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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248931, 2023. tab
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345525

ABSTRACT

Abstract Among several fruits, mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gomes), it aroused the interest of producers and consumers due to its attractive sensory characteristics and health beneficial properties (high nutritional value and presence of bioactive substances), thus, this work evaluates the nutritional factors of the flour residue of mangaba processing that is despised by the food industry, and the influence of temperature on its production. The mangaba processing residue was splited in two main groups: in natura sample (control), and other for preparation of flour that was dried at 50 °C and divided into two other groups: treatment A (flour with roasts at 110 °C and 130 °C) and treatment B (flour from drying at 50 °C). The nutritional characteristics of flours were analyzed considering the chemical parameters: pH, titratable total acidity and soluble solids, in addition to the determination of moisture content, total lipids, total dietary fiber and ash, total energy value, antioxidant activity, phytochemical screening, quantification of phenolic compounds and flavonoids, as well as technological functional properties (water absorption index (WAI), water solubility index (WSI), milk absorption index (MAI) and milk solubility index (MSI) and oil absorption index (OAI). The results showed that the bioactive compounds present in the extracts do not have significant properties of acting as free radical kidnappers. The heat treatment, performed in the flour of mangaba processing residues, influenced the nutritional factors and properties of absorption and solubility, which showed statistical differences. These results show that the flour is a viable alternative for the energy enrichment of diets, contributing to the development of new products, the reduction of the disposal of these residues and consequently to the minimization of the environmental impact.


Resumo Dentre as diversas frutas a mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gomes), despertou interesse de produtores e consumidores devido às suas características sensoriais atrativas e propriedades benéficas à saúde (elevado valor nutricional e presença de substâncias bioativas), assim, o trabalho avaliar os fatores nutricionais do resíduo da farinha de processamento de mangaba que é desprezado pela indústria alimentícia e, a influência da temperatura na sua produção. O resíduo de processamento da mangaba foi dividido em dois lotes, sendo um deles utilizado para as análises in natura (amostra controle) e o outro para a confecção da farinha que foi seca a 50 °C, e dividida em dois lotes: tratamento A (farinha com torras a 110 °C e 130 °C) e no tratamento B (farinha oriunda da secagem a 50 °C). Analisou-se as características nutricionais de farinhas considerando os parâmetros químicos: pH, acidez total titulável e sólidos solúveis, além da determinação do teor de umidade, lipídios totais, fibra alimentar total e cinzas, valor energético total, atividade antioxidante, triagem fitoquímica, quantificação de compostos fenólicos e flavonoides, bem como as propriedades funcionais tecnológicas (índice de absorção de água (IAA), índice de solubilidade em água (ISA), índice de absorção de leite (IAL) e índice de solubilidade em leite (ISL) e índice de absorção de óleo (IAO). Na análise foi inferido que os compostos bioativos presentes nos extratos não possuem propriedades significativas de agir como sequestradores de radicais livres. O tratamento térmico, realizado na farinha de resíduos de processamento de mangaba, influenciou nos dados dos fatores nutricionais e das propriedades de absorção e solubilidade, os quais apresentaram diferenças estatísticas. Estes resultados credenciam a farinha como uma alternativa viável para o enriquecimento energético de dietas, contribuindo para o desenvolvimento de novos produtos, a redução do descarte desses resíduos e consequentemente para a minimização do impacto ambiental.


Subject(s)
Dietary Fiber/analysis , Flour/analysis , Fruit/chemistry , Antioxidants/analysis , Nutritive Value
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243874, 2023. graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285606

ABSTRACT

Abstract In recent days, cheapest alternative carbon source for fermentation purpose is desirable to minimize production cost. Xylanases have become attractive enzymes as their potential in bio-bleaching of pulp and paper industry. The objective of the present study was to identify the potential ability on the xylanase production by locally isolated Bacillus pumilus BS131 by using waste fiber sludge and wheat bran media under submerged fermentation. Culture growth conditions were optimized to obtain significant amount of xylanase. Maximum xylanase production was recorded after 72 hours of incubation at 30 °C and 7 pH with 4.0% substrate concentration. In the nutshell, the production of xylanase using inexpensive waste fiber sludge and wheat-bran as an alternative in place of expensive xylan substrate was more cost effective and environment friendly.


Resumo Nos últimos dias, a fonte alternativa de carbono mais barata para fins de fermentação é desejável para minimizar o custo de produção. As xilanases têm se tornado enzimas atraentes como seu potencial no biobranqueamento da indústria de papel e celulose. O objetivo do presente estudo foi identificar a capacidade potencial na produção de xilanase por Bacillus pumilus BS131 isolado localmente usando lodo de fibra residual e farelo de trigo em meio de fermentação submersa. As condições de crescimento da cultura foram otimizadas para obter uma quantidade significativa de xilanase. A produção máxima de xilanase foi registrada após 72 horas de incubação a 30 °C e pH 7 com concentração de substrato de 4,0%. Resumindo, a produção de xilanase usando lodo de fibra residual de baixo custo e farelo de trigo como uma alternativa no lugar do substrato de xilano caro foi mais econômica e ecológica.


Subject(s)
Bacillus/metabolism , Bacillus pumilus/metabolism , Sewage , Temperature , Dietary Fiber , Endo-1,4-beta Xylanases/metabolism , Fermentation , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
3.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 71(4): 241-251, dic. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1355032

ABSTRACT

El basul es el fruto de la planta Erythrina edulis que posee un alto contenido de proteínas, fibra dietética y antioxidantes, pero también con contenido de antinutrientes. Objetivo. El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar el efecto del germinado sobre las características nutricionales, propiedades bioactivas y funcionales de las semillas de basul. Materiales y métodos. Mediante un diseño aleatorizado con arreglo factorial de 2x2x2 (tiempo de remojo, tiempo de germinado, presencia o ausencia de luz), las semillas de basul fueron germinadas y convertidas en harina (HBG) para determinar la composición proximal y la digestibilidad in vitro de la proteína. Además, se ha determinado los fenoles totales (CFT), la capacidad antioxidante (métodos ABTS y DPPH) y las propiedades de hidratación y adsorción de aceite. Resultados. Las diferentes condiciones de germinado no han modificado la composición proximal de la HBG; sin embargo, la digestibilidad in vitro de la proteína incrementó hasta en 6,25% en uno de los tratamientos respecto a la muestra no germinada. El CFT, también ha incrementado de 241,49 mg AGE/100g (sin germinar) a 267,15 mg AGE/100g (germinado); al igual que la capacidad antioxidante (ABTS) de 173,04 µmolTE/g (sin germinar) a 195,67 µmolTE/g (germinado). También se tuvo incrementos en la solubilidad, la capacidad de absorción de agua y la capacidad de hinchamiento. Conclusión. La calidad de la proteína, el contenido de fenoles totales, la capacidad antioxidante y propiedades funcionales de interacción con el agua de la semilla de basul mejora con el germinado(AU)


Basul is the fruit of the Erythrina edulis plant. It has a high content of proteins, dietary fiber, and antioxidants, but it also contains antinutrients. Objective. The study objective was to evaluate the effect of sprouting on the nutritional characteristics, bioactive and functional properties of basul seeds. Materials and methods. Basul seeds were germinated to produce flour (HBG) and determine its proximal composition and in vitro digestibility of the protein through a randomized design with a 2x2x2 factorial arrangement (soaking time, germination time, and presence or absence of light). Total phenols (CFT), antioxidant capacity (ABTS and DPPH methods), and hydration and oil adsorption properties were also determined. Results. The different germination conditions did not modify the proximal composition of HBG. However, the in vitro digestibility of the protein increased up to 6.25% in one of the treatments compared to the non-germinated sample. The CFT also increased from 241.49 mg AGE/100g (without germination) to 267.15 mg AGE/100g (germinated) and the antioxidant capacity (ABTS) from 173.04 µmolTE/g (without germination) to 195.67 µmolTE/g (germinated). Solubility, water absorption capacity, and swelling capacity also increased. Conclusion. The quality of the protein, the content of total phenols, the antioxidant capacity, and the functional properties of interaction with the water of the basul seed improved with germination(AU)


Subject(s)
In Vitro Techniques , Dietary Fiber , Dietary Proteins , Germination , Erythrina , Phenolic Compounds , Flour/analysis , Proteins , Absorption , Fabaceae , Antioxidants , Nutritive Value
4.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(9): 4153-4161, set. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339579

ABSTRACT

Resumo Foi avaliado o consumo de fibras alimentares no Brasil e sua relação com a ingestão de alimentos ultraprocessados. Foram utilizados dados de consumo alimentar, via registro alimentar de 24 horas, com indivíduos de idade ≥10 anos (n=34.003) oriundos da Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares 2008-2009. Os alimentos foram divididos em grupos: in natura ou minimamente processados, ingredientes culinários processados, processados e ultraprocessados, estimando-se sua contribuição para o consumo de fibras. Verificou-se a relação entre quintos de consumo de ultraprocessados (avaliado pelo % do total de energia consumida) e teor médio de fibras na dieta (g/1.000kcal), e a prevalência de inadequação no consumo de fibras. Alimentos in natura ou minimamente processados apresentaram densidade de fibras significativamente maior do que os ultraprocessados e corresponderam à majoritária contribuição percentual de fibras na dieta, notavelmente a partir do arroz e feijão. Indivíduos do maior quintil de consumo de ultraprocessados tiveram 1,5 vez mais chance de apresentar ingestão de fibras inadequada. O consumo de ultraprocessados impactou negativamente na ingestão de fibras. Reduzir o consumo desses alimentos pode trazer benefícios à qualidade da dieta brasileira.


Abstract The consumption of dietary fiber in Brazil and its relationship with the intake of ultra-processed foods was evaluated. The analysis used food consumption data, with a 24-hour food record of residents aged ≥10 years (n=34.003) from the 2008-2009 Family Budgets Survey. The food products were divided into groups: in natura or minimally processed ingredients; processed culinary ingredients; processed and ultra-processed ingredients. The contribution of each food group and selected subgroups to the total fiber intake, the relation between quintiles of ultra-processed foods (evaluated by the % of total energy intake), average dietary fiber content (g/1,000kcal), and the prevalence of inadequate fiber consumption, was estimated. In natura or minimally processed foods revealed significantly higher fiber density than ultra-processed foods and corresponded to the majority percentile contribution of dietary fiber, notably derived from rice and beans. Individuals in the largest quintile of ultra-processed consumption were 1.5 times more likely to ingest inadequate fiber intake. The consumption of ultra-processed foods had a negative impact on fiber intake. Reducing the consumption of these foods can bring benefits to the quality of the Brazilian diet.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dietary Fiber , Fast Foods , Brazil , Energy Intake , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet , Food Handling
5.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(3): 394-398, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345296

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Diverticulitis is an acute inflammatory process that affects individuals with diverticular disease. Given the sharp increase in the diagnostic rate of such a pathological process, there was also an increased interest in elucidating the possible causes related to the development of this clinical condition. Among the main factors investigated, diet excels, the object of study of this integrative literature review. METHODS: After searching the virtual health library and PubMed databases, five prospective cohort studies were selected that best answered the guiding question: "Is there a relationship between diet and the incidence of diverticulitis?". RESULTS: It was observed that the high intake of red meat and the low intake of dietary fiber were the most strongly associated dietary factors with the incidence of this inflammatory process. CONCLUSION: Therefore, it is evident that choosing healthy eating habits can considerably reduce the incidence of diverticulitis and, consequently, potentially more serious complications directly related to it.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A diverticulite é um processo inflamatório agudo que afeta indivíduos com doença diverticular. Diante do acentuado aumento da taxa diagnóstica desse processo patológico, também houve o aumento do interesse em elucidar as possíveis causas relacionadas ao desenvolvimento dessa condição clínica. Entre os principais fatores investigados, destaca-se a dieta; objeto de estudo desta revisão integrativa da literatura. MÉTODOS: Após pesquisa nas bases de dados da biblioteca virtual em saúde e PubMed, foram selecionados cinco estudos de coorte prospectivos que melhor responderam à questão norteadora "Há relação entre dieta e incidência de diverticulite?". RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÃO: Observou-se que o alto consumo de carnes vermelhas e o baixo consumo de fibra alimentar são os fatores dietéticos mais fortemente associados à incidência desse processo inflamatório. Fica evidente, portanto, que a escolha de hábitos alimentares saudáveis pode reduzir consideravelmente a incidência de diverticulite e, consequentemente, de possíveis complicações mais graves diretamente relacionadas a ela.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diverticulitis/etiology , Dietary Fiber , Prospective Studies , Diet/adverse effects , Feeding Behavior
6.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(8): 3147-3160, ago. 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285974

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivou-se avaliar a ingestão de fibra alimentar e fatores associados em adolescentes; identificar as fontes alimentares do nutriente; e verificar a relação de indicadores de práticas alimentares (energia/macro/micronutrientes) com o consumo de fibras. Trata-se de estudo transversal de base populacional com dados de Recordatório de 24 Horas. Utilizou-se a classificação NOVA e foi avaliada a contribuição dos alimentos para o teor de fibras da dieta. Valores de referência da Organização Mundial da Saúde (≥12,5 g) e do Institute of Medicine (14 g) por 1.000 kcal foram usados para avaliar o consumo. A ingestão média foi de 6,4 g de fibra alimentar/1.000 kcal/dia, 1,5 g de solúvel e 4,9 g de insolúvel, para os 891 adolescentes. O consumo de fibras foi baixo, principalmente entre os que ingeriam menos frutas, hortaliças, feijão, mais refrigerante, embutidos, e nos que não consumiam o café da manhã diariamente. Os alimentos in natura forneceram 68,0%, 53,7% e 72,1% da fibra total, solúvel e insolúvel, e os ultraprocessados 24,8%, 37,9% e 21,0%, respectivamente. O consumo de fibras foi inversamente associado ao teor de energia, gordura, açúcar livre e proteína animal da dieta. A ingestão insuficiente de fibras sinaliza a necessidade de promover a alimentação saudável e adequada em nível individual e familiar.


Abstract The aims of the present study were to evaluate dietary fiber intake and associated factors in adolescents, identify food sources of the nutrient, and determine associations between indicators of dietary patterns (energy/macronutrients/micronutrients) and dietary fiber intake. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted involving 24-hour recall data. The NOVA classification was used to determine the contribution of foods to dietary fiber intake. Reference values from the World Health Organization (≥12.5 g) and the US Institute of Medicine (14 g) per 1,000 kcal were used to assess intake. The mean intake of dietary fiber/1,000 kcal/day was 6.4 g (1.5 g of soluble fiber and 4.9 g of insoluble fiber) among the 891 adolescents. Fiber intake was low, especially among those who ate fruits, vegetables, and beans less, those who consumed soft drinks and processed meats more, and those who did not eat breakfast every day. Unprocessed/minimally processed foods provided 68.8%, 53.7%, and 72.1% of total, soluble, and insoluble fiber, respectively, whereas ultra-processed products provided 24.8%, 37.9%, and 21.0% respectively. Fiber intake was inversely associated with energy intake, fat, free sugar, and animal protein in the diet. The insufficient fiber intake underscores the need for actions that promote healthy nutrition on the individual and family levels.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Fast Foods , Food Handling , Energy Intake , Dietary Fiber , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920987

ABSTRACT

Grains are an important basic component of diet, as well as an important food source of nutrients such as B vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber. According to the degree of processing, grains can be divided into refined grains and whole grains. The whole grains are processed by retaining the endosperm, germ, bran and nutrients. It can be either a complete grain or products after simple processes, such as grinding, crushing and tablet pressing. Regular consumption of whole grains can help maintain healthy weight and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and intestinal cancer. The public should be encouraged to gradually change the consumption habit of refined grains and increase the proportion of whole grains in the dietary structure.


Subject(s)
Consensus , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diet , Dietary Fiber , Humans , Whole Grains
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888499

ABSTRACT

To investigate the effect of dietary fiber on blood glucose and pregnancy outcomes in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). One hundred and twelve patients with GDM in the second trimester of pregnancy were recruited from Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine. Patients were randomized into two groups with 56 in each group: the control group received basic nutrition support; while the dietary fiber group were given additional dietary fiber ( total dietary fiber per day) before meals in addition to basic nutrition support. Intervention for all cases lasted for 8 weeks. Fasting blood glucose and postprandial blood glucose (2 h BG) were measured every week, and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed at 42 d postpartum to evaluate the glycemic outcomes. Perinatal outcomes were recorded. The dietary fiber intervention markedly improved 2 h BG in patients with GDM and significantly elevated the glucose compliance rate from the 3rd to 8th week compared to the control group ( <0.05 or <0.01). OGTT 2 h glucose and the incidence of impaired glucose tolerance in the dietary fiber group were significantly lower than those in the control group, while the glucose compliance rate was significantly higher than that in the control group (all <0.01). Moreover, the rates of adverse perinatal outcomes, such as premature rupture of membranes and neonatal hyperbilirubinemia were declined in the dietary fiber group (<0.05 or <0.01). Dietary fiber intervention can ameliorate hyperglycemia in GDM patients, improve perinatal outcomes and reduce the incidence of postpartum impaired glucose tolerance.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , Diabetes, Gestational , Dietary Fiber , Female , Glucose Tolerance Test , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome
9.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(6): 2297-2307, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1142309

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of replacing corn silage with sugarcane in the diet of lactating Saanen goats and to determine their intake and digestibility of nutrients, ingestive behavior, milk yield and composition. The experimental diets were composed of increasing levels (0, 33, 66 and 100%) of substitution in dry matter (DM). Twelve multiparous Saanen goats, with an average body weight of 45.2kg, average milk yield of 3.0kg day-1, distributed in a triple latin square experimental design (4 × 4) were used. The dry matter intake (DMI) and other nutrients were estimated through the difference between the total nutrient in the food offered and its total in the leftovers. The DMI, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and total digestible nutrients were not influenced, but the apparent digestibility of DM and NDF decreased. Feeding time and feeding efficiency were not influenced, the rumination and total chewing times increased, and the leisure time decreased, both linearly. Milk yield was not influenced by substitution levels, but corrected milk yield to 3.5% fat decreased. Sugar cane represents a dietary alternative for goats with medium milk yield in critical periods of forage, since it does not change the consumption of DM and milk yield, even with the apparent declining digestibility of some nutrients, influencing the ingestive behavior of the animals.(AU)


O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar os efeitos da substituição da silagem de milho por cana-de-açúcar na dieta de cabras Saanen em lactação e determinar a ingestão e a digestibilidade de nutrientes, o comportamento ingestivo, a produção e a composição do leite. As dietas experimentais foram compostas de níveis crescentes (0, 33, 66 e 100%) de substituição na matéria seca (MS). Doze cabras Saanen multíparas, com peso corporal médio de 45,2kg, produção média de leite de 3,0kg dia-1, foram distribuídas em delineamento experimental triplo quadrado latino (4 × 4). A ingestão de matéria seca (IMS) e de outros nutrientes foi estimada por meio da diferença entre o total de nutrientes nos alimentos oferecidos e o total nas sobras. A IMS, a proteína bruta, a fibra em detergente neutro (FDN) e os nutrientes digestíveis totais não foram influenciados, mas a digestibilidade aparente da MS e da FDN diminuiu. A produção de leite não foi influenciada pelos níveis de substituição, mas a produção de leite corrigida para 3,5% de gordura diminuiu. A cana-de-açúcar representa uma alternativa alimentar para cabras com produção média de leite em períodos críticos de forragem, pois não altera o consumo de MS e a produção de leite, mesmo diminuindo a digestibilidade aparente de alguns nutrientes e influenciando o comportamento ingestivo dos animais.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Goats/metabolism , Dietary Fiber/administration & dosage , Saccharum , Animal Feed , Digestive System Physiological Phenomena , Eating
10.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 48: 29-35, nov. 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254696

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cellulose as a potential feed resource hinders its utilization because of its complex structure, and cellulase is the key to its biological effective utilization. Animal endogenous probiotics are more susceptible to colonization in the intestinal tract, and their digestive enzymes are more conducive to the digestion and absorption of feed in young animals. Min pigs are potential sources of cellulase probiotics because of the high proportion of dietary fiber in their feed. In this study, the cellulolytic bacteria in the feces of Min pigs were isolated and screened. The characteristics of enzymes and cellulase production were studied, which provided a theoretical basis for the rational utilization of cellulase and high-fiber food in animal production. RESULTS: In our study, 10 strains of cellulase producing strains were isolated from Min pig manure, among which the M2 strain had the best enzyme producing ability and was identified as Bacillus velezensis. The optimum production conditions of cellulase from strain M2 were: 2% inoculum, the temperature of 35°C, the pH of 5.0, and the liquid loading volume of 50 mL. The optimum temperature, pH and time for the reaction of cellulase produced by strain M2 were 55°C, 4.5 and 5 min, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Min pigs can be used as a source of cellulase producing strains. The M2 strain isolated from feces was identified as Bacillus velezensis. The cellulase from M2 strain had a good activity and the potential to be used as feed additive for piglets.


Subject(s)
Animals , Swine, Miniature , Bacteria/enzymology , Cellulase/biosynthesis , Bacillus , Dietary Fiber , Probiotics , Digestion , Feces , Animal Feed
11.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 70(3): 205-214, sept. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1223705

ABSTRACT

Las frutas exóticas se encuentran dentro del grupo de las frutas tropicales y su carácter perecedero limita su exportación a mercados distantes. En general, su consumo es local, son subutilizadas o poco valoradas tanto en el hogar como industrialmente; sin embargo, debido su alto valor nutricional, su consumo se ha incrementado significativamente en los últimos años. Estas frutas son fuente de compuestos bioactivos como fibra, vitamina C, carotenoides, ácidos fenólicos y polifenoles, los cuales han sido asociados a la reducción de los riesgos de enfermedades crónicas causadas por el estrés oxidativo. Estos compuestos bioactivos han demostrado que poseen varias actividades biológicas in vitro e in vivo incluyendo actividad antioxidante, antimicrobiana, antiinflamatoria, antiedad, neuroprotectora y antiviral entre otras. Por lo tanto, la obtención de ingredientes funcionales a partir de las frutas tropicales consideradas exóticas resulta viable; así como su utilización para el desarrollo de alimentos funcionales y nutracéuticos, para elaboración de productos de la industria farmacéutica y la conservación de alimentos. En la presente revisión se discute la información más relevante publicada en el período 2010-2020 de las principales bases de datos científicas, incluyendo Scopus, Science Direct, PubMed, Medline y Scielo, sobre los compuestos fenólicos y las bioactividades reportadas de las frutas tropicales exóticas como acai (Euterpe oleraceae), acerola (Malpighia emarginata), buruti (Mauritia flexuosa) caqui (Diospyros kaki), chicozapote (Manilkara zapota), litchi (Litchi chinensis), maracuyá (Passiflora edulis), noni (Morinda citrifolia) rambután (Nephelium lappaceum), pitaya blanca (Hylocereus undatus), pitaya roja (Hylocereus polyrhizus) y su relación con sus potenciales efectos benéficos en la salud(AU)


Exotic fruits are found in the group of tropical fruits and their perishable nature limits their export to distant markets. In general, their consumption is local; they are underutilized or little valued both at home and industrially; however, its consumption has increased significantly in recent years due to its high nutritional value. These fruits are a source of bioactive compounds such as fiber, vitamin C, carotenoids, phenolic acids and polyphenols, which have been associated with reducing the risks of chronic diseases caused by oxidative stress. These bioactive compounds have been shown to possess various in vitro and in vivo biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-aging, neuroprotective, and among others. Therefore, obtaining functional ingredients from tropical fruits considered exotic is viable and used to develop functional and nutraceutical foods, prepare products for the pharmaceutical industry and food preservation. This review discusses the most relevant information published in the 2010-2020 period from the main scientific databases, including Scopus, Science Direct, PubMed, Medline and Scielo, on phenolic compounds and reported bioactivities of exotic tropical fruits such as acai (Euterpe oleraceae), acerola (Malpighia emarginata), persimmon (Diospyros kaki), chicozapote (Manilkara zapota), litchi (Litchi chinensis), passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) noni (Morinda citrifolia), rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum), white pitaya (Hylocereus undatus) and red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) and their relationship with their potential beneficial effects on health(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Dietary Fiber , Food Composition , Phenolic Compounds , Fruit , Nutritive Value , Food Analysis , Antioxidants
12.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(4): 1504-1510, July-Aug. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131478

ABSTRACT

Foram determinados os valores energéticos e a composição bromatológica do resíduo seco de fecularia (RSF) para frangos de corte, na fase de crescimento, utilizando ou não enzimas carboidrases. Os tratamentos foram distribuídos em esquema fatorial 2x4 + ração referência, sendo uma RR sem adição de RSF e quatro tratamentos experimentais com 10%, 20%, 30% e 40% de inclusão do RSF e a suplementação ou não com carboidrases. A composição química encontrada para o RSF, na MN, foi de 89,86% de matéria seca, 0,98% de proteína bruta, 3519kcal kg-1 de energia bruta, 0,19% de extrato etéreo, 27% de fibra em detergente neutro, 19,5% de fibra em detergente ácido, 0,33% de cálcio, 0,43% de fósforo, 0,46% de potássio e 0,12% de magnésio. O uso de carboidrases proporcionou um aumento de 173 e 213kcal kg-1 nos valores de EMA e EMAn, respectivamente, resultando em 1828kcal kg-1 EMA e 1840kcal kg-1 EMAn. Concluiu-se que os maiores níveis de EMA e EMAn foram encontrados para o nível de inclusão médio do RSF de 35% e que a suplementação enzimática pode promover aumento desses parâmetros em até 12% em dietas para frangos de corte na fase de crescimento.(AU)


The energetic values and the bromatological composition of the dry residue of cassava (DRC) were determined for growing broilers with or without carbohydrase enzymes. The treatments were distributed in a 2x4 + reference diet factorial scheme, with one RD without addition of DRC and four experimental treatments with 10, 20, 30 and 40% inclusion levels of RSF and supplementation or not with carbohydrases. The chemical composition found for DRC in natural matter was 89.86% dry matter, 0.98% crude protein, 3519kcal kg-1 gross energy, 0.19% ether extract, 27% neutral detergent fiber, 19.5% of acid detergent fiber, 0.33% of calcium, 0.43% of phosphorus, 0.46% of potassium and 0.12% of magnesium. The use of carbohydrase resulted in an increase of 173 and 213kcal kg-1 in EMA and EMAn values, respectively, resulting in 1828kcal kg-1 EMA and 1840kcal kg-1 EMAn. It was concluded that the highest levels of AME and AMEn were found for the mean inclusion level of the DRC of 35% and that enzymatic supplementation may promote the increase of these parameters by up to 12% in broiler diets in the growth phase.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dietary Fiber/administration & dosage , Chickens/growth & development , Diet/veterinary , Starch and Fecula , Animal Feed/analysis , Energy Metabolism , Glycoside Hydrolases/administration & dosage
13.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(4): 552-560, ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138589

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Propósito: La inexistencia de datos a nivel nacional y regional sobre el valor nutricional (VN) de la alimentación ofrecida en comedores comunitarios dirigidos por Organizaciones No Gubernamentales (ONG), que atienden población infantil de zonas urbano marginales, junto con el incremento en la prevalencia de exceso de peso reportada por el Ministerio de Educación Pública de Costa Rica (MEP) en el 2016, justifican el estudio del VN del almuerzo servido a niños(as), que participan en programas de alimentación complementaria en zonas urbano marginales de San José, Costa Rica. Método: Se analizaron mediante muestreo aleatorio 321 platos de almuerzo, durante 12 días en dos comedores. Se reconstruyeron recetas y se determinaron tamaños de porción mediante pesaje directo y se calculó el VN promedio por plato. Resultados: El valor energético fue cercano a la recomendación nutricional. Sin embargo, valores de proteína, grasa total, grasa insaturada, fibra dietética, calcio y potasio fueron inferiores a las recomendaciones y por el contrario, carbohidratos totales, azúcar agregada, grasa saturada y sodio fueron superiores a la recomendación nacional. Conclusión: No es suficiente ofrecer un aporte adecuado de energía. Los excesos y deficiencias de nutrientes reflejan un patrón alimentario obesogénico que suma vulnerabilidad a la condición de pobreza y pobreza extrema de la población infantil de zonas urbano-marginales.


ABSTRACT Purpose: The lack of data at a national and regional level regarding the nutritional value (NV) of the food offered in community feeding programs run by Non-Governmental Organizations, which serve the population of marginal urban areas (an important indicator of infant health), along with the increase in the prevalence of excess weight reported in 2016 by the Ministry of Public Education of Costa Rica, justifies the study of the NV of the lunch served to preschool and school-aged children, who participate in complementary feeding programs in marginal urban areas of San José, Costa Rica. Method: 321 meals served were analyzed over 12 days, in 2 food services. Recipes were reconstructed, and portion sizes were determined by direct weighing of food served and the average NV per dish was calculated. Results: The energy value of the lunch served was similar to the nutritional recommendation. However, for the values of protein, total fat, unsaturated fat, dietary fiber, calcium and potassium which were lower than the nutritional recommendation and on the contrary, the content of total carbohydrates, added sugar, saturated fat and sodium was excessive. Conclusion: It is not enough to offer minors an adequate energy amount. Nutrient excesses and deficiencies reflect an obesogenic food pattern, which adds vulnerability to the condition of poverty and extreme poverty of the child population of marginalized urban areas.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Child , Minors , Meals , Food , Nutritive Value , Schools , Dietary Fats , Dietary Fiber , Sugars
14.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 24(2): 81-85, maio-ago. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116356

ABSTRACT

A obesidade possui vários prejuízos para a saúde e está associada à inúmeras patologias e baixa expectativa de vida. O desequilíbrio alimentar é um fator que necessita de atenção especial, pois é capaz de alterar as interações entre nutrientes e genes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar as principais linhas de pesquisa associadas à nutrigenômica, e evidenciar a relação da influência da nutrição na expressão de genes relacionados à obesidade. Realizou-se o levantamento bibliográfico e a análise cienciométrica por meio do banco de dados publicados na Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS) e do Centro Latino-Americano de Informação em Ciências da Saúde (BIREME). Identificou-se 118 artigos originais, os quais foram agrupados em cinco classes: restrição calórica, expressão gênica, alimentos, intervenção dietética e diversos. Os resultados evidenciaram que a restrição calórica possui relação direta da expressão gênica com o controle das células cancerígenas e a diminuição do excesso de tecido adiposo. Além disso, a análise cienciométrica relacionou a importância das fibras alimentares na redução do colesterol e sensibilidade à insulina, bem como a ação do jejum na regulação negativa de genes que contribuem para o crescimento do tecido adiposo. Dessa forma, este artigo fornece princípios ideológicos para auxiliar especialistas na aplicabilidade de estratégias para atingir a redução de peso sustentável por meio da expressão gênica.


Obesity has several health risks and is associated with numerous pathologies and low life expectancy. Food imbalance is a factor that needs special attention, as it is able to change the interactions between nutrients and genes. This study aimed at verifying the main lines of research associated with nutrigenomics, and at showing the relationship of the influence of nutrition on the expression of genes related to obesity. The bibliographic survey and scientometric analysis were carried out through the database published in the Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS) and the Centro Latino-Americano de Informação em Ciências da Saúde (BIREME). A total of 118 articles of original research were identified, and were grouped into five categories: caloric restriction; gene expression; food; dietary intervention; and miscellaneous. The results showed that caloric restriction has a direct relationship between gene expression and the control of cancer cells and the reduction of excess adipose tissue. Furthermore, the scientometric analysis related the importance of dietary fibers in reducing cholesterol and insulin sensitivity as well as the action of fasting in the negative regulation of genes that contribute to the growth of adipose tissue. Thus, this paper provides ideological principles to assist specialists in the applicability of strategies to achieve sustainable weight reduction through gene expression.


Subject(s)
Gene Expression/genetics , Food/adverse effects , Obesity/genetics , Dietary Fiber , Weight Loss , Adipose Tissue , Caloric Restriction , Dietetics , Nutritional Sciences , Nutrigenomics , Insulin , Neoplasms
15.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(3): 681-687, May-June, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1128758

ABSTRACT

An 11-year (2007-2018) survey of epidemiological, clinical and pathological findings of horses with primary gastric rupture (PGR) was conducted. Twenty horses presented PGR, nine (45%) horses were clinically evaluated, eleven (55%) were sent dead, and all animals were necropsied. PGR contributed to a prevalence of 0.31% (9/2,868) of all equid attendances, 1.83% (9/491) of colic cases, and 4.1% (20/487) of all equid necropsies. Highly fermentable feed (n=7), gastric impaction (n=4), and perforating gastric ulcer (n=1) were the main causes of PGR; whilst eight horses presented idiopathic gastric rupture. Clinically evaluated horses were tachycardic, tachypneic, febrile, dehydrated, with increased abdominal tension, abnormal mucous membranes and reduced to absent intestinal borborygmi. Improper dietary management, such as the ingestion of low-quality roughage and highly fermentable feedstuffs were detected as the main factors associated with PGR in Midwestern Brazil. It is important to raise awareness in horse owners about proper feed management to minimize PGR.(AU)


Foi realizado um levantamento de 11 anos (2007-2018) dos achados epidemiológicos, clínicos e patológicos de equinos com ruptura gástrica primária (RGP). Vinte equinos apresentaram RGP, dos quais nove (45%) foram avaliados clinicamente e 11 (55%) foram enviados mortos, sendo todos os animais necropsiados. A RGP contribuiu com prevalência de 0,31% de todos os atendimentos de equídeos (9/2.868), 1,83% (9/491) dos casos de cólica, e 4,1% (20/487) das necropsias em equídeos. Alimentos altamente fermentáveis (n=7), compactação gástrica (n=4) e perfuração de úlcera gástrica (n=1) foram as principais causas de RGP, enquanto oito equinos tiveram ruptura gástrica idiopática. Os equinos avaliados clinicamente apresentaram-se taquicárdicos, taquipneicos, febris, desidratados, com mucosas anormais, aumento da tensão abdominal e motilidade intestinal reduzida. O manejo inadequado da dieta, como a ingestão de forragens de baixa qualidade e alimentos altamente fermentáveis, foi o principal fator de risco associado à RGP no Centro-Oeste do Brasil. É importante aumentar a conscientização dos proprietários de equinos sobre o manejo alimentar adequado para minimizar a RGP.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Stomach Rupture/veterinary , Stomach Ulcer/veterinary , Horses/metabolism , Peritonitis/veterinary , Stomach Diseases/veterinary , Dietary Fiber , Abdomen, Acute/veterinary
16.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(3): 457-462, jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126144

ABSTRACT

Conocida es la influencia de la fibra dietaria sobre los efectos mecánicos a nivel gastrointestinal, la composición y modulación de la microbiota intestinal y su función en la actividad metabólica y nutricional en adultos. En niños y adolescentes estos efectos son menos conocidos, generando interesantes áreas de investigación y desarrollo científico que nos puedan entregar mayor conocimiento de sus repercusiones a nivel fisiológicos y fisiopatológicos. Esta revisión tiene como objetivo entregar información actualizada sobre las diferentes clasificaciones de fibra, sus principales funciones digestivas y metabólicas, así como las recomendaciones de ingesta diaria en pediatría.


Among adults, the influence of dietary fiber on mechanical effects at the gastrointestinal level, the composition and modulation of the intestinal microbiota and function in the metabolic and nutritional activity is known. However, in children and adolescents, these effects are less known, generating interesting areas of research and development that could provide additional knowledge at the physiological and pathophysiological level. The aim of this review was to provide updated information about the different classifications of fiber, the principal digestive and metabolic functions, as well as recommendations for daily intake for pediatric populations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Dietary Fiber/administration & dosage , Dietary Fiber/classification , Gastrointestinal Tract/physiology , Gastrointestinal Tract/metabolism , Recommended Dietary Allowances , Whole Grains
17.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(2): 144-149, Apr.-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131653

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Adequate fiber intake is associated with digestive health and reduced risk of several noncommunicable diseases and is recognized as essential for human health (World Health Organization, 2003). The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a daily fiber consumption of ≥25 g, but previous studies observed a fiber intake in Brazil lower than recommended. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe fiber intake among adults in Brazil and also respondents' knowledge and perceptions about their fiber intake. METHODS: National online survey with community-dwelling Brazilian individuals. The survey was conducted during September 2018, using an online platform with closed-ended questions. A representative sample of Brazilian internet users stratified by sex, age, socioeconomic status and geographic region was adopted. Sample size was calculated using a 2% error margin and 95% confidence interval (n=2,000). Data was descriptively analyzed using measures of frequency, central tendency and dispersion. RESULTS: Sample included 2,000 individuals who were well-balanced in terms of sex (51.2% female), with mean age of 35.9 years (most represented age group was 35-54 years, 39.6%) and from all country geographic regions (49.4% from Southeast). A total of 69.7% of them consider their usual diet as healthy and 78.4% reported consuming fibers regularly. Fibers from natural sources are consumed at least once a day by 69.5% of the sample, while daily fiber supplements were reported by 29.9%. Absence of regular fiber intake was reported by 21.7% of respondents and the most common reason was "lack of knowledge about fiber sources" (39.3%). When informed about the food sources of each type of fiber (soluble and insoluble) and asked about the regular intake, only 2.5% answered that they do not consume any of them regularly (as opposed to 21.7% before receiving information about specific fiber sources). CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that fiber intake in Brazil is probably insufficient with a high proportion of individuals reporting irregular or absent ingestion of fiber sources in their daily lives. Lack of knowledge about fiber sources and fiber types seems to play a role in this inadequate intake, highlighting the need for nutritional education to achieve healthy dietary patterns in the country.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A adequada ingestão de fibras está diretamente associada à saúde digestiva e é reconhecida como essencial à saúde humana (World Health Organization, 2003). A Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) recomenda consumo diário de fibras de ≥25 g, mas estudos prévios observaram uma ingesta de fibras no Brasil abaixo do recomendado. OBJETIVO: Descrever a ingestão, o conhecimento e as percepções sobre o consumo de fibras entre adultos brasileiros. MÉTODOS: Inquérito nacional online com indivíduos brasileiros na comunidade. O inquérito foi conduzido em setembro de 2018, usando uma plataforma online com questões fechadas. Uma amostra representativa dos usuários de internet no Brasil estratificada por sexo, idade, status socioeconômico e região geográfica foi utilizada. O tamanho da amostra foi calculado usando uma margem de erro de 2,0% em um intervalo de confiança de 95% (n=2.000). Os dados foram analisados descritivamente usando medidas de frequência, tendência central e dispersão. RESULTADOS: A amostra incluiu 2.000 indivíduos equilibrados em termos de sexo (51,2% mulheres), com idade média de 35,9 anos (faixa etária mais representada foi 35-54 anos, 39,6%) e de todas as regiões geográficas do país (49,4% do Sudeste). Dos respondentes, 69,7% consideram sua dieta usual como saudável e 78,4% relataram consumir fibras regularmente. Fibras de fontes naturais são consumidas pelo menos uma vez ao dia por 69,5% da amostra, enquanto que suplementos de fibras, por 29,9%. O não consumo regular de fibras foi relatado por 21,7% dos respondentes e a causa mais comum para tal foi "falta de conhecimento sobre fontes de fibras" (39,3%). Quando informados sobre fontes de fibra de cada tipo (solúvel e insolúvel) e interrogados sobre a ingestão regular, apenas 2,5% responderam não consumir nenhuma delas regularmente (por oposição a 21,7% antes de receberem informação sobre fontes específicas de fibras). CONCLUSÃO: Nossos achados indicam que a ingestão de fibras no Brasil é provavelmente insuficiente com uma alta proporção de indivíduos relatando consumo ausente ou irregular de fontes de fibras no cotidiano. Falta de conhecimento sobre fontes e tipos de fibras parece desempenhar um papel relevante nesta ingestão inadequada, reforçando a necessidade de educação nutricional para alcançar padrões alimentares saudáveis no país.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Dietary Fiber/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Energy Intake , Nutrition Surveys , Surveys and Questionnaires , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Eating
18.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(3): 366-371, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126133

ABSTRACT

Jatobá (Hymenaea sp.) is an arboreal legume native to the Brazilian Savannah (Cerrado) and its fruit has a high functional potential, but the jatobá-da-mata specie has been poorly explored. This study evaluated the nutritional profile, bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of jatobá-da-mata byproducts: pulp flour, fibrous pulp residue and sap. Jatobá fruits were pulped to obtain pulp flour and fibrous pulp residue, and the jatobá tree's sap was obtained in a typical extraction location in the Cerrado (Brazilian Savannah). Fibrous pulp residue and pulp flour had high protein (11 and 12 g/100 g) and dietary fiber (49 and 44 g/100 g) content, respectively, and the fibrous residue showed the highest total and insoluble fibers, ash and vitamin C content. Regarding polyphenols, the fibrous residue showed a high concentration (775 mg GAE/100 g); an intermediate value in pulp flour (462 mg GAE/100 g); and considerable content in sap(181 mg GAE/100 g). Jatobá residue and pulp flour are suitable ingredients for the formulation of functional foods, and the sap is a promising non-caloric product with potential health benefits.


Jatobá (Hymenaea sp.) es una leguminosa arbórea originaria de la sabana brasileña y su fruto tiene un alto potencial funcional, pero la especie jatobá-da-mata ha sido poco explorada. El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar el perfil nutricional, compuestos bioactivos y capacidad antioxidante de subproductos del jatobá-da-mata: harina de la pulpa, residuo fibroso de la pulpa y la savia. Los frutos fueron despulpados para obtener la harina juntamente con el residuo fibroso de la pulpa, y la savia de la planta fue obtenida en un lugar exclusivo de extracción en el Cerrado (Sábana brasileña). El residuo fibroso y la harina de la pulpa contienen un alto contenido de proteína (11 y 12 g/100 g) y de fibra dietética (49 y 44 g/100 g), respectivamente, y el residuo fibroso mostró el mayor contenido de fibras totales y insolubles, cenizas y vitamina C. En cuanto a los polifenoles, el residuo fibroso presentó alta concentración (775 mg AGE/100 g); la harina de la pulpa, un valor intermedio (462 mg AGE/100 g); y la savia, un contenido considerable (181 mg AGE/100 g). El residuo fibroso y la harina de la pulpa son ingredientes adecuados en la formulación de alimentos funcionales, y la savia es un producto no calórico prometedor con potenciales beneficios a la salud.


Subject(s)
Hymenaea/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Ascorbic Acid/analysis , Dietary Fiber/analysis , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Phytochemicals , Flour
19.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(1): 114-124, feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092751

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate which type of diet is most effective for weight loss. METHODS: Relevant studies for this type of review were identified from March to May 2018 by several sources, in the electronic databases PubMed, CINAHL, Scielo, SCOPUS, Web of Science, BVS Portal, EMBASE and Cochrane Library. For gray literature, Open Green and Base search and hand search repositories, which is a free search for materials that address the subject were searched. RESULTS: The selected publications totaled 537, of which 104 were from the electronic databases and 433 records identified through other databases. After the removal of duplicates, 113 titles and abstracts and 37 complete texts were selected, after reading the articles in full, 14 articles were selected for inclusion in this review. Out of the 14 articles analyzed, relevant results were presented for a diet rich in fruits and vegetables; oleaginous, especially nuts; a Mediterranean diet was noted in three studies; dietary guidelines based on guides was mentioned in two studies and a high-protein diet was cited four times. CONCLUSION: The most effective diet for weight loss was the high fiber diet, although it contributes with small percentage value.


OBJETIVO: evaluar qué tipo de dieta es la más efectiva para perder peso. MÉTODOS: los estudios relevantes para este tipo de revisión fueron identificados de marzo a mayo de 2018 por varias fuentes, en las bases de datos electrónicas PubMed, CINAHL, Scielo, SCOPUS, Web of Science, BVS Portal, EMBASE y Cochrane Library en la literatura gris Open Creen y Base de búsqueda y repositorios de búsqueda manual, que es una búsqueda gratuita de materiales que tratan el tema. RESULTADOS: Las publicaciones seleccionadas totalizaron 537, de las cuales 104 eran de las bases de datos electrónicas y 433 registros identificados a través de otras bases de datos. Después de la eliminación de los artículos duplicados, se seleccionaron 113 títulos y resúmenes y 37 textos completos; después de leer los artículos completos, se seleccionaron 14 artículos para su inclusión en esta revisión. De los 14 artículos analizados se presentaron resultados relevantes para una dieta rica en frutas y verduras; oleaginoso, especialmente los frutos secos; Dieta mediterránea en tres estudios; Pautas dietéticas basadas en guías dietéticas, presentes en dos estudios y dieta hiperproteica, citadas cuatro veces. CONCLUSIÓN: la dieta más efectiva para perder peso es la dieta alta en fibra, aunque contribuye con un pequeño valor porcentual.


Subject(s)
Humans , Weight Loss/physiology , Diet , Body Weight , Dietary Fiber , Nutritional Status , Diet, Mediterranean
20.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 57(3): e168157, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1122182

ABSTRACT

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of the level and degradability of crude protein (CP) on the digestive metabolism and productive performance of dairy cows. In both experiments, 15 Holstein cows with 585 ± 40 kg of body weight were distributed in a Latin square design with five contemporary squares, three periods of 21 days and three treatments. In experiment 1, treatments consisted of three CP levels (130, 160 or 180 g CP/kg DM), while in experiment 2, the treatments consisted of three levels of rumen degradable protein (RDP; 80, 100 or 120 g RDP/kg DM) in diets with average of 163 g CP/kg DM. Variables evaluated in both experiments were dry matter intake (DMI), total apparent digestibility, milk yield (MY) and composition, ruminal fermentation and N balance. In experiment 1, the increase of CP from 130 to 180 linearly increased the organic matter, CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) intake (kg) and the apparent total digestibility coefficient of DM and CP. In addition, a linear increase of MY, fat corrected milk (FCM) and daily production of fat, protein, lactose, casein and total solids was observed. A linear increase in ruminal ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N) concentration and nitrogen excretion in milk, feces and urine was also observed. However, there was no observed effect on SCFA concentration. In experiment 2, the increase of the RDP from 80 to 120 increased the DMI, MY, FCM, milk protein content and digestibility coefficient of the NDF, ADF and ethereal extract. Additionally, there was an increase in NH3-N concentration and milk nitrogen excretion. The studies indicated that the increase of CP content up to 100 g RDP/kg DM increased the DMI and the productive performance of the cows, but also increased urine N. Thus, it is desirable that the increase of the CP through the increase of the RDP is carried out up to 100 g of RDP/kg DM, since there is elimination of nitrogen, decrease of milk yield and decrease of propionic acid in values above that level.(AU)


Dois experimentos foram realizados com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do nível e da degradabilidade da proteína bruta (PB) no metabolismo digestivo e no desempenho produtivo de vacas leiteiras. Nos dois experimentos, 15 vacas da raça Holandesa com 585 ± 40 kg de peso corporal foram distribuídas em delineamento do tipo quadrado latino com cinco quadrados contemporâneos, sendo três períodos de 21 dias e três tratamentos. No experimento 1, os tratamentos consistiram de três níveis de PB (130, 160 ou 180 g CP/kg de MS), enquanto que no experimento 2, os tratamentos consistiram de três níveis de proteína degradável no rúmen (PDR; 80, 100 ou 120 g de PDR/kg MS) em dietas com média de 163 g CP/kg MS. As variáveis avaliadas nos dois experimentos foram: consumo de matéria seca (CMS), digestibilidade aparente total, produção e composição do leite (PL), fermentação ruminal e balanço de N. No experimento 1, o aumento da PB de 130 para 180 aumentou linearmente o consumo de matéria orgânica, PB, fibra detergente neutro (FDN), fibra em detergente ácido (ADF) (kg) e o aparente coeficiente de digestibilidade total de MS e PB. Além disso, foi observado um aumento linear da PL, leite corrigido para gordura (LCG) e produção diária de gordura, proteína, lactose, caseína e sólidos totais. Também foi observado aumento linear na concentração de nitrogênio amoniacal ruminal (N-NH3) e excreção de nitrogênio no leite, fezes e urina. No entanto, não foi observado efeito na concentração de ácidos graxos de cadeia curta. No experimento 2, o aumento do PDR de 80 para 120 aumentou o CMS, PL, LCG, teor de proteína do leite e o coeficiente de digestibilidade do FDN, FDA e extrato etéreo. Além disso, houve aumento na concentração de N-NH3 e excreção de nitrogênio no leite. Os estudos indicaram que o aumento do teor de PB em até 100 g RDP/kg de MS aumentou o CMS e o desempenho produtivo das vacas, mas também aumentou o N urinário. Assim, é desejável que o aumento da PB através do aumento da PDR seja realizado até 100 g de PDR/kg de MS, uma vez que há eliminação de nitrogênio, diminuição da produção de leite e diminuição do ácido propiônico em valores acima desse nível.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Rumen , Dietary Fiber/metabolism , Dietary Proteins/metabolism , Fermentation , Nitrogen/administration & dosage
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