the large number of studies advising reconsideration of that limit. Objective: Demonstrate that saturated fat consumption does not affect human health and dietary recommendations about its limitation should be reconsidered. Methods: A search was conducted for papers about the topic published in the databases PubMed and Google Scholar. The search words used were saturated fats, dietary recommendations, cardiovascular diseases, cholesterol and human evolution. Conclusions: The meta-analyses and systematic reviews presented in the paper make evident that saturated fat intake bears no relationship to cardiovascular disease. Its reduction or replacement with omega-6 polyunsaturated fats does not prevent the risk of developing cardiovascular disease(AU)

Dietary Fats , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cholesterol , Food Guide
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 71(2): 138-148, jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LIVECS, LILACS | ID: biblio-1290912


Reflex-ontogeny and intestinal morphometrics were evaluated in Wistar rats whose mothers were fed on a high-fat diet during the perinatal period. Male pups (n=52) formed four experimental groups: NN (pups from mothers with lab chow diet during gestation and lactation); NH (pups from mothers with lab chow diet during pregnancy and high-fat in lactation); HH (pups from mothers with high-fat diet during gestation and lactation); HN (pups from mothers with high-fat diet during pregnancy and lab chow in lactation). The reflex ontogeny, the maturation of physical characteristics and parameters of somatic growth were evaluated during lactation. In addition, the body mass index (BMI), the specific rate of weight gain (SRWG), the Lee index, the weight of the brain and intestinal parameters were analyzed after weaning. High-fat diet during pregnancy (HH and HN groups) delayed the maturation of reflexes and physical characteristics. The high-fat diet affected somatic growth differently, reducing somatic growth parameters in the groups NH and HH and increasing in the HN group. The highest SRWG was found in group HN. SRWG and BMI were reduced in the groups NH and HH. The relative intestinal weight was reduced in the groups NH, HH and HN. The relative length of small intestine was longer in group HN than in group NN. The total height of the mucosa and size of the villous were lower in group HH than in group NN. In conclusion, high-fat diet promoted negative consequences for the development of the nervous and enteric systems of the offspring(AU)

Ontogenia refleja y morfometría intestinal fueron evaluados en crías de ratas Wistar que fueron alimentadas con una dieta alta en grasas durante el período perinatal. Los descendientes machos (n = 52) formaron cuatro grupos experimentales: NN (hijos de madres que utilizaron alimentos de laboratorio durante la gestación y la lactancia); NH (hijos de madres que comieron dieta de laboratorio durante el embarazo y dieta con un alto contenido de grasas en la lactancia); HH (hijos de madres con una dieta alta en grasas durante el embarazo y la lactancia); HN (hijos de madres que comieron una dieta alta en grasas durante el embarazo y comida de laboratorio durante la lactancia). La ontogenia refleja, la maduración de las características físicas y los parámetros de crecimiento somático durante la lactancia fueron evaluados. Además, el índice de masa corporal (IMC), la tasa específica de aumento de peso (SRWG), el índice de Lee, el peso cerebral y los parámetros intestinales fueron analizados después del destete. La dieta alta en grasas durante el embarazo (grupos HH y HN) retrasó la maduración de reflejos y características físicas. La dieta alta en grasas afectó el crecimiento somático de manera diferente, reduciendo los parámetros de crecimiento somático en los grupos NH y HH y aumentando en el grupo HN. El SRWG más grande se encontró en el grupo HN. El SRWG y el IMC se redujeron en los grupos NH y HH. El peso relativo intestinal se redujo en los grupos NH, HH y HN. La longitud relativa del intestino delgado fue mayor en el grupo HN que en el grupo NN. La altura total de la mucosa y el tamaño de las vellosidades fueron menores en el grupo HH que en el grupo NN. En conclusión, la dieta alta en grasas tuvo consecuencias negativas para el desarrollo de los sistemas nervioso y entérico de la prole(AU)

Rats , Breast Feeding , Dietary Fats , Gene Ontology , Dietary Sugars , Chronic Disease , Obesity
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 26(2): 749-756, fev. 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153793


Resumo O estudo avaliou a viabilidade da adequação de cardápios em relação às exigências nutricionais estabelecidas pelo Programa Nacional de Alimentação Escolar (PNAE) e a relação entre o custo do cardápio. Cada cardápio semanal contou de uma combinação de alimentos dentro de cada grupo. Para cada combinação de alimentos foi elaborado um modelo de otimização de dados para obter as quantidades de cada alimento de forma a atender às exigências do PNAE ao menor custo possível (cardápios com 20% e 30% da ingestão dietética de referência para energia, macronutrientes, cálcio, ferro, magnésio, zinco, vitaminas A e C, além de restrições para sódio, gorduras saturada e trans, e açúcar de adição). Não foi obtida nenhuma solução que acomodasse todas as exigências do PNAE. Os componentes limitantes foram cálcio, sódio e carboidratos; para os demais os cardápios foram adequados. O custo foi diretamente correlacionado com a frequência de carne e frutas, e inversamente com os conteúdos de sódio e carboidratos, e com as frequências de arroz e feijão. A probabilidade de adequação de carboidratos foi próxima de zero quando a frequência de carne foi acima de 1 vez por semana. Concluindo, é pouco provável a obtenção de cardápios que atendam à todas as exigências do PNAE.

Abstract We evaluated the feasibility of the menu adequacy regarding the nutritional constraints established by the National School Feeding Program (PNAE) and its relation to the cost. Each menu accounted for a given food combination within each food group. A diet optimization model comprising each set of foods was designed to obtain food quantities in order to meet the exigences of the PNAE at the lowest cost (menus with 20% and 30% of dietary reference intake for energy, macronutrients, calcium, iron, magnesium, zinc, vitamins A and C, also restrictions for sodium, saturated and trans fats, and added sugar). There was no feasible solution that accommodated all nutrient targets. Limiting components were calcium, sodium, and carbohydrates; but the menus were adequate for the other nutrients. There was a positive correlation between the menu cost and the frequency of meat and fruits, and a negative correlation with the contents of sodium and carbohydrates, and with the frequencies of rice and beans. The probability of obtaining carbohydrate adequacy was close to zero when the meat frequency was higher than one serving per week. In conclusion, it is unlikely to obtain menus that meet all the requirements of the PNAE.

Dietary Fats , Diet , Schools , Vitamins , Energy Intake , Feasibility Studies , Nutritive Value
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 39: e2019295, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143846


ABSTRACT Objective: To assess vitamin E intake and its relationship with sociodemographic variables, and to identify the main dietary sources of the nutrient in the diet of adolescents. Methods: This is a population-based cross-sectional study that used data from 891 adolescents living in Campinas, SP, participating in ISACamp 2014/15 (Health Survey) and ISACamp-Nutri 2015/16 (Food Consumption and Nutritional Status Survey). The nutrient intake averages were estimated using the Generalized Linear Model, adjusted for the total energy of the diet. Dietary sources of vitamin E were identified from the calculation of the relative contribution. Results: The average vitamin E intake was 3.2 mg for adolescents aged 10 to 13 years and 3.5 mg for those aged 14 to 19 years, results far below the recommended values of 9 and 12 mg, respectively. The prevalence of inadequacy was 92.5%. ­Ten ­foods/­food groups represented 85.7% of vitamin E present in the adolescents' diet; the vegetable oils group accounted for more than a quarter of the contribution (25.5%), followed by cookies (9.1%) and beans (8.9%). Conclusions: There were a low intake and a high prevalence of inadequate vitamin E intake among adolescents in Campinas, with vegetable oil as the main source. For the total number of adolescents, almost 33% of the nutrient content was derived from foods of poor nutritional quality such as cookies, packaged snacks, and margarine. The results of this study can guide public health actions that aim to improve the quality of adolescents' diets.

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a ingestão de vitamina E e sua relação com variáveis sociodemográficas, e identificar as principais fontes alimentares do nutriente na dieta de adolescentes. Métodos: Trata-se de estudo transversal de base populacional que utilizou dados de 891 adolescentes residentes em Campinas, SP, participantes do ISACamp 2014/15 (Inquérito de Saúde) e ISACamp-Nutri 2015/16 (Inquérito de Consumo Alimentar e Estado Nutricional). As médias de ingestão do nutriente foram estimadas por meio de modelo linear generalizado, ajustado pela energia total da dieta. As fontes alimentares de vitamina E foram identificadas pelo cálculo de contribuição relativa. Resultados: A ingestão média de vitamina E foi de 3,2 mg para os adolescentes de 10 a 13 anos e de 3,5 mg para os de 14 a 19 anos, resultados bem inferiores aos valores recomendados de 9 e 12 mg, respectivamente. A prevalência de inadequação foi de 92,5%. Dez alimentos/grupos alimentares representaram 85,7% da vitamina E presente na dieta dos adolescentes; o grupo dos óleos vegetais totalizou mais de um quarto da contribuição (25,5%), seguido dos biscoitos (9,1%) e dos feijões (8,9%). Conclusões: Observou-se baixa ingestão e elevada prevalência de inadequação do consumo de vitamina E nos adolescentes de Campinas, apontando o óleo vegetal como principal fonte. Para o total de adolescentes, quase 33% do teor do nutriente derivava de alimentos de má qualidade nutricional como biscoitos, salgadinhos de pacote e margarina. Os resultados deste estudo podem direcionar ações de saúde pública que objetivem melhorar a qualidade da dieta dos adolescentes.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Vitamin E/analysis , Nutritional Status , Feeding Behavior , Vitamin E/administration & dosage , Brazil , Dietary Fats/administration & dosage , Nutrition Surveys , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet, Western/adverse effects , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/analysis , Nutritional Requirements
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 82-82, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888616


BACKGROUND@#Remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLP-C) is highly atherogenic, which is associated with atherosclerosis. However, RLP-C has not been routinely measured in the clinical practice. We estimated RLP-C levels using conventional lipid profiles and examined the association between estimated RLP-C and related factors including nutrient intake.@*METHODS@#This study was performed in Uku town, Nagasaki prefecture, Japan in 2019. A total of 225 subjects were enrolled and directly measured RLP-C levels. Estimated RLP-C levels were defined as the following formula [total cholesterol - (LDL-cholesterol) - (HDL-cholesterol)]. Multivariate analyses were used to assess the relationship between estimated RLP-C and atherogenic factors. We calculated cut-off values on dichotomized RLP-C (< 7.5 mg/dL vs. ≥ 7.5 mg/dL) by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve.@*RESULTS@#The mean values of directly measured RLP-C levels and estimated RLP-C were 4.0 mg/dL and 16.4 mg/dL, respectively. In the multiple stepwise linear regression analysis, directly measured and estimated RLP-C levels were independently and commonly associated with apolipoprotein E, triglycerides, and vegetable fat intake (inversely). Using ROC curves, we found the cut-off value of estimated RLP-C was 22.0 mg/dL.@*CONCLUSION@#We demonstrated that the estimated RLP-C levels using conventional lipid profiles may substitute for directly measured RLP-C and these levels were independently and inversely associated with vegetable fat intake in the community-dwelling Japanese population.

Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Cholesterol/blood , Dietary Fats/blood , Japan , Lipids/blood , Lipoproteins/blood , Triglycerides/blood , Vegetables
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 39: e2019097, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136770


ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the composition of macronutrients present in the milk of mothers of preterm newborn infants (PTNB) - protein, fat, carbohydrate, and calories - by gestational age (GA), chronological age (CA) and maternal variables. Methods: Longitudinal study that analyzed 215 milk samples from the 51 mothers of PTNB admitted in three Neonatal Intensive Care Units of Rio de Janeiro from May/2013-January/2014. Milk collection was performed by pickup pump, on a fixed day of each week until discharge. The spectrophotometric technique with Infrared Analysis (MilkoScan Minor 104) was used for the quantitative analysis. A sample of 7 mL of human milk was taken from the total volume of milk extracted by the mother. The data was grouped by GA (25-27, 28-31, 32-36, 37-40 weeks) and by CA (zero to 4, 5-8, 9-12, 13-16 weeks). Results: Protein, carbohydrate, fat and calories did not show any pattern of change, with no difference among groups of GA. When the macronutrients were analyzed by groups of CA, protein decreased, with significant difference between the first two groups of CA. Carbohydrates, fat and calories presented increasing values in all groups, without significant differences. Weight gain during pregnancy, maternal hypertension and maternal age were associated with changes in fat and calories in the first moment of the analysis of milk. Conclusions: There was a significant decrease in the levels of protein during the first eight weeks after birth. CA may be an important factor in the composition of human milk.

RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar a composição dos macronutrientes presentes no leite de mães de recém-nascidos pré-termo (RNPT) - gorduras, carboidratos e calorias - por idade gestacional (IG), idade cronológica (IC) e variáveis maternos. Métodos: Estudo longitudinal para analisar 215 amostras de leite de 51 mães de RNPT admitidos em três unidades neonatais do Rio de Janeiro de maio/2013 a janeiro/2014. A coleta de leite foi realizada por bomba coletora, em dia fixo a cada semana até a alta. Utilizou-se a técnica espectrofotométrica com análise de infravermelho (MilkoScan Minor 104) para a análise quantitativa. Uma amostra de 7 mL de leite humano foi retirada do volume total de leite extraído pela mãe. Os dados foram agrupados por IG (25-27, 28-31, 32-36 e 37-40 semanas) e por IC (0-4, 5-8, 9-12 e 13-16 semanas). Resultados: Proteínas, carboidratos, gorduras e calorias não apresentaram nenhum padrão de mudança, não havendo diferença entre os grupos de IG. Quando os macronutrientes foram analisados por grupos de IC, a proteína diminuiu, com diferença significante entre os dois primeiros grupos de IC. Carboidratos, gorduras e calorias apresentaram valores crescentes em todos os grupos, sem diferença estatística. O ganho de peso durante a gestação, a presença de hipertensão arterial e a idade materna foram associados a alterações de gordura e calorias no primeiro momento da análise do leite. Conclusões: Observou-se redução estatisticamente significante nos níveis de proteína durante as primeiras oito semanas após o nascimento. A IC pode ser um fator importante na composição do leite humano.

Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Adult , Dietary Carbohydrates/analysis , Dietary Fats/analysis , Nutrients/analysis , Milk, Human/chemistry , Milk Proteins/analysis , Energy Intake , Longitudinal Studies , Gestational Age , Maternal Age , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Mothers
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3836-3852, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921470


As one of the three major nutrients, dietary lipids provide energy and nutrition for human. The quantity and quality of dietary lipids affect the composition of gut microbiota, which consequently may affect the host metabolic health. Development of disease animal models is an important approach to study the relationship between gut microbiota and human metabolic health. In this review, we discussed the types of dietary lipids, and summarized how dietary lipids affect the composition of gut microbiota and regulate the metabolic health of animal models. The clarification of potential underlying mechanisms will shed lights on future research in other live systems including human.

Animals , Humans , Dietary Fats , Gastrointestinal Microbiome
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21190123, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278446


Abstract This systematic review examined the effects of paternal exposure to a high-fat diet on the likelihood of offspring developing health consequences, including metabolic conditions. While the connection between a mother's diet and offspring health has been well established, our understanding of whether offspring health is affected by a father's diet remains limited. This systematic review was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) recommendations. The PubMed, Scopus, and Embase electronic databases were searched using combinations of the MESH terms: obesogenic diet, high-fat diet, cafeteria diet, paternal diet, parental diet, programming, paternal effects, and paternal programming. Sixteen studies were selected after assessing articles for eligibility criteria. The main outcomes concerning offspring health related to metabolic disorders. The offspring of fathers exposed to a high-fat diet displayed elevated gene expression and serum levels of leptin, decreased gene expression and serum levels of adiponectin, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, changes in the transcriptome of pancreatic islet tissues, increased triglycerides, and increased expression of lipogenic genes. The available evidence suggests that paternal exposure to a high-fat diet may induce harmful effects on the health of offspring.

Animals , Rats , Paternal Behavior , Dietary Fats/adverse effects , Paternal Exposure , Feeding Behavior
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 70(4): 290-299, dic. 2020. tab
Article in English | LIVECS, LILACS | ID: biblio-1247671


No systematic reviews had analyzedthe most effective training for adolescents with obesity, thus, the aim of our review was to understand whether aerobic, resistance, or combinate, is appropriate for improving body composition, and factors associated with obesity in adolescents. We followed PRISMA methods, in the Pubmed, SCOPUS, and Web of Science databases, using the terms Obesity, teenager, fat mass, body mass index, body mass, intervention, aerobic, resistance, training and physical activity. Subsequently, titles and abstracts were read to filter the articles. Of the 3585 results found, 10 articles were selected with protocols of 3 to 4 weekly training sessions of 15 to 60 minutes, with interventions of 4 to 12 weeks. All types of training were beneficial for anthropometric and biochemical improvement, only resistance training (RT) has a significant difference for muscle mass compared to aerobic training (AT). Even though of the small number of studies with this type of comparison, it is still unclear which type of training is better or whether the two done concurrently would be a better alternative. According to our findings adolescents who want to maximize the effect of exercise on anthropometric variables should ideally perform aerobic and endurance exercises, but significant benefit can be achieved through any type of exercise, and if it were to have a significant differentiation within muscle mass the resistance exercise may be ideal to achieve this goal(AU)

En este artículo de revisión, fue analizado cual es el método de entrenamiento que es más efectivo para adolescentes con obesidad, de allí, a que nuestro objetivo en esta revisión es definir cual de los protocolos de entrenamiento (aeróbico, de resistencia o combinado) es mas apropiado para mejorar la composición corporal y otros factores asociados con la obesidad en adolescentes. Siguiendo los métodos de PRISMA se realizó la búsqueda en las bases de datos de, Pubmed, SCOPUS, y Web os Science, utilizando términos de obesidad, adolescentes, masa grasa, índice de masa corporal, masa corporal, intervención, ejercicio aeróbico, ejercicio de resistencia, ejercicio combinado y actividad física, subsecuentemente se leyeron títulos y resúmenes para filtrar los artículos. De los 3585 artículos encontrados, 10 artículos fueron seleccionados con protocolos de 3 a 4 días a la semana, donde cada sesión era de 15 a 60 minutos, con intervenciones entre 4 y 12 semanas. Todos los tipos de entrenamiento fueron beneficiosos para mejorar composición corporal y parámetros bioquímicos, el ejercicio de resistencia demuestra tener diferencia con relación a los otros dos protocolos de entrenamiento donde post-intervención consiguen mejorar la masa muscular. Debido al número pequeño de estudios aun la información es poco clara sobre cual protocolo es más efectivo y así poder elegir una alternativa mas adecuada. De acuerdo con los hallazgos realizar ejercicios aeróbicos y/o combinados mejoran la composición corporal a nivel de masa grasa, y el ejercicio de resistencia demuestra mejorar musculatura en adolescentes con obesidad(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Body Composition , Exercise/physiology , Pediatric Obesity , Body Weight , Dietary Fats
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(11)nov. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389241


With low carbohydrate diets glucose becomes unavailable as a source of energy for our body, leading to the production of ketones from fatty acids in the liver. The increase in plasma ketones is known as nutritional ketosis. The available evidence from basic and clinical studies indicates that both low carbohydrate and high fat low carbohydrate diets are effective for weight loss and are better than non-intervention. However, low carbohydrate diet and ketogenic diets induce unique metabolic changes and consistently improve some markers of cardiovascular risk, lowering elevated blood glucose, insulin, triglycerides, ApoB and saturated fat concentrations, reducing small dense LDL particle numbers, glycated hemoglobin levels, blood pressure and body weight while increasing HDL-cholesterol concentrations and reversing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Low carbohydrate diets are an efficient strategy for the management of obesity and metabolic syndrome. They may also benefit patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. They must be prescribed by trained professionals to balance the risks and benefits for each individual patient. Future research is required to improve the knowledge about individual responses to dietary interventions, their safety, tolerance, efficacy and long-term effects.

Female , Humans , Diet, Ketogenic , Triglycerides , Blood Glucose , Dietary Carbohydrates , Dietary Fats , Weight Loss , Obesity
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 33(5): 447-456, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134404


Abstract Background Fatty acids are important components of diet that may influence the development of CVD. Objective To verify the relationship of dietary fatty acids with cardiometabolic markers in individuals at the cardiometabolic risk. Methods This cross-sectional study involved 282 subjects (116 M/166 F, 42 ± 16 years) attended the Cardiovascular Health Care Program, Universidade Federal de Viçosa (Brazil). Anthropometric and body composition measurements as well as metabolic and inflammatory markers were assessed by standard procedures. Demographic and lifestyle variables were obtained by semi-structured questionnaire. Food consumption was evaluated by 24h recall. Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney-U test and chi-square test were used, considering the statistical significance level of 5% probability. Results Individuals who eaten fat, fatty acids saturated and fatty acids polyunsaturated above recommendation (> 35, 7%, and 10% of caloric intake) were more likely to be overweight (p < 0.05). Those individuals with higher intake of medium-chain fatty saturated acids (≥ 1.05 g/d) had lower values (p < 0.05) of body mass index, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio and waist-height ratio and higher values (p < 0.05) of total leukocytes, C-reactive protein and total cholesterol, and LDL. Subjects with higher of palmitoleic acid intake (≥ 0.94 g/d) presented higher values of BMI, fat percentage and HOMA-IR (p < 0.05). Conclusion This cross-sectional study found different associations of dietary fat and cardiometabolic risk related to adiposity and inflammatory markers, according with chain-size and saturation, indicating the need the more detailed on the dietary assessment of obese patients to identify risk factors and established best strategies to control. (Int J Cardiovasc Sci. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Fatty Acids/adverse effects , Cardiometabolic Risk Factors , Obesity/prevention & control , Dietary Fats , Biomarkers , Cross-Sectional Studies , Metabolic Syndrome/diet therapy , Metabolic Syndrome/prevention & control , Overweight , Adiposity , Obesity/complications