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1.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(3): e9039, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089345

ABSTRACT

We previously reported that both the high-carbohydrate diet (HCD) and high-fat diet (HFD) given for two months promote lipid deposition and inflammation in the liver and brain of mice. The results obtained indicate a tissue-specific response to both diets. Herein, we compared the effects of HCD and HFD on fatty acid (FA) composition and inflammation in the gastrocnemius muscle. Male Swiss mice were fed with HCD or HFD for 1 or 2 months. Saturated FA (SFA), monounsaturated FA (MUFA), n-3 polyunsaturated FA (n-3 PUFA), and n-6 PUFA were quantified. The activities of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD-1), Δ-6 desaturase (D6D), elongase 6, and de novo lipogenesis (DNL) were estimated. As for indicators of the inflammatory tissue state, we measured myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and gene expression of F4/80, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, and IL-10. The HCD led to a lower deposition of SFA, MUFA, n-3 PUFA, and n-6 PUFA compared to HFD. However, the HCD increased arachidonic acid levels, SFA/n-3 PUFA ratio, DNL, SCD-1, D6D, and MPO activities, and expression of IL-6, contrasting with the general idea that increased lipid deposition is associated with more intense inflammation. The HCD was more potent to induce skeletal muscle inflammation than the HFD, regardless of the lower lipid accumulation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Dietary Carbohydrates/administration & dosage , Dietary Fats/administration & dosage , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Body Weight , Energy Intake , Dietary Carbohydrates/metabolism , Dietary Fats/metabolism , Gene Expression
2.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 145(9): 1099-1105, set. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-902593

ABSTRACT

Background: It is known that some nutrients play an important role in the development of cholelithiasis. Cholesterol is carried by micelles and vesicles in the bile. During the first stage of gallstone formation, cholesterol crystals derive from thermodynamically unstable vesicles. Aim: To determine the effect of a high fat diet on blood lipids and bile composition, and its implication in the formation of gallstones. Material and Methods: Two groups of 15 BALB/c mice each, coming from the same litter, were treated with a control or with a high-fat diet (64% fat and 0.14% cholesterol). After two months, the animals were sacrificed, blood and bile samples were obtained. Serum glucose and the corresponding lipid profiles were measured. In bile samples, cholesterol and phospholipid levels were analyzed, and cholesterol transporters (vesicles and micelles) were separated by gel filtration chromatography. Results: Treated animals showed an 87% increase in serum total cholesterol (p < 0.01), a 97% increase in HDL-cholesterol (p < 0.05) and a 140% increase in LDL-cholesterol (p < 0.05). No changes in serum triglycerides or glucose were observed. In bile, a 13% increase in biliary cholesterol (p < 0.05) was observed but no change in biliary phospholipids. Also, an increase in biliary vesicular transporters and an increase of cholesterol/phospholipid ratio in vesicular transporters were observed. Conclusions: A high fat diet may contribute to the formation of gallstones in our experimental model.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Dietary Fats/metabolism , Gallstones/etiology , Gallstones/metabolism , Cholesterol/metabolism , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Phospholipids/metabolism , Bile/chemistry , Biological Transport , Dietary Fats/analysis , Cholesterol/analysis , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Models, Animal , Gallbladder/metabolism , Mice, Inbred BALB C
3.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(5): e5129, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951677

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of exercise training on triglyceride deposition and the expression of musclin and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) in a rat model of insulin resistance. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats (8 weeks old, weight 160±10 g) were fed a high-fat diet (40% calories from fat) and randomly divided into high-fat control group and swimming intervention group. Rats fed with standard food served as normal control. We found that 8-week swimming intervention significantly decreased body weight (from 516.23±46.27 to 455.43±32.55 g) and visceral fat content (from 39.36±2.50 to 33.02±2.24 g) but increased insulin sensitivity index of the rats fed with a high-fat diet. Moreover, swimming intervention improved serum levels of TG (from 1.40±0.83 to 0.58±0.26 mmol/L) and free fatty acids (from 837.80±164.25 to 556.38±144.77 μEq/L) as well as muscle triglycerides deposition (from 0.55±0.06 to 0.45±0.02 mmol/g) in rats fed a high-fat diet. Compared with rats fed a standard food, musclin expression was significantly elevated, while GLUT4 expression was decreased in the muscles of rats fed a high-fat diet. In sharp contrast, swimming intervention significantly reduced the expression of musclin and increased the expression of GLUT4 in the muscles of rats fed a high-fat diet. In conclusion, increased musclin expression may be associated with insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, and exercise training improves lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity probably by upregulating GLUT4 and downregulating musclin.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Insulin Resistance/genetics , Dietary Fats/administration & dosage , Glucose Transporter Type 4/metabolism , Lipid Metabolism/genetics , Muscle Proteins/metabolism , Physical Conditioning, Animal , Time Factors , Transcription Factors , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Dietary Fats/metabolism , Random Allocation , Gene Expression Regulation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Glucose Transporter Type 4/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Muscle Proteins/genetics
4.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2015 May; 53(5): 264-272
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158445

ABSTRACT

In this study, we explored the effects of long-term consumption of a high-sugar high-fat diet on glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in rats. Rats were fed with either standard rat chow diet (NC group) or high-sugar high-fat diet (HSHF group) for 16 weeks. The HSHF group showed significantly higher fasting insulin level than NC group. Following intraperitoneal glucose challenge, blood glucose and insulin levels in the NC and HSHF groups increased. However, the magnitude of the response in NC group was low compared to HSHF group. Insulin resistance was higher in HSHF group and insulin sensitivity decreased significantly (P <0.05) in HSHF group in contrast to NC group. Low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride (TG)/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels showed significant increase in HSHF group, while triglyceride and total cholesterol levels did not show any difference. The study demonstrated that feeding high-sugar high-fat diet to the experimental Sprague-Dawley rats for 16 weeks increased possibility of insulin resistance in them but did not turn them hyperglycemic or diabetic. Thus, they prove to be a suitable animal model to explore various aspects of insulin resistance.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cholesterol/analysis , Diabetes Mellitus , Diet , Dietary Fats/metabolism , Dietary Sucrose/metabolism , Hyperglycemia , Insulin Resistance/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Triglycerides/analysis
5.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(1): 70-79, 01/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-697675

ABSTRACT

Maintenance of thermal homeostasis in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) is associated with changes in their thermal balance. The thermodynamic relationship between heat dissipation and energy storage is altered by the ingestion of high-energy diet content. Observation of thermal registers of core temperature behavior, in humans and rodents, permits identification of some characteristics of time series, such as autoreference and stationarity that fit adequately to a stochastic analysis. To identify this change, we used, for the first time, a stochastic autoregressive model, the concepts of which match those associated with physiological systems involved and applied in male HFD rats compared with their appropriate standard food intake age-matched male controls (n=7 per group). By analyzing a recorded temperature time series, we were able to identify when thermal homeostasis would be affected by a new diet. The autoregressive time series model (AR model) was used to predict the occurrence of thermal homeostasis, and this model proved to be very effective in distinguishing such a physiological disorder. Thus, we infer from the results of our study that maximum entropy distribution as a means for stochastic characterization of temperature time series registers may be established as an important and early tool to aid in the diagnosis and prevention of metabolic diseases due to their ability to detect small variations in thermal profile.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Diet, High-Fat , Dietary Fats/metabolism , Energy Intake/physiology , Energy Metabolism/physiology , Algorithms , Models, Biological , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Stochastic Processes , Time Factors
6.
Acta cir. bras ; 29(supl.1): 39-44, 2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-720397

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of dietary lipid quantity and/or quality on penis morphology in adult rats. METHODS: Thirty-eight male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: normal lipid diet (NL), high-fat diet rich in saturated fatty acids (HF-S), high-fat diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (HF-P), and high-fat diet rich in saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (HF-SP). Blood samples were collected and the penises were removed for histomorphometrical and immunohistochemical analysis. RESULTS: All high-fat diets promoted an increase in the body mass (p<0.0001). The HF-S and HF-SP groups presented hyperglycemia (p=0.0060), hyperinsulinemia (p=0.0030), and hypercholesterolemia (p=0.0020). Concerning the penis, the high-fat diets led to an increase in the collagen fibers (p<0.0001) and smooth muscle cell density area (p=0.0027), and a decline in the sinusoidal space density area (p<0.0001) and corpus cavernosum cell proliferation (p=0.0003). CONCLUSION: Diets rich in saturated and/or polyunsaturated fatty acids promoted overweight and induced penile changes in rodent models, which may lead to the development of erectile dysfunction. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Dietary Fats/adverse effects , Erectile Dysfunction/etiology , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated/adverse effects , Penis/pathology , Actins/analysis , Collagen/analysis , Dietary Fats/metabolism , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated/metabolism , Models, Animal , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle/metabolism , Overweight/metabolism , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen/analysis , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Risk Factors
7.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(3): 777-783, July-Sept. 2013. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-699810

ABSTRACT

In the present study, the cells of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BI-01) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (LAC-04) were encapsulated in cocoa butter using spray-chilling technology. Survival assays were conducted to evaluate the resistance of the probiotics to the spray-chilling process, their resistance to the simulated gastric and intestinal fluids (SGF and SIF), and their stability during 90 days of storage. The viability of the cells was not affected by microencapsulation. The free and encapsulated cells of B. animalis subsp. lactis were resistant to both SGF and SIF. The micro-encapsulated cells of L. acidophilus were more resistant to SGF and SIF than the free cells; the viability of the encapsulated cells was enhanced by 67%, while the free cells reached the detection limit of the method (10³ CFU/g). The encapsulated probiotics were unstable when they were stored at 20 °C. The population of encapsulated L. acidophilus decreased drastically when they were stored at 7 °C; only 20% of cells were viable after 90 days of storage. The percentage of viable cells of the encapsulated B. animalis subsp.lactis, however, was 72% after the same period of storage. Promising results were obtained when the microparticles were stored at -18 °C; the freeze granted 90 days of shelf life to the encapsulated cells. These results suggest that the spray-chilling process using cocoa butter as carrier protects L. acidophilus from gastrointestinal fluids. However, the viability of the cells during storage must be improved.


Subject(s)
Bifidobacterium/physiology , Biotechnology/methods , Drug Compounding/methods , Lactobacillus acidophilus/physiology , Microbial Viability/drug effects , Microbial Viability/radiation effects , Probiotics/pharmacology , Aerosols , Drug Stability , Dietary Fats/metabolism , Temperature , Technology, Pharmaceutical/methods
8.
Hig. aliment ; 27(216/217): 93-97, jan.-fev. 2013. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-707878

ABSTRACT

O objetivo do presente trabalho consiste em uma revisão bibliográfica sobre os efeitos do consumo de ácidos graxos trans sobre a saúde do consumidor, servindo como veículo de alerta e informando sobre as quantidades diárias indicadas pelos órgãos competentes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Trans Fatty Acids/adverse effects , Dietary Fats/metabolism , Hydrogenation , Trans Fatty Acids/administration & dosage , Food Labeling , Industrialized Foods , Nutritional Facts
9.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 45(11): 1086-1094, Nov. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-650571

ABSTRACT

We identified different lipemic and metabolic responses after the ingestion of a standardized meal by healthy adults and related them to atherosclerotic markers. Samples from 60 normolipidemic adults were collected before and after a liquid meal (40 g fat/m² body surface) at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h for measurements of lipids, free fatty acids (FFA), insulin, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), autoantibodies to epitopes of oxidized LDL (oxLDL Ab), lipolytic activities, and apolipoprotein E polymorphism. Mean carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) was determined by Doppler ultrasound. The volunteers were classified into early (N = 39) and late (N = 31) triacylglycerol (TAG) responders to the test meal. Late responders showed lower HDL cholesterol concentration at fasting and in the TAG peak, lower insulin and higher FFA concentrations compared to early responders. Multivariate regression analyses showed that mean cIMT was associated with gender (male) and age in early responders and by cholesterol levels at the 6th hour in late responders. oxLDL Ab were explained by lipoprotein lipase and negatively by hepatic lipase and oxLDL Ab (fasting period) by CETP (negative) and FFA (positive). This study is the first to identify a postalimentary insulin resistance state, combined with a reduced CETP response exclusively among late responders, and the identification of the regulators of postalimentary atherogenicity. Further research is required to determine the metabolic mechanisms described in the different postalimentary phenotypes observed in this study, as well as in different pathological states, as currently investigated in our laboratory.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Arteriosclerosis/etiology , Dietary Fats/administration & dosage , Arteriosclerosis/blood , Arteriosclerosis/metabolism , Body Mass Index , Biomarkers/blood , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Dietary Fats/metabolism , Hyperlipidemias
10.
São Paulo; s.n; 2012. 158 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-666584

ABSTRACT

Introdução A obesidade está associada a um quadro de inflamação crônica e de baixa intensidade, que predispõe à resistência à ação da insulina e ao desenvolvimento do diabetes mellitus (DM) tipo 2. O aumento da concentração sanguínea de ácidos graxos não esterificados e de citocinas pró-inflamatórias eleva a expressão hepática de quinases (quinase do inibidor do fator nuclear kappa B (IKK)- e a c-jun N-terminal quinase (JNK)) que aumentam a resposta inflamatória e prejudicam a via de sinalização da insulina. A erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis) contém compostos bioativos que apresentam a capacidade de reduzir a expressão de genes envolvidos na resposta inflamatória. Objetivo Investigar o efeito da ingestão do extrato aquoso de erva-mate (EAEM) sobre a resposta inflamatória e via de sinalização da insulina no fígado de ratos alimentados com ração hiperlipídica (HL). Métodos Ratos Wistar, machos, foram submetidos à dieta controle (CON) (n= 18) ou HL (n= 18) durante 12 semanas. Após esse período, seis animais de cada grupo foram eutanasiados, enquanto o restante dos animais foi distribuído em grupos que receberam, ou não, por gavagem, o EAEM (1 g/kg massa corporal/dia) durante quatro semanas. Após esse período, todos os animais foram eutanasiados e determinou-se as concentrações de glicose, insulina, colesterol total, HDL-colesterol, LDL-colesterol, VLDL-colesterol, triacilgliceróis (TAG), leptina, adiponectina, TNF-, IL-6, inibidor do ativador do plasminogênio-1 (PAI-1) e a MCP-1 e a atividade sérica das enzimas alanina aminotransferase (ALT) e aspartato aminotransferase (AST). Foi realizada análise histológica para verificação da infiltração de lipídios. Foi avaliada também a composição corporal dos animais. Para a análise da expressão das proteínas JNK, IKK-, AKT e IRS-1 nas suas formas totais e fosforiladas, e da proteína NF-B, na sua forma fosforilada, um grupo de animais (n = 36) foi submetido ao mesmo protocolo experimental, porém neste foi realizada a inf...


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Diet , Dietary Fats/metabolism , Inflammation , Ilex paraguariensis/chemistry , Insulin/metabolism , Metabolism , Eating , Liver/chemistry , Biomarkers/chemistry , Obesity , Rats, Wistar
11.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2012. 69 f p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-756246

ABSTRACT

Dieta materna hiperlipídica (HF) em roedores ocasiona o desenvolvimento de resistência à insulina e o diabetes mellitus tipo 2 na prole adulta. Camundongos fêmeas foram alimentadas com dieta SC (standard chow) ou HF (hiperlipídica) durante oito semanas anteriores ao acasalamento, durante o período gestacional e metade da lactação. Os filhotes machos foram avaliados ao nascimento (0 dia) e aos 10 dias de idade. Nas progenitoras, foram avaliados o ganho de massa corporal (MC), a pressão arterial (PA), a eficiência alimentar (EA) e o teste oral de tolerância à glicose (TOTG). Na prole, foram avaliadas a evolução da massa corporal (MC), a glicemia, a estrutura da ilhota do pâncreas e a massa de célula-beta. Nas progenitoras, a ganho de massa corporal (MC) e a eficiência alimentar (EA) do grupo HF apresentaram um aumento de 50% em relação ao grupo SC durante o período pré-gestacional e um aumento de 70% do ganho de MC e 250% na EA, durante a gestação (P<0,0001). A pressão arterial e os níveis de corticosterona foram maiores no grupo HF quando comparados ao grupo SC (P=0,001). Em relação à massa corporal das proles, não houve diferença ao nascimento, contudo aos 10 dias de idade o grupo HF apresentou um aumento neste parâmetro, assim como um aumento dos níveis de glicemia e aumento do diâmetro da ilhota em relação ao grupo SC (P<0,001). Ao nascimento, a razão da massa de célula-beta/massa do pâncreas (MCB/MP), foi menor no grupo HF quando comparado ao grupo SC (-54%, P<0,0001), no entanto essa diferença não foi observada aos 10 dias de idade. A MCB/MP foi maior no grupo HF aos 10 dias de idade em relação ao grupo SC (+146%, P<0,0001)...


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Mice , Diet, High-Fat , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/physiopathology , Insulin Resistance , Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Pancreas/physiopathology , Body Composition , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/metabolism , Dietary Fats/metabolism , Pregnancy/metabolism , Lactation/metabolism , Adipose Tissue/physiology
12.
Rev. nutr ; 24(1): 143-152, jan.-fev. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-588203

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Analisar as alterações lipídicas séricas e morfológicas hepáticas de ratos alimentados com diferentes fontes lipídicas (óleo de soja, gordura de peixe e porco, margarina e manteiga). MÉTODOS: Os 50 ratos Wistars utilizados no estudo foram divididos em cinco grupos, que durante 28 dias receberam dietas semissintéticas com diferentes fontes lipídicas: óleo de soja, gordura de porco, manteiga, margarina e gordura de peixe. Foram avaliados os pesos corporais, o consumo alimentar e o coeficiente de eficiência alimentar; a atividade da lipase lipoproteica; as concentrações séricas de colesterol total e de lipoproteína de alta densidade - colesterol, triacilgliceróis e albumina, bem como a histologia dos tecidos hepático e cardíaco. RESULTADOS: O tipo de fonte lipídica não influenciou o consumo alimentar, o ganho de peso, o coeficiente de eficiência alimentar dos animais, nem a atividade da lipase lipoproteica, porém promoveu alterações nas concentrações séricas de colesterol total, lipoproteína de alta densidade - colesterol, triacilgliceróis e albumina. Todos os grupos apresentaram gotículas lipídicas nas paredes coronarianas e nos capilares cardíacos, sendo caracterizada como esteatose a deposição de gordura no fígado dos animais que receberam óleo de soja, gordura de peixe, de porco e manteiga. CONCLUSÃO: A fonte lipídica que apresentou os melhores resultados foi o óleo de soja, enquanto o consumo de gordura do peixe causou efeito sérico e tecidual semelhante ao encontrado para as outras fontes lipídicas (gordura de porco, manteiga e margarina), as quais podem contribuir para o surgimento e a progressão das doenças cardiovasculares.


OBJECTIVE: This study analyzed serum lipids and hepatics morphological changes in rats fed different lipid sources (soybean oil, fish fat and lard, margarine and butter). METHODS: Fifty Wistar rats were divided into five groups. They were given semi-synthetic diets with different lipid sources for 28 days: soybean oil, lard, butter, margarine and fish fat. Body weight, food intake, food efficiency coefficient, lipoprotein lipase activity, serum concentrations of total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triacylglycerols and albumin were assessed. The heart and liver tissues underwent histological assessment. RESULTS: The type of lipid source did not influence food intake, weight gain or food efficiency coefficient. The activity of the lipoprotein lipase was also unaffected; however, there were changes in the serum concentration of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triacylglycerols and albumin. All groups presented lipid droplets on the coronary walls and heart capillaries. The fat deposition on the liver of animals given soybean oil, fish fat and lard, and butter was characterized as steatosis. CONCLUSION: The lipid source that presented the best results was soybean oil. Fish fat affected the serum and tissues similarly to other lipid sources (lard, butter and margarine). This may contribute to the onset and progression of cardiovascular diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Fatty Acids/analysis , Food Analysis , Dietary Fats/metabolism , Nutrition Assessment , Rats, Wistar
13.
São Paulo; s.n; 2011. 153 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-612308

ABSTRACT

Introdução - A inflamação está envolvida na patogênese da síndrome metabólica e de diversas doenças crônicas não transmissíveis (DCNT). Em macrófagos, a modulação da expressão gênica de mediadores inflamatórios está, em grande parte, sob o controle do fator de transcrição nuclear kappa B (NF-B), cuja atividade é modulada por diversos compostos bioativos presentes em alimentos. A erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis) contém compostos bioativos, como o ácido cafeico, o kaempferol, a quercetina e o ácido 3,5-dicafeoilquínico, que apresentam a capacidade de reduzir a ativação do NF-B in vitro em macrófagos. Objetivo - Investigar os efeitos da ração hiperlipídica (HL) e da ingestão do extrato aquoso de erva-mate sobre a composição corporal e sobre a resposta inflamatória de macrófagos peritoniais de ratos Wistar. Métodos - Ratos Wistar, machos, foram submetidos à ração controle (n= 36) ou ração HL (n= 36) por 12 semanas. Após esse período, 12 animais de cada grupo foram eutanasiados, enquanto o restante foi distribuído em grupos que receberam ou não, por gavagem, o extrato aquoso de erva-mate durante o período de quatro semanas. Os resultados relativos ao efeito da ração HL foram comparados pelo test t de Student não pareado ou seu equivalente não-paramétrico (Mann-Whitney). Para a análise do efeito da erva-mate, utilizou-se a análise de variância (ANOVA, post-hoc de Tukey) ou seu equivalente não-paramétrico (teste de Kruskal-Wallis, post-hoc de Dunn). Adotou-se como nível de significância p < 0,05. Resultados - Após 12 semanas, o consumo de ração HL resultou em aumento significativo do ganho de peso, de gordura corporal e do índice HOMA (Homeostasis Model Assessment) (p < 0,05). Não foi observada alteração dos biomarcadores sistêmicos de inflamação, como o fator de necrose tumoral (TNF)-, a interleucina (IL)-6 e o inibidor do ativador de plasminogênio (PAI)-1. Em relação aos ensaios envolvendo macrófagos peritoniais, observou-se capacidade reduzida de síntese de IL-1, IL-6, óxido nítrico (NO) e IL-10 nas células dos animais com ração HL, quando estimuladas com LPS (p < 0,05). Tal fenômeno foi acompanhado por diminuição da fosforilação da quinase do inibidor do B (IKK)-, da degradação do inibidor do B (IB)- e da ativação do NF-B (p < 0,05). A ingestão do extrato aquoso de erva-mate atenuou o ganho de peso e de gordura corporal e reduziu as concentrações plasmáticas de insulina, TNF- e IL-6 (p < 0,05).


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Body Composition/immunology , Dietary Fats/metabolism , Inflammation , Ilex paraguariensis/metabolism , Macrophages/immunology , NF-kappa B/pharmacology , Analysis of Variance , Case-Control Studies , Biomarkers
14.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2011. 84 f p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-756244

ABSTRACT

O consumo materno de dieta hiperlipídica saturada durante a gestação e lactação favorece o desenvolvimento obesidade e anormalidades metabólicas na prole. Este trabalho teve como objetivo testar a hipótese de que a prole proveniente de mães alimentadas com dieta hiperlipídica durante a gestação e lactação desenvolve obesidade e anormalidades metabólicas e de que essas alterações estão associadas a resistência central a leptina. As ratas grávidas da linhagem C57BL/6 (n=20) foram alimentadas com dieta standard chow (SC; 19% de lipídeos) ou dieta hiperlipídica (HF; 49% de lipídeos) durante todo período de gestação e lactação. Após o desmame, a prole de machos foi dividida em quatro grupos experimentais, de acordo com a dieta das mães e da prole: SC(mães)/SC(prole), SC/HF, HF/SC e HF/HF (n=12/gp). As características metabólicas foram avaliadas pela curva de ganho de peso; medida da pressão arterial; glicose de jejum, área sob a curva no teste oral de tolerância a glicose; concentrações de triglicerídeos hepáticos e estimativa da esteatose hepática; análise plasmática de insulina e leptina e; distribuição e análise morfológica do tecido adiposo. Para analisar a sensibilidade a leptina, os quatro grupos originais foram subdivididos em dois grupos cada (veículo ou leptina-5µg) para verificar a resposta alimentar (g) após o tratamento agudo intracerebroventricular (ICV) e a sinalização hipotalâmica de leptina. A dieta HF durante o período pós-desmame (grupo SC/HF), durante gestação e lactação (grupo HF/SC), ou ambos os períodos (grupo HF/HF), promoveu aumento da massa corporal. No que concerne as alterações hepáticas e a ação da insulina, a dieta HF durante o período perinatal favoreceu 25% de esteatose hepática, hiperinsulinemia e hiperleptinemia, enquanto os demais grupos experimentais SC/HF e HF/HF, demonstraram um padrão mais exacerbado...


Maternal high-fat diet consumption during pregnancy and lactation causes metabolic abnormalities (MA) (similar to metabolic syndrome in humans) in the rodents’ offspring. We tested the hypothesis that the offspring of dams fed a high fat diet during pregnancy and lactation develop MA and leptin resistance.Pregnant C57BL6 mice (n=20) were fed either standard chow (SC; 19% fat) or a high fat diet (HF; 49% fat). After weaning, male offspring were divided into four groups according to the diet of dams and offspring: SC(dams)/SC(offspring), SC/HF, HF/SC and HF/HF (n=12/group). MA were characterized by weight gain curve measured weekly; tail-cuff systolic pressure; fast glucose and areas under the curve after oral glucose tolerance test; fat mass depots; leptin and insulin concentrations, all performed at 12 weeks of age.To analyze leptin sensitivity, each group was divided into two groups (vehicle or leptin-5µg) to identify the feeding response and pSTAT3 expression after acute intracerebroventricular (ICV) treatment (n=6/group). The HF schedule during post-weaning (SC/HF group), during gestation and lactation (HF/SC group), or both periods (HF/HF group), increased body mass in experimental groups. In respect to hepatic alterations and insulin action, the HF diet during gestation and lactation caused 25% of liver steatosis, hiperinsulinemia and hiperleptinemia, whereas SC/HF and HF/HF presented worst patterns. The fat distribution and morphometry pointed for the key role of HF during gestation and lactation in amplify the ability to store fat in the offspring...


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Mice , Diet, High-Fat , Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Body Composition , Carbohydrate Metabolism , Liver/physiopathology , Dietary Fats/metabolism , Leptin , Obesity
15.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 43(12): 1135-1142, Dec. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-569002

ABSTRACT

We determined the influence of fasting (FAST) and feeding (FED) on cholesteryl ester (CE) flow between high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and plasma apoB-lipoprotein and triacylglycerol (TG)-rich emulsions (EM) prepared with TG-fatty acids (FAs). TG-FAs of varying chain lengths and degrees of unsaturation were tested in the presence of a plasma fraction at d > 1.21 g/mL as the source of CE transfer protein. The transfer of CE from HDL to FED was greater than to FAST TG-rich acceptor lipoproteins, 18 percent and 14 percent, respectively. However, percent CE transfer from HDL to apoB-containing lipoproteins was similar for FED and FAST HDL. The CE transfer from HDL to EM depended on the EM TG-FA chain length. Furthermore, the chain length of the monounsaturated TG-containing EM showed a significant positive correlation of the CE transfer from HDL to EM (r = 0.81, P < 0.0001) and a negative correlation from EM to HDL (r = -041, P = 0.0088). Regarding the degree of EM TG-FAs unsaturation, among EMs containing C18, the CE transfer was lower from HDL to C18:2 compared to C18:1 and C18:3, 17.7 percent, 20.7 percent, and 20 percent, respectively. However, the CE transfer from EMs to HDL was higher to C18:2 than to C18:1 and C18:3, 83.7 percent, 51.2 percent, and 46.3 percent, respectively. Thus, the EM FA composition was found to be the rate-limiting factor regulating the transfer of CE from HDL. Consequently, the net transfer of CE between HDL and TG-rich particles depends on the specific arrangement of the TG acyl chains in the lipoprotein particle core.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Cholesterol Esters/metabolism , Dietary Fats/metabolism , Fasting/blood , Lipoproteins, HDL/metabolism , Triglycerides/metabolism , Carrier Proteins/blood , Dietary Fats/administration & dosage
17.
Acta cir. bras ; 25(3): 275-280, May-June 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-546834

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Evaluate the effect of flaxseed, olive and fish oil on the lipid profile, preservation of villosities and lymphocyte migration in the intestinal mucosa of Wistar rats. METHODS: Thirty Wistar male rats were divided into four groups, which received the AIN-93M diet, with changes only to their lipid source: flaxseed, olive, fish, and soy oil (control group). The serum was separated for the biochemical parameter analysis. A histological evaluation was performed in the ileal portion. RESULTS: The group which was fed fish oil presented lower values when compared to the other treatments for Total Cholesterol, High-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Triacylglycerol (p<0.05). The animals treated with fish and olive oils presented better intestinal villosities preservation. Less deposition of lymphocytes was observed in the flaxseed group (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that flaxseed, olive and fish oils present different responses than soy oil for the intestinal mucosa preservation and lymphocyte proliferation in Wistar rats.


OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito dos óleos de linhaça, oliva e peixe no perfil lipídico, preservação das vilosidades e migração de linfócitos na mucosa intestinal de ratos Wistar. MÉTODOS: Trinta ratos Wistar foram divididos em quarto grupos e receberam dieta AIN-93M, modificando para cada grupo apenas a fonte lipídica: óleo de linhaça, oliva, peixe e soja ( grupo controle). O soro foi separado para análise dos parâmetros bioquímicos. A análise histológica foi realizada na porção ileal. RESULTADOS: O grupo que recebeu óleo de peixe apresentou menores valores de colesterol total, lipoproteína de alta densidade e triacilglicerol (p<0.05). Os animais tratados com óleo de peixe e oliva apresentaram melhor preservação das vilosidades intestinais. Menor deposição de linfócitos foi observado no grupo tratado com óleo de linhaça (p<0.001). CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo demonstrou que os óleos de linhaça, oliva e peixe apresentam diferentes respostas em relação ao óleo de soja na preservação da mucosa intestinal e proliferação de linfócitos em ratos Wistar.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Lipid Metabolism , Lipids/blood , Lymphocytes/metabolism , Analysis of Variance , Cell Movement/drug effects , Dietary Fats/metabolism , Dietary Fats/pharmacology , Fish Oils/metabolism , Fish Oils/pharmacology , Intestinal Mucosa/drug effects , Linseed Oil/metabolism , Linseed Oil/pharmacology , Lipids/analysis , Lymphocytes/drug effects , Models, Animal , Plant Oils/metabolism , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Soybean Oil/metabolism , Soybean Oil/pharmacology
18.
Cad. saúde pública ; 26(3): 472-480, mar. 2010. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-545572

ABSTRACT

Avaliou-se a influência exercida pela aquisição de calorias de açúcar sobre a participação calórica dos demais macronutrientes da dieta. As estimativas deste estudo são baseadas em dados da Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares realizada no Brasil pelo Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística entre julho de 2002 e junho de 2003. Modelos de regressão linear múltiplos foram utilizados para estudar a influência das calorias de açúcar sobre a participação calórica de cada um dos macronutrientes na aquisição domiciliar de alimentos com o controle do valor calórico total da aquisição de alimentos e variáveis sócio-demográficas. Cada caloria adquirida de açúcar eleva em 0,3 caloria a participação de gorduras na aquisição domiciliar de alimentos e diminui em 0,07 a participação de proteínas. Cada caloria de açúcar procedente de alimentos processados aumenta em 1,6 caloria a participação de gorduras e em 0,4 caloria de ácidos graxos saturados e diminui em 0,8 caloria a participação de outros carboidratos que não o açúcar. Os resultados encontrados trazem novas evidências sobre o papel prejudicial do açúcar à saúde humana.


This study evaluated the impact of calories from sugar on the calorie share of other macronutrients in the Brazilian family diet. The study's estimates are based on data from the Household Budget Survey conducted by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics from July 2002 to June 2003. Multiple linear regression models were used to study the impact of sugar calories on each of the macronutrients in household food acquisition, controlling for total energy content in food acquisition and socio-demographic variables. Each calorie from sugar purchases increases the share of calories from fat by 0.3 calories and decreases the share of calories from protein by 0.7 calories. Each calorie of sugar from processed foods increases the share from fat by 1.6 calories and the share from saturated fatty acids by 0.4 calories and decreases the share from non-sugar carbohydrates by 0.8 calories. The findings shed further light on the harmful role of sugar for human health.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Dietary Carbohydrates/administration & dosage , Dietary Fats/metabolism , Dietary Proteins/metabolism , Energy Intake , Brazil , Energy Intake/physiology , Family Characteristics , Regression Analysis
19.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2010. 85 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-665409

ABSTRACT

A dieta hiperlipídica (high-fat, HF) materna durante a gestação e/ou lactação aumenta a susceptibilidade da prole para o desenvolvimento de doenças crônicas na fase adulta. Verificar a hipótese que a ingestão materna de dieta HF nos períodos críticos de desenvolvimento (gestação e/ou lactação) predispõe à doença não alcoólica do fígado gorduroso e alterações pancreáticas e no tecido adiposo de camundongos machos adultos. Camundongos C57BL/6 fêmeas receberam durante a gestação e/ou lactação dieta padrão (standard chow, SC) ou HF. Filhotes machos foram divididos em cinco grupos: SC - provenientes de mães SC; G - provenientes de mães HF durante a gestação; L - provenientes de mães HF durante a lactação; GL/HF - provenientes de mães HF durante a gestação/lactação, mantendo a mesma dieta HF no período pós-natal (do desmame aos 3 meses de idade); GL - provenientes de mães HF durante a gestação/lactação trocando a dieta para SC no período pós-natal (do desmame aos 3 meses de idade). Foi analisada ao longo do experimento a massa corporal da prole. No sacrifício (3 meses), o fígado, o pâncreas e a gordura epididimária foram removidos, pesados e processados e o sangue foi coletado para análise bioquímica. Ao nascimento e ao desmame, filhotes GL/HF foram mais pesados (+6% e +44%, p<0,05, respectivamente) que os filhotes SC. Os filhotes G apresentaram resistência à insulina e menor expressão do transportador de glicose no fígado (GLUT-2). A esteatose hepática foi observada nos grupos G, L, GL e principalmente nos filhotes do grupo GL/HF. A expressão hepática da proteína ligante de elementos regulatórios de esteróis (SREBP-1c) estava aumentada nos filhotes G, GL e GL/HF. Os filhotes G, GL e GL/HF apresentaram hipertrofia da ilhota pancreática e dos adipócitos quando comparados com o grupo SC. O consumo de dieta HF durante a gestação mostra-se ser o período mais prejudicial para os filhotes adultos de camundongos. A programação metabólica por dieta HF ...


Maternal high-fat diet (HF) during gestation and/or lactation period increases the susceptibility to development of chronic disease in offspring adult life. This work aimed to verify the hypothesis that maternal intake of high-fat diet in critical periods of pregnancy and/or suckling period predisposes to non alcoholic fatty liver disease, pancreatic and adipose tissue alterations in adulthood mice offspring. C57BL/6 female mice were fed, during gestation and/or lactation phases, with standard chow (SC) of HF diet. Male pups were divided into 5 groups: SC - from SC fed dam; G - from HF fed dam during gestation period; L - from HF fed dam during lactation period; GL - from HF fed dam during gestation and lactation periods and GL/HF - from HF fed dam during gestation and lactation, maintaining HF diet from post-weaning to adulthood. We analyzed body mass in all experiment, and at the euthanasia (3 mo-old), liver, pancreas and adipose tissue were removed, weighted and embedded. Blood was collected to biochemical analyses. At birth and at weaning, GL/HF pups were heavier than SC pups (+6% and +44%, p<0.05, respectively). G offspring showed insulin resistance and lower glucose transporter-2 expression (GLUT-2). Hepatic steatosis was present in G, L, GL and mainly in GL/HF offspring. Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) expression was higher in G, GL and GL/HF offspring. It is important to mention that pancreatic islet hyperthophy and adipocyte hypertrophy were affected in G, GL and GL/HF offspring in comparison to SC. HF diet administration during gestation period is worse than lactation period. Furthermore, this type of programming by HF predisposes to adverse remodeling in liver, pancreas and adipose tissue in adult mice offspring


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Mice , Dietary Fats/adverse effects , Dietary Fats/metabolism , Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/physiopathology , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/metabolism , Fatty Liver/physiopathology , Liver Diseases/etiology , Pancreas/physiopathology , Adipose Tissue/physiopathology
20.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 81(3): 453-466, Sept. 2009.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-523973

ABSTRACT

Approximately 40 percent of the total energy consumed by western populations is represented by lipids, most of them being ingested as triacylglycerols and phospholipids. The focus of this review is to analyze the effect of the type of dietary fat on white adipose tissue metabolism and secretory function, particularly on haptoglobin, TNF-α, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and adiponectin secretion. Previous studies have demonstrated that the duration of the exposure to the high-fat feeding, amount of fatty acid present in the diet and the type of fatty acid may or may not have a significant effect on adipose tissue metabolism. However, the long-term or short-term high fat diets, especially rich in saturated fatty acids, probably by activation of toll-like receptors, stimulated the expression of proinflammatory adipokines and inhibited adiponectin expression. Further studies are needed to investigate the cellular mechanisms by which dietary fatty acids affect white adipose tissue metabolism and secretory functions.


Aproximadamente 40 por cento do total de energia consumida pela população ocidental é representada pelos lipídios, a maioria dela sendo ingerida na forma de triglicerídeos e fosfolipídios. O foco desta revisão foi analisar o efeito dos tipos de gordura da dieta sobre o metabolismo e função secretora do tecido adiposo branco, principalmente, sobre a secreção de haptoglobina, TNF-α, inibidor do ativador de plasminogênio-1 e adiponectina. Estudos prévios demonstraram que durante a exposição de dietas hiperlipídicas, a quantidade e o tipo de ácidos graxos presentes na dieta podem ou não ter um efeito significante sobre o metabolismo do tecido adiposo. Entretanto, o tratamento a curto ou longo prazo com dieta hiperlipídica, especialmente rica em ácidos graxos saturados, provavelmente por ativar receptores toll-like, estimula a expressão de adipocinas pró-inflamatórias e inibe a expressão de adiponectina. Estudos adicionais são necessários para investigar os mecanismos celulares pelos quais os ácidos graxos da dieta afetam a função secretória e metabólica do tecido adiposo branco.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adiponectin , Adipose Tissue, White/metabolism , Dietary Fats/metabolism , Haptoglobins , Interferon-alpha , Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 , Time Factors
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