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1.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21190123, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278446

ABSTRACT

Abstract This systematic review examined the effects of paternal exposure to a high-fat diet on the likelihood of offspring developing health consequences, including metabolic conditions. While the connection between a mother's diet and offspring health has been well established, our understanding of whether offspring health is affected by a father's diet remains limited. This systematic review was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) recommendations. The PubMed, Scopus, and Embase electronic databases were searched using combinations of the MESH terms: obesogenic diet, high-fat diet, cafeteria diet, paternal diet, parental diet, programming, paternal effects, and paternal programming. Sixteen studies were selected after assessing articles for eligibility criteria. The main outcomes concerning offspring health related to metabolic disorders. The offspring of fathers exposed to a high-fat diet displayed elevated gene expression and serum levels of leptin, decreased gene expression and serum levels of adiponectin, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, changes in the transcriptome of pancreatic islet tissues, increased triglycerides, and increased expression of lipogenic genes. The available evidence suggests that paternal exposure to a high-fat diet may induce harmful effects on the health of offspring.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Paternal Behavior , Dietary Fats/adverse effects , Paternal Exposure , Feeding Behavior
2.
Adv Rheumatol ; 60: 52, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130796

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: Gout is characterized by inflammatory arthritis with hyperuricaemia and deposition of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals in the joints. Several animal models have been proposed based on MSU crystals injection or high-fat diet feeding; however, neither hyperuricaemia model nor acute gout model can effectively reflect clinical features of gout. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of a compound gout model induced by the combination of MSU crystals injection and high-fat diet feeding. Methods: The compound gout model was induced by high-fat diet feeding per day and the intraplantar injection of MSU crystals (1 mg) into the footpad of each mouse every 10 days. Serum uric acid, foot swelling and pain analyses were performed at days 22, 32 and 42. Gout inflammation, serum proinflammatory cytokines and gut microbiota analyses were performed only at day 42. Results: Compared to hyperuricaemia model or acute gout model, the compound gout model showed little advantages of elevating serum uric acid, causing foot swelling and gout inflammation, while it caused more severe serum inflammation and gut microbiota dysbiosis. Severe serum inflammation in the compound gout model could be reflected by the increased levels of IL-1 α, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, IFN-γ, KC, MCP-1 and MIP-1β. In addition, the compound gout model induced more alterations in the gut microbiota, including increasing levels of Desulfovibrio and Parasutterella. Conclusion: The injection of MSU and feed of high-fat diet have a combined effect on elevating serum inflammation and causing gut microbiota disorders in the process of establishing a gout model.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Dietary Fats/adverse effects , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Struvite/adverse effects , Gout/etiology , Models, Animal
3.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(5): 896-902, Nov. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055036

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: In view of the increased global prevalence of cardiovascular and hepatic diseases, the diet lipid content and its relationship with the accumulation of fat in hepatocytes have been investigated as key factors in preventing these diseases. Objective: To evaluate the metabolic effects of a high-lard diet supplemented or not with cholesterol on a modified dyslipidemia model. Methods: We divided 24 adult male Wistar rats into three groups: standard diet (STD - 4% lipids), high-lard diet (HLD - 21% lard), and high-lard and high-cholesterol diet (HL/HCD - 20% lard, 1% cholesterol, 0.1% cholic acid). After six weeks of treatment, blood and liver were collected for biochemical (serum lipid profile and liver enzymes) and morphological analyses. Statistical analysis included one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Tukey test for mean comparisons, and a 5% probability was considered statistically significant. Results: Animals fed HL/HCD showed increased total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, LDL-c, non-HDL-c, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) serum levels compared to those fed STD. In addition, the HL/HCD animals presented higher relative liver weight, with moderate macrovesicular hepatic steatosis and inflammatory infiltrate. Conclusion: A high-fat diet with lard (20%) and cholesterol (1%) triggered dyslipidemia with severe liver damage in rats in a shorter experimental time than the previously reported models. The high-lard diet without supplementation of cholesterol led to body weight gain, but not to dyslipidemia.


Resumo Fundamento: Tendo em vista o aumento da prevalência global de doenças cardiovasculares e hepáticas, o conteúdo lipídico da dieta e sua relação com o acúmulo de gordura nos hepatócitos têm sido investigados como fatores-chave na prevenção dessas doenças. Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos metabólicos de uma dieta rica em banha suplementada com colesterol ou não, em um modelo modificado de dislipidemia. Métodos: Foram divididos 24 ratos Wistar machos adultos em três grupos: dieta padrão (DP - 4% de lipídios), dieta rica em banha (DRB - 21% de banha) e dieta rica em banha e colesterol (DRB/RC - 20% de banha, 1% de colesterol e 0,1% de ácido cólico). Após seis semanas de tratamento, o sangue e o fígado foram coletados para análises bioquímicas (perfil lipídico sérico e enzimas hepáticas) e morfológicas. A análise estatística incluiu análise de variância unidirecional (ANOVA), seguida do teste de Tukey para comparações de médias. Uma probabilidade de 5% foi considerada estatisticamente significativa. Resultados: Animais alimentados com DRB/RC apresentaram um aumento nos níveis séricos de colesterol total, triacilglicerol, LDL-c, não-HDL-c, alanina aminotransferase (ALT) e aspartato aminotransferase (AST) em comparação com aqueles alimentados com DP. Além disso, os animais tratados com DRB/RC apresentaram um peso relativo do fígado maior, com esteatose hepática macrovesicular moderada e infiltrado inflamatório. Conclusão: Uma dieta rica em gordura com banha (20%) e colesterol (1%) desencadeou dislipidemia com danos graves ao fígado em ratos em um tempo experimental menor do que os modelos previamente relatados. A dieta rica em banha sem suplementação de colesterol levou ao ganho de peso corporal, mas não à dislipidemia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Dyslipidemias/chemically induced , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Metabolic Diseases/etiology , Organ Size , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Triglycerides/blood , Body Weight , Dietary Fats/adverse effects , Cholesterol/adverse effects , Cholesterol/blood , Rats, Wistar , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Dyslipidemias/metabolism , Dyslipidemias/blood , Fatty Liver/pathology , Inflammation , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Liver/metabolism , Liver/pathology , Metabolic Diseases/metabolism , Metabolic Diseases/blood
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(2): 647-653, June 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002271

ABSTRACT

Excessive consumption of carbohydrate and fat increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. We sought to determine the potential ultrastructural alterations in large blood vessels induced by a high fat and fructose diet (HFD) in a rat model of prediabetes. Rats were either fed with HFD (model group) or a standard laboratory chow (control group) for 15 weeks before being sacrificed. The harvested thoracic aorta tissues were examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and blood samples were assayed for biomarkers of pre-diabetes.TEM images showed that HFD induced profound pathological changes to the aortic wall layers, tunica intima and tunica media ultrastructures in the pre-diabetic rats as shown by apoptotic endothelial cells with pyknotic nuclei, damaged basal lamina, deteriorated smooth muscle cells that have irregular plasma membranes, shrunken nucleus with clumped nuclear chromatin, damaged mitochondria and few cytoplasmic lipid droplets and vacuoles. In addition, HFD significantly (p<0.05) decreased adiponectin and increased biomarkers of lipidemia, glycaemia, inflammation, oxidative stress, vascular injury such as soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), soluble vascular cell adhesion protein 1 (sVCAM-1), endothelin-1 (ET-1), and coagulation and thrombosis such as Von Willebrand factor (vWF), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), compared to normal levels of these parameters in the control group. Thus, we demonstrated that feeding rats with a HFDisable to develop a pre-diabetic animal model that is useful to study the aortic ultrastructural alterations.


El consumo excesivo de carbohidratos y grasas aumenta el riesgo de enfermedades cardiovasculares. Intentamos determinar las posibles alteraciones ultraestructurales en los grandes vasos sanguíneos, inducidas por una dieta alta en grasas y fructosa (HFD) en un modelo de rata de prediabetes. Las ratas se alimentaron con HFD (grupo modelo) o una comida de laboratorio estándar (grupo de control) durante 15 semanas antes de ser sacrificadas. Los tejidos de la aorta torácica recolectados se examinaron mediante microscopía electrónica de transmisión (TEM) y las muestras de sangre se analizaron para detectar biomarcadores de prediabetes. Las imágenes TEM mostraron que HFD indujo cambios patológicos profundos en las capas de la pared aórtica, túnica íntima y túnica media en la ratas pre-diabéticas como lo muestran las células endoteliales apoptóticas con núcleos picnóticos, lámina basal dañada, células musculares lisas deterioradas que tienen membranas plasmáticas irregulares, núcleo encogido con cromatina nuclear aglomerada, mitocondrias dañadas y pocas gotitas lipídicas citoplásmicas y vacuolas. Además, HFD presentó disminución significativa de adiponectina (p <0,05), y aumento de biomarcadores de lipidemia, glucemia, inflamación, estrés oxidativo, lesión vascular como la molécula de adhesión intercelular soluble 1 (sICAM-1), proteína de adhesión de células vasculares soluble 1 (sVCAM-1), endotelina 1 (ET-1), y la coagulación y la trombosis, como el factor de Von Willebrand (vWF), y el inhibidor del activador del plasminógeno-1 (PAI -1), en comparación con los niveles normales de estos parámetros en el grupo de control. Por tanto, la alimentación de ratas con HFD es capaz de desarrollar un modelo animal prediabético que es útil para estudiar las alteraciones ultraestructurales aórticas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aorta, Thoracic/pathology , Aorta, Thoracic/ultrastructure , Prediabetic State/pathology , Aorta/pathology , Aorta/ultrastructure , Prediabetic State/metabolism , Dietary Fats/adverse effects , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Disease Models, Animal , Vascular System Injuries/etiology , Vascular System Injuries/pathology , Fructose
5.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(1): 43-50, Jan. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-985007

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE To evaluate the frequency of food consumption in apparently healthy men and their association with cardiovascular risk factors and biomarkers of subclinical atherosclerosis. METHODS In this observational study, 88 men had their food standard obtained through the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Associations of dietary patterns with cardiovascular risk factors, such as anthropometric data, laboratory and clinical evaluations, carotid-femoral arterial stiffness (IMT) and pulse wave velocity were evaluated. RESULTS The highest values were observed, for most of the risk factors evaluated, with the highest frequency of weekly consumption of dairy products, meats, sweets, fats, cold meats, sodas, milk and white chocolate; and lower frequency of weekly consumption of fruits, cereals, vegetables, legumes, oilseeds, and soy. There was no significant difference for coffee and dark chocolate CONCLUSIONS A diet with high consumption of animal products has a higher correlation with cardiovascular risk factors; the opposite is true for the consumption of plant-based food, associated with the profile of more favorable biomarkers for cardiovascular health and better biochemical and structural parameters.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Avaliar a frequência do consumo alimentar de indivíduos homens aparentemente saudáveis e a associação desta com fatores de risco cardiovascular e biomarcadores de aterosclerose subclínica. MÉTODOS Neste estudo observacional, 88 homens tiveram o padrão alimentar obtido por meio do questionário de frequência alimentar (QFA). Foram avaliadas as associações dos padrões alimentares com os fatores de risco cardiovascular, como dados antropométricos, avaliações laboratoriais e clínica, rigidez arterial determinada pela carótida-femoral (IMT) e velocidade da onda de pulso (VOP). RESULTADOS O padrão observado para a maioria dos fatores de risco avaliados foi de valores mais altos, segundo maior frequência de consumo semanal de lácteos, carnes, doces, gorduras/frituras, embutidos, refrigerantes, chocolates ao leite e branco; e de menor frequência de consumo semanal de frutas, cereais, legumes, verduras, leguminosas, oleaginosas e soja. Não houve diferença significativa para café e chocolate amargo. CONCLUSÕES Uma dieta com alto consumo de produtos animais apresenta maior correlação com fatores de risco cardiovascular, sendo o oposto para o consumo de alimentos de origem vegetal, associado ao perfil de biomarcadores de saúde cardiovascular mais favorável e melhores parâmetros bioquímicos e estruturais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Dietary Fats/adverse effects , Atherosclerosis/etiology , Atherosclerosis/blood , Feeding Behavior , Food Handling , Meat/adverse effects , Triglycerides/blood , Vegetables , Biomarkers , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Pulse Wave Analysis , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Meat/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged
6.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(3): 1108-1117, Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954238

ABSTRACT

Unbalanced nutrition during perinatal period causes varying degrees of perturbations in the metabolism and cognitive functions of offspring. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of maternal and postweaning high-fat diet (HFD) exposure on the growth parameters, hippocampal functions and morphology of offspring in a sex-dependent manner. Spraque-Dawley rats were fed either standard (10 % fat) or saturated-fat (65 % fat) diet during their gestation and lactation period. After weaning, pups were sustained in same diet for 6 more weeks. Body mass index (BMI) of pups were monitored weekly, then spontaneous locomotor activities were recorded. Spatial learning and memory functions were analyzed by Morris Water Maze (MWM) test. Total volumetric changes of hippocampal subfields were estimated by Cavalieri method. HFD exposure produced sex-dependent alterations in BMI, serum lipid and activity levels. MWM results showed no significant difference among groups. However, retrieval indexes were higher in HFD-fed males. Total volumetric analysis of the dentate gyrus was comparable, but the pyramidal cell layer volume of HFD-fed males was lower than those of SD-fed males. Despite alterations in some growth and lipid parameters, maternal and perinatal exposure to HFD did not markedly affect cognitive functions and hippocampal morphology of offspring.


La nutrición desequilibrada durante el período perinatal causa diversos grados de perturbaciones en el metabolismo y las funciones cognitivas en neonatos. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar los efectos de la exposición a una dieta alta en grasas (HFD) materna y posdestete en los parámetros de crecimiento, las funciones del hipocampo y la morfología de neonatos de una manera dependiente del sexo. Ratas SpragueDawley fueron alimentadas con dieta estándar (10 % grasa) o grasa saturada (65 % grasa) durante su período de gestación y lactancia. Después del destete, las crías se mantuvieron en la misma dieta durante 6 semanas. El índice de masa corporal (IMC) de las crías se controló semanalmente, luego se registraron las actividades locomotoras espontáneas. El aprendizaje espacial y las funciones de memoria se analizaron mediante la prueba Morris Water Maze (MWM). Los cambios volumétricos totales de los subcampos del hipocampo se estimaron mediante el método de Cavalieri. La exposición a HFD produjo alteraciones dependientes del sexo en el IMC, los niveles de lípidos séricos y los niveles de actividad. Los resultados de MWM no mostraron diferencias significativas entre los grupos. Sin embargo, los índices de recuperación fueron más altos en machos alimentados con HFD. El análisis volumétrico total del giro dentado fue comparable, pero el volumen de la capa de células piramidales de los machos alimentados con HFD fue menor que el de los machos alimentados con SD. A pesar de las alteraciones en algunos parámetros lipídicos y de crecimiento, la exposición materna y perinatal a HFD no afectó marcadamente las funciones cognitivas y la morfología del hipocampo de la descendencia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Dietary Fats/adverse effects , Hippocampus/physiopathology , Hippocampus/pathology , Organ Size , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Maze Learning , Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Animals, Newborn
7.
J. health med. sci. (Print) ; 4(1): 17-21, Ene.-Mar. 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151482

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de esta revisión fue exponer el conocimiento actual sobre la relación existente entre dietas altas en grasa (DAG), alteraciones morfológicas de la mucosa intestinal, efectos inflamatorios y cáncer intestinal. Las DAG inicialmente producen aumento de la microbiota patógena, lo que reduce la cantidad y calidad de la secreción de los exocrinocitos caliciformes, disminuyendo la efectividad de la barrera intestinal. Las bacterias y sus lipopolisacaridos (LPS) promueven la secreción de citoquinas proinflamatorias activando vías de inflamación, que a su vez afectan la integridad de las uniones intercelulares alterando la barrera intestinal. Lo anterior, permite que los LPS ingresen a la lámina propia y circulación sanguínea produciendo inflamación local y sistémica. Así mismo, las DAG generan efectos nocivos en la morfología y función de la mucosa gastrointestinal lo que podría favorecer el desarrollo de cáncer. Lo anterior, podría deberse a que el consumo de DAG es capaz de aumentar la proliferación de células de la mucosa y el número y proliferación de células madres tumorales en el intestino.


The aim of this review was to present current knowledge about the relationship between high fat diets (HFD), morphological alterations of intestinal mucosa, inflammatory effects and intestinal cancer. The HFD initially produces an increase in the pathogenic microbiota, which reduces quantity and quality of secretion of goblet cells, decreasing the effectiveness of intestinal barrier. Bacteria and their lipopolysaccharides (LPS) stimulate the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by activating inflammation pathways, which in turn affect the integrity of intercellular junctions by changing intestinal barrier. The above allows the LPS enter to lamina propria and blood circulation producing local and systemic inflammation. Likewise, HFD generate deleterious effects on morphology and function of gastrointestinal mucosa, which could favor the development of cancer. This could be due to the fact that consumption of HFD is capable of increasing proliferation of mucosal cells and number and proliferation of tumor stem cells in the intestine.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dietary Fats/adverse effects , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/drug effects , Inflammation/etiology , Intestinal Mucosa/drug effects , Bile Acids and Salts/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Tight Junctions/drug effects , Gastrointestinal Tract/microbiology , Inflammation/metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa/microbiology
8.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(4): 2887-2900, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886872

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Here, we evaluated whether the exposure of rats to a cafeteria diet pre- and/or post-weaning, alters histological characteristics in the White Adipose Tissue (WAT), Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT), and liver of adult male offspring. Female Wistar rats were divided into Control (CTL; fed on standard rodent chow) and Cafeteria (CAF; fed with the cafeteria diet throughout life, including pregnancy and lactation). After birth, only male offspring (F1) were maintained and received the CTL or CAF diets; originating four experimental groups: CTL-CTLF1; CTL-CAFF1; CAF-CTLF1; CAF-CAFF1. Data of biometrics, metabolic parameters, liver, BAT and WAT histology were assessed and integrated using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA). According to PCA analysis worse metabolic and biometric characteristics in adulthood are associated with the post-weaning CAF diet compared to pre and post weaning CAF diet. Thus, the CTL-CAFF1 group showed obesity, higher deposition of fat in the liver and BAT and high fasting plasma levels of glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol. Interestingly, the association between pre and post-weaning CAF diet attenuated the obesity and improved the plasma levels of glucose and triglycerides compared to CTL-CAFF1 without avoiding the higher lipid accumulation in BAT and in liver, suggesting that the impact of maternal CAF diet is tissue-specific.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Adipose Tissue, Brown/pathology , Dietary Fats/adverse effects , Diet , Adipose Tissue, White/pathology , Lipids/blood , Liver/pathology , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Weaning , Energy Intake , Rats, Wistar
9.
Rev. costarric. salud pública ; 25(2): 20-27, jul.-dic. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-844768

ABSTRACT

ResumenObjetivo:Capacitar personal de servicios de alimentación comercial sobre el manejo de las grasas residuales, con énfasis en el daño que ocasionan a la salud pública, nutrición del consumidor y al ambiente.Metodología: Se desarrollan tres capacitaciones, que inician con un diagnóstico sobre el manejo de las grasas residuales a una muestra aleatoria de 80 dueños o concesionarios de servicios de alimentación comercial de la Municipalidad de Montes de Oca. Los resultados permiten establecer los contenidos de la capacitación, los cuales se basan en las pautas para freír los alimentos y la eliminación adecuada de la grasa residual.Resultados: Se capacitan 70 personas de 22 negocios. Hay cambios en la frecuencia de uso, filtrado y almacenamientos de los aceites.Conclusión: La educación brindada produjo cambios positivos en favor de la salud, pero se requiere actividades de actualización periódicas.


AbstractObjective:Train personnel of food service business on the management of waste fat, with an emphasis on damage caused to public health, consumer and environment nutrition.Methodology: Develop three training sessions, starting with a diagnosis on the management of waste fats to a random sample of 80 owners or licensees of the municipality of Montes de Oca commercial food service. The results allow to establish the contents of the training, which is based on guidelines for frying food and proper disposal of residual grease.Results:70 people of 22 business are trained. There are changes in the frequency of use, filtering and storage of oils.Conclusion:that provided education produced positive changes in health, but requires periodic update activities.


Subject(s)
Restaurants , Environmental Health/education , Environmental Pollutants , Environmental Pollution/analysis , Fats/adverse effects , Dietary Fats/adverse effects , Costa Rica
11.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 105(5): 479-486, Nov. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-765003

ABSTRACT

AbstractBackground:Although nutritional, metabolic and cardiovascular abnormalities are commonly seen in experimental studies of obesity, it is uncertain whether these effects result from the treatment or from body adiposity.Objective:To evaluate the influence of treatment and body composition on metabolic and cardiovascular aspects in rats receiving high saturated fat diet.Methods:Sixteen Wistar rats were used, distributed into two groups, the control (C) group, treated with isocaloric diet (2.93 kcal/g) and an obese (OB) group, treated with high-fat diet (3.64 kcal/g). The study period was 20 weeks. Analyses of nutritional behavior, body composition, glycemia, cholesterolemia, lipemia, systolic arterial pressure, echocardiography, and cardiac histology were performed.Results:High-fat diet associates with manifestations of obesity, accompanied by changes in glycemia, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, and myocardial interstitial fibrosis. After adjusting for adiposity, the metabolic effects were normalized, whereas differences in morphometric changes between groups were maintained.Conclusion:It was concluded that adiposity body composition has a stronger association with metabolic disturbances in obese rodents, whereas the high-fat dietary intervention is found to be more related to cardiac morphological changes in experimental models of diet-induced obesity.


Fundamento:Embora anormalidades nutricionais, metabólicas e cardiovasculares sejam comuns a diversos experimentos de obesidade, ainda não está esclarecido se tais efeitos são resultantes do tratamento ou da adiposidade corporal.Objetivo:Analisar a influência do tratamento e da composição corporal sobre aspectos metabólicos e cardiovasculares de ratos submetidos a dieta hiperlipídica.Métodos:Foram utilizados 16 ratos Wistar, distribuídos em dois grupos, Controle (C), tratado com dieta normocalórica (2,93 kcal/g), e Obeso (OB), que recebeu dieta hiperlipídica (3,64 kcal/g). O período de estudo foi de 20 semanas. Posteriormente, foram realizadas análises do comportamento nutricional e murinométrico, glicemia, colesterolemia, lipidemia, pressão arterial sistólica, ecocardiograma e aspectos histológicos do coração.Resultados:A dieta hiperlipídica associa-se com manifestações de obesidade, acompanhada de alterações da glicemia, hipertrofia cardiomiocitária e fibrose intersticial do miocárdio. Quando ajustados aos valores de adiposidade, os efeitos metabólicos foram normalizados, enquanto que as alterações morfométricas mantiveram-se diferentes entre os grupos C e OB.Conclusão:Conclui-se que a adiposidade está mais associada com anormalidades metabólicas em obesos. A intervenção hiperlipídica mostra-se mais relacionada com modificações morfológicas do coração em experimentos de obesidade induzida por dieta.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Diet, High-Fat , Disease Models, Animal , Dietary Fats/adverse effects , Obesity/metabolism , Obesity/physiopathology , Ventricular Remodeling/physiology , Adipose Tissue/physiopathology , Arterial Pressure/physiology , Body Composition , Body Weight , Blood Glucose/analysis , Cholesterol/blood , Echocardiography , Energy Intake , Hyperglycemia , Rats, Wistar , Statistics, Nonparametric , Time Factors
12.
Clinics ; 70(3): 180-184, 03/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-747104

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Carotid artery stenting is an emerging revascularization alternative to carotid endarterectomy. However, guidelines have recommended carotid artery stenting only if the rate of periprocedural stroke or death is < 6% among symptomatic patients and < 3% among asymptomatic patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare clinical outcomes of symptomatic and asymptomatic patients who had undergone carotid artery stenting as a first-intention treatment. METHOD: A retrospective analysis of patients who underwent carotid artery stenting by our interventional neuroradiology team was conducted. Patients were divided into two groups: symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. The primary endpoints were ipsilateral ischemic stroke, ipsilateral parenchymal hemorrhage and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events at 30 days. The secondary endpoints included ipsilateral ischemic stroke, ipsilateral parenchymal hemorrhage, ipsilateral transient ischemic attack and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events between the 1- and 12-month follow-ups. RESULTS: A total of 200 consecutive patients were evaluated. The primary endpoints obtained in the symptomatic vs. asymptomatic groups were ipsilateral stroke (2.4% vs. 2.7%, p = 1.00), ipsilateral parenchymal hemorrhage (0.8% vs. 0.0%, p = 1.00) and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (4.7% vs. 2.7%, p = 0.71). The secondary endpoints obtained in the symptomatic vs. asymptomatic groups were ipsilateral ischemic stroke (0.0% vs. 0.0%), ipsilateral parenchymal hemorrhage (0.0% vs. 0.0%), ipsilateral TIA (0.0% vs. 0.0%, p = 1.00) and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (11.2% vs. 4.1%, p = 0.11). CONCLUSIONS: In this retrospective study, carotid artery stenting was similarly safe and effective when performed as a first-intention treatment in both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. The ...


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Dietary Fats/administration & dosage , Ovarian Neoplasms/epidemiology , Diet/adverse effects , Dietary Fats/adverse effects , Fruit , Ovarian Neoplasms/etiology , Ovarian Neoplasms/pathology , Risk Factors , Vegetables
13.
Claves odontol ; 21(72): 19-26, jul. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-726057

ABSTRACT

Diferentes autores han descrito a la enfermedad periodontal como un factor de riesgo de ateroesclerosis. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar la posible relación entre las bacterias periodontopatógenas y alteraciones cardiovasculares en modelos murinos con ingesta hiperlipídica. Se utilizaron 30 ratas Wistar divididas en un grupo control (n=5) y tres grupos experimentales (n=15): Grupo I (n=5): dieta normal e infectados; Grupo II (n=5): dieta hiperlipídica y sin infectar y Grupo III (n=5): dieta hiperlipídica e infectados. La infección del surco gingival se logró previa sedación a través de hilos de sutura contaminados, colocados durante 6 días consecutivos, con Pophyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) (5x10a-4 UFC) y Agregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans) (5x10-4 UFC) obtnidas de muestras de pacientes con periodontitis crónica. A los 30 días posinfección se fijaron muestras de corazón y arteria aorta para su procesamiento. En el grupo control no se encontraron alteraciones. En el grupo I se observó en el endocardio valvular abundante exudado fibrinoleucocitario y focos hemorrágicos. En el miocardio, neovascularización y sufusiones hemorrágicos y en la pared de vasos arteriales, engrosamiento intimal. En el grupo II se observaron depósitos lipídicos en el interior de las células endoteliales, estrías grasas y pequeños ateromas. El grupo III mostró en un 100 por ciento de los casos, placas ateromatosas bien detalladas con abundante depósito de colesterol, calcificaciones, hemorragias y neovascularización. La suma de estos factores de riesgo: dieta hiperlipídica e infección con bacterias periodontopatógenas, potenciarían la expresión de alteraciones cardíacas y coronarias, incrementando la formación de ateromas


Subject(s)
Humans , Rats , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Periodontal Diseases/microbiology , Dietary Fats/adverse effects , Atherosclerosis/prevention & control , Periodontal Pocket/microbiology , Colony Count, Microbial , Histological Techniques , Myocardium/ultrastructure , Periodontitis/etiology , Porphyromonas gingivalis/pathogenicity , Risk Factors
14.
Acta cir. bras ; 29(supl.1): 39-44, 2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-720397

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of dietary lipid quantity and/or quality on penis morphology in adult rats. METHODS: Thirty-eight male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: normal lipid diet (NL), high-fat diet rich in saturated fatty acids (HF-S), high-fat diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (HF-P), and high-fat diet rich in saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (HF-SP). Blood samples were collected and the penises were removed for histomorphometrical and immunohistochemical analysis. RESULTS: All high-fat diets promoted an increase in the body mass (p<0.0001). The HF-S and HF-SP groups presented hyperglycemia (p=0.0060), hyperinsulinemia (p=0.0030), and hypercholesterolemia (p=0.0020). Concerning the penis, the high-fat diets led to an increase in the collagen fibers (p<0.0001) and smooth muscle cell density area (p=0.0027), and a decline in the sinusoidal space density area (p<0.0001) and corpus cavernosum cell proliferation (p=0.0003). CONCLUSION: Diets rich in saturated and/or polyunsaturated fatty acids promoted overweight and induced penile changes in rodent models, which may lead to the development of erectile dysfunction. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Dietary Fats/adverse effects , Erectile Dysfunction/etiology , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated/adverse effects , Penis/pathology , Actins/analysis , Collagen/analysis , Dietary Fats/metabolism , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated/metabolism , Models, Animal , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle/metabolism , Overweight/metabolism , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen/analysis , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Risk Factors
15.
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 57(6): 464-472, ago. 2013. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-685409

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Investigar a associação entre consumo de alimentos embutidos e obesidade generalizada, abdominal e generalizada com abdominal em nipo-brasileiros de Bauru, SP. SUJEITOS E MÉTODOS: Quatrocentos e quarenta e três mulheres e 329 homens nipo-brasileiros não miscigenados (≥ 30 anos) foram avaliados em estudo transversal de base populacional. Para o diagnóstico de obesidade, foram empregados os critérios da Organização Mundial da Saúde para asiáticos. A ingestão de alimentos foi avaliada por meio de questionário de frequência alimentar validado. A ingestão foi estratificada em terços para análise. RESULTADOS: Nos homens, a ingestão de colesterol e alimentos embutidos mostrou-se positivamente associada à obesidade generalizada com abdominal quando o primeiro terço de ingestão foi comparado ao último, após ajustes (OR 2,97; IC95% 1,13-7,78). Em mulheres, somente o grupo das carnes vermelhas associou-se à obesidade geral com abdominal após ajustes (OR 0,47; IC95% 0,23-0,96). CONCLUSÃO: Ingestão elevada de alimentos embutidos associou-se à obesidade generalizada com adiposidade abdominal em homens nipo-brasileiros, mas não em mulheres.


OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the consumption of processed meat with overall, abdominal, and overall with abdominal obesity in a Japanese-Brazilian population, which is known to be at cardiometabolic risk. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 329 men and 443 women aged ≥ 30 years were evaluated in a cross-sectional population-based survey. Diagnosis of overall obesity and abdominal obesity were based on the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for Asians. Food intake was assessed by a validated food frequency questionaire. RESULTS: In men, processed meat intake was positively associated with overall with abdominal obesity (OR 2.97; 95%CI 1.13-7.78) after adjustment. In women, only the red meat group was associated with overall with abdominal obesity after adjustment (OR 0.47, 95%CI 0.23-0.96). CONCLUSION: Our results showed that high intakes of processed meats were associated with overall with abdominal obesity in male Japanese-Brazilians, but not in females.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Dietary Fats/adverse effects , Meat Products/adverse effects , Meat/adverse effects , Obesity/etiology , Asians , Body Mass Index , Brazil/epidemiology , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Cross-Sectional Studies , Feeding Behavior , Japan/ethnology , Lipids/adverse effects , Lipids/blood , Obesity, Abdominal/etiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Population Surveillance , Sex Distribution , Surveys and Questionnaires , Waist-Hip Ratio
17.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1430-1437, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-100956

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Obesity has been suggested to be linked to asthma. However, it is not yet known whether obesity directly leads to airway hyperreactivity (AHR) or obesity-induced airway inflammation associated with asthma. We investigated obesity-related changes in adipokines, AHR, and lung inflammation in a murine model of asthma and obesity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We developed mouse models of chronic asthma via ovalbumin (OVA)-challenge and of obesity by feeding a high-fat diet, and then performed the methacholine bronchial provocation test, and real-time PCR for leptin, leptin receptor, adiponectin, adiponectin receptor (adipor1 and 2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor (TGF) beta, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha in lung tissue. We also measured cell counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. RESULTS: Both obese and lean mice chronically exposed to OVA developed eosinophilic lung inflammation and AHR to methacholine. However, obese mice without OVA challenge did not develop AHR or eosinophilic inflammation in lung tissue. In obese mice, lung mRNA expressions of leptin, leptin receptor, VEGF, TGF, and TNF were enhanced, and adipor1 and 2 expressions were decreased compared to mice in the control group. On the other hand, there were no differences between obese mice with or without OVA challenge. CONCLUSION: Diet-induced mild obesity may not augment AHR or eosinophilic lung inflammation in asthma.


Subject(s)
Animals , Asthma/physiopathology , Bronchial Hyperreactivity/physiopathology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/chemistry , Dietary Fats/adverse effects , Mice , Obesity/etiology , Pneumonia/physiopathology , Transforming Growth Factors/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism
18.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-651886

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: Se ha reportado una mayor tasa de caries en pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM), probablemente debido a cambios en los patrones de dieta. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar si existe una asociación entre la composición de macronutrientes de la dieta y la caries en sujetos con DM. Métodos: Una muestra compuesta por 33 sujetos con DM y 37 controles sin la patología fue examinada para determinar la experiencia de caries mediante el índice COPD y la prevalencia de caries radiculares con ICDAS II. Se aplicó una encuesta de dieta de reporte de 24 horas. Para determinar la composición de la dieta, los alimentos fueron clasificados acorde al contenido de macronutrientes; carbohidratos, proteínas y lípidos (gramos/día, kilocalorías y porcentaje del nutriente/día). Resultados: Los resultados fueron analizados mediante Kruskal-Wallis y Mann-Whitney. Un análisis de correlación y un modelo de regresión lineal se utilizaron para analizar la asociación entre composición de macronutrientes y la tasa de caries coronales y radiculares, con un nivel de significancia del 95 por ciento. Resultados: Los pacientes diabéticos tipo 2 mostraron mayor número de dientes perdidos por caries, más dientes obturados y más caries radiculares (p<0.05) que los controles sin DM. Los diabéticos presentaron menor consumo de carbohidratos (p=0.021), pero mayor consumo de proteínas (p=0.0405) que los controles. Se verificó una asociación directa entre un mayor consumo de proteínas con una tasa mayor de caries radiculares en pacientes con DM (p<0.001). Conclusión: Las diferencias en el consumo de macronutrientes en pacientes con DM no se relacionan con tasas diferenciales de caries coronales, pero un mayor consumo de proteínas se asocia con una mayor prevalencia de caries radiculares.


Objectives: Higher caries rates have been reported for type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (DM). Changes in dietary patterns may be partly responsible. The aim of this study was to examine a potential association between dietary macronutrient composition and caries experience in DM patients. Methods: Thirty three adults with DM and thirty seven controls, not affected by DM, were examined to assess coronal caries through DMFT index and root caries by ICDAS II. A 24-hr diet recall survey was used to determine dietary macronutrient composition supplemented with standardized tables and expressed as grams /day, kilocalories/nutrient and percentage of nutrient/day. Results were compared using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney. A correlation analysis was performed and a linear regression model was built for a potential association between macronutrient composition and coronal or root caries. A 95 percent significance level was set. Results: DM patients showed lower remaining teeth, more fillings and more root caries (p<0.05) than controls. Lower carbohydrate consumption (p=0.021), but higher protein intake (p=0.0405) was observed in DM patients as compared with controls. A statistically significant association between an increased protein consumption and higher percentage of root caries was found in DM patients (p<0.001). Conclusion: Although differences in macronutrient consumption in DM patients are not correlated with differential rates of coronal caries, higher protein consumption appears to be associated with higher prevalence of root caries.


Subject(s)
Aged , Dental Caries/etiology , /complications , Nutrients , Age Factors , Dietary Carbohydrates/adverse effects , Root Caries/etiology , DMF Index , Dietary Fats/adverse effects , Linear Models , Dietary Proteins/adverse effects
19.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 45(7): 625-631, July 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-639467

ABSTRACT

High saturated and trans fatty acid intake, the typical dietary pattern of Western populations, favors a proinflammatory status that contributes to generating insulin resistance (IR). We examined whether the consumption of these fatty acids was associated with IR and inflammatory markers. In this cross-sectional study, 127 non-diabetic individuals were allocated to a group without IR and 56 to another with IR, defined as homeostasis model assessment-IR (HOMA-IR) >2.71. Diet was assessed using 24-h food recalls. Multiple linear regression was employed to test independent associations with HOMA-IR. The IR group presented worse anthropometric, biochemical and inflammatory profiles. Energy intake was correlated with abdominal circumference and inversely with adiponectin concentrations (r = -0.227, P = 0.002), while saturated fat intake correlated with inflammatory markers and trans fat with HOMA-IR (r = 0.160, P = 0.030). Abdominal circumference was associated with HOMA-IR (r = 0.430, P < 0.001). In multiple analysis, HOMA-IR remained associated with trans fat intake (β = 1.416, P = 0.039) and body mass index (β = 0.390, P < 0.001), and was also inversely associated with adiponectin (β = -1.637, P = 0.004). Inclusion of other nutrients (saturated fat and added sugar) or other inflammatory markers (IL-6 and CRP) into the models did not modify these associations. Our study supports that trans fat intake impairs insulin sensitivity. The hypothesis that its effect could depend on transcription factors, resulting in expression of proinflammatory genes, was not corroborated. We speculate that trans fat interferes predominantly with insulin signaling via intracellular kinases, which alter insulin receptor substrates.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Dietary Fats/adverse effects , Energy Intake/physiology , Inflammation/blood , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Trans Fatty Acids/adverse effects , Body Mass Index , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Glucose/analysis , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Homeostasis , /blood , Trans Fatty Acids/administration & dosage
20.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 58(3): 383-387, May-June 2012. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-639565

ABSTRACT

A obesidade vem aumentando significativamente em todo o mundo, e os fatores ambientais, como o consumo excessivo de alimentos e o sedentarismo, são os principais fatores relacionados com a gênese dessa doença. Em animais de laboratório, a gênese da obesidade está relacionada, em sua maioria, com mutações genéticas, porém esse modelo é muito distante do encontrado nos humanos. A adoção de dietas hipercalóricas ou hiperlipídicas vem sendo utilizada como modelo de indução da obesidade em animais, devido à sua semelhança com a gênese e às respostas metabólicas decorrentes da obesidade em humanos. Assim, o objetivo dessa revisão de literatura é apresentar os diferentes tipos de dietas utilizadas para a indução da obesidade em roedores, as modificações metabólicas induzidas e identificar alguns cuidados que devem ser tomados para que esse modelo seja eficaz para o estudo das complicações relacionadas com a obesidade. Realizou-se busca na base de dados PubMed utilizando as expressões: 1-"hipercaloric diet" AND "rodent", 2- "hiperlipidic diet" AND "rodent", sendo selecionadas aquelas consideradas mais relevantes a partir dos critérios: data de publicação (1995-2011), a utilização de animais wild type, a descrição detalhada sobre a dieta utilizada e a análise de parâmetros bioquímicos e vasculares de interesse. Foram inseridas referências para introduzir assuntos como o aumento da prevalência da obesidade e questões relacionadas com a gênese da obesidade em humanos. Podemos considerar eficiente o modelo de obesidade induzida por dieta em roedores quando o objetivo é o estudo da fisiopatologia das complicações metabólicas e vasculares associadas à obesidade.


Obesity has been significantly increasing worldwide, and environmental factors such as excessive food intake and sedentary lifestyle are the main factors related to the genesis of this disease. In laboratory animals, the genesis of obesity is related mostly to genetic mutations, but this model is far from that found in humans. The use of hypercaloric or hyperlipidemic diets has been used as a model of obesity induction in animals, because of its similarity to the genesis and metabolic responses caused by obesity in humans. The objective of this review is to show the different types of diets used to induce obesity in rodents, the induced metabolic alterations, and to identify some points that should be taken into account so that the model can be effective for the study of obesity-related complications. A search was performed in the PubMed database using the following keywords: 1- "hypercaloric diet" AND "rodent", 2- "hyperlipidic diet" AND "rodent", selecting those considered the most relevant according to the following criteria: date of publication (1995-2011); the use of wild-type animals; detailed description of the diet used and analysis of biochemical and vascular parameters of interest. References were included to introduce subjects such as the increased prevalence of obesity and questions related to the genesis of obesity in humans. The model of diet-induced obesity in rodents can be considered effective when the objective is the study of the physiopathology of metabolic and vascular complications associated with obesity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Dietary Fats/adverse effects , Metabolic Diseases/etiology , Obesity/etiology , Vascular Diseases/etiology , Animal Feed , Disease Models, Animal , Metabolic Diseases/metabolism , Obesity/metabolism , Vascular Diseases/metabolism
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