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1.
Med. infant ; 29(1): 17-22, Marzo 2022. Tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1366851

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: evaluar la efectividad de la técnica de conteo de grasas y ajuste de enzimas pancreáticas en un grupo de pacientes con insuficiencia pancreática secundaria a fibrosis quística (FQ). Materiales y métodos: En un grupo de pacientes con FQ, sin otra patología asociada, mayores de 1 año, con >10 000 UKD (unidades por kilo por día) de lipasa; se realizó educación y aplicación de técnica de conteo de grasas con ajuste enzimático, solicitando Van de Kamer y registro alimentario de 5 días durante la recolección de la muestra con un intervalo de 3 meses entre ambas determinaciones. Se evaluó la efectividad de la misma y las dosis de enzimas utilizadas mediante el porcentaje de excreción grasa (PEG), así como las variaciones en la cantidad de enzimas utilizadas y la ganancia de peso. Los datos se registraron en RED Cap (Research Electronic Data Capture) y se analizaron mediante Stata 12. Resultados: De un total de 21 pacientes, 16 completaron la intervención. El 50% presentó un índice de masa corporal (IMC) mayor del Plo 25 antes y después, un 87% alcanzó adecuación calórica mayor del 120% de la ingestas diarias recomendadas (RDA) al final, logrando un aumento promedio de z score de peso de 0,28 con una media inicial de 17 kg y final de 18,2 kg. En cuanto a la media del requerimiento enzimático fue de 14 800 UKD antes y 10 145 UKD después (z=0,002), asimismo el porcentaje de excreción grasa (PEG) tuvo una disminución del 38% (p=0,1705). Conclusiones: La implementación de la técnica de conteo de grasas y ajuste enzimático, podría ser una estrategia válida para aquellos pacientes con FQ que tienen dosis altas de enzimas e inadecuada ganancia de peso (AU)


Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of the fat counting technique and pancreatic enzyme adjustment in a group of patients with pancreatic insufficiency secondary to cystic fibrosis (CF). Materials and methods: A group of patients with CF without other associated diseases, older than 1 year of age, lipase dose >10 000 UKD (units per kilo per day), received education on the fat counting technique with enzyme adjustment followed by its implementation of the intervention. Van de Kamer was requested and a 5-day food record was kept during the sample collection with an interval of 3 months between both measurements. The effectiveness of the technique and the enzyme doses used were evaluated based on the percentage of fat excretion (PFE), as well as the variations in the amount of enzymes used and weight gain. Data were recorded in RED Cap (Research Electronic Data Capture) and analyzed using Stata 12. Results: Of a total of 21 patients, 16 completed the intervention. Fifty percent had a body mass index (BMI) greater than Plo 25 before and after the intervention; 87% had achieved a caloric increase greater than 120% of the recommended daily intake (RDA) at the end of the study and an average increase in weight z score of 0.28 with an initial mean of 17 kg and a final mean of 18.2 kg. Mean enzyme requirement was 14 800 UKD before and 10 145 UKD after the intervention (z=0.002). PFE decreased by 38% (p=0.1705). Conclusions: The implementation of the technique of fat counting and enzyme adjustment may be a valid strategy for CF patients with high enzyme doses and inadequate weight gain. (AU)


Subject(s)
Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Pancreas/enzymology , Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency , Dietary Fats/administration & dosage , Cystic Fibrosis/diet therapy , Exocrine Glands/abnormalities , Enzyme Replacement Therapy
2.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 39: e2019295, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143846

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To assess vitamin E intake and its relationship with sociodemographic variables, and to identify the main dietary sources of the nutrient in the diet of adolescents. Methods: This is a population-based cross-sectional study that used data from 891 adolescents living in Campinas, SP, participating in ISACamp 2014/15 (Health Survey) and ISACamp-Nutri 2015/16 (Food Consumption and Nutritional Status Survey). The nutrient intake averages were estimated using the Generalized Linear Model, adjusted for the total energy of the diet. Dietary sources of vitamin E were identified from the calculation of the relative contribution. Results: The average vitamin E intake was 3.2 mg for adolescents aged 10 to 13 years and 3.5 mg for those aged 14 to 19 years, results far below the recommended values of 9 and 12 mg, respectively. The prevalence of inadequacy was 92.5%. ­Ten ­foods/­food groups represented 85.7% of vitamin E present in the adolescents' diet; the vegetable oils group accounted for more than a quarter of the contribution (25.5%), followed by cookies (9.1%) and beans (8.9%). Conclusions: There were a low intake and a high prevalence of inadequate vitamin E intake among adolescents in Campinas, with vegetable oil as the main source. For the total number of adolescents, almost 33% of the nutrient content was derived from foods of poor nutritional quality such as cookies, packaged snacks, and margarine. The results of this study can guide public health actions that aim to improve the quality of adolescents' diets.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a ingestão de vitamina E e sua relação com variáveis sociodemográficas, e identificar as principais fontes alimentares do nutriente na dieta de adolescentes. Métodos: Trata-se de estudo transversal de base populacional que utilizou dados de 891 adolescentes residentes em Campinas, SP, participantes do ISACamp 2014/15 (Inquérito de Saúde) e ISACamp-Nutri 2015/16 (Inquérito de Consumo Alimentar e Estado Nutricional). As médias de ingestão do nutriente foram estimadas por meio de modelo linear generalizado, ajustado pela energia total da dieta. As fontes alimentares de vitamina E foram identificadas pelo cálculo de contribuição relativa. Resultados: A ingestão média de vitamina E foi de 3,2 mg para os adolescentes de 10 a 13 anos e de 3,5 mg para os de 14 a 19 anos, resultados bem inferiores aos valores recomendados de 9 e 12 mg, respectivamente. A prevalência de inadequação foi de 92,5%. Dez alimentos/grupos alimentares representaram 85,7% da vitamina E presente na dieta dos adolescentes; o grupo dos óleos vegetais totalizou mais de um quarto da contribuição (25,5%), seguido dos biscoitos (9,1%) e dos feijões (8,9%). Conclusões: Observou-se baixa ingestão e elevada prevalência de inadequação do consumo de vitamina E nos adolescentes de Campinas, apontando o óleo vegetal como principal fonte. Para o total de adolescentes, quase 33% do teor do nutriente derivava de alimentos de má qualidade nutricional como biscoitos, salgadinhos de pacote e margarina. Os resultados deste estudo podem direcionar ações de saúde pública que objetivem melhorar a qualidade da dieta dos adolescentes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Vitamin E/analysis , Nutritional Status , Feeding Behavior , Vitamin E/administration & dosage , Brazil , Dietary Fats/administration & dosage , Nutrition Surveys , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet, Western/adverse effects , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/analysis , Nutritional Requirements
3.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(3): 396-405, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126137

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to develop and validate a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) for assessing consumption of fatty acids among pregnant women. METHODS: Two lists of foods were created according to percent contribution of each nutrient estimated by three 24-hour recalls: a long and short version FFQ to estimate long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs). Student paired t-test and Pearson correlation coefficients were used to verify the differences in mean consumption of nutrients from the FFQ and 24-hour recall. The concordance between the consumption values of the two methods was assessed using the Bland-Altman method and quartiles concordance. RESULTS: For the FFQ - long version, correlation values ranged from 0.33 (<0.05) to 0.62 (<0.01) for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and linoleic acid (LA), respectively. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) were not correlated. Exact concordance ranged from 49.0% (energy) to 22.4% (EPA), and discordance ranged from 14.3% (DPA) to 2.0% (Saturated). The FFQ - short version had high correlations for LCPUFAs. Exact concordance ranged from 36.7% (n-3 LCPUFA) to 16.3% (DHA); and discordance from 12.2% (DPA) to 2.0% (arachidonic acid). Bland-Altman analysis showed good concordance for both versions. CONCLUSION: This nutrient-specific FFQ is a valid instrument to be used to estimate the level of consumption of fatty acids among pregnant women.


OBJETIVO: Este estudio tuvo como objetivo desarrollar y validar un cuestionario de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos para evaluar el consumo de ácidos grasos en gestantes. MÉTODOS: Dos listas de alimentos fueron creadas de acuerdo con la contribución porcentual de cada nutriente estimado por 3 recordatorios de 24 horas: CFC - versión larga y CFC - versión corta para estimar ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de cadena larga (AGPICL). La prueba de t pareada de Student y el coeficiente de correlación de Pearson se utilizaron para verificar las diferencias entre el consumo medio de nutrientes de del CFC y el recordatorio de 24 horas. La concordancia entre los valores de consumo de los dos métodos se evaluó mediante el método de Bland-Altman y la concordancia de cuartiles. RESULTADOS: En CFC - versión larga, los valores de correlación oscilaron entre 0.33 (<0.05) y 0.62 (<0.01) para ácido docosahexaenoico (DHA) y ácido linoleico (LA), respectivamente. Ácido eicosapentaenoico (EPA) y ácido docosapentaenoico (DPA) no presentaron correlación. La concordancia exacta varió de 49,0% (energía) a 22,4% (EPA), y la discordancia varió de 14,3% (DPA) a 2,0% (saturado). CFC: la versión corta mostró los mejores valores de correlaciones para los AGPICL. La concordancia exacta varió de 36,7 (n-3 LCPUFA) a 16,3% (DHA); y discordancia de 12,2% (DPA) a 2,0% (ácido araquidónico). El análisis de Bland-Altman mostró una buena concordancia para ambas versiones. CONCLUSIÓN: Este método CFC específico de nutrientes es un instrumento válido que se utiliza para estimar el nivel de consumo de ácidos grasos en mujeres gestantes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Energy Intake , Surveys and Questionnaires , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated/administration & dosage , Mental Recall , Dietary Fats/administration & dosage , Diet Records , Diet Surveys , Fatty Acids/administration & dosage
4.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(3): e9039, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089345

ABSTRACT

We previously reported that both the high-carbohydrate diet (HCD) and high-fat diet (HFD) given for two months promote lipid deposition and inflammation in the liver and brain of mice. The results obtained indicate a tissue-specific response to both diets. Herein, we compared the effects of HCD and HFD on fatty acid (FA) composition and inflammation in the gastrocnemius muscle. Male Swiss mice were fed with HCD or HFD for 1 or 2 months. Saturated FA (SFA), monounsaturated FA (MUFA), n-3 polyunsaturated FA (n-3 PUFA), and n-6 PUFA were quantified. The activities of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD-1), Δ-6 desaturase (D6D), elongase 6, and de novo lipogenesis (DNL) were estimated. As for indicators of the inflammatory tissue state, we measured myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and gene expression of F4/80, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, and IL-10. The HCD led to a lower deposition of SFA, MUFA, n-3 PUFA, and n-6 PUFA compared to HFD. However, the HCD increased arachidonic acid levels, SFA/n-3 PUFA ratio, DNL, SCD-1, D6D, and MPO activities, and expression of IL-6, contrasting with the general idea that increased lipid deposition is associated with more intense inflammation. The HCD was more potent to induce skeletal muscle inflammation than the HFD, regardless of the lower lipid accumulation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Dietary Carbohydrates/administration & dosage , Dietary Fats/administration & dosage , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Body Weight , Energy Intake , Dietary Carbohydrates/metabolism , Dietary Fats/metabolism , Gene Expression
5.
Salud pública Méx ; 61(2): 155-165, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058968

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Objective: To analyze the contribution of natural, processed and ultra-processed foods to energy and nutrient supply in Mexican households. Materials and methods: The database of the National Household Expenditure Survey 2013 was analyzed (n=58 001), which is a cross-sectional survey. Food supply (g/adult equivalent/day) and energy, macro- and micro-nutrient supplies were estimated. Foods were classified following the Nova system. Households sociodemographic characteristics were analyzed as covariates. Results: Natural foods (NF) contributed with more energy (55.0%) followed by ultra-processed foods (UPF, 21.2%). NF were the main source of most nutrients. Processed culinary ingredients (PCI) and processed foods (PF) had high content of energy, total fats, and saturated fats, but low content of certain micronutrients. Sodium was mainly available in PF (34.6%) and UPF (31.4%). Sugar-sweetened beverages, fast foods, and biscuits and cookies were the main UPF in terms of energy supply. Conclusions; In Mexican households, the PCI, PF and UPF had low nutritional quality.


Resumen: Objetivo: Analizar la contribución de los alimentos naturales, procesados y ultraprocesados a la disponibilidad de energía y nutrientes en los hogares mexicanos. Material y métodos: Se analizó la base de datos de la Encuesta Nacional de Gasto de los Hogares 2013 (n= 58 001), la cual es una encuesta transversal. Se estimó la disponibilidad de alimentos (g/adulto equivalente/día), energía y nutrientes. Los alimentos fueron clasificados siguiendo el sistema Nova. Resultados: Los alimentos naturales (AN) y los ultraprocesados (AUP) contribuyeron con más energía. Los AN fueron la principal fuente de la mayoría de los nutrimentos. Los ingredientes culinarios procesados (ICP) y los alimentos procesados (AP) tenían alto contenido de energía, grasas totales y grasas saturadas pero bajo contenido de ciertos micronutrientes. El sodio estaba disponible principalmente en AP y AUP. Las bebidas azucaradas, comidas rápidas, galletas y panes fueron los principales AUP. Conclusión: En México, los ICP, AP y AUP tienen baja calidad nutricional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Energy Intake , Food/classification , Nutritive Value , Socioeconomic Factors , Sodium, Dietary/administration & dosage , Dietary Fats/administration & dosage , Nutrients , Family Characteristics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Micronutrients , Fatty Acids/administration & dosage , Fast Foods , Food Handling , Sugar-Sweetened Beverages , Mexico
6.
Salud pública Méx ; 61(2): 147-154, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058967

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the consumption of ultra-processed food and drink products and its association with the nutrient profile of the Colombian diet in 2005. Materials and methods: Food consumption based on 24-hour dietary records from 38 643 men and women was classified into four NOVA groups according to the extent and purpose of food processing. Results: Ultra-processed food and drink products represented 15.9% of the total energy daily intake, compared to 63.3% from minimally processed food, 15.8% from processed culinary ingredients, and 4.9% from processed food. Non-ultra-processed food items had a healthier nutritional profile compared to ultra-processed items in terms of contribution to total calories from protein, carbohydrates, total fat, saturated fat, free sugar, fiber and energy density. Conclusions: Ultra-processed food products have a less healthy nutrient profile than non-ultra-processed ones. An increase in the consumption of these foods must be prevented within Colombia.


Resumen: Objetivo: Evaluar el consumo de alimentos y bebidas ultraprocesadas y su asociación con el perfil nutricional dentro de la Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición de 2005 en Colombia. Material y métodos: El consumo de alimentos basados en registros alimentarios de 24 horas de 38 643 individuos se clasificó en cuatro grupos de NOVA. Resultados: Los productos de alimentos y bebidas ultraprocesados representaron 15.9% de la ingesta diaria total de energía, en comparación con 63.3% de los alimentos mínimamente procesados, 15.8% de los ingredientes culinarios procesados y 4.9% de los procesados. Los alimentos mínimamente procesados tenían un perfil nutricional más saludable en comparación con los artículos ultraprocesados en términos de contribución a las calorías totales, de proteínas, carbohidratos, grasa total, grasa saturada, azúcar libre, densidad de fibra y densidad de energía. Conclusiones: Los alimentos ultraprocesados tienen un perfil nutricional menos saludable que los alimentos no procesados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Beverages , Energy Intake , Diet , Food , Nutritive Value , Sweetening Agents/administration & dosage , Dietary Carbohydrates/administration & dosage , Dietary Fats/administration & dosage , Dietary Proteins/administration & dosage , Diet Records , Nutrients , Colombia , Portion Size , Food Handling
7.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(2): 722-729, jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954177

ABSTRACT

According to the information provided by the World Health Organization (WHO), overweight and obesity are the fifth leading causes of death in the world. Due to the alarming increase of this disorder in recent years, studies have been carried out to evidence harmful effects on human or animal tissues. Our objective was to evaluate the morphological and physiological changes of C57BL/6 mice adrenal glands (AGs), associated with high fat diets (HFDs), we used 14 male mice, 5 months old, fed for 14 weeks according to two diets. The standard chow group (SC) was fed AIN-93M and the high fat group (HF) was fed AIN-93M-HF. At the end of the experiment, biometric analysis was performed and euthanasia was performed. Blood was then extracted for biochemical analysis and AGs were processed for mesoscopic, histological, morphometric and stereological studies. We used Student's t-test (p<0.05) for statistical analysis. SC group showed a lower weight (29.67±1.28 g) with respect to the HF group (38.46±4.68 g, p=0.002). COL-T, HDL-C, TG and CORT analysis revealed differences between SC group and HF (p≤0.001). Focally, in the fasciculate area, there was an increase in the core-cytoplasm ratio and a greater lipid vacuole presence and size. There was a significant reduction (p=0.001) in Vvfas=7.365±3.326 % of the HF group fasciculate area compared to SC group (Vvfas=9.619±4.548 %). Obesity induced by HF diets affects adrenal gland physiology and morphology of mice. Our results suggest that both the percentage of fat as well as the time of administration of the diet, produce a diurnal reduction of corticosterone, which could be due to an increase in the metabolic clearance of this hormone and not to the inhibition of the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis.


De acuerdo a la información entregada por la OMS, el sobrepeso y la obesidad son el quinto factor principal de riesgo de muerte en el mundo. Debido al aumento alarmante de este trastorno en los últimos años, estudios evidencian efectos perjudiciales sobre tejidos humanos y animales. Por lo tanto, nuestro objetivo fue evaluar los cambios morfo-fisiológicos de la glándula suprarrenal de ratones C57BL/6 asociado a dietas altas en grasas. Utilizamos 14 ratones machos, de 5 meses, alimentados por 14 semanas con dos dietas. Grupo dieta estándar (SC), alimentados con AIN-93M y grupo alto en grasa (HF), alimentado con AIN- 93M-HF. Al finalizar el experimento, se realizó el análisis biométrico y se efectuó la eutanasia. Posteriormente, se extrajo sangre para el análisis bioquímico y cada glándula suprarrenal fue procesada para el estudio mesoscópico, histológico, morfométrico y estereológico. Para el análisis estadístico se utilizó la prueba t de Student (p<0,05). El grupo SC mostró un menor peso (29,67±1,28 g) respecto al grupo HF (38,46±4,68 g; p=0,002). El análisis del COL-T, HDL-C, TG y CORT reveló diferencias entre el grupo SC y HF (p≤0,001). En la zona fasciculada, focalmente, se observó aumento en la relación núcleo-citoplasma y, mayor presencia y tamaño de vacuolas lipídicas. Hubo una reducción significativa (p=0,001) en VVfas=7,365±3,326 % de la zona fasciculada del grupo HF, en comparación al grupo SC (VVfas=9,619±4,548 %). La obesidad inducida por la dieta HF afecta la fisiología y morfología de la glándula suprarrenal de ratones alimentados con dietas altas en grasas. Nuestros resultados sugieren que tanto el porcentaje de grasa, así como el tiempo de administración de la dieta, producen una reducción diurna de la corticosterona, lo que podría ser debido a un aumento en el aclaramiento metabólico de esta hormona y no a la inhibición del eje Hipotálamo-Hipófisis-Adrenal.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Dietary Fats/administration & dosage , Adrenal Glands/pathology , Diet, High-Fat , Mice, Inbred C57BL
8.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 135(2): 157-168, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-846291

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Diet is an important modifiable factor involved in obesity-induced inflammation. We reviewed clinical trials that assessed the effect of consumption of different fatty acids on the expression of inflammation-related genes, such as cytokines, adipokines, chemokines and transcription factors. DESIGN AND SETTING: Narrative review study conducted at a research center. METHODS: This was a review on the effect of fat intake on inflammatory gene expression in humans. RESULTS: Consumption of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) was related to postprandial upregulation of genes associated with pro-inflammatory pathways in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), in comparison with monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) or polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake. In addition, acute intake of a high-SFA meal also induced a postprandial pro-inflammatory response for several inflammatory genes in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Both high-MUFA and high-PUFA diets showed anti-inflammatory profiles, or at least a less pronounced pro-inflammatory response than did SFA consumption. However, the results concerning the best substitute for SFAs were divergent because of the large variability in doses of MUFA (20% to 72% of energy intake) and n3 PUFA (0.4 g to 23.7% of energy intake) used in interventions. CONCLUSIONS: The lipid profile of the diet can modulate the genes relating to postprandial and long-term inflammation in PBMCs and adipose tissue. Identifying the optimal fat profile for inflammatory control may be a promising approach for treating chronic diseases such as obesity.


RESUMO CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: A dieta é um importante fator modificável envolvido na inflamação induzida pela obesidade. Nós revisamos ensaios clínicos que avaliaram o efeito do consumo de diferentes ácidos graxos sobre a expressão de genes relacionados com a inflamação, tais como citocinas, adipocitocinas, quimiocinas e fatores de transcrição. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo de revisão narrativa realizado em um centro de pesquisa. MÉTODOS: Revisão do efeito da ingestão de gordura sobre a expressão de genes envolvidos com inflamação em seres humanos. RESULTADOS: O consumo do ácido graxo saturado (AGS) foi relacionado com a regulação favorável pós-prandial de genes associados com vias pró-inflamatórias nas células mononucleares de sangue periférico (CMSP), em comparação com a ingestão do ácido graxo monoinsaturado (AGMI) ou do ácido graxo poli-insaturado (AGPI). Além disso, o consumo agudo de uma dieta com alto conteúdo de AGS também induziu uma resposta pró-inflamatória pós-prandial para vários genes da inflamação no tecido adiposo subcutâneo. Ambas as dietas com alto conteúdo de AGMI e AGPI apresentaram perfil anti-inflamatório ou, pelo menos, menor resposta pró-inflamatória em relação ao consumo de AGS. Contudo, os resultados são controversos acerca do melhor substituto para o AGS, devido à grande variabilidade na dose de AGMI (20% a 72% da ingestão energética) e AGPI n3 (0,4 g para 23,7% da ingestão energética) utilizados nos estudos de intervenção. CONCLUSÕES: O perfil lipídico da dieta pode modular os genes relacionados com inflamação pós-prandial e a longo prazo em CMSP e no tecido adiposo. Identificar o perfil lipídico ideal no controle inflamatório pode ser uma abordagem promissora para o tratamento de doenças crônicas como a obesidade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Dietary Fats/administration & dosage , Inflammation/diet therapy , Energy Intake , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Gene Expression , Postprandial Period , Fatty Acids/administration & dosage , Diet, High-Fat
9.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 20(1): 70-80, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-843744

ABSTRACT

RESUMO: Objetivo: Analisar a contribuição de proteína, lipídio e carboidrato no total de energia da dieta de idosos das diferentes regiões brasileiras. Métodos: Foram analisados dados de 4.286 idosos (60 a 104 anos) provenientes da Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares 2008/2009. Baseado no consumo obtido por dois registros alimentares, o programa Multiple Source Method estimou o consumo habitual de macronutrientes e gordura saturada. As recomendações do Institute of Medicine (IOM), segundo os Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR), foram utilizadas para avaliar a participação relativa dos macronutrientes de acordo com percentual energético (PE). Modelos de regressão linear identificaram diferenças entre PE dos macronutrientes, situação do domicílio, macrorregiões e gênero. Resultados: A proteína foi o macronutriente que apresentou maior concordância com o AMDR (99,8%). Com relação ao PE lipídico, observou-se que 9,2% da população ficaram acima da recomendação, sendo o dobro do encontrado para carboidrato (4,9%) e nove vezes o percentual de idosos, cujo PE-proteico (1,0%) foi acima do recomendado. Em 14,5% dos idosos a ingestão de carboidratos foi abaixo da AMDR, sendo que essas dietas apresentaram maior PE lipídico (β = 8,19; p < 0,001), revelando que 50% dos idosos que consumiam carboidratos abaixo do PE recomendado apresentou um consumo excessivo de lipídio. Segundo macrorregiões, o Centro-Oeste foi o único a apresentar diferença para carboidrato, sendo esta de menor percentual (51,6%; p < 0,05). A região Sul (17,9%; p < 0,01) apresentou o menor PE proteico e o maior de lipídios (28,7%; p < 0,01). Conclusões: A elevada frequência de inadequação da ingestão de lipídio pode significar uma pior qualidade da dieta, contribuindo com o aumento no risco de desenvolvimento de doenças crônicas.


ABSTRACT: Objective: This study aimed at evaluating the balance in the intake of protein, carbohydrate, and fat among the Brazilian elderly population. Methods: The data analyzed were taken from the National Dietary Survey 2008-2009, from a total of 4,286 Brazilian elders (60-104 years old). Based on the dietary intake obtained from two food records, the Multiple Source Method (MSM) was used to evaluate the macronutrients and saturated fat. The AMDR (Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range), by the Institute of Medicine (IOM), was used to evaluate the macronutrient energy percentage (%E). Linear regression models identified differences between macronutrients %E and household location (urban or rural), Brazilian macro-regions and gender. Results: Protein intake showed higher agreement with the AMDR reference value (99.86%). It was observed that in 9.2% of the population, fat intake was higher than the reference value, almost twice as high as the carbohydrate-energy percentage (4.9%) and nine times higher than protein (1.0%). Among those with low carbohydrate-energy percentage, 14.5% had higher fat-energy percentage (β = 8.19; p < 0.001), which means that 50% of the elderly whose carbohydrate intake was above the recommendation presented an overconsumption of fat. According to the macro-regions, the Midwest region was the only one to show differences for carbohydrate-energy percentage, which was lower than the others regions (51.6%; p < 0.05). The South region presented the lowest protein-energy percentage (17.9%; p < 0.01) and the highest fat-energy percentage (28.7%; p < 0.01). Conclusion: Higher prevalence of inadequate fat intake among the Brazilian elderly may indicate an important public health problem that is associated with an increased risk of chronic diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Dietary Carbohydrates/administration & dosage , Dietary Fats/administration & dosage , Dietary Proteins/administration & dosage , Diet , Time Factors , Brazil , Diet Surveys , Middle Aged
10.
Hig. aliment ; 30(258/259): 59-63, 30/08/2016. ilus, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-2547

ABSTRACT

Uma Unidade de Alimentação e Nutrição (UAN) tem o objetivo de fornecer refeições equilibradas nutricionalmente e com qualidade higienicossanitária adequada. O Programa de Alimentação ao Trabalhador tem como objetivo melhorar a alimentação dos trabalhadores. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo analisar se o valor energético, valor de gordura saturada, fibras e sódio do cardápio do almoço de uma Unidade de Alimentação e Nutrição, seguem os valores preconizados pelo Programa de Alimentação do Trabalhador (PAT). Foram analisados 5 cardápios, do turno do almoço, de uma UAN terceirizada que presta serviço a uma empresa na cidade de Estrela, Rio Grande do Sul. Após foram comparados os valores encontrados de calorias, gordura saturada, fibras e sódio com os valores recomendados pelo PAT. Pode-se verificar que os valores de calorias, gordura saturada, fibras e sódio analisados não estavam de acordo com os valores preconizados pelo PAT.


A Feeding and Nutrition Unit (FNU) has the purpose to provide nutritionally balanced meals and with hygienic-sanitary quality. The Worker Feeding Program (WFP) has the purpose to improve the workers nourishment. The aim of the present work was to analyze if the caloric energy content, saturated fat, fiber and sodium of the lunch menu in a Feeding and Nutrition Unit are in accordance with the values recommended by the Worker Feeding Program. Five meals were analyzed, of lunch shift, from an outsourced FNU that provides service to a company in the city of Estrela, Rio Grande do Sul. After the values of calories, saturated fat, fibers and sodium were found, they were compared with the ones recommended by WFP. It was observed that the analyzed value of calories, saturated fat, fibers and sodium were not in accordance with the values established by WFP.


Subject(s)
Nutrition Programs , Occupational Health , Food Services/organization & administration , Menu Planning/standards , Nutritive Value , Sodium, Dietary/administration & dosage , Dietary Fats/administration & dosage , Dietary Fiber/administration & dosage , Food Composition
11.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(5): e5129, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951677

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of exercise training on triglyceride deposition and the expression of musclin and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) in a rat model of insulin resistance. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats (8 weeks old, weight 160±10 g) were fed a high-fat diet (40% calories from fat) and randomly divided into high-fat control group and swimming intervention group. Rats fed with standard food served as normal control. We found that 8-week swimming intervention significantly decreased body weight (from 516.23±46.27 to 455.43±32.55 g) and visceral fat content (from 39.36±2.50 to 33.02±2.24 g) but increased insulin sensitivity index of the rats fed with a high-fat diet. Moreover, swimming intervention improved serum levels of TG (from 1.40±0.83 to 0.58±0.26 mmol/L) and free fatty acids (from 837.80±164.25 to 556.38±144.77 μEq/L) as well as muscle triglycerides deposition (from 0.55±0.06 to 0.45±0.02 mmol/g) in rats fed a high-fat diet. Compared with rats fed a standard food, musclin expression was significantly elevated, while GLUT4 expression was decreased in the muscles of rats fed a high-fat diet. In sharp contrast, swimming intervention significantly reduced the expression of musclin and increased the expression of GLUT4 in the muscles of rats fed a high-fat diet. In conclusion, increased musclin expression may be associated with insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, and exercise training improves lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity probably by upregulating GLUT4 and downregulating musclin.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Insulin Resistance/genetics , Dietary Fats/administration & dosage , Glucose Transporter Type 4/metabolism , Lipid Metabolism/genetics , Muscle Proteins/metabolism , Physical Conditioning, Animal , Time Factors , Transcription Factors , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Dietary Fats/metabolism , Random Allocation , Gene Expression Regulation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Glucose Transporter Type 4/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Muscle Proteins/genetics
13.
Int. j. morphol ; 33(4): 1371-1376, Dec. 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-772324

ABSTRACT

Two groups were formed in order to evaluate the effect of an obesogenic diet on body and liver weight, body fat accumulation and the histometric characteristics of liver and testicles of New Zealand rabbits during the peripuberal period. One group received a standard farm diet and the other received a standard farm diet with canola oil added. During the study, weight of both groups was recorded. At the end of the study, the rabbits were euthanized and liver, testicles, and visceral, scapular and scrotal fat were weighed. Tissue samples were obtained from liver and testicles to carry out histometric analysis. Body weight, body mass index, liver and visceral fat weight were significantly different (P<0.01) in the obesogenic diet when compared to the control group. Notwithstanding, there were no significant differences between both groups in testicular weight, and scapular and scrotal fat (P>0.01). Histometry of the liver of the obesogenic diet group showed the greater total area and greater nucleus area of hepatocytes in the square lobe, right lobe and left lobe medial segment (P<0.01). Histometry of both testicles of individuals from the obesogenic diet group had a greater germinal epithelial thickness and intertubular intersticium (P<0.01). It is concluded that New Zealand male rabbits that received an obesogenic diet during 12 weeks had a higher liver and body weight, as well as, an important increased visceral fat. Furthermore, said diet caused histometric changes in liver and testicles. This set confirms that the domestic rabbit is a good model for the study of the body fat accumulation process associated to the consumption of an obesogenic diet and its effects on liver and testicles.


Con el propósito de evaluar el efecto de una dieta obesogénica sobre el peso corporal, hepático, acumulo de grasa corporal y las características histométricas del hígado y testículo de conejos Nueva Zelanda durante el período peripuberal, se formaron dos grupos; a uno se le proporcionó una dieta estándar de granja y el otro recibió una dieta estándar de granja adicionada con aceite de canola. Durante el estudio se registró el peso corporal de ambos grupos. Al final del estudio los conejos fueron eutanasiados y se pesó el hígado, testículos, la grasa visceral, escapular y escrotal. Se obtuvieron muestras de tejido hepático y testicular para realizar el análisis histométrico. El grupo con dieta obesogénica presentó diferencias significativas con respecto al grupo testigo, en las variables: peso corporal, índice de masa corporal, peso del hígado y de la grasa visceral (P<0,01). Por otra parte, no hubo diferencias significativas entre ambos grupos para las variables: peso de testículos, grasa escapular y escrotal (P>0,01). En la histometría del hígado el grupo con la dieta obesogénica presentó mayor área total y mayor área del núcleo de los hepatocitos en el lóbulo cuadrado, lóbulo derecho y lóbulo izquierdo segmento medial (P<0,01). En la histometría de ambos testículos del grupo con la dieta obesogénica se encontró mayor grosor del epitelio germinal y perímetro del intersticio intertubular (P<0,01). Se concluye que los conejos Nueva Zelanda machos que recibieron una dieta obesogénica durante 12 semanas presentaron mayor peso corporal, hepático y aumento de la grasa visceral. Además, presentaron cambios histométricos en hígado y testículo. Estos resultados en conjunto confirman que el conejo doméstico es un buen modelo para el estudio del proceso de acumulo de grasa corporal asociado al consumo de una dieta obesogénica y de sus efectos en el hígado y testículos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Body Weight/drug effects , Dietary Fats/administration & dosage , Liver/drug effects , Testis/drug effects , Adipose Tissue , Body Mass Index , Obesity/chemically induced , Puberty
14.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 59(5): 422-427, Oct. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-764116

ABSTRACT

Objectives To compare the effect of the consumption of buriti oil and soybean oil on the metabolism of rats under stress induced by iron overload.Materials and methods A total of 28 rats were randomized into control groups who consumed diet added of soybean (CS) or buriti oil (CB) and gavage with saline and two experimental groups who consumed diet added of soybean (ES) or buriti oil (EB) and daily gavage with iron II sulfate as stress inducer. The fatty acid profile of diets was analyzed. Body weight and diet consumption were evaluated every two days. The lipid profile and liver weight of animals were evaluated at the end of the experiment.Results Diet added of soybean oil showed higher percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (45.6%) and diet with buriti oil was rich in monounsaturated fatty acids (66.9%). There were no differences in food intake, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol among groups (p > 0.05). However, animals fed with diet supplemented with buriti oil showed intermediate triglyceride levels (CB: 65 mg/dL; EB: 68.7 mg/dL) compared to ES group (102.5 mg/dL). The liver of rats from the CS group had higher weight (2.06 ± 0.2 g) compared to the CB group (1.56 ± 0.1 g).Conclusion Buriti oil consumption was able to minimize some changes related to iron overload.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Carotenoids/pharmacology , Iron Overload/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Soybean Oil/pharmacology , Body Weight/drug effects , Dietary Fats/administration & dosage , Dietary Fats/analysis , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated/analysis , Fatty Acids/analysis , Iron Overload/chemically induced , Liver/metabolism , Models, Animal , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Triglycerides/blood , Weight Gain
15.
Clinics ; 70(3): 180-184, 03/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-747104

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Carotid artery stenting is an emerging revascularization alternative to carotid endarterectomy. However, guidelines have recommended carotid artery stenting only if the rate of periprocedural stroke or death is < 6% among symptomatic patients and < 3% among asymptomatic patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare clinical outcomes of symptomatic and asymptomatic patients who had undergone carotid artery stenting as a first-intention treatment. METHOD: A retrospective analysis of patients who underwent carotid artery stenting by our interventional neuroradiology team was conducted. Patients were divided into two groups: symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. The primary endpoints were ipsilateral ischemic stroke, ipsilateral parenchymal hemorrhage and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events at 30 days. The secondary endpoints included ipsilateral ischemic stroke, ipsilateral parenchymal hemorrhage, ipsilateral transient ischemic attack and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events between the 1- and 12-month follow-ups. RESULTS: A total of 200 consecutive patients were evaluated. The primary endpoints obtained in the symptomatic vs. asymptomatic groups were ipsilateral stroke (2.4% vs. 2.7%, p = 1.00), ipsilateral parenchymal hemorrhage (0.8% vs. 0.0%, p = 1.00) and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (4.7% vs. 2.7%, p = 0.71). The secondary endpoints obtained in the symptomatic vs. asymptomatic groups were ipsilateral ischemic stroke (0.0% vs. 0.0%), ipsilateral parenchymal hemorrhage (0.0% vs. 0.0%), ipsilateral TIA (0.0% vs. 0.0%, p = 1.00) and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (11.2% vs. 4.1%, p = 0.11). CONCLUSIONS: In this retrospective study, carotid artery stenting was similarly safe and effective when performed as a first-intention treatment in both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. The ...


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Dietary Fats/administration & dosage , Ovarian Neoplasms/epidemiology , Diet/adverse effects , Dietary Fats/adverse effects , Fruit , Ovarian Neoplasms/etiology , Ovarian Neoplasms/pathology , Risk Factors , Vegetables
16.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 19(1): 5-9, Jan-Mar/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741531

ABSTRACT

Introduction Oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum, also referred to as Goldenhar syndrome, is a condition characterized by alterations involving the development of the structures of the first and second branchial arches. The abnormalities primarily affect the face, the eyes, the spine, and the ears, and the auricular abnormalities are associated with possible hearing loss. Objective To analyze the audiological findings of patients with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum through liminal pure-tone audiometry and speech audiometry test. Methods Cross-sectional study conducted on 10 patients with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum and clinical findings on at least two of the following areas: orocraniofacial, ocular, auricular, and vertebral. All patients underwent tonal and vocal hearing evaluations. Results Seven patients were male and three were female; all had ear abnormalities, and the right side was the most often affected. Conductive hearing loss was the most common (found in 10 ears), followed by sensorineural hearing loss (in five ears), with mixed hearing loss in only one ear. The impairment of the hearing loss ranged frommild to moderate, with one case of profound loss. Conclusions The results show a higher frequency of conductive hearing loss among individuals with the oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum phenotype, especially moderate loss affecting the right side. Furthermore, research in auditory thresholds in the oculoauriculo- vertebral spectrum is important in speech therapy findings about the disease to facilitate early intervention for possible alterations. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Fish Oils/pharmacology , Heart Ventricles/drug effects , Ventricular Function/drug effects , Dietary Supplements , Dietary Fats/administration & dosage , Dietary Fats/pharmacology , Fish Oils/administration & dosage , Rats, Wistar
17.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 64(3): 161-173, sep. 2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-752695

ABSTRACT

O objetivo do estudo foi analisar indicadores relacionados ao hábito alimentar e sua associação com síndrome metabólica (SMet) em amostra representativa de adultos de uma comunidade do interior do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. A amostra foi composta por 1.112 sujeitos de ambos os sexos, com idades ≥ 20 anos. A coleta de dados constituiu de informações sociodemográficas, indicadores quanto aos hábitos alimentares, medidas antropométricas, pressão arterial em repouso, dosagens de glicemia e lipídeos plasmáticos. A SMet foi identificada de acordo com critérios definidos pelo NCEP-ATP III. Os resultados apontaram que menos de 10% da amostra apresentou consumo adequado de frutas e hortaliças. Consumo regular de alimentos ricos em gordura (≥ 5 dias/semana) foi relatado por 54,2% e de produtos açucarados e refrigerantes por 38,6% da amostra. Sexo, idade, escolaridade, classe econômica familiar e estado nutricional influenciaram significativamente os hábitos alimentares. A proporção de ocorrência de SMet se aproximou dos 24%, significativamente mais elevada nos homens (27,8% vs 20,3%; p = 0,005). Risco de identificar SMet em sujeitos que relataram não consumir frutas e hortaliças regularmente foi aproximadamente duas vezes maior que em seus pares que relataram consumo adequado (mulheres: OR = 1,93; 95% IC 1,51 - 2,38; homens: OR = 2,04; 95% IC 1,63 - 2,40). Exposição de risco para SMet foi progressivamente maior de acordo com o maior consumo relatado de alimentos ricos em gordura, produtos açucarados e refrigerantes. Os achados sugerem intervenções imediatas voltadas à adoção de hábitos alimentares saudáveis, auxiliando na minimização dos riscos de aparecimento e desenvolvimento da SMet.


The objective was to analyze indicators related to eating habits and their association with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a representative sample of adults in a community from State of São Paulo, Brazil. The sample was comprised of 1,112 participants aged ≥ 20 years. Data from sociodemographic issues, indicators regarding eating habits, anthropometric measures, resting arterial pressure, blood glucose and plasma lipids were registered. MetS was assessed according to the NCEP-ATP III criteria. The results showed that adequate consumption of fruits and vegetables was reported by less than 10% of the individuals. Regular consumption of fatty foods (≥ 5 days/week) was reported by 54.2% and sugar-added products and soft drinks by 38.6% of the interviewees. Gender, age, schooling, socioeconomic level and nutritional status influenced significantly the eating habits. Prevalence of MetS was approximately 24%, significantly higher in men (27,8% vs 20,3%; p = 0.005). Risk to identify MetS in individuals who reported not consuming regularly fruits and vegetables was approximately two times higher than their peers who reported adequate intake (women: OR = 1.93; 95% CI 1.51 - 2.38; men: OR = 2.04; 95% CI 1.63 - 2.40). Exposure risk for MetS was progressively higher according to reported higher consumption of fatty foods, sugar-added products and soft drinks. The findings suggest interventions in order to emphasize healthy eating habits, which could help to minimize risk of MetS.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Feeding Behavior , Metabolic Syndrome/etiology , Blood Pressure , Blood Glucose/analysis , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dietary Carbohydrates/administration & dosage , Dietary Fats/administration & dosage , Fruit , Lipids/blood , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , Vegetables
18.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 64(3): 174-181, sep. 2014. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-752696

ABSTRACT

Estudio descriptivo y transversal primero en reportar la ingesta dietética de energía y de macronutrientes en mujeres en gestación en la zona noreste de México. Muestra por conveniencia de 125 mujeres embarazadas (15-45 años) en el tercer trimestre, que acudieron a consulta prenatal del Hospital Regional Materno Infantil, Nuevo León, México. Se reportaron último nivel de estudios, estatus marital y profesional, peso, talla, e índice de masa corporal (IMC). Se evaluó la dieta mediante la técnica de recordatorio de ingesta del día anterior, en 3 días no consecutivos. Se valoró la ingesta de energía y la contribución calórica porcentual de macronutrientes según las recomendaciones de ingesta de mujeres embarazadas. La ingesta energética fue de 1683,8 Cal/ día. La contribución calórica de grasa saturada fue mayor a la recomendación en 53,6 % de las mujeres. 76,8 % de las participantes consumieron más de 55 % de la energía de hidratos de carbono, mientras que 86,4 % consumió azúcares por arriba de lo sugerido. La mediana de consumo de proteína fue de 12,0 % de la energía total. 75% de las participantes consumieron menos de 22,5 g de fibra dietética total. La importancia de conocer la ingesta de energía y de macronutrientes en mujeres embarazadas se debe a la posible influencia que la dieta tiene sobre la programación del apetito del niño y las complicaciones de la madre. Los resultados sugieren brindar recomendaciones nutricias adecuadas para cada mujer desde el primer trimestre de gestación, según su estado nutricional y entorno social.


Descriptive and transversal study, first to report the dietary intake of energy and macronutrients in pregnant women in the northeast of Mexico. Convenience sample of 125 pregnant women (15-45 years of age) in the third trimester, who were prenatal patients in the Hospital Regional Materno Infantil, Nuevo León, Mexico. It was reported the level of studies, marital and professional status, weight, height and body mass index (BMI). Diet was evaluated by 24-hour food recalls, in 3 non-consecutive days. There were analyzed the intake of energy and the percentage contribution of calories from macronutrients according to the recommendations of intake of pregnant women. Intake of energy was 1683,8 Cal/day. The caloric contribution of saturated fat was higher than the recommendation in 53,6 % of women. 76,8 % of participants ate more than 55 % of energy from carbohydrates, while 86,4 % ate more sugars than the amount suggested. The median intake of protein was 12,0 % of total energy intake. 75% of participants consumed less than 22,5 g of total dietary fiber. The relevance of knowing the intakes of energy and macronutrients in pregnant women may be due to the possible influence of diet over the child’s appetite and maternal complications. Results of this study suggest the need to provide women with adequate nutritional recommendations since the first trimester of gestation, according to their nutritional status and social environment.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Young Adult , Diet , Energy Intake , Feeding Behavior , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dietary Carbohydrates/administration & dosage , Dietary Fats/administration & dosage , Dietary Fiber/administration & dosage , Dietary Proteins/administration & dosage , Mexico , Nutritional Status , Pregnancy Trimester, Third , Socioeconomic Factors
19.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; mai. 2014. 149 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-836917

ABSTRACT

O presente trabalho investigou se a exposição em períodos precoces da vida à ração com alto teor de gordura animal altera o risco de câncer de mama na vida adulta em ratas. Ratas mães foram expostas à ração com alto teor de gordura (ATG) à base de banha de porco (60 % de energia proveniente de gordura) ou uma dieta controle AIN93G (16 % de energia proveniente de gordura) durante a gestação ou gestação e lactação. A prole feminina com 7 semanas de idade foi induzida a carcinogênese mamária com o carcinógeno 7,12-dimeti-benz[a]antraceno. Comparado à prole do grupo controle, observou-se menor suscetibilidade à carcinogênese mamária na prole do grupo de ratas prenhas submetidas à ração ATG durante a gestação (menor incidência de neoplasias, multiplicidade e peso das neoplasias) ou gestação e lactação (menor multiplicidade). Prole feminina de ratas exposta à ração ATG durante a gestação apresentou menor crescimento da árvore epitelial mamária, proliferação celular (Ki67) e expressão de NFkB p65 e maior expressão de p21 e níveis globais de H3K9me3 na glândula mamária. Além disso, esta apresentou uma tendência na redução da razão Rank/Rankl (p=0,09) e níveis de progesterona sérica (p=0,07). Glândula mamária da prole feminina do grupo exposto à ração ATG durante a gestação e lactação apresentou menor número de TEBs, crescimento da árvore epitelial e razão BCL-2/BAX e maiores níveis de leptina em comparação à prole do grupo controle. Análise de lipidômica das glândulas mamárias revelou que exposição à ração ATG especificamente durante a gestação apresentou pequenos efeitos no perfil de ácidos graxos na prole feminina, enquanto que a exposição à essa ração durante a gestação e lactação promoveu menor concentração de ácidos graxos saturados (exceto ácido esteárico) e maior concentração de ácidos graxos polinsaturados da série n-6, monoinsaturados e ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA). De acordo com análise de dependência de redes diferencial (DDN) dos genes diferentemente expressos pela análise de "microarray" exposição à ração ATG em períodos precoces da vida altera a rede transcricional da glândula mamária na vida adulta. Especificamente, ratas expostas à ração ATG somente durante o período fetal apresentou aumento da expressão de Hrh1 e Repin1 em comparação ao controle. A prole exposta à ração durante o período fetal e lactacional apresentou maior e menor expressão de Stra6 e Tlr1 em comparação ao contole, respectivamente e menor expressão de Crkrs em comparação à prole exposta à ração somente durante o período fetal. Nossos dados confirmam que o risco de câncer de mama da prole pode ser programado pela alimentação materna. No entanto, ao contrário do que se esperava, exposição a altos níveis de gordura animal no início da vida diminuiu a suscetibilidade ao câncer de mama na vida adulta. Dentre os possíveis mecanismos envolvidos nessa proteção encontram-se a modulação da morfologia e perfil lipídico da glândula mamária, redução da proliferação celular e aumento dos níveis proteicos de reguladores do ciclo celular, modulação de marcas epigenéticas como H3K9me3, modulação da expressão gênica global com alteração de redes de sinalização, bem como regulação de vias de sinalização específicas como RANK/RANKL/NFκB. Porém esses mecanismos são dependentes do tempo e período de exposição


The present study investigated whether early life exposure to high levels of animal fat changes breast cancer risk in adulthood in rats. Dams consumed a lard-based high-fat (HF) diet (60% fat-derived energy) or an AIN93G control diet (16% fat-derived energy) during gestation or gestation and lactation. Their 7-week-old female offspring were exposed to 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene to induce mammary tumors. Compared to the control offspring, significantly lower susceptibility to mammary cancer development was observed in the offspring of dams fed on HF diet during gestation (lower tumor incidence, multiplicity and weight), or gestation and lactation (lower tumor multiplicity only). Mammary epithelial elongation, cell proliferation (Ki67), and expression of NFkB p65 were significantly lower, and p21 expression and global H3K9me3 levels were higher in the mammary glands of rats exposed to HF lard diet in utero. They also tended to have lower Rank/Rankl ratios (p=0.09) and serum progesterone levels (p=0.07) than control offspring. In the mammary glands of offspring of dams consuming the HF diet during both gestation and lactation, the number of terminal end buds, epithelial elongation and the BCL-2/BAX ratio were significantly lower, and serum leptin levels were higher than in the controls. Lipidomic analysis on mammary glands showed that exposure to a lard-based HF diet only during gestation had little effects on fatty acids profile on offspring, whereas this exposure during gestation and lactation promoted significant changes on the offspring's mammary glands. In general, it decreased SFA (except for stearic acid) and increased n-6 PUFA, MUFA and CLA concentrations in mammary gland. According to Differential dependency network (DDN), analysis of genes differently expressed by microarray, exposure to HF diet during early life changes the transcriptional network of the mammary gland in adulthood. Specifically, rats exposed to HF diet only during the fetal period showed increased expression of Hrh1 e Repin1 compared to the control. The offspring exposed to the HF diet in utero and nursing had higher and lower expression of Stra6 and Tlr1, respectively, compared to the control and lower expression of Crkrs compared to the offspring exposed only in utero. Our data confirm that the breast cancer risk of offspring can be programmed by maternal dietary intake. However, contrary to our expectation, exposure to high levels of lard during early life decreased later susceptibility to breast cancer. The mechanisms involve modulation of mammary gland's morphology and lipid profile, decrease of cell proliferation and increase of cell cycle regulators, modulation of epigenetics marks as H3K9me3, modulation of global gene expression with alteration of transcriptional network and RANK/RANKL/NFκB pathway. However, these mechanisms are dependent on the duration and period of exposure


Subject(s)
Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Breast Neoplasms/complications , Dietary Fats/administration & dosage , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Epigenetic Repression , Nutritional Status , Health Services Programming/methods , Transcriptome/genetics
20.
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 19(5): 1513-1521, 05/2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-710539

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever a frequência de consumo de dieta rica em gordura por adultos de 20 a 69 anos de Pelotas, RS, e analisar fatores associados. Foi realizado um estudo transversal de base populacional, incluindo 972 adultos. A frequência do consumo de gordura alimentar no ano anterior à pesquisa foi avaliada pelo questionário de Block, composto por quinze itens alimentares, pontuados de acordo com a frequência de consumo de alimentos com elevados teores de gordura. Cerca de 1/3 da população adulta (32,7%) consumia regularmente dieta rica em gordura. Para ambos os sexos, o consumo regular de gordura mostrou-se associado a idades mais jovens e consumo regular de refrigerantes e, somente para homens, aos níveis econômicos A/B. A frequência do consumo regular de alimentos ricos em gordura na população adulta residente no município de Pelotas encontra-se além das recomendações atuais do Ministério da Saúde. Políticas públicas que estimulem uma alimentação saudável são urgentemente necessárias.


The scope of this study was to describe the frequency of consumption of high-fat foods among adults aged 20 to 69 years and to identify associated factors. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with 972 adults in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. The consumption of high-fat foods in the previous twelve months was evaluated using the Block questionnaire comprising fifteen food items scored according to the frequency of consumption of high-fat foods. Approximately one in every three adults (32.7%) reported the regular consumption of high-fat diets. Among individuals of both sexes, the regular consumption of fat was associated with younger ages and the regular intake of non-diet soft drinks, and only for men, to the A/B economic levels. The conclusion reached is that the consumption of high-fat food among adults is above current Ministry of Health recommendations. Interventions aimed at stimulating healthy diets are urgently needed.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Dietary Fats/administration & dosage , Feeding Behavior , Food , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Urban Population
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