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1.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 13: 1436-1441, jan.-dez. 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1341934

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Identificar o perfil sociodemográfico, clínico e os diagnósticos de enfermagem pessoas com diabetes mellitus estabelecidos em consultas de enfermagem à beira do leito. Método: Estudo observacional descritivo, realizado em 2017 com 37 participantes, amostra não probabilística, em unidade de clínica médica ou cirúrgica de um hospital escola do sul do Brasil. Variáveis do estudo: dados sociodemográficos, clínicos e diagnósticos de enfermagem da North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, submetidos à estatística descritiva simples. Resultados: 89,21% dos participantes diabéticos tipo 2; tempo médio de diagnóstico de 9,6 anos; 70,2% hipertensos; 56,7% tabagistas; 16,2% insulinodependentes; 32,4% faziam uso de açúcar refinado; 59,45% associavam dois ou mais carboidratos na mesma refeição. Os diagnósticos mais frequentes: Risco de glicemia instável (97,37%), Risco de infecção (97,37%), Conhecimento deficiente (81,58%), Estilo de vida sedentário (60,53%), Controle ineficaz da saúde (60,53%). Conclusão: A identificação do perfil e dos diagnósticos de enfermagem possibilita melhor planejamento de enfermagem


Objective: To identify the sociodemographic, clinical profile and nursing diagnoses established through bedside nursing consultation in people with diabetes mellitus. Method: Descriptive observational study, conducted in 2017 with 37 participants (non-probabilistic sample), in a medical or surgical clinic unit of a school hospital in southern Brazil. Study variables: sociodemographic, clinical and nursing diagnoses according to the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, submitted to simple descriptive statistics. Results: 89.21% type 2 diabetic; mean time of diagnosis of 9.6 years; 70.2% hypertensive; 56.7% smokers; 16.2% insulin-dependent; 32.4% used refined sugar; 59.45% associated two or more carbohydrates in the same meal. The most frequent diagnoses: Risk for unstable blood glucose level(97.37%), Risk for infection (97.37%), Deficient knowledge (81.58%), Sedentary lifestyle (60.53%), Ineffective health management (60.53%). Conclusion: The identification of profile and nursind diagnoses enables better nursing planning


Objetivo: Identificar el perfil sociodemográfico, clínico y diagnósticos de enfermería establecidos en la consulta de enfermería a la beira del lechoen personas con diabetes mellitus. Método: Estudio observacional descriptivo, realizado en 2017 con 37 participantes (muestra no probabilística), en unidad de clínica médica o quirúrgica de un hospital escuela del sur de Brasil. Variables del estudio: datos sociodemográficos, clínicos y diagnósticos de enfermería según la North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, sometidas a la estadística descriptiva simple. Resultados:89,21% diabéticos tipo 2; tiempo promedio de diagnóstico de 9,6 años; 70,2% hipertensos; 56,7% fumadores; 16,2% insulinodependientes; 32,4% hacía uso de azúcar refinado; 59,45% asociaba dos o más carbohidratos en la misma comida. Diagnósticos más frecuentes: Riesgo de glucemia inestable (97,37%), Riesgo de infección (97,37%), Conocimiento deficiente (81,58%), Estilo de vida sedentario (60,53%), Control ineficaz de la salud (60,53%). Conclusión: La identificación del perfil y de los diagnósticos de enfermería posibilita mejor planificación de enfermería


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Health Profile , Nursing Diagnosis/methods , Dietary Sucrose/adverse effects , Diabetes Mellitus/nursing , Feeding Behavior , Life Style
2.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 45: e21, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251999

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective. To characterize the design of excise taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) in Latin America and the Caribbean and assess opportunities to increase their impact on SSB consumption and health. Methods. A comprehensive search and review of the legislation in effect as of March 2019, collected through existing Pan American Health Organization and World Health Organization monitoring tools, secondary sources, and surveying ministries of finance. The analysis focused on the type of products taxed, and the structure and base of these excise taxes. Results. Out of the 33 countries analyzed, 21 apply excise taxes on SSBs. Seven countries also apply excise taxes on bottled water and at least four include sugar-sweetened milk drinks. Ten of these excise taxes are ad valorem with some tax bases set early in the value chain, seven are amount-specific, and four have either a combined or mixed structure. Three countries apply excise taxes based on sugar concentration. Conclusions. While the number of countries applying excise taxes on SSBs is promising, there is great heterogeneity in design in terms of structure, tax base, and products taxed. Existing excise taxes could be further leveraged to improve their impact on SSB consumption and health by including all categories of SSBs, excluding bottled water, and relying more on amount-specific taxes regularly adjusted for inflation and possibly based on sugar concentration. All countries would benefit from additional guidance. Future research should aim to address this gap.


RESUMEN Objetivo. Caracterizar el diseño de los impuestos selectivos al consumo de bebidas azucaradas en América Latina y el Caribe, y evaluar las oportunidades de aumentar su impacto en el consumo y la salud. Métodos. Se llevó a cabo una búsqueda y una evaluación exhaustivas de legislaciones vigentes a marzo del 2019, recopilada mediante las herramientas de seguimiento ya existentes de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud y de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, fuentes secundarias, así como mediante una encuesta a ministerios de finanzas. El análisis se centró en el tipo de productos gravados y la estructura y la base de estos impuestos selectivos. Resultados. De los 33 países evaluados, en 21 se aplican impuestos selectivos al consumo de bebidas azucaradas. En siete países también se aplican impuestos selectivos al consumo de agua embotellada y en al menos cuatro, se incluyen las bebidas lácteas azucaradas. Diez de estos impuestos selectivos al consumo son de tipo ad valorem con algunas bases imponibles fijadas al principio de la cadena de valor, siete son de tipo específico y cuatro son de estructura combinada o mixta. En tres países se aplican impuestos selectivos al consumo en función de la concentración de azúcares del producto. Conclusiones. Si bien el número de países en que se aplican impuestos selectivos al consumo de bebidas azucaradas es prometedor, existe una gran heterogeneidad en su diseño en cuanto a la estructura, la base imponible y los productos gravados. Se podrían aprovechar aún más los impuestos selectivos existentes a fin de que tengan un mayor impacto sobre la salud y el consumo si se incluyen todas las categorías de bebidas azucaradas, excluyendo el agua embotellada, y recurriendo más a impuestos de tipo específico ajustados frecuentemente según la inflación y basados posiblemente en la concentración de azúcares del producto. Todos los países se beneficiarían si hubiera mayor orientación. Las próximas investigaciones deberían abordar esta brecha.


RESUMO Objetivo. Caracterizar o modelo dos impostos especiais de consumo sobre bebidas açucaradas na América Latina e no Caribe e avaliar oportunidades para aumentar o impacto desses impostos no consumo de bebidas açucaradas e na saúde. Métodos. Realizou-se uma pesquisa ampla e a análise de legislações vigentes em março de 2019, com informações obtidas por meio de instrumentos de monitoramento da Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde (OPAS) e da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) já existentes, fontes secundárias e levantamento junto aos ministérios da Fazenda. A análise centrou-se no tipo de produtos tributados e na estrutura e base desses impostos especiais de consumo. Resultados. Dos 33 países analisados, 21 aplicam impostos especiais de consumo sobre bebidas açucaradas. Em sete países os impostos especiais de consumo incidem também sobre água engarrafada e, em pelo menos quatro, incluem bebidas lácteas açucaradas. Dez desses tributos especiais são ad valorem com algumas bases tributárias estabelecidas no início da cadeia de valor, sete são de tipo específico e quatro têm uma estrutura combinada ou mista. Em três países os impostos especiais são estabelecidos com base na concentração de açúcares do produto. Conclusões. Apesar do número promissor de países com impostos especiais de consumo sobre bebidas açucaradas, verifica-se grande heterogeneidade nos modelos de tributação em termos de estrutura, base tributária e produtos tributados. Os impostos especiais de consumo vigentes poderiam ser mais bem aproveitados para aumentar o impacto no consumo de bebidas açucaradas e na saúde: incluir todas as categorias de bebidas açucaradas, excluir água engarrafada e recorrer mais a impostos de tipo específico com a correção periódica pela inflação e, possivelmente, com base na concentração de açúcares do produto. Todos os países se beneficiariam em receber mais orientação. Pesquisas futuras devem ter como objetivo abordar essa lacuna.


Subject(s)
Humans , Taxes , Sugar-Sweetened Beverages/economics , Sugar-Sweetened Beverages/legislation & jurisprudence , Sweetening Agents , Caribbean Region , Dietary Sucrose/adverse effects , Latin America
3.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 70(4): 247-254, dic. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1247628

ABSTRACT

El dramático aumento de la prevalencia e incidencia de la obesidad sugiere que factores ambientales y cambios en el estilo de vida contribuyen de forma importante a su tendencia epidémica. En humanos, se han reportado diferencias interindividuales en los umbrales de detección y preferencia del sabor dulce, lo que podría afectar la ingesta habitual de azúcares, y por ende al estado nutricional. Objetivo: El presente estudio busca determinar la relación entre el estado nutricional y la preferencia al sabor dulce en la comunidad de un establecimiento de educación superior. Método: Muestra fue constituida por estudiantes, funcionarios y docentes, entre 18 y 60 años, pertenecientes a la Universidad Mayor, Sede Temuco. Para determinar preferencia al sabor dulce se empleó prueba organoléptica que mide grado de satisfacción frente a solución dulce, junto a ello se realizaron mediciones de peso y talla para determinar el Índice de Masa Corporal. Resultados: Muestra final comprendió de 319 personas, de las cuales un 30,1% fueron hombres y 69,9% mujeres. No se observaron diferencias significativas en la preferencia hacia las soluciones con mayor concentración de sacarosa según el estado nutricional. Sin embargo, el modelo predictivo desarrollado arrojó que hombres prefieren las soluciones con mayor concentración de azúcar independiente de la edad y estado nutricional. Conclusiones: Es necesario desarrollar nuevos estudios que permitan aclarar si la preferencia al sabor dulce favorece el desarrollo de obesidad y sobrepeso, o si es la composición nutricional de los alimentos procesados o ultraprocesados, lo que está teniendo un mayor impacto negativo en el estado nutricional de la población(AU)


The dramatic increase in the prevalence and incidence of obesity seems to suggest that environmental factors and lifestyle changes are contributing significantly to the epidemic trend of this pathology. In humans, inter-individual differences in the thresholds of preference of sweet taste have been reported, which could affect habitual sugar intake, and therefore the nutritional status. Objective: The present study seeks to determine the relationship between nutritional status and the preference of sweet taste in the population of a higher education establishment. Method: Sample was constituted by students, officials and teachers between 18 and 60 years, belonging to the Universidad Mayor, Temuco. To determine the perception of the sweet taste, an organoleptic test was used that measures the degree of satisfaction with the sweet solution, along with this, weight and height measurements were made to determine the Body Mass Index. Results: Final sample comprised 319 people, of which 30.1% were men and 69.9% women. No significant differences were observed in the preference for solutions with a higher concentration of sucrose according to nutritional status. However, a predictive model developed showed that men prefer the solutions with the highest concentration of sugar regardless of age and nutritional status. Conclusions: It is necessary to develop new studies to clarify whether the preference for sweet taste favors the development of obesity and overweight, or if it is the nutritional composition of processed or ultraprocessed foods, which is having a greater negative impact on the nutritional status of the population.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Nutritional Status , Dietary Sucrose , Food Preferences , Dietary Sugars , Chronic Disease , Obesity
4.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 54(3): 279-284, set. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130602

ABSTRACT

El azúcar de mesa, que se obtiene de la caña de azúcar, es el edulcorante más utilizado en la elaboración de los alimentos. El azúcar es importante en la obtención de energía, es necesario para la síntesis de ácidos grasos, de ácidos nucleicos, evita el estrés oxidativo y el desarrollo de anemia. Puede ocasionar caries, diabetes, obesidad, arteriosclerosis y otras patologías. En el presente trabajo se valoró el efecto que tiene la ingesta crónica de agua endulzada con sacarosa al 30% sobre el consumo de alimento balanceado, el perfil lipídico, la concentración de glucosa sérica, y sobre algunos marcadores del estado nutricional como el peso y las proteínas séricas totales, en machos de ratas Wistar. El agua endulzada con sacarosa al 30% se administró a un grupo de 9 ratas Wistar durante 3 meses y se tomó como grupo control a un grupo de 9 ratas que bebieron agua natural. El consumo de alimentos por ambos grupos, así como los marcadores de química sanguínea se analizaron al final del tratamiento. Los niveles de glucosa, lípidos y proteínas séricas totales se midieron mediante espectroscopía. Los resultados mostraron que el consumo de agua endulzada con sacarosa al 30% redujo en más de un 90% el consumo de alimento balanceado; sin embargo, no afectó el perfil lipídico ni el nivel de glucosa en sangre, así como tampoco el nivel de proteínas séricas totales. El consumo de agua endulzada con sacarosa podría provocar desnutrición a largo plazo ya que ocasiona una reducción en la ingesta de alimento rico en nutrientes.


Sugar, obtained from sugarcane, is the most commonly used sweetener in food processing. Sugar is an important food for energy generation and it is necessary for the synthesis of fatty acids and nucleic acids. It prevents oxidative stress and anemia development. However, its consumption can cause dental caries, diabetes, obesity, arteriosclerosis and other pathologies. In the present work, the effect of chronic intake of water sweetened with 30% sucrose on balanced food consumption, lipid profile, serum glucose concentration, as well as some markers of nutritional status such as weight and total serum proteins was assessed in male Wistar rats. The water sweetened with 30% sucrose was administered to a group of 9 Wistar rats for 3 months, having 9 rats as a control group that drank natural water. Food consumption between both groups as well as blood chemistry markers were analyzed at the end of the treatment. Glucose, lipid levels as well as total serum proteins were measured by spectroscopy. The results showed that the consumption of water sweetened with 30% sucrose reduced the consumption of balanced food by more than 90%, however, it did not affect the lipid profile, the level of glucose in the blood or the level of total serum proteins concentration. Consumption of sucrose-sweetened water could lead to long-term malnutrition by reducing the intake of nutrient-rich food.


O açúcar comum, obtido a partir da cana de açúcar, é o adoçante mais utilizado na elaboração dos alimentos. O açúcar é importante para a geração de energia; necessário para a síntese de ácidos graxos e de ácidos nucleicos. Previne o estresse oxidativo e o desenvolvimento de anemia. No entanto, seu consumo pode causar cárie dentária, diabetes, obesidade, arteriosclerose e outras patologias. No presente trabalho, foi avaliado o efeito da ingestão crônica de água adoçada com sacarose a 30% sobre o consumo de alimentos ricos em nutrientes, perfil lipídico, concentração sérica de glicose e alguns marcadores do estado nutricional, como o peso. e as proteínas séricas totais em ratos Wistar machos. A água adoçada com sacarose a 30% foi administrada a um grupo de 9 ratos Wistar por 3 meses, tendo como grupo controle um grupo de 9 ratos que beberam água natural. O consumo de alimentos entre os dois grupos e os marcadores de química sanguínea foram analisados no final do tratamento. Os níveis de glicose, lipídios e proteínas séricas totais foram medidos por espectroscopia. Os resultados mostraram que o consumo de água adoçada com sacarose a 30% reduziu em mais de 90% o consumo de alimentos ricos em nutrientes, no entanto, não afetou o perfil lipídico, o nível de glicose em sangue nem o nível de proteínas séricas totais. O consumo de água adoçada com sacarose poderia levar à desnutrição no longo prazo, visto que produz uma redução na ingestão de alimentos ricos em nutrientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Arteriosclerosis , Spectrum Analysis , Blood , Nucleic Acids , Eating , Rats, Wistar , Dietary Sucrose , Saccharum , Control , Fatty Acids , Anemia , Sucrose , Therapeutics , Water , Affect , Dental Caries , Malnutrition , Growth and Development , Diabetes Mellitus , Sugars , Food , Food Handling
5.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(12): 970-977, Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-1056923

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to identify gross and microscopic changes, caused by high-energy diets, in the rumen environment and hoof of confined beef cattle. The study sample comprised 40 confined heifers (Bos taurus) with no disease history divided into four experimental groups using different diets: Group 1 (D1, control), 48:52 forage:concentrate ratio; Group 2 (D2), 30:70 forage:concentrate ratio; Group 3 (D3), 30:70 forage:concentrate ratio + sucrose; Group 4 (D4), 100% concentrate. All animals underwent clinical examination, assessment of ruminal fluid pH and lameness, and sample collection after slaughter for histopathology of the hoof laminae and digital cushion and ruminal tissue. All dependent variables of the study were compared using the SPSS 20.0 statistical software. The variables that did not show normality (HR, RM, ST, and CRT) were compared with application of the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by the Dunnet's multiple comparison test. All other variables were submitted to analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's test. The different diets had an impact on the rumen environment (p<0.05) of the heifers assessed, with momentary general depression in the first 12 h after sucrose induction (D3), as well as mild clinical signs in D4. The animals in D3 and D4 presented lower motility (p<0.05) and ruminal pH (p<0.01) than those in D1. Of the 40 heifers, 27.5% (n=11) showed gross lesions in the epithelium of ruminal pillars, whereas 22.5% (n=9) of those in D3 and D4 presented these lesions. Sole corium thickness varied between heifers in D3 compared with those in D1 and D2 (p<0.05). Therefore, high-energy diets, as used in this study, alter some clinical parameters and the rumen environment, causing lesions in the rumen mucosa, and of lesser intensity, in the hoof corium and laminae, suggestive of laminitis.(AU)


O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar alterações macroscópicas e microscópicas provocadas por dietas de alto valor energético no ambiente ruminal e casco de bovinos de corte (Bos taurus) em confinamento. Foram utilizadas 40 novilhas mantidas em confinamento, sendo divididas em 4 grupos experimentais: Grupo D1(controle) - 48% de volumoso e 52% de concentrado; Grupo D2 - 30% de volumoso e 70% de concentrado; Grupo D3 - 30% de volumoso e 70% de concentrado + sacarose; Grupo D4 - 100% de concentrado. Foi realizado exame clínico dos animais, avaliação do pH ruminal, da claudicação, além de coletas de amostras post-mortem para análises histopatológicas da região laminar do casco, coxim digital e do rúmen. Todas as variáveis dependentes do estudo foram comparadas por meio do software estatístico SPSS 20.0. As variáveis sem normalidade (FC, MR, Tc e TPC) foram comparadas pelo teste de Kruskal Wallis, seguido pelo teste de comparação múltipla de Dunnet. Todas demais foram submetidas a análise de variância (ANOVA), seguida pelo teste de Tukey. Foi observado impacto das distintas dietas ao ambiente ruminal (p<0,05). Os grupos D3 e D4 exibiram menor motilidade (p<0,05) e pH ruminal (p<0,01). 27,5% (n=11) dos animais tiveram registros macroscópicos de lesões no epitélio dos pilares ruminais enquanto que os submetidos às dietas 3 e 4 foi observada ocorrência de 22,5% (n=9) de lesões macroscópicas no rúmen. As espessuras do córium solear variaram entre os grupos que receberam a indução de sacarose em relação ao grupo controle e novilhas alimentadas com a dieta 2 (p<0,05). Sendo assim dietas com elevada densidade energética, na condição em que foi empregada, alteraram alguns parâmetros clínicos e o ambiente ruminal, provocando lesões na mucosa do rúmen e de pouca intensidade no córium e tecido laminar, sugestiva de laminite.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Acidosis/veterinary , Dietary Carbohydrates/adverse effects , Dietary Sucrose , Diet/veterinary , Foot Diseases/etiology , Foot Diseases/veterinary , Animal Feed/adverse effects
6.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 13(1): 93-96, mar. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990071

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of commercial sweeteners on root dentin demineralization using a microcosm biofilm model. Bovine dentin specimens with pre-determined surface hardness were randomized into six groups according to the studied sweeteners: sucralose, stevia, saccharin, aspartame. Sucrose was used as a positive control and an untreated group as a negative control. The specimens were submitted to biofilm development from one saliva donor and the cariogenic challenge occurred on subsequent five days, twice a day. At the end, the percentage of surface hardness loss (%SHL) and biomass was determined and submitted to ANOVA followed by Tukey's test. Sucrose presented the highest rate of demineralization, however, all sweeteners tested lead to a statistically higher root demineralization compared to the negative control (p <0.05). Sucrose caused greater demineralization in root dentin, however, the sweeteners were also able to induce it under this biofilm model.


RESUMEN: El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar el efecto de los edulcorantes comerciales en la desmineralización de la dentina radicular utilizando un modelo de biofilm microcosmo. Se asignaron al azar muestras de dentina bovina con una dureza de la superficie predeterminada de acuerdo con los edulcorantes estudiados: sucralosa, estevia, sacarina, aspartame. La sacarosa se utilizó como control positivo y un grupo no tratado como control negativo. Las muestras se enviaron al desarrollo de biopelículas de un donante de saliva y el desafío cariogénico se produjo en los siguientes cinco días, dos veces al día. Al final, se determinó el porcentaje de pérdida de dureza de la superficie (% PDS) y biomasa y se aplicó un estudio estadístico de ANOVA seguido de la prueba de Tukey. La sacarosa presentó la mayor tasa de desmineralización; sin embargo, todos los endulzantes probados condujeron a una desmineralización de la raíz estadísticamente mayor en comparación con el control negativo (p<0,05). La sacarosa causó una mayor desmineralización en la dentina de raíz, sin embargo, los edulcorantes también fueron capaces de inducirla bajo este modelo de biofilm.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Sweetening Agents/pharmacology , Tooth Root/drug effects , Cariogenic Agents/pharmacology , Tooth Demineralization/chemically induced , Dentin/drug effects , Tooth Root/microbiology , Analysis of Variance , Tooth Demineralization/microbiology , Biofilms/growth & development , Dietary Sucrose/pharmacology , Dentin/microbiology
7.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 19(1): 4189, 01 Fevereiro 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-997966

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the sweetness taste preference levels and their relationship with the nutritional and dental caries patterns among preschool children. Material and Methods: The participants of this cross-sectional study were 191 children aged 4 to 5 years, who were regularly attending public Child Education Centers of a city southern Brazil. Children's preference for sugar was evaluated by the Sweet Preference Inventory; caries prevalence, according to the World Health Organization criteria, and nutritional status, by anthropometric weight and stature measurements, in accordance with child growth standards of the World Health Organization. Results: High levels of sweetness preference were identified. The majority of children (67.5%) opted for the most concentrated sucrose solutions. Excess weight was recorded in 27.7% of the preschoolers. The prevalence of caries was 51.8%, with the mean dmf-t equal to 1.92 (± 2.72) and the decayed (c) component responsible for 94.2% of the index. No significant association between sweetness preference and the nutritional or the oral health patterns could be established. In addition, no association between excess weight and dental caries was identified. The diseases studied were only associated with sociodemographic variables. Excess weight was associated with maternal age (p=0.004) and caries experience with family income (p=0.013). Conclusion: No significant associations could be stablished between the sweetness taste preference and the diseases studied, nor between excess weight and dental caries. However, the findings of high patterns of sweet preference, excess weight and untreated caries experience, highlight the need for the implementation of integrated public policies aimed at controlling both nutritional and of oral health problems in the studied population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Brazil , Eating , Nutritional Status , Dietary Sucrose , Dental Caries/diagnosis , Feeding Behavior , Chi-Square Distribution , Child , Child Development , Anthropometry/methods , Oral Health , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Statistics, Nonparametric , Health Policy
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741706

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Excessive sugar consumption may increase the risk for development of several diseases. Although average dietary sugar intake of Koreans is within the recommended level, an increasing trend has been found in all age groups. This study aimed to evaluate the population attributable fractions (PAF) to dietary sugar for disease and death in Korea, and to estimate the socioeconomic effects of a reduction in dietary sugar. MATERIALS/METHODS: The prevalence of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) overconsumption (≥ 20 g of sugar from beverages) was analyzed using the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2015. Disease-specific relative risks of excessive SSB consumption were obtained through reviewing previous studies. Using the prevalence of SSB overconsumption and each relative risk, PAFs for morbidity and mortality were calculated. Socioeconomic costs of diseases and death attributable to SSB overconsumption were estimated by using representative data on national medical expenditures, health insurance statistics, employment information, and previous reports. RESULTS: Disease-specific PAF to SSB consumption ranged from 3.11% for stroke to 9.05% for obesity and dental caries, respectively. Costs from disease caused by SSB overconsumption was estimated at 594 billion won in 2015. About 39 billion won was estimated to be from SSB consumption-related deaths, and a total of 633 billion won was predicted to have been saved through preventing SSB overconsumption. CONCLUSIONS: Sugars overconsumption causes considerable public burdens, although the cost estimates do not include any informal expenditure. Information on these socioeconomic effects helps both health professionals and policy makers to create and to implement programs for reducing sugar consumption.


Subject(s)
Administrative Personnel , Beverages , Carbohydrates , Dental Caries , Dietary Sucrose , Employment , Health Expenditures , Health Occupations , Humans , Insurance , Korea , Mortality , Nutrition Surveys , Obesity , Prevalence , Public Health , Stroke
9.
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 31(2): 137-145, Mar.Apr. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041253

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To compare the effects of fermented kefir on the nutritional, physiological, and biochemical parameters of rats. Methods Grains of milk kefir (whole and skimmed) and water kefir (brown sugar) were used. The chemical composition analysis was performed on substrates and fermented beverages. The rats were evaluated for weight gain, body mass index, as well as their food, water, kefir, and calorie intake. We also evaluated their energy efficiency coefficient, weight of organs, in addition to their serum, and hepatic biochemistry. Results Fermentation increased the acid content index owing to degradation of lactose and brown sugar. The animals consumed more kefir, reducing the intake of chow and water. Kefir did not alter body and organ weight, while improving the lipid profile. Conclusion Water kefir with brown sugar was more effective in improving the lipid profile.


RESUMO Objetivo Este estudo tem como objetivo comparar os efeitos dos fermentados de kefir sobre parâmetros nutricionais, fisiológicos e bioquímicos de ratos. Métodos Foram utilizados grãos de kefir de leite (integral e desnatado) e de água (açúcar mascavo). A composição química foi realizada nos substratos e fermentados. Foram avaliados nos ratos: ganho de peso; índice de massa corporal; ingestão de ração, água, kefir e calorias; coeficiente de eficiência energética; peso dos órgãos; e bioquímica sérica e hepática. Resultados A fermentação elevou o índice de compostos ácidos a partir da degradação da lactose e do açúcar mascavo. Os animais consumiram mais kefir, diminuindo a ingestão de ração e água. O kefir não alterou o peso corporal e dos órgãos, melhorando ainda o perfil lipídico. Conclusão O kefir de água com açúcar mascavo foi mais eficaz na melhora do perfil lipídico.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Cholesterol , Rats, Wistar , Dietary Sucrose , Fermentation , Kefir , Anticholesteremic Agents
10.
Pan Afr. med. j ; 28(310)2018.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1268520

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Morocco has recently developed a plan of reducing sugar consumption to reinforce prevention of non-communicable diseases and to contribute to the achievement of global voluntary targets for non-communicable diseases set by ICN2 by 2025. The objective of the present study was to assess acceptance of yogurts with different percentage reduction of sugar by the Moroccan population.Methods: a total of 201 participants (age > 15 y.) were recruited to determine the level of sugar reduction in yogurt. Sucrose was added to a plain yoghurt in the following different concentrations 166.5; 149.8; 133.2; 116.5; 99; 83.2 mM/l, corresponding to the reduction of sugar of 0%, -10%, -20%, -30%, -40% and -50%, respectively, compared available yogurt in local market. Overall, the acceptability scores of the different yoghurts were based on liking, "Just About Right" (JAR) and purchase intent scales was used to score the different yoghurts.Results: yogurts containing -20% and -30% added sugar were highly accepted by 81% and 74% of respondents. Based on JAR score, yoghurt with 20% (133.2mM/l) and 30% (116.5 mM/l) reduction were considered as "just about right" by 42.7% and 44.3% respectively. Best average score of purchase intent was obtained for sucrose concentration of 149.8 mM/l. 35.8% and 40.3% for yoghurt with sucrose concentration of 133.2 mM/l and 116.5 mM/l respectively.Conclusion: the finding from this study indicated that yogurts containing -20% and -30% added sugar were most accepted by respondents. Advocacy before dairy industry to have them commit towards sugar reduction in yogurt is needed, in order to help achieving the national sugar reduction strategy in Morocco


Subject(s)
Consumer Behavior , Dietary Sucrose , Food Quality , Morocco , Population , Yogurt/analysis , Yogurt/standards
11.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(4): 2657-2662, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886836

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the high consumption of sucrose on the levels of DNA damage in blood, hippocampus and bone marrow of rats. Male Wistar rats were treated for 4 months with sucrose (10% for 60 initial days and 34% for the following 60 days) in drinking water, and then, glycemia and glycated hemoglobin (A1C) were measured. Levels of DNA damage in blood and hippocampus were evaluated by the comet assay. The micronucleus test was used to evaluate chromosomal damages in the bone marrow. The sucrose treatment significantly increased (p<0.01) the serum glucose levels (~20%) and A1C (~60%). The level of primary DNA damage was significantly increased (p<0.05) in hippocampal cells (~60%) but not in peripheral blood leukocytes (p>0.05). Additionally, it was observed a significative increase (p<0.05) in the markers of chromosomal breaks/losses in bone marrow, as indicated by the micronucleus test. This is the first study that evaluated DNA damage induced by high sucrose concentration in the hippocampus and bone marrow of rats. Sucrose-induced DNA damage was observed in both tissues. However, the mechanism of sucrose toxicity on DNA remains unknown.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Bone Marrow/drug effects , DNA Damage , Hippocampus/drug effects , Bone Marrow/pathology , Micronucleus Tests , Rats, Wistar , Dietary Sucrose/adverse effects , Comet Assay , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Disease Models, Animal , Hippocampus/pathology
13.
Rev. saúde pública ; 51(supl.1): 13s, 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-845913

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the influence of family habits and household characteristics on the consumption of sugary drinks by Brazilian children under two years old. METHODS This was a cross-sectional study that used secondary data generated by the National Health Survey (PNS) in 2013. We studied 4,839 pairs of children under two years old and adults living in the same house. We estimated the prevalence of the indicator of sugary drinks consumption for the total sample of children and according to family and household variables. We applied multiple logistic regression analysis to evaluate the influence of family habits and household characteristics on the consumption of sugary drinks by the children. RESULTS The consumption of sugary drinks was identified in 32% of the studied children (95%CI 30.6-33.3) and was independently associated with the following family and household characteristics: regular consumption of sugary drinks by the adult living in the house (OR = 1.78; 95%CI 1.51-2.10), watching TV for more than three hours per day (OR = 1.22; 95%CI 1.03-1.45), older age (OR = 3.10; 95%CI 1.54-6.26), greater education level (OR = 0.70; 95%CI 0.53-0.91), house located in the Northeast region (OR = 0.65; 95%CI 1.54-6.26), and number of family members (OR = 1.05; 95%CI 1.00-1.09). CONCLUSIONS Our findings indicate the high prevalence of sugary drinks consumption by Brazilian children under two years old and show that sociodemographic characteristics and family habits affect this feeding practice not recommended in childhood.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Avaliar a influência de hábitos familiares e características do domicílio sobre o consumo de bebidas açucaradas em crianças brasileiras menores de dois anos. MÉTODOS Estudo transversal que utilizou dados secundários gerados pela Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS), em 2013. Foram estudados 4.839 pares de crianças menores de dois anos e adultos residentes no mesmo domicílio. Foram estimadas as prevalências do indicador consumo de bebidas açucaradas para a amostra total de crianças e segundo categorias de variáveis familiares e do domicílio. Aplicou-se análise de regressão logística múltipla para avaliar a influência de hábitos familiares e características do domicílio sobre o consumo de bebidas açucaradas pelas crianças. RESULTADOS O consumo de bebidas açucaradas foi identificado em 32% das crianças estudadas (IC95% 30,6–33,3) e esteve independentemente associado com as seguintes caraterísticas familiares e domiciliares: consumo regular de bebidas açucaradas pelo adulto residente no domicílio (OR = 1,78; IC95% 1,51–2,10), hábito de assistir TV por mais de 3 horas diárias (OR = 1,22; IC95% 1,03–1,45), maior idade (OR = 3,10; IC95% 1,54–6,26), maior escolaridade (OR = 0,70; IC95% 0,53–0,91), domicílio localizado na região Nordeste (OR = 0,65; IC95% 1,54–6,26) e número de componentes da família (OR = 1,05; IC95% 1,00–1,09). CONCLUSÕES Os achados apontam a alta prevalência de consumo de bebidas açucaradas em crianças brasileiras menores de dois anos e que características sociodemográficas e hábitos familiares influenciam essa prática alimentar não recomendada na infância.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Beverages , Dietary Sucrose/administration & dosage , Family Characteristics , Nutritive Sweeteners/administration & dosage , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Feeding Behavior , Food Preferences , Pediatric Obesity/prevention & control , Socioeconomic Factors
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-222888

ABSTRACT

Despite overall reductions in heart disease prevalence, the risk of developing heart failure has remained 2-fold greater among people with diabetes. Growing evidence has supported that fluctuations in glucose level and uptake contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD) by modifying proteins, DNA, and gene expression. In the case of glucose, clinical studies have shown that increased dietary sugars for healthy individuals or poor glycemic control in diabetic patients further increased CVD risk. Furthermore, even after decades of maintaining tight glycemic control, susceptibility to disease progression can persist following a period of poor glycemic control through a process termed "glycemic memory." In response to chronically elevated glucose levels, a number of studies have identified molecular targets of the glucose-mediated protein posttranslational modification by the addition of an O-linked N-acetylglucosamine to impair contractility, calcium sensitivity, and mitochondrial protein function. Additionally, elevated glucose contributes to dysfunction in coupling glycolysis to glucose oxidation, pentose phosphate pathway, and polyol pathway. Therefore, in the "sweetened" environment associated with hyperglycemia, there are a number of pathways contributing to increased susceptibly to "breaking" the heart of diabetics. In this review we will discuss the unique contribution of glucose to heart disease and recent advances in defining mechanisms of action.


Subject(s)
Calcium , Cardiomyopathies , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetic Cardiomyopathies , Dietary Sucrose , Disease Progression , DNA , Gene Expression , Glucose , Glycolysis , Heart , Heart Diseases , Heart Failure , Humans , Hyperglycemia , Metabolism , Mitochondrial Proteins , Pentose Phosphate Pathway , Prevalence , Protein Processing, Post-Translational
16.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 30(1): e79, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952042

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of the present study was to investigate risk factors for dental caries in children with developmental disabilities who were treated at a clinical reference service for patients with special needs in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. This is a retrospective cohort study that evaluated 401 dental charts of individuals without dental caries or restorations in their first dental appointment. The dependent variable was the time of occurrence of new dental caries or restorations and was measured in months. Gender, age, International Code of Diseases (ICD), mother´s education, sugar consumption, use of fluoride toothpaste, oral hygiene, mouth breathing, reports of xerostomia, gingival status, use of psychotropic or asthma drugs, and history of asthma were covariates. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate the raw and adjusted hazard ratios and their respective 95% confidence intervals. The average time that individuals remained free of dental caries/restoration was equal to 107.46 months (95%CI 95.41 to 119.51), with a median of caries-free children up to 94 months. For each point increase in the scale of sucrose consumption, the increase in caries risk was 1.07 (95%CI 1.01 to 1.15). Sucrose consumption was the only risk factor for dental caries found in this group of individuals with developmental disabilities.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Developmental Disabilities/complications , Dental Caries/etiology , Oral Hygiene , Time Factors , Toothpastes , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/adverse effects , Dietary Sucrose/adverse effects , Dentifrices , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Fluorides
17.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 30(1): e52, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952032

ABSTRACT

Abstract Sucrose is the most cariogenic dietary carbohydrate and starch is considered non-cariogenic for enamel and moderately cariogenic for dentine. However, the cariogenicity of the combination of starch and sucrose remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of this combination on Streptococcus mutans biofilm composition and enamel and dentine demineralization. Biofilms of S. mutans UA159 were grown on saliva-coated enamel and dentine slabs in culture medium containing 10% saliva. They were exposed (8 times/day) to one of the following treatments: 0.9% NaCl (negative control), 1% starch, 10% sucrose, or 1% starch and 10% sucrose (starch + sucrose). To simulate the effect of human salivary amylase on the starch metabolization, the biofilms were pretreated with saliva before each treatment and saliva was also added to the culture medium. Acidogenicity of the biofilm was estimated by evaluating (2 times/day) the culture medium pH. After 4 (dentine) or 5 (enamel) days of growth, biofilms (n = 9) were individually collected, and the biomass, viable microorganism count, and polysaccharide content were quantified. Dentine and enamel demineralization was assessed by determining the percentage of surface hardness loss. Biofilms exposed to starch + sucrose were more acidogenic and caused higher demineralization (p < 0.0001) on either enamel or dentine than those exposed to each carbohydrate alone. The findings suggest that starch increases the cariogenic potential of sucrose.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Cattle , Young Adult , Starch/chemistry , Cariogenic Agents/chemistry , Tooth Demineralization/etiology , Dietary Sucrose/chemistry , Dental Enamel/chemistry , Dentin/chemistry , Reference Values , Saliva/microbiology , Saliva/chemistry , Streptococcus mutans/growth & development , Time Factors , Colony Count, Microbial , Tooth Demineralization/microbiology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Biofilms/growth & development , Dental Enamel/microbiology , Dentin/microbiology
18.
Cad. saúde pública ; 31(12): 2493-2504, Dez. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-772098

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to analyze the consumption of high-sugar foods by Brazilian schoolchildren and to identify associated factors, based on data from the National School Health Survey (PeNSE 2012). Consumption of these foods was classified as: do not consume sweets and soft drinks regularly; consume sweets or soft drinks regularly; and consume sweets and soft drinks regularly. Its association with sociodemographic information, eating habits, and family contexts were investigated via multiple ordinal regressions. Regular consumption of sweets and/or soft drinks was reported by 19.2% and 36.1% of adolescents, respectively, and higher prevalence was associated with female gender, age 14-15 years, higher maternal education, not living with the mother and father, not eating meals with the parents, eating while watching TV, and longer TV time. Nearly one-fifth of adolescents regularly consumed sweets and soft drinks, which was associated with socio-demographic and behavioral factors that should be targeted in order to improve their food consumption.


Resumo Objetivou-se analisar o consumo de alimentos ricos em açúcar entre estudantes brasileiros e identificar seus fatores associados. Utilizaram-se dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar (PeNSE 2012). O consumo desses alimentos foi classificado como: não consomem guloseimas/refrigerantes regularmente; consomem guloseimas ou refrigerantes regularmente; consomem guloseimas e refrigerantes regularmente. Fatores sociodemográficos, alimentares e familiares associados foram avaliados por regressão ordinal múltipla. O consumo regular de guloseimas e/ou refrigerantes foi relatado por 19,2% e 36,1% dos adolescentes, respectivamente, sendo mais prevalente entre estudantes do sexo feminino, com 14-15 anos de idade, com maior escolaridade materna, que não viviam com a mãe e o pai, que não realizam as refeições com os pais, que comiam assistindo TV e que passavam mais tempo diante da TV. Quase 1/5 dos adolescentes consumia guloseimas e refrigerantes regularmente, condição associada a fatores sociodemográficos e comportamentais, os quais devem ser priorizados visando a melhorar seu consumo alimentar.


Resumen Se tuvo como objetivo analizar el consumo de alimentos ricos en azúcar entre estudiantes brasileños e identificar sus factores asociados. Se utilizaron datos de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud Escolar (PeNSE 2012). El consumo de estos alimentos fue clasificado como: no consumen golosinas/refrescos regularmente; consumen golosinas o refrescos regularmente; consumen golosinas y refrescos regularmente. Factores sociodemográficos, alimentarios y familiares asociados fueron evaluados por regresión ordinal múltiple. El consumo regular de golosinas y/o refrescos fue relatado por 19,2% y 36,1% de los adolescentes, respectivamente, siendo más prevalente entre estudiantes del sexo femenino, con 14-15 años de edad, con mayor escolaridad materna, que no vivían con la madre y el padre, que no realizan las comidas con los padres, que comían viendo TV y que pasaban más tiempo viendo TV. Casi 1/5 de los adolescentes consumía golosinas y refrescos regularmente, condición asociada a factores sociodemográficos y de comportamiento, que deben ser observados como prioridad para mejorar el consumo alimenticio.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Candy/statistics & numerical data , Carbonated Beverages/statistics & numerical data , Dietary Sucrose/administration & dosage , Feeding Behavior , Students/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Health Surveys , School Health Services , Socioeconomic Factors
19.
Odonto (Säo Bernardo do Campo) ; 23(45/46): 57-64, jan.-dez. 2015. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-909274

ABSTRACT

Como o início da ingestão da sacarose tem sido cada vez mais precoce, a avaliação da dieta infantil tem sido fundamental para enquadrar o paciente em um programa preventivo odontológico de qualidade e eficiência, para promoção de saúde bucal. Para a pesquisa, foram utilizados 60 diários alimentares, obtidos de prontuários de crianças atendidas na Clínica Odontológica Infantil de uma universidade privada de São Paulo, após aprovação do Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa (CAAE 49117815.0.000.5512). O objetivo foi estabelecer o risco cariogênico da dieta. Esses diários foram analisados em relação à frequência de ingestão de sacarose e à pegajosidade dos alimentos ingeridos, para determinação do risco cariogênico da dieta. A pegajosidade dos alimentos ingeridos nas refeições principais e nas entre refeições apresentou uma diferença estatisticamente significante (p=0,0003). O número de entre refeições, apresentou um valor maior que o preconizado para um risco cariogênico baixo da dieta, que seria dois, porém não mostrou resultado estatisticamente significante. Os resultados permitiram concluir que o risco cariogênico da dieta foi alto e que para a elaboração de um protocolo preventivo é necessária a avaliação dos alimentos que apresentam consistência pegajosa, que implicam em um maior risco cariogênico da dieta, assim como a frequência de ingestão de alimentos, principalmente os que contem sacarose. Palavras-chave: cárie dental; dieta cariogênica; fatores de risco(AU)


Since the ingestion of sucrose has been increasingly premature, the assessment of a child's diet has been essential to integrate the patient in a quality and efficiency preventive dental program in order to promote the oral health. For the research, it was used 60 daily food records from the children treated at Children's Dental Clinic of the Universidade Paulista (FOUNIP) - Campus Indianópolis, São Paulo, after sanction by the Research Ethics Committee (CAAE 49117815.0.000.5512). The diaries were analyzed by the frequency of ingestion of sucrose and the stickiness of the food ingested, to determine the cariogenic risk's in a diet. The stickiness of the food eaten at main meals and between the meals showed a statistically significant difference (p = 0.0003). The number between meals, presented an higher recommended value for a low risk cariogenic diet, although it would be two, however it presented no significant results. Moreover, the results presented that for the preparation of a preventive protocol is necessary to estimate foods that have sticky consistency, which results in an higher cariogenic risk in a diet, furthermore as the frequency of ingested food, especially those that contain sucrose.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Dental Caries/etiology , Diet Records , Diet, Cariogenic/adverse effects , Diet, Cariogenic/statistics & numerical data , Dietary Sucrose/adverse effects , Brazil , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Sex Distribution , Universities
20.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2015 May; 53(5): 264-272
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158445

ABSTRACT

In this study, we explored the effects of long-term consumption of a high-sugar high-fat diet on glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in rats. Rats were fed with either standard rat chow diet (NC group) or high-sugar high-fat diet (HSHF group) for 16 weeks. The HSHF group showed significantly higher fasting insulin level than NC group. Following intraperitoneal glucose challenge, blood glucose and insulin levels in the NC and HSHF groups increased. However, the magnitude of the response in NC group was low compared to HSHF group. Insulin resistance was higher in HSHF group and insulin sensitivity decreased significantly (P <0.05) in HSHF group in contrast to NC group. Low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride (TG)/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels showed significant increase in HSHF group, while triglyceride and total cholesterol levels did not show any difference. The study demonstrated that feeding high-sugar high-fat diet to the experimental Sprague-Dawley rats for 16 weeks increased possibility of insulin resistance in them but did not turn them hyperglycemic or diabetic. Thus, they prove to be a suitable animal model to explore various aspects of insulin resistance.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cholesterol/analysis , Diabetes Mellitus , Diet , Dietary Fats/metabolism , Dietary Sucrose/metabolism , Hyperglycemia , Insulin Resistance/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Triglycerides/analysis
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