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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(3): 484-496, July-Sept. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132402

ABSTRACT

Abstract The main objective of current study was to investigate the chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activity of Artemisia vulgaris extract on diethylnitrosoamine induced hepatocarcinogenesis in Balb C mice. Diethylnitrosoamine (DEN: 0.9%) was prepared to induce hepatocarcinoma in Balb C mice. The extract Artemisia vulgaris (AV) was prepared by maceration technique. Mice were classified into four groups as follows: Group 1 a control group (N=7) received saline solution (3.5 μl/mg), group 2 (N=14) received diethylnitrosoamine (3.5 μl/mg) intraperitoneally once in a week for eight consecutive weeks, group 3 (N=7) received only plant extract (AV: 150 mg/kg (Body weight) once in a week, while group 4 (N=7) was given in combination of diethylnitrosoamine (3.5 μl/mg) and plant extract (AV: 150 mg/kg (body weight). After eight weeks of DEN administration, mice of group 2 were divided into two subgroups containing seven mice each; subgroup 1 was sacrificed while subgroup 2 was treated with plant extract only (150 mg/kg (body weight)) once in a week for eight consecutive weeks. The DEN injected mice significant decline in levels of albumin with concomitant significant elevations such as aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, alpha feto protein, gamma glutamyl transferase, 5 nucleotidase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and bilirubin. The administration of A. vulgaris significantly decreased the DEN induced hepatotoxicity. Present study revealed the potential anti-cancerous nature of Artemisia vulgaris, both in case of chemopreventive and post-treatment of A. vulgaris. Further studies are needed to explore the mechanism of prevention and therapy.


Resumo O objetivo principal do presente estudo foi investigar as atividades quimiopreventiva e quimioterápica do extrato de Artemisia vulgaris em hepatocarcinogênese induzida por dietilnitrosoamina (DEN) em camundongos Balb C. Dietilnitrosoamina (DEN: 0,9%) foi preparada para induzir hepatocarcinoma em camundongos da linhagem Balb C. O extrato de A. vulgaris (AV) foi preparado pela técnica de maceração. Os camundongos foram classificados em quatro grupos conforme os seguintes: grupo 1, grupo controle (N=7) recebeu solução salina (3,5 µl/mg); grupo 2 (N=14) recebeu dietilnitrosoamina (3,5 µl/mg) por via intraperitoneal uma vez por semana durante oito semanas consecutivas; grupo 3 (N=7) recebeu apenas o extrato vegetal (AV: 150 mg/kg (peso corporal) uma vez por semana; enquanto no grupo 4 (N=7) foi administrado uma combinação de dietilnitrosoamina (3,5 μl/mg) com extrato vegetal (AV: 150 mg/kg (peso corporal). Após oito semanas de administração de DEN, os camundongos do grupo 2 foram divididos em dois subgrupos, contendo sete camundongos cada um; no subgrupo 1, os animais foram sacrificados, enquanto no subgrupo 2, os animais foram tratados apenas com extrato vegetal (150 mg/kg (peso corporal)) uma vez por semana durante oito semanas consecutivas. Os camundongos nos quais foram injetados DEN apresentaram declínio significativo nos níveis de albumina, mas elevações significativas concomitantes de: aspartato aminotransferase, alanina aminotransferase, lactato desidrogenase, alfa-fetoproteína, gama-glutamiltransferase, 5' nucleotidase, glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase e bilirrubina. A administração de A. vulgaris diminuiu significativamente a hepatotoxicidade induzida pelo DEN. O presente estudo apresentou a potencialidade anticancerosa da A. vulgaris, tanto nos casos de quimioprevenção quanto no pós-tratamento da A. vulgaris. Mais estudos são necessários para explorar o mecanismo de prevenção e a terapia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Artemisia , Liver Neoplasms , Plant Extracts , Diethylnitrosamine , Carcinogenesis , Mice, Inbred BALB C
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828917

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the inhibitory effect of pills (BJJ) agaisnt diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis and explore the relation between this effect and the inflammasome signaling pathway.@*METHODS@#Sixty-five male SD rats were randomly divided into control group, DEN model group, and 3 BJJ treatment groups at low, medium and high dose (with daily dose of 0.55, 1.1 and 2.2 g/kg, respectively, for 12 consecutive weeks starting from the 5th week after modeling). The pathological changes of the liver tissue were observed with HE and Masson staining, and serum levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin (TBIL) of the rats were detected using ELISA. Oxidation stress in the liver tissue was assessed with ELISA, and Western blotting and ELISA were used to detect the molecular expressions of inflammasome-related pathway.@*RESULTS@#BJJ significantly inhibited tumor growth in the liver of the rats. HE and Masson staining showed that BJJ treatment obviously ameliorated liver fibrosis and reduced cancer cell and inflammatory cell infiltration in the liver. BJJ significantly reduced elevations of serum ALT, AST, ALP and TBIL levels, increased the contents of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in the liver and suppressed malondialdehyde in Den-treated rats. BJJ also dose-dependently decreased the expressions of NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC), caspase-1, pro-IL-1β, pro-IL-18, IL-1β and IL-18 in the liver of Den-treated rats.@*CONCLUSIONS@#BJJ treatment can dose-dependently inhibit DEN-induced hepatocarcinogenesis by enhancing antioxidant capacity and down-regulating inflammatory-related pathways in rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Diethylnitrosamine , Liver , Liver Neoplasms , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(4): 629-638, Nov. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001489

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most frequent primary malignancy of liver and accounts for as many as one million deaths worldwide in a year. Objectives The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-cancerous efficiency of Bergenia ciliata rhizome against diethylnitrosoamine induced hepatocarcinogenesis in Balb C mice. Methods One percent diethylnitrosoamine was prepared by using 99 ml of normal saline NaCl (0.9 percent) solution to which was added 1 ml of concentrated diethylnitrosoamine (DEN) solution (0.01 μg/μl). Extract of Bergenia ciliata was prepared by maceration technique. Mice were classified into four groups as follows: Group 1 a control group (N=7) received saline solution (3.5 μl/mg), group 2 (N=14) received diethylnitrosoamine (3.5 μl/mg) intraperitoneally once in a week for eight consecutive weeks, group 3 (N=7) received plant extract (150 mg/kg (Body weight)) once in a week, while group 4 (N=7) was given combination of diethylnitrosoamine (3.5 μl/mg) and plant extract (150 mg/kg (Body weight)). After eight weeks of DEN induction group 2 mice were divided into two subgroups containing seven mice each, subgroup 1 was sacrificed while subgroup 2 was treated with plant extract (150 mg/kg (Body weight)) once in a week for eight consecutive weeks. Results The model of DEN injected hepatocellular carcinomic (HCC) mice elicited significant decline in levels of albumin with concomitant significant elevations in tumor markers aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alpha feto protein (AFP), gamma glutamyl transferase (Y-GT), 5 nucleotidase (5NT), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and bilirubin. The intraperitoneal administration of B. ciliata as a protective agent, produced significant increase in albumin levels with significant decrease in the levels of tumor markers aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alpha feto protein (AFP), gamma glutamyl transferase (Y-GT), 5 nucleotidase (5NT), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and bilirubin. Conclusion Bergenia ciliata has potent antioxidant activity, radical scavenging capacity and anticancerous properties. Bergenia ciliata extracts may provide a basis for development of anti-cancerous drug.


Resumo Antecedentes O carcinoma hepatocelular é a neoplasia primária mais frequente do fígado e é responsável por até um milhão de mortes em todo o mundo em um ano. Objetivos O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a eficiência anticancerígena do rizoma de Bergenia ciliata contra a hepatocarcinogênese induzida por dietilnitrosoamina em camundongos balb c. Métodos Um por cento de dietilnitrosoamina foi preparado usando 99 ml de solução salina normal (0,9 por cento) à qual foi adicionado 1 ml de solução concentrada de dietilnitrosoamina (DEN) (0,01 μg / μl). O extrato de Bergenia ciliata foi preparado pela técnica de maceração. Os ratos foram classificados em quatro grupos: Grupo 1 grupo controle (N = 7) recebeu solução salina (3,5 mL / mg), grupo 2 (N = 14) recebeu dietilnitrosoamina (3,5 mL / mg) por via intraperitoneal uma vez por semana para oito semanas consecutivas, o grupo 3 (N = 7) recebeu extrato vegetal (150 mg / kg (peso corporal)) uma vez por semana, enquanto o grupo 4 (N = 7) recebeu combinação de dietilnitrosoamina (3,5 μl / mg) e extrato (150 mg / kg (peso corporal). Após oito semanas do grupo de indução DEN 2 ratos foram divididos em dois subgrupos contendo sete ratos cada, subgrupo 1 foi sacrificado enquanto subgrupo 2 foi tratado com extrato vegetal (150 mg / kg)) uma vez por semana durante oito semanas consecutivas. Resultados O modelo de camundongos hepatocelulares carcinômicos (CHC) injetados com DEN provocou declínio significativo nos níveis de albumina com elevações significativas concomitantes nos marcadores tumorais: aspartato aminotransferase, alanina aminotransferase (ALT), lactato desidrogenase (LDH), proteína alfa feto (AFP), gama glutamiltransferase (Y-GT), 5 nucleotidase (5NT), glicose-6-fosfato ehidrogenase (G6PDH) e bilirrubina. A administração intraperitoneal de B. ciliata como agente protetor produziu um aumento significativo nos níveis de albumina com uma diminuição significativa nos níveis dos marcadores tumorais: aspartato aminotransferase, alanina aminotransferase (ALT), lactato desidrogenase (LDH), proteína alfa feto (AFP), gama glutamiltransferase (Y-GT), 5 nucleotidase (5NT), glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase (G6PDH) e bilirrubina. Conclusão Bergenia ciliata possui atividade antioxidante potente, capacidade de eliminação de radicais livres e propriedades anticancerígenas. Extratos de Bergenia ciliata podem fornecer uma base para o desenvolvimento de drogas anti-cancerígenas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/chemically induced , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Diethylnitrosamine/pharmacology , Liver Neoplasms/chemically induced , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasms, Experimental/chemically induced , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Saxifragaceae , Alkylating Agents/pharmacology , Mice, Inbred BALB C
4.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766584

ABSTRACT

European Medicines Agency withdrew valsartan from European market in July 2018 because it was contaminated with carcinogen, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA). Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency also found the same contamination and withdrew it from England market. US Food and Drug Administration followed the action after confirming its contamination. Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS) conducted testing all the valsartans at Korean market and withdrew some of them from market after confirming the contamination with NDMA. MFDS provided the pharmaceutical companies and laboratory institutions with the manual for testing both NDMA and NDEA and educated relevant personnels. MFDS also evaluated the health impact of the contaminated valsartan on the hypertensive patients who took the valsartan, which was shown to be very low risk of additional cancer incidence. MFDS pronounced strengthening of the safety management for the raw materials of the medicines. For guaranteeing the safety of medicines, more comprehensive drug safety management system from developing new drugs to consuming the medicines should be established. For achieving such a goal, active participation of all the stakeholders of the medicines including governmental agencies including MFDS and Ministry of Health and Welfare, the National Assembly, healthcare professionals, pharmaceutical companies, mass media, and general population including patients should be needed.


Subject(s)
Antihypertensive Agents , Delivery of Health Care , Diethylnitrosamine , Dimethylnitrosamine , England , Humans , Incidence , Mass Media , Safety Management , United States Food and Drug Administration , Valsartan
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-813059

ABSTRACT

To explore the renal metabolic markers relavant to the renal toxicity of diethylnitrosamine and the metabolic pathways involved in the renal metabolic markers.
 Methods: Nineteen Sprague Dawley rats were assigned into 2 groups: A normal control group (n=9) and a diethylnitrosamine (DEN) administration group (n=10). The rats in the normal control group were given sterilized water for free drinking. The rats in the DEN administration group were given 0.1 mg/mL DEN solution for free drinking. After 18 weeks, the kidney tissues were collected and tested for nuclear magnetic resonance detection and pathological examination.
 Results: The content of kidneys metabolites in the rats with the DEN administration was changed significantly. The levels of alanine, taurine, pyruvate, acetate, and choline were significantly reduced compared with rat in the normal control group, while the levels of creatine, glycine, TMAO, methionine, proline, lactate, valine, leucine and isoleucine were significantly increased.
 Conclusion: Metabolicomics studies have revealed significant differences in five metabolic pathways, including valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis, glycine serine and threonine metabolism, pyruvate metabolism, glycolysis or gluconeogenesis, cysteine and methionine metabolism.


Subject(s)
Alkylating Agents , Toxicity , Animals , Diethylnitrosamine , Toxicity , Glycine , Kidney , Physiology , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-204557

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of ionizing radiation (IR) exposure of parents on carcinogenesis of the next generation focusing on the epigenetic perspective to clarify the relationship between radiation dose and carcinogenesis in F1 generation SD rats. F1 generations from pregnant rats (F0) who were exposed to gamma rays were divided into three groups according to the dose of radiation: 10 rad, 30 rad, and untreated. They were intraperitoneally injected with 50 mg/kg of diethylnitrosamine (DEN). Carcinogenesis was analyzed by examining expression levels of tumor suppressor genes (TSG) and other related genes by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP). DNA methylation in liver tissues was evaluated to discern epigenetic regulation of transgenerational carcinogenesis vulnerability following IR exposure. Numerous studies have proved that transcriptional inactivation due to hypermethylation of TSG preceded carcinogenesis. Results of this study revealed hypermethylation of tumor suppressor gene SOCS1 in group treated with 30 rad. In addition, genes related to DNA damage response pathway (GSTP1, ATM, DGKA, PARP1, and SIRT6) were epigenetically inactivated in all DEN treated groups. In the case of proto-oncogene c-Myc, DNA hypermethylation was identified in the group with low dose of IR (10 rad). Results of this study indicated that each TSG had different radiation threshold level (dose-independent way) and DEN treatment could affect DNA methylation profile irrelevant of ionizing radiation dose.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carcinogenesis , Diethylnitrosamine , DNA , DNA Damage , DNA Methylation , Epigenomics , Family Characteristics , Gamma Rays , Genes, Tumor Suppressor , Humans , Liver , Parents , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Proto-Oncogenes , Radiation, Ionizing , Rats
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-301045

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study whether the ethanol extract of Phellinus merrillii (EPM) has chemopreventive potential against liver carcinogenesis.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Thirty male Spraque-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control group, EPM control group, hepatocarcinoma control group, low-dose EPM group and high-dose EPM group, 6 in each group. Using the Solt and Farber protocol in a rat model of hepatocarcinogenesis, the chemopreventive effect of EPM on diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-initiated, 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) and partial hepatectomy (PH)-promoted liver carcinogenesis in rats was evaluated. Basic pathophysiological and histological examinations, together with the serum levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (sGOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (sGPT) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GT) were measured.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Treatment of EPM at the concentration of 2 g/kg body weight in the diet for 8 weeks clearly prevented the development of carcinogenesis and reduced the levels of sGOT, sGPT, and serum γ-GT of rats as compared with the hepatocarcinoma control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). These phenotypes were accompanied by a significant increase in natural killer cell activity.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>EPM showed a strong liver preventive effect against DEN+2-AAF+PH-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in a rat model.</p>


Subject(s)
2-Acetylaminofluorene , Animals , Basidiomycota , Chemistry , Carcinogenesis , Cytoprotection , Diethylnitrosamine , Ethanol , Chemistry , Liver Neoplasms, Experimental , Male , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Protective Agents , Pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-201287

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a representative inflammation-associated cancer and known to be the most frequent tumors. HCC may also induce important pro- and anti-tumor immune reactions. However, the underlying mechanisms are unsatisfactorily identified. We investigated the protective effect of boiled and freeze-dried mature silkworm larval powder (BMSP) on diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. METHODS: Mice were fed with diet containing BMSP (0.1, 1, and 10 g/kg) for two weeks and DEN (100 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) was injected 18 hours before the end of this experiment. Liver toxicity was determined in serum and histopathological examination was assessed in the liver tissues. Infiltration of immune cells and expressions of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines were also examined. RESULTS: Pretreatment with BMSP reduced necrotic and histopathological changes induced by DEN in the liver. Measurement of serum biochemical indicators, the levels of alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase, showed that pretreatment with BMSP also decreased DEN-induced hepatotoxicity. In addition, BMSP inhibited the macrophage and CD31 infiltration in a dose-dependent manner. The expressions of interleukin-1β, IFN-γ and chemokines for T cell activation were decreased in BMSP pretreatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: BMSP may have a protective effect against acute liver injury by inhibiting necrosis and inflammatory response in DEN-treated mice.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase , Alkaline Phosphatase , Animals , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Bombyx , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Chemokines , Cytokines , Diet , Diethylnitrosamine , Liver , Macrophages , Mice , Necrosis
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-249360

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To establish a zebrafish model of liver fibrosis via diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced liver injury.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 120 wild-type 3-month-old zebrafish were randomly divided into DEN-treated group and control group. The survival rate and behavioral changes of each group were observed. After treatment with DEN for 2, 4, and 6 weeks, liver index was measured, and liver fibrosis was evaluated with HE staining, Gomori staining and Sirius red staining.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>No obvious behavioral change was observed in DEN-treated group during the experiment. Compared with that in control group, the liver index of zebrafish in DEN-treated group showed no significantly changes at the time points of observation. Proliferation of reticulate fibers was found in 30% of zebrafish treated with DEN for 4 weeks, and the rate increased to 80% at 6 weeks when reticulate fibers and collagen fibers actively proliferated to result in fiber collapse and formation of fibrotic nodules.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>A stable zebrafish liver fibrosis model was successfully established by inducing liver damage to facilitate studies of the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis and screening therapeutic drugs.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Diethylnitrosamine , Disease Models, Animal , Liver Cirrhosis , Zebrafish
10.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2013 Dec; 50(6): 521-528
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-150266

ABSTRACT

Anti-carcinogenic potential of hydro-ethanolic extract of Euphorbia neriifolia (EN) leaves and an isolated flavonoid (ENF) was investigated against N-Nitrosodiethylamine (DENA)-induced renal carcinogenesis in mice. Experimental mice were pretreated with 150 and 400 mg/kg body wt of EN, 0.5% and 1% mg/kg body wt of butylated hydroxylanisole (BHA) as a standard antioxidant and 50 mg/kg body wt of ENF for 21 days prior to the administration of a single dose of 50 mg/kg body wt of DENA. Levels of renal markers (urea and creatinine), xenobiotic metabolic enzymes (Cyt P450 and Cyt b5), lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidants (SOD, CAT, GST and GSH) and other biochemical parameters — AST, ALT, ALP, total protein (TP), and total cholesterol (TC) were measured to determine the renal carcinogenesis caused by DENA. DENA administration significantly (p<0.001) decreased the body weight and increased the tissue weight. It significantly (p<0.001) enhanced the levels of Cyt P450, Cyt b5 and LPO and decreased the levels of SOD, CAT, GST and GSH content. The activities of AST, ALT and ALP and the TP content and renal markers were also significantly decreased (p<0.001), while TC level was markedly increased after DENA administration, as compared with the normal control group (p<0.001). Pretreatment with EN and ENF counteracted DENA-induced oxidative stress (LPO) and exerted its protective effects by restoring the levels of antioxidants (SOD, CAT, GST and GSH), biochemical parameters (AST, ALT, ALP, TP and TC), renal markers (urea and creatinine) and xenobiotic enzymes (Cyt P450 and Cyt b5) in renal tissue. In conclusion, the present study showed significant anti-carcinogenic potential of the hydro-ethanolic extract of E. neriifolia and ENF against DENA-induced renal carcinogenicity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anticarcinogenic Agents/isolation & purification , Anticarcinogenic Agents/pharmacology , Body Weight/drug effects , Carcinogenesis/drug effects , Diethylnitrosamine/toxicity , Euphorbia/chemistry , Flavonoids/isolation & purification , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/metabolism , Kidney/pathology , Kidney Neoplasms/chemically induced , Kidney Neoplasms/enzymology , Kidney Neoplasms/metabolism , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , Male , Mice , Organ Size/drug effects , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism , Xenobiotics/metabolism
11.
Semina cienc. biol. saude ; 34(2): 215-228, jul.-dez. 2013. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-726428

ABSTRACT

A Dietilnitrosamina (DEN), uma substância reconhecidamente hepatotóxica e carcinogênica, foiutilizada na indução da necrose hepática centrolobular em ratos isogênicos Lewis divididos em 5 grupos de 5 animais. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito quimiopreventivo da epigalocatequina-3-galato (EGCG), de Camellia sinensis (chá verde) no tratamento da hepatotoxicidade celular induzida pela DEN. Foi mensurada a concentração sérica da alanina aminotransferase (ALT) e aspartato aminotransferase(AST) dos diferentes grupos experimentais. No ensaio bioquímico para AST e ALT, houve diferença significativa entre os valores médios do grupo controle (163±70,32) comparado ao grupo DEN (1631±1039,44), sugerindo que a DEN influencia na função hepática. Entretanto, não houve diferença significativa entre o grupo DEN e o tratado com epigalocatequina. A lactato desidrogenase (LDH) éconsiderada um marcador bioquímico comum para avaliação da progressão tumoral, e em relação ao LDH, as amostras não apresentaram diferenças significativas entre o grupo DEN (1385,5±43,13) e DEN + EGCG 150mg ou DEN + EGCG 200mg 1537,5±1010,45). Neste trabalho foi demonstrado que a epigalocatequina nas concentrações de 150 e 200 mg/Kg não induziram alterações hepáticas e também não foi possível verificar nenhuma quimioproteção pela EGCG em animais inicialmente tratados comDEN durante 24 horas. Sendo assim, novos experimentos com diferentes concentrações de EGCG sãonecessários para comprovar seu possível efeito quimioprotetor.


Diethylnitrosamine (DEN), a known hepatotoxic and carcinogenic substance, was used in the induction of centrilobular hepatic necrosis in isogenic Lewis rats divided into 5 groups with 5 animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemopreventive effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG)from Camellia sinensis (green tea) in the treatment of cellular hepatotoxicity induced by DEN. It was measured the serum concentration of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) of the different experimental groups. In the biochemistry assay for AST and ALT, there was significant difference between median values of control group (163±70.32) compared to DEN group(1631±1039.44), suggesting that DEN influences on hepatic function. However, there was no significant difference between DEN group to that treated with epigallocatechin. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is considered a common biochemical marker for evaluation of tumor progression, and regarding LDH,the samples presented no significant differences between the DEN group (1385.5±43.13) and DEN + EGCG 150mg or DEN + EGCG 200mg (1537.5± 1010.45). In this work it was demonstrated that epigallocatechin concentrations of 150 and 200 mg/kg did not induce liver alterations and though was not verified any chemoprotective effect by EGCG in animals initially treated with DEN for 24 hours. Moreover, new experiments with different concentrations of EGCG are needed to verify its possiblechemoprotector effect.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Diethylnitrosamine , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Rats, Inbred Lew
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-117670

ABSTRACT

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is an essential nutrient of most living tissues. We established a strain of Gulo-/- mice with known deficiency, in which vitamin C intake can be controlled by diet, like humans, and investigated the differentially expressed proteins following treatments with Helicobacter pylori and diethylnitrosamine (DENA) in the liver of Gulo-/- mice using a proteomic approach. Expression of p53, 14-3-3epsilon and 14-3-3delta in Gulo-/- mice liver tissue was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. 2-DE maps constructed from Gulo-/- mice liver and differentially expressed proteins in liver tissue were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/MS). In Gulo-/- mice after H. Pylori infection, followed by treatment with DENA, no differences in p53, 14-3-3epsilon and 14-3-3delta were observed by immunohistochemistry. Proteome analyses using MALDI-TOF/MS resulted in successful identification of 12 proteins (nine proteins were up-regulated and three were down-regulated). Specifically, peroxiredoxin-6 and Alpha-1-antitrypsin 1-4 were up-regulated in liver after H. Pylori infection followed by treatment with DENA. These results indicated that oral supplementation with vitamin C led to rescue of Gulo-/- mice from vitamin deficiency, and protected the liver from H.pylori infection and/or DENA effect, and vitamin C also protected the liver against oxidative stress.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ascorbic Acid , Avitaminosis , Diet , Diethylnitrosamine , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Liver , Mice , Oxidative Stress , Proteins , Proteome
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812668

ABSTRACT

AIM@#A decoction of Elephantopus scaber (Asteraceae) root is used to treat liver disorders in Indian and Chinese traditional medicine. The study was designed to examine the dose response effects of E. scaber methanolic extract on rats exposed to N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) induced hepatotoxicity (0.02% NDEA in water five days per week, per oral) in preventive and curative models.@*METHODS@#In preventive groups, NDEA was administered for six weeks. Daily doses of E. scaber methanolic extract (200 and 100 mg·kg-1) started one week before the onset of NDEA intoxication and continued for six weeks. In curative animals, NDEA was administered for six weeks followed by treatment with the methanolic n-hexane extract of E. scaber (200 and 100 mg·kg-1) for ten days.@*RESULTS@#E. scaber extract treatment significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced the levels of AST, ALT, and MDA in both experimental groups. The extract also enhanced the antioxidant enzyme and protein levels in rats intoxicated with NDEA. Treatment with the extract dose dependently protected the liver from NDEA-induced hepatotoxicity with normal hepatocytes and uniform sinusoids, but in some areas showed degenerating hepatic cells in both treatment groups.@*CONCLUSION@#E. scaber methanolic extract dose dependently prevented and reversed the hepatotoxicity induced by NDEA in both experimental models.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase , Metabolism , Animals , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Metabolism , Asteraceae , Chemistry , Diethylnitrosamine , Toxicity , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Humans , Liver , Liver Function Tests , Plant Extracts , Rats , Rats, Wistar
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-97583

ABSTRACT

To clarify the role of stem cells in hepatocarcinogenesis, CD44 expression was investigated in mouse livers as well as embryonic cell lineages treated with diethylnitrosamine (DEN). Liver tumors induced by DEN were analyzed by immunohistochemisty for CD44. Liver tissues were sampled at 6, 24, and 48 hr after treatment with saline or DEN. Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs), and hepatocyte like cells (HCs), representing 0, 22, and 40 days of differentiation, respectively, were treated with DEN at four doses (0, 1, 5, and 15 mM, respectively) for 24 hr, after which CD44 expression levels were examined by relative quantitative real-time PCR. CD44 expression was weakly detected in tumor cells as well as in some hepatocytes surrounding the tumor cells. However, CD44 expression was not detected in liver tissue treated with DEN at early time points. The CD44 mRNA expression level was significantly different among cells treated with 5 mM DEN at day 22 (P<0.01) as well as 1, 5, and 15 mM DEN at day 40 (P<0.01) compared with control. Taken together, CD44 expression slightly increased in mouse DEN-induced tumors. Furthermore, expression of CD44 in embryonic cell lineages treated with various doses of DEN significantly differed among embryo stem cells and derived hepatic lineage cells. This suggests that CD44 expression may be modulated in the progeny of stem cells during their differentiation toward hepatocytes, and its expression may increase in the tumor stage but not during early carcinogenesis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carcinogenesis , Cell Lineage , Diethylnitrosamine , Embryonic Stem Cells , Embryonic Structures , Hepatocytes , Liver , Mice , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger , Stem Cells
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-320335

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>The present paper aims to investigate the effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN) on tumorigenesis and its potential mechanism.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The potentials of TCDD and DEN in separation or in combination to induce malignant transformation were tested in Balb/c 3T3 cells by using a cell transformation assay method. The possible mechanism of observed effects was studied further by adding α-naphthoflavone (α-NF), a competitive binding agent of TCDD, to the Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway. The mRNA expressions of Cyp1a1 and Cyp2a5 gene in Balb/c 3T3 cells treated by DEN and TCDD in separation or in combination with or without presence of α-NF were measured with fluorescence quantification RT-PCR technique.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The cell transformation frequency (TF) was significantly higher in case of induction with TCDD in combination with DEN, as compared to that with either TCDD or DEN alone. These effects were not inhibited via α-NF. The mRNA expression levels of both Cyp1a1 and Cyp2a5 were enhanced by TCDD treatment alone, but this inducible effect was blocked in cells treated by TCDD and DEN in combination.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>TCDD and DEN had a significant synergistic effect on tumorigenesis when they were used in combination. AhR pathway may not be the key mechanism of this synergistic effect. Thus, it is necessary to further test the potential mechanism involved in cancer development.</p>


Subject(s)
3T3 Cells , Animals , Base Sequence , Carcinogens , Toxicity , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System , Genetics , DNA Primers , Diethylnitrosamine , Toxicity , Drug Synergism , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins , Toxicity , RNA, Messenger , Genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon , Metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-819606

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigation the chemopreventive potential of Fumaria indica (F. indica) extract (FIE) on N-nitrosodiethylamine and CCl(4)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in Wistar rats.@*METHODS@#The experimental animals were divided into six groups (n=6). Hepatocellular carcinoma was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) in normal saline at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight followed by weekly subcutaneous injections of CCl(4)(3 mL/kg/week) for 6 weeks, as the promoter of carcinogenic effect. After administration of the carcinogen, 200 and 400 mg/kg of FIE were administered orally once a day throughout the study. At the end of 20 weeks, the body weight, liver weight and relative liver weight were measured. The percentage of nodule incidence and liver cancer markers such as aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), γ-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT), total bilirubin level (TBL), α-feto protein (AFP) and carcinoembryonic antigen were estimated along with histopathological investigation in experimental groups of rats.@*RESULTS@#Obtained results demonstrated that the cotreatment with FIE significantly prevented the decrease of the body weight and also increased in relative liver weight caused by NDEA. The treatment with FIE significantly reduced the nodule incidence and nodule multiplicity in the rats after NDEA administration. The levels of liver cancer markers such as AST, ALT, ALP, γ-glutamyl transferase, TBL, AFP and carcinoembryonic antigen were substantially increased by NDEA treatment. However, FIE treatment significantly reduced the liver injury and restored the entire liver cancer markers. Histological observations of liver tissues too correlated with the biochemical observations.@*CONCLUSIONS@#These finding powerfully supports that F. indica exert chemopreventive effect by suppressing the tumor burden and restoring the activities of hepatic cancer marker enzymes on NDEA and CCl(4)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in Wistar rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Biomarkers, Tumor , Metabolism , Body Weight , Carbon Tetrachloride , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Metabolism , Diethylnitrosamine , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Fumaria , Liver , Metabolism , Pathology , Liver Neoplasms, Experimental , Metabolism , Mice , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Treatment Outcome
17.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1483-1488, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-274634

ABSTRACT

To investigate the influence of bear bile on rat hepatocarcinoma induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN), a total of 40 rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: normal control group, model group, and two bear bile treatment groups. The rat liver cancer model was induced by breeding with water containing 100 mg x L(-1) DEN for 14 weeks. The rats of the bear bile groups received bear bile powder (200 or 400 mg x kg(-1)) orally 5 times per week for 18 weeks. The general condition and the body weight of rats were examined every day. After 18 weeks the activities of serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and total bilirubin (TBIL) were detected. Meanwhile, the pathological changes of liver tissues were observed after H&E staining. The expression of proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and a-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) in liver tissue were detected by immunohistochemical method. After 4 weeks the body weights of rats in normal group were significantly more than that in other groups (P < 0.05); and that in the two bile groups was significantly more than that in the model group. Compared with normal group, the level of serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase and total bilirubin increased significantly in other groups; compared with model group, these two indexes decreased significantly in two bile groups. Hepatocellular carcinoma occurred in all rats except for normal group; there were classic cirrhosis and cancer in model group while there were mild cirrhosis and high differentiation in two bile groups. There were almost no expressions of PCNA and alpha-SMA in normal group while there were high expressions in model group; the two bile groups had some expressions but were inferior to the model group, and alpha-SMA reduced markedly. It indicated that bear bile restrained the development of liver cancer during DEN inducing rat hepatocarcinoma, which may be related to its depressing hepatic stellate cell activation and relieving hepatic lesion and cirrhosis.


Subject(s)
Actins , Metabolism , Alanine Transaminase , Blood , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents , Pharmacology , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Blood , Bile , Chemistry , Bilirubin , Blood , Body Weight , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Blood , Pathology , Diethylnitrosamine , Liver , Metabolism , Pathology , Liver Cirrhosis , Pathology , Liver Neoplasms, Experimental , Blood , Pathology , Male , Powders , Pharmacology , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen , Metabolism , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Ursidae
18.
Semina cienc. biol. saude ; 32(2): 223-234, jul.-dez. 2011.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-678682

ABSTRACT

O chá verde (Camellia sinensis) e seus principais componentes, as catequinas, apresentam várias atividades biológicas, dentre elas a ação antioxidante e quimioprotetora contra agentes hepatotóxicos, como a dietilnitrosamina (DEN), um conhecido agente citotóxico. Este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar e compreender os mecanismos da ação do extrato do chá verde (ECV), como agente antioxidante e quimioprotetor. Foram realizados testes in vivo com ratos Wistar machos utilizando o ECV a 2% (2mg/100mL) via oral, como única fonte de água, durante 35 dias. Para verificar a capacidade antioxidante e quimioprotetora do ECV utilizou-se a DEN (200mg/kg) como agente lesivo. Os resultados indicam que o chá verde, nas doses próximas as que são ingeridas pela população, não é capaz de inibir significativamente a lesão causada pela alta dose da DEN, mas os resultados indicaram uma tendência à quimioproteção, sugerindo que o chá verde pode agir como substância preventiva mesmo em baixas doses, frente a um agente hepatotóxico classicamente conhecido.


Green tea (Camellia sinensis) and its main components, the catechins present several biological activities such as: antioxidant and chemoprotective action against hepatotoxic agent as diethylnitrosamine (DEN), a known cytotoxic substance. This work has the objective to evaluate and understand the green tea extract (GTE) mechanisms of action as a chemoprotector agent. Therefore, tests in vivo with Wistarrats using GTE 2% (2mg/100mL) was taken orally as the only source of water for 35 days. To verify the antioxidant and chemoprotective capacity of GTE, DEN (200mg/kg) was used as a lesion agent. The results indicate that green tea if the dosage close to the ones taken by the population is not able to expressively inhibit the lesion caused for the high dose of DEN, but the results indicated a tendency to chemoprotection, suggesting to green tea may act as a prevention substance even in low dosage in presence of a classically known hepatotoxic agent.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Camellia sinensis , Diethylnitrosamine , Drug Therapy
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-168746

ABSTRACT

Although continuous low-dose (metronomic [MET]) therapy exerts anti-cancer efficacy in various cancer models, the effect of long-term MET therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unknown. This study assessed the long-term efficacy of MET on suppression of tumor growth and spontaneous metastasis in a rat model of HCC induced by administration of diethylnitrosamine for 16 wk. The rats were divided into 3 groups: MTD group received intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of 40 mg/kg cyclophosphamide on days 1, 3, and 5 of a 21-day cycle; Control and MET groups received i.p. injections of saline and 20 mg/kg cyclophosphamide twice a week, respectively. Anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic effects and anti-metastatic mechanisms including matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs) were evaluated. Twelve wk of MET therapy resulted in a significant reduction in intrahepatic tumors than control or MTD therapy. The MET group had fewer proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cells and decreased hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha levels and microvessel density. Lung metastases were detected in 100%, 80%, and 42.9% in the control, MTD, and MET groups, respectively. MET therapy significantly decreased expression of TIMP-1, MMP-2 and -9. For mediators of pro-MMP-2 activation, MET therapy induced significant suppression in the TIMP-2 and MMP-14 level. The survival in the MET group was significantly prolonged compared to the control and MTD groups. Long-term MET scheduling suppresses tumor growth and metastasis via its potent anti-angiogenic properties and a decrease in MMPs and TIMPs activities. These results provide a rationale for long-term MET dosing in future clinical trials of HCC treatment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/chemically induced , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cyclophosphamide/administration & dosage , Diethylnitrosamine , Disease Models, Animal , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/drug effects , Liver Cirrhosis/chemically induced , Liver Neoplasms/chemically induced , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Male , Matrix Metalloproteinases/metabolism , Neovascularization, Pathologic/enzymology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Survival Analysis , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases/metabolism , Tumor Burden/drug effects
20.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 82(4): 925-932, Dec. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-567803

ABSTRACT

N-nitroso compounds, such as N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), can be formed by the reaction of secundary amines with nitrosating agents, and are suspected to be involved in tumors in humans. NDEA has been considered a weak carcinogen in genotoxic assays probably due to the inefficient nitrosamine activation system that is used and/or to the efficient repair system. In this work, we evaluated the sensibility of Allium cepa L. root tips and Tradescantia stamen hair mutation assay (Trad-SH) using Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea for NDEA (0.1; 0.5; 5 and 25mM) genotoxicity and mutagenicity induction. Allium cepa L. was treated with different NDEA concentrations for 3h, for 3 consecutive days, including negative control (distilled water) and positive control maleic hydrazide (MH 30mg/mL). After treatment, the roots were hydrolyzed, squashed, and the mitotic index (MI) and cytological abnormalities were scored. The results revealed a cytostatic effect of NDEA (0.5 and 5mM), showing a significant reduction in the MI. Chromosome stickiness suggests a NDEA toxic effect. T. pallida purpurea did not respond to mutagens with a dose-dependent pattern. In conclusion, our study indicates that the root tips of Allium cepa L. have sensibility to detect NDEA genotoxicity, but not for Trad-SH test.


Nitrocompostos, como N-nitrosodietilamina (NDEA), podem ser formados pela reação entre uma amina secundária e agentes nitrosantes e são suspeitos de estarem envolvidos na formação de tumores em humanos. NDEA é considerada um carcinógeno fraco e ensaios genotóxicos provavelente pela utilização de um sistema de ativação ineficiente e/ou pela utilização de um eficiente sistema de reparo. Neste trabalho, nós avaliamos a sensibilidade de ensaios com Alliu cepa L. e Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea (Trad-SH) à genotoxicidade e mutagenicidade induzidas por diferentes concentrações de NDEA (0,1; 0,5; 5 e 25mM) por 3h, por 3 dias consecutivos, incluindo controle negativo (água destilada) e controle positivo, hidrazida maleica (MH 30mg/mL). Depois do tratamento, as raízes foram hidrolizadas, esmagadas e o índice mitótico (IM) e anormalidades citológicas foram contadas. Os resultados revelaram um efeito citostático de NDEA (0,5 e 5mM), pela significante redução do IM. Chromosome stickiness sugere um efeito citotóxico de NDEA. T pallida purpurea não respondeu ao mutágeno com um padrão dose dependente. Em conclusão, nossos estudos indicaram que raízes de Allium cepa L. possue sensibilidade na detecção genotóxica de NDEA, mas não para o ensaio Trad-SH.


Subject(s)
Chromosome Aberrations/chemically induced , Diethylnitrosamine/toxicity , Onions/drug effects , Plant Roots/drug effects , Tradescantia/drug effects , Chromosomes, Plant/drug effects , Chromosomes, Plant/genetics , Mutagenicity Tests , Onions/genetics , Plant Roots/genetics , Tradescantia/genetics
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