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1.
Immune Network ; : e9-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740219

ABSTRACT

Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive pathogen, can cause severe inflammation in humans, leading to various life-threatening diseases. The lipoprotein is a major virulence factor in S. aureus-induced infectious diseases and is responsible for excessive inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO). Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) including butyrate, propionate, and acetate are microbial metabolites in the gut that are known to have anti-inflammatory effects in the host. In this study, we investigated the effects of SCFAs on S. aureus lipoprotein (Sa.LPP)-induced NO production in mouse macrophages. Butyrate and propionate, but not acetate, inhibited Sa.LPP-induced production of NO in RAW 264.7 cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages. Butyrate and propionate inhibited Sa.LPP-induced expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS). However, acetate did not show such effects under the same conditions. Furthermore, butyrate and propionate, but not acetate, inhibited Sa.LPP-induced activation of NF-κB, expression of IFN-β, and phosphorylation of STAT1, which are essential for inducing transcription of iNOS in macrophages. In addition, butyrate and propionate induced histone acetylation at lysine residues in the presence of Sa.LPP in RAW 264.7 cells. Moreover, Sa.LPP-induced NO production was decreased by histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. Collectively, these results suggest that butyrate and propionate ameliorate the inflammatory responses caused by S. aureus through the inhibition of NF-κB, IFN-β/STAT1, and HDAC, resulting in attenuated NO production in macrophages.


Subject(s)
Acetylation , Animals , Butyrates , Communicable Diseases , Diethylpropion , Fatty Acids, Volatile , Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors , Histone Deacetylases , Histones , Humans , Inflammation , Lipoproteins , Lysine , Macrophages , Mice , Nitric Oxide Synthase , Nitric Oxide , Phosphorylation , Staphylococcus aureus , Virulence
3.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 200-207, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760572

ABSTRACT

Albizzia julibrissin (AJ) is an herbal medicine that shows low toxicity, promotes promoting blood circulation and mitigates the inflammation and has mild side effects. Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the most common diseases that occurs in older males and often results in lower urinary tract symptoms. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effect of AJ against BPH using LNCaP cells and Sprague Dawley rats treated with testosterone. Treatment with AJ extract reduced the expression of androgen receptor (AR) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in vitro. In vivo, rats were divided into 6 groups: 1 (Normal Control); 2 (Testosterone propionate (TP) alone); 3 (TP + finasteride); 4 (TP + AJ 10 mg/kg); 5 (TP + AJ 50 mg/kg); 6 (TP + AJ 300 mg/kg). The groups treated with AJ showed reduced the relative prostate weights and BPH-related proteins were altered, with decreased AR, PSA and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) observed by western blot. Histopathological analysis revealed the therapeutic effect of AJ, with a decreased thickness of epithelial cells and reduced level of PCNA and 5α-reductase type 2. These results suggest that AJ extract could ameliorate testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia.


Subject(s)
Albizzia , Animals , Blood Circulation , Blotting, Western , Diethylpropion , Epithelial Cells , Herbal Medicine , Humans , Hyperplasia , In Vitro Techniques , Inflammation , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms , Male , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen , Prostate , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatic Hyperplasia , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, Androgen , Testosterone , Weights and Measures
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739400

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are common cause of severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs). The present study aimed to investigate the characteristics of SCARs induced by NSAIDs in the Korean SCAR registry. METHODS: A retrospective survey of NSAID-induced SCARs recorded between 2010 and 2015 at 27 university hospitals in Korea was conducted. Clinical phenotypes of SCARs were classified into Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), SJS-TEN overlap syndrome and drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS). Causative NSAIDs were classified into 7 groups according to their chemical properties: acetaminophen, and propionic, acetic, salicylic, fenamic and enolic acids. RESULTS: A total of 170 SCARs, consisting of 85 SJS, 32 TEN, 17 SJS-TEN overlap syndrome and 36 DRESS reactions, were induced by NSAIDs: propionic acids (n=68), acetaminophen (n=38), acetic acids (n=23), salicylic acids (n=16), coxibs (n=8), fenamic acids (n=7), enolic acids (n=5) and unclassified (n=5). Acetic acids (22%) and coxibs (14%) accounted for higher portions of DRESS than other SCARs. The phenotypes of SCARs induced by both propionic and salicylic acids were similar (SJS, TEN and DRESS, in order). Acetaminophen was primarily associated with SJS (27%) and was less involved in TEN (10%). DRESS occurred more readily among subjects experiencing coxib-induced SCARs than other NSAID-induced SCARs (62.5% vs. 19.7%, P = 0.013). The mean time to symptom onset was longer in DRESS than in SJS or TEN (19.1 ± 4.1 vs. 6.8 ±1.5 vs. 12.1 ± 3.8 days). SCARs caused by propionic salicylic acids showed longer latency, whereas acetaminophen- and acetic acid-induced SCARs appeared within shorter intervals. CONCLUSIONS: The present study indicates that the phenotypes of SCARs may differ according to the chemical classifications of NSAIDs. To establish the mechanisms and incidences of NSAID-induced SCARs, further prospective studies are needed.


Subject(s)
Acetaminophen , Acetates , Acetic Acid , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Cicatrix , Classification , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors , Diethylpropion , Drug Hypersensitivity , Drug Hypersensitivity Syndrome , Hospitals, University , Incidence , Korea , Phenotype , Propionates , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Salicylates , Salicylic Acid , Stevens-Johnson Syndrome
5.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714500

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Adverse cutaneous drug reactions (ACDRs) are common and are responsible for increased morbidity, mortality, and socioeconomic costs. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to investigate the common drugs and clinical patterns related to ACDRs using an electronic drug adverse reaction reporting system at a single secondary referral center. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of the ACDR database between January 2014 and April 2016 at the Ilsan Paik Hospital. RESULTS: The study analyzed 320 patients with ACDRs (male:female ratio=93:227; mean age 50.8±17.8 years). Using a Korean causality evaluation algorithm, the percentage of drugs with a possible relationship with ACDRs was calculated to be 50.6%, while the percentage with a probable relationship was 44.7%. Antibiotics (44.0%), radiocontrast media (15.1%), and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (14.3%) were the most commonly implicated drugs. Antibiotics, including cephalosporins (30.6%) and quinolones (10.2%), were responsible for the majority of the ACDRs. Acetic acid (5.9%) and propionic acid (5.9%) derivatives of NSAIDs were also common causative agents. The most common clinical presentations were maculopapular exanthema (33.4%), pruritus (30.9%), and urticaria (25.7%). Severe ACDRs were significantly associated with older age, eosinophilia, and underlying heart and renal diseases (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Antibiotics, radiocontrast media, and NSAIDs were identified as common causes of ACDRs. Older age, eosinophilia, heart disease, and renal disease were associated with severe ACDRs.


Subject(s)
Acetic Acid , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Cephalosporins , Contrast Media , Diethylpropion , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Eosinophilia , Exanthema , Heart , Heart Diseases , Humans , Mortality , Pruritus , Quinolones , Retrospective Studies , Secondary Care Centers , Urticaria
6.
Clinics ; 72(5): 317-324, May 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840075

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy and safety of amfepramone, fenproporex and mazindol as a monotherapy for the treatment of obese or overweight patients. A systematic review of primary studies was conducted, followed by a direct meta-analysis (random effect) and mixed treatment comparison. Medline and other databases were searched. Heterogeneity was explored through I2 associated with a p-value. Of 739 identified publications, 25 were included in the meta-analysis. The global evaluation of Cochrane resulted in 19 studies with a high level of bias and six with unclear risk. Due to the lack of information in primary studies, direct meta-analyses were conducted only for amfepramone and mazindol. Compared to placebo, amfepramone resulted in higher weight loss in the short-term (<180 days; mean difference (MD) -1.281 kg; p<0.05; I2: 0.0%; p=0.379) and long-term (≥180 days; MD -6.518 kg; p<0.05; I2: 0.0%; p=0.719). Only studies with long-term follow up reported efficacy in terms of abdominal circumference and 5-10% weight reduction. These results corroborated the finding that the efficacy of amfepramone is greater than that of placebo. Treatment with mazindol showed greater short-term weight loss than that with placebo (MD -1.721 kg; p<0.05; I2: 0.9%; p=0.388). However, metabolic outcomes were poorly described, preventing a meta-analysis. A mixed treatment comparison corroborated the direct meta-analysis. Considering the high level of risk of bias and the absence of important published outcomes for anti-obesity therapy assessments, this study found that the evaluated drugs showed poor evidence of efficacy in the treatment of overweight and obese patients. Robust safety data were not identified to suggest changes in their regulatory status.


Subject(s)
Humans , Appetite Depressants/therapeutic use , Diethylpropion/therapeutic use , Mazindol/therapeutic use , Obesity/drug therapy , Overweight/drug therapy , Appetite Depressants/metabolism , Diethylpropion/metabolism , Mazindol/metabolism , Obesity/metabolism , Overweight/metabolism , Publication Bias , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Weight Loss/drug effects
7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-161602

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Most of the atopic dermatitis (AD) patients and their parents refuse topical treatment because of concern about generalized side effect due to systemic absorption of topical corticosteroids. Therefore, a large number of studies reported difficulty in properly controlling in AD. However, investigations of the percutaneous absorption of topical corticosteroids are still insufficient. METHODS: One hundred nine patients who visited our atopy clinic and diagnosed as AD by a physician from January 2005 to January 2012 were enrolled. We examined serum corticosteroid (clobetasol propionate, hydrocortisone) level by liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with a tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) method. RESULTS: We developed the LC-MS/MS method to determine corticosteroids (clobetasol propionate, hydrocortisone) in sera of AD patients. Also, we confirmed precision, accuracy, limit of detection, limit of quantification, absolute recovery, and relative recovery of the experimental methods. We could not detect clobetasol propionate or hydrocortisone in sera of 109 AD patients using the newly developed LC-MS/MS method. CONCLUSION: Regardless of age, the severity and illness duration of AD, clobetasol and hydrocortisone were not detected in sera. Although there are many other factors of determining systemic absorption of topical medications, our results showed that topical corticosteroids applied for several years in AD patients may be under the limit of detection in their sera by the LC-MS/MS method.


Subject(s)
Absorption, Physiological , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Chromatography, Liquid , Clobetasol , Dermatitis, Atopic , Diethylpropion , Humans , Hydrocortisone , Limit of Detection , Methods , Parents , Skin Absorption
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-161592

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Extrafine-particle inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) have greater small airway deposition than standard fine-particle ICS. We sought to compare asthma-related outcomes after patients initiated extrafine-particle ciclesonide or fine-particle ICS (fluticasone propionate or non-extrafine beclomethasone). METHODS: This historical, matched cohort study included patients aged 12-60 years prescribed their first ICS as ciclesonide or fine-particle ICS. The 2 cohorts were matched 1:1 for key demographic and clinical characteristics over the baseline year. Co-primary endpoints were 1-year severe exacerbation rates, risk-domain asthma control, and overall asthma control; secondary endpoints included therapy change. RESULTS: Each cohort included 1,244 patients (median age 45 years; 65% women). Patients in the ciclesonide cohort were comparable to those in the fine-particle ICS cohort apart from higher baseline prevalence of hospitalization, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and rhinitis. Median (interquartile range) prescribed doses of ciclesonide and fine-particle ICS were 160 (160-160) µg/day and 500 (250-500) µg/day, respectively (P<0.001). During the outcome year, patients prescribed ciclesonide experienced lower severe exacerbation rates (adjusted rate ratio [95% CI], 0.69 [0.53-0.89]), and higher odds of risk-domain asthma control (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI], 1.62 [1.27-2.06]) and of overall asthma control (2.08 [1.68-2.57]) than those prescribed fine-particle ICS. The odds of therapy change were 0.70 (0.59-0.83) with ciclesonide. CONCLUSIONS: In this matched cohort analysis, we observed that initiation of ICS with ciclesonide was associated with better 1-year asthma outcomes and fewer changes to therapy, despite data suggesting more difficult-to-control asthma. The median prescribed dose of ciclesonide was one-third that of fine-particle ICS.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Anti-Asthmatic Agents , Asthma , Cohort Studies , Comparative Effectiveness Research , Diethylpropion , Disease Progression , Gastroesophageal Reflux , Hospitalization , Humans , Odds Ratio , Prevalence , Rhinitis
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-219089

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: No studies have been conducted to investigate the acute toxicity of aryloxyphenoxypropionate herbicides in humans following ingestion. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the clinical characteristics of aryloxyphenoxypropionate herbicide poisoning and provide guidance for physicians treating patients who have ingested these types of herbicides. METHODS: A retrospective observational case series was conducted using ten patients with history of aryloxyphenoxy propionate herbicide. Data were collected for clinical manifestation, management and final outcome. RESULTS: The most common symptoms were gastrointestinal irritation and an altered mental state (Glasgow Coma Scale<15). An elevated lactate level was a common laboratory abnormality, and prolonged QTc interval was commonly observed. These clinical features normalized within one day of supportive treatment. CONCLUSION: The acute toxicity of aryloxyphenoxypropionate herbicides in humans is manageable with supportive treatment. However, physicians should take into account depressed consciousness, the possibility of arrhythmia, and an elevated lactate level when planning their treatment strategy.


Subject(s)
Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Coma , Consciousness , Diethylpropion , Eating , Herbicides , Humans , Lactic Acid , Poisoning , Retrospective Studies
11.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(6): 537-544, 06/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748218

ABSTRACT

Amfepramone (diethylpropion) is an appetite-suppressant drug used for the treatment of overweight and obesity. It has been suggested that the systemic and central activity of amfepramone produces cardiovascular effects such as transient ischemic attacks and primary pulmonary hypertension. However, it is not known whether amfepramone produces immediate vascular effects when applied in vitro to rat aortic rings and, if so, what mechanisms may be involved. We analyzed the effect of amfepramone on phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings with or without endothelium and the influence of inhibitors or blockers on this effect. Amfepramone produced a concentration-dependent vasorelaxation in phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings that was not affected by the vehicle, atropine, 4-AP, glibenclamide, indomethacin, clotrimazole, or cycloheximide. The vasorelaxant effect of amfepramone was significantly attenuated by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and tetraethylammonium (TEA), and was blocked by removal of the vascular endothelium. These results suggest that amfepramone had a direct vasorelaxant effect on phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings, and that inhibition of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and the opening of Ca2+-activated K+ channels were involved in this effect.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Acetylcholine/pharmacology , Aorta, Thoracic/drug effects , Appetite Depressants/pharmacology , Diethylpropion/pharmacology , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Aorta, Thoracic/metabolism , Calcium Channels/drug effects , Calcium Channels/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/drug effects , Phenylephrine/pharmacology , Potassium Channels/drug effects , Potassium Channels/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Tetraethylammonium/metabolism , Vasoconstrictor Agents/pharmacology , Vasodilation/drug effects
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-20108

ABSTRACT

Spontaneous pneumomediastinum (PM) is an uncommon condition in which free air enters the mediastinum. This usually occurs either through esophageal tears after vigorous vomiting, or after alveolar rupture subsequent to a rapid increase in intra-alveolar pressure. Spontaneous PM is a rare entity in anorexia nervosa (AN) and self-induced vomiting is often the cause of PM in patients with AN. We experienced a case of spontaneous PM in an anorexic adolescent, in whom vomiting was not the cause of PM.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Anorexia Nervosa , Anorexia , Diethylpropion , Humans , Mediastinal Emphysema , Mediastinum , Rupture , Subcutaneous Emphysema , Tears , Vomiting
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-221427

ABSTRACT

Anorexia is one of the most common issues in older patients. Although there is a tendency for loss of appetite in older persons due to decreased physical activity and reduced resting metabolic rate, this physiological anorexia of aging can easily develop into progressive anorexia and weight loss. This pathologic anorexia and resultant weight loss is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, especially in the frail elderly. To prevent older persons from entering a vicious cycle of frailty, that is, anorexia-malnutrition-sarcopenia-functional impairment, routine screening for anorexia and malnutrition should be implemented in geriatric clinical practice. All anorexic elderly patients should be strongly encouraged to maintain their nutrition, and appetite stimulants can be considered if non-pharmacological interventions are not effective. Although there are no US or Korea Food and Drug Administration approved medications for geriatric-specific anorexia and weight loss, several appetite stimulants can be prescribed and are used widely. Megestrol acetate is the most widely studied and commonly used of these drugs. Cyproheptadine, dronabinol, mirtazapine, corticosteroids, anabolic steroids (e.g., testosterone or oxandrolone), and growth hormone are also effective in increasing appetite or weight. However, the use of these orexigenic agents should occur only after their benefit-to-risk ratio has been carefully considered.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Aged , Aging , Anorexia , Appetite Stimulants , Appetite , Cyproheptadine , Diethylpropion , Dronabinol , Frail Elderly , Growth Hormone , Humans , Korea , Malnutrition , Mass Screening , Megestrol Acetate , Mortality , Motor Activity , Steroids , Testosterone , United States Food and Drug Administration , Weight Loss
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-15891

ABSTRACT

Dopamine has long time considered as the main player in drug addiction. However, growing body of literature strongly supports a role for glutamate in addiction. 2-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptors, one of the ionotropic glutamate receptors, are known to be involved in different forms of synaptic plasticity, and behaviors such as learning and memory. As drug addiction is a chronic brain disease with characteristics of craving and relapse, it is often considered as a maladapted form of drug-induced long-term memory. Experimental evidence strongly indicates that AMPA receptor has an important role in the development of drug addiction. Studies with animal models of drug addiction, such as behavioral sensitization and drug self-administration, demonstrate that AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic plasticity may underlie the neuronal mechanisms for such important characteristics of addiction as drug craving.


Subject(s)
alpha-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic Acid , Brain Diseases , Diethylpropion , Dopamine , Glutamic Acid , Learning , Memory , Memory, Long-Term , Models, Animal , Neurons , Nucleus Accumbens , Plastics , Receptors, AMPA , Receptors, Ionotropic Glutamate , Recurrence , Illicit Drugs , Substance-Related Disorders
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-94113

ABSTRACT

Obesity is an important risk factor for metabolic disease and various cancers. Treatments of obesity include lifestyle intervention, pharmacotherapy, and bariatric surgery. If weight loss with lifestyle intervention is only modest, pharmacotherapy might be needed. Pharmacotherapy agents can be grouped by treatment period as short term or long term use agent. Several sympathomimetic drugs such as benzphetamine, diethylpropion, phendimetrazine and phentermine, are approved for short term treatment due to their safety issues. For long term treatment, orlistat, lorcaserin, and combination of phentermine/topiramate are approved by U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Orlistat partially blocks intestinal digestion of fat, therefore producing weight loss. Lorcaserin is a serotonin 2C receptor agonist. The combination of phentermine/topiramate produces a mean weight loss of 8-10 kg. Side effects of each drug are quite different. For obesity patient, side effects are important factor when choosing drugs. The goal of this article is to review currently available anti-obesity drugs.


Subject(s)
Anti-Obesity Agents , Bariatric Surgery , Benzphetamine , Diethylpropion , Digestion , Drug Therapy , Humans , Life Style , Metabolic Diseases , Obesity , Phentermine , Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT2C , Risk Factors , Sympathomimetics , United States Food and Drug Administration , Weight Loss
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-124664

ABSTRACT

According to WHO global estimates from 2008, more than 1.4 billion adults were overweight and among them, over 200 million men and 300 million women were obese. Although the main treatment modalities for overweight and obese individuals remain dieting and physical exercise, the synthetic anti-obesity medications have been increasingly used due to their perceived convenience. Generally, anti-obesity medications are classified as appetite suppressants or fat absorption blockers. In the present study, we examined the adverse side-effects in respect of behavior changes of phentermine and Ephedra sinica (mahuang) that are anti-obesity drugs currently distributed to domestic consumers. Phentermine is mainly classified as an anorexing agent and mahuang a thermogenic agent. Because phentermine and mahuang are considered to display effectiveness through the regulation of nerve system, their potential influences of on behavioral changes were examined employing animal experiments. From the results of experiments testing locomotor activity through the use of treadmill, rota-rod, and open field system, phentermine and mahuang were commonly revealed to induce behavioral changes of rats by reducing a motor ability, an ability to cope with an external stimulus, and a sense of balance or by augmenting wariness or excitement. These adverse effects of phenternime and mahuang in behavioral changes need to be identified in humans and anti-obesity medications such as phentermine and mahuang should be prescribed for only obesity where it is anticipated that the benefits of the treatment outweigh their potential risks.


Subject(s)
Absorption , Adult , Animal Experimentation , Animals , Anti-Obesity Agents , Appetite Depressants , Diet , Diethylpropion , Ephedra sinica , Exercise , Female , Humans , Male , Models, Animal , Motor Activity , Obesity , Overweight , Phentermine , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-725246

ABSTRACT

Glutamate receptors are important components of synaptic transmission in the nervous system. Especially, alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptors mediate most abundant excitatory synaptic transmission in the brain. There is elaborate mechanism of regulation of AMPA receptors including protein synthesis/degradation, intracellular trafficking, exocytosis/endocytosis and protein modification. In recent studies, it is revealed that functional dysregulation of AMPA receptors are related to major psychiatric disorders. In this review, we describe the structure and function of AMPA receptors in the synapse. We will introduce three steps of mechanism involving trafficking of AMPA receptors to neuronal membrane, lateral diffusion into synapses and synaptic retention by membrane proteins and postsynaptic scaffold proteins. Lastly, we will describe recent studies showing that regulation of AMPA receptors is important pathophysiological mechanism in psychiatric disorders.


Subject(s)
alpha-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic Acid , Brain , Diethylpropion , Diffusion , Membrane Proteins , Membranes , Nervous System , Neurons , Propionates , Proteins , Receptors, AMPA , Receptors, Glutamate , Retention, Psychology , Synapses , Synaptic Transmission
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-120067

ABSTRACT

Eosinophilic otitis media (EOM) shows a very high rate of association with asthma, and intractable otitis media involves marked eosinophil infiltration into the middle ear. The middle ear space is connected to the nasopharynx by the Eustachian tube, and it is considered a part of the upper respiratory tract. Allergic rhinitis and asthma often coexist as chronic inflammatory diseases of the upper and lower airways, respectively, and have an impact on each other. In fact, inhaled corticosteroids reduce seasonal eosinophilia systemically in the circulation and locally in the nasal mucosa, as well as attenuate seasonal nasal symptoms. We report a case of EOM associated with adult-onset asthma that improved following optimal asthma therapy after changing the treatment from inhaled fluticasone propionate (FP) (200 microg b.i.d.) to a combination of FP/salmeterol (250/50 microg b.i.d.). This result supports the hypothesis that EOM and asthma are closely linked, presenting as different manifestations of a similar disease syndrome.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Androstadienes , Asthma , Diethylpropion , Ear, Middle , Eosinophilia , Eosinophils , Eustachian Tube , Nasal Mucosa , Nasopharynx , Otitis , Otitis Media , Respiratory System , Respiratory Therapy , Rhinitis , Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial , Seasons , Fluticasone
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-48736

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study assessed the association between the ratio of leukotriene E4 (LTE4) to fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) in the response of children with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) enrolled in a therapeutic trial with montelukast or inhaled corticosteroid (fluticasone propionate [FP]). METHODS: Children aged 6 to 18 years with EIB were randomized in a 4-week, placebo-controlled, double-blinded trial with montelukast or FP. Before and after treatment, treadmill exercise challenges were performed. The LTE4 levels in the induced sputum and urine and the FENO levels were measured in subjects before and 30 minutes after the exercise challenges. The same tests were conducted after treatment. RESULTS: A total of 24 patients completed the study: 12 in the montelukast group and 12 in FP group. Both study groups displayed a similar postexercise maximum decrease in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) before treatment as well as after treatment. However, there were significant differences in the magnitude of change between the two (Delta; -18.38+/-14.53% vs. -4.67+/-8.12% for the montelukast and FP groups, respectively; P=0.021). The Delta logarithmic sputum baseline and postexercise LTE4/FENO ratio were significantly lower in the montelukast group than in the FP group (baseline; -0.09+/-0.21 vs. -0.024+/-0.03, P=0.045; postexercise, -0.61+/-0.33 vs. -0.11+/-0.28, P=0.023). CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that the efficacy of montelukast for preventing a maximum decrease in FEV1 after exercise is significantly higher than that of FP, and the high LTE4/FENO ratio is associated with a greater response to montelukast than to FP for EIB therapy. These results suggest that LTE4 may play an important role in EIB.


Subject(s)
Acetates , Aged , Bronchoconstriction , Child , Diethylpropion , Forced Expiratory Volume , Humans , Leukotriene E4 , Nitric Oxide , Quinolines , Sputum
20.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 624-628, 2013.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-162113

ABSTRACT

Obesity is associated with a reduction in life expectancy and an increase in mortality from cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and other causes. The U.S. Preventive Service Task Force (USPSTF) recommends screening all adults for obesity. Clinicians should offer or refer patients with a body mass index of 30 kg/m2 or higher to intensive, multicomponent behavioral interventions. Behavioral interventions can lead to a moderate weight loss and improvement in blood sugar and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Behavioral interventions decreased the incidence of diabetes diagnosis by about 50% over 2 to 3 years. Orlistat, phentermine, diethylpropion, phendimetrazine, mazindol have been approved as anti-obesity drugs by Korea Food and Drug Administration. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved lorcaserin and phentermine plus topiramate combination for treatment of obesity in 2012.


Subject(s)
Adult , Advisory Committees , Anti-Obesity Agents , Benzazepines , Blood Glucose , Body Mass Index , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diethylpropion , Fructose , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Lactones , Life Expectancy , Mass Screening , Mazindol , Morpholines , Obesity , Phentermine , Risk Factors , United States Food and Drug Administration , Weight Loss
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