Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 608
Filter
1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246568, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278537

ABSTRACT

Abstract Fishmeal; being a limited and costly feed ingredient is continuously been substituted with locally available plant proteins. However, the occurrence of anti-nutritional factors in plant meal suppresses its potential to be fully replaced. Therefore, in this study we aimed to study the synergistic effects of dietary additives like citric acid and phytase enzyme supplementation on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings. Canola meal (CM) was used as a test ingredient to replace fishmeal (FM) as; 0%, 25%, 50% and 75%. These four diets were further supplemented by varying levels of phytase (0 and 750 FTU kg-1) and citric acid (0% and 2.5%) to formulate total sixteen test diets as T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8, T9, T10, T11, T12, T13, T14, T15 and T16. Each treatment contained three replicates; applied to fish groups having 15 fingerlings each; following 3×3 factorial arrangement. 1% of chromic oxide was added as an inert marker. Maximum weight gain% (288%) and the lowest value of FCR (1.07) were recorded when fish was fed on diet T12 as compared to fish fed control diet (T1). Similarly, optimum nutrient digestibility values such as crude protein (77%), crude fat (84%) and gross energy (70%) were noted on same level. It was concluded that 50% canola meal can optimally replace fishmeal when supplemented with phytase and citric acid at the levels of 750 FTU kg-1 and 2.5%, respectively.


Resumo A farinha de peixe, por ser um ingrediente alimentar limitado e caro, é continuamente substituída por proteínas vegetais disponíveis localmente. No entanto, a ocorrência de fatores antinutricionais na farinha de plantas suprime seu potencial de ser totalmente substituída. Portanto, neste estudo objetivamos estudar os efeitos sinérgicos de aditivos dietéticos como ácido cítrico e suplementação com enzima fitase sobre o desempenho de crescimento e digestibilidade de nutrientes de alevinos de Cirrhinus mrigala. A farinha de canola (CM) foi usada como ingrediente de teste para substituir a farinha de peixe (FM) como: 0%, 25%, 50% e 75%. Essas quatro dietas foram suplementadas por níveis variados de fitase (0 e 750 FTU kg-1) e ácido cítrico (0% e 2,5%) para formular um total de 16 dietas de teste como T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8, T9, T10, T11, T12, T13, T14, T15 e T16. Cada tratamento continha três repetições; aplicado a grupos de peixes com 15 alevinos cada; seguindo o arranjo fatorial 3 × 3. 1% de óxido crômico foi adicionado como um marcador inerte. % de ganho de peso máximo (288%) e o valor mais baixo de FCR (1,07) foram registrados quando os peixes foram alimentados com dieta T12 em comparação com peixes alimentados com dieta controle (T1). Da mesma forma, valores ótimos de digestibilidade de nutrientes, como proteína bruta (77%), gordura bruta (84%) e energia bruta (70%) foram anotados no mesmo nível. Concluiu-se que 50% da farinha de canola pode substituir de forma ideal a farinha de peixe quando suplementada com fitase e ácido cítrico nos níveis de 750 FTU kg-1 e 2,5%, respectivamente.


Subject(s)
Animals , 6-Phytase , Nutrients , Chickens , Citric Acid , Dietary Supplements , Diet/veterinary , Digestion , Animal Feed/analysis , Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
2.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 72(1): 11-22, mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1368344

ABSTRACT

El arándano (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) posee un alto contenido de compuestos fenólicos los cuales han sido estudiados principalmente por su actividad antioxidante, antiobesogénica, antiinflamatoria, entre otras. Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de la digestión gastrointestinal in vitro sobre la bioaccesibilidad de compuestos fenólicos y actividad antioxidante de una formulación nutracéutica de arándano (cápsula), comparado con arándano fresco y polvo. Materiales y métodos. Se obtuvieron extractos metanólicos de muestras de arándano fresco y liofilizado y se determinó su contenido de fenoles, flavonoides y antocianinas totales, así como también actividad antioxidante. Se llevó a cabo un ensayo de simulación de digestión gastrointestinal para evaluar la bioaccesibilidad de los compuestos fenólicos presentes en las muestras. Resultados. Los resultados mostraron que la digestión gástrica de arándano en polvo y en cápsula promovió una mayor bioaccesibilidad de fenoles (42% y 40%), flavonoides (52% y 33%) y antocianinas (45% y 40%) comparado con digestos de arándano fresco. Posterior a la digestión intestinal, la bioaccesibilidad de fenoles (63%) y flavonoides (67%) fue mayor en la cápsula de arándano comparada con su contraparte arándano en polvo. Las condiciones de digestión intestinal afectaron negativamente la bioaccesibilidad de las antocianinas independientemente del tipo de muestra evaluada. Conclusión. Las condiciones de digestión gástrica promueven una mayor estabilidad de los compuestos fenólicos en arándano en polvo y en cápsula lo que pudiera ser relevante para el mantenimiento de un ambiente antioxidante a este nivel. Las condiciones de digestión intestinal afectaron de manera particular a los compuestos fenólicos de arándano fresco y polvo, pero no a la cápsula, lo que puede sugerir que el encapsulamiento protegió de las condiciones alcalinas a los fenoles presentes. Se sugieren estudios posteriores sobre absorción in vitro de los componentes remanentes en intestino y sus posibles efectos sobre biomarcadores de estrés oxidativo en modelos in vivo(AU)


Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) has a high content of phenolic compounds which have been studied mainly for their antioxidant, antiobesogenic, anti-inflammatory activity, among others. Objetive. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of a nutraceutical formulation of blueberry (capsule), compared to fresh and powder blueberry. Materials and methods. Methanolic extracts of fresh and lyophilized blueberry were obtained and determined its total phenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins content, as well as antioxidant activity. A gastrointestinal digestion simulation test also was carried out to assess the bioaccessibility of the phenolic compounds found in samples. Results. The results showed that gastric digestion of powder and capsule blueberry promoted greater bioaccessibility of phenols (42% and 40%), flavonoids (52% and 33%) and anthocyanins (45% and 40%), compared to fresh blueberry digests. After intestinal digestion, the bioaccessibility of phenols (63%) and flavonoids (67%) was higher in the blueberry capsule compared to its powdered blueberry counterpart. The intestinal digestion conditions negatively affected the bioaccessibility of anthocyanins regardless of the type of sample evaluated. Conclusion. Gastric digestion conditions promote greater stability of phenolic compounds in powdered and capsule blueberries, which could be relevant for the maintenance of an antioxidant environment at this level. The intestinal digestion conditions particularly affected the phenolic compounds of fresh and lyophilized blueberry, but not the capsule, which may suggest that encapsulation protected the phenols present from alkaline conditions. Further studies on in vitro absorption of the remaining components in the intestine and their possible effects on oxidative stress biomarkers in in vivo models are suggested(AU)


Subject(s)
Tannins , Flavonoids , Blueberry Plants , Phenolic Compounds , Gastrointestinal Absorption , In Vitro Techniques , Chronic Disease , Digestion , Freeze Drying
3.
Semina cienc. biol. saude ; 43(1): 101-118, jan./jun. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354575

ABSTRACT

Achyrocline satureioides is popularly known for its richness in phenolic compounds and medicinal properties (anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and hepatoprotective). The present study aimed at broadening the knowledge about the pharmacological potential exerted by the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of A. satureioides. These extracts were characterized by HPLC and tested for their modulatory action on phospholipases A2 and proteases of snake venoms. In addition, they were tested on the activities of digestive enzymes. Snake venoms were used as tools since they have enzymes with high functional and structural homology to human enzymes. The results demonstrate that the extracts of A. satureioides act as enzymatic inhibitors or potentiators, interfering in processes related to the hemostasis, such as coagulation and thrombus dissolution. In addition, the anti-genotoxic activity and inhibitions exerted on digestive enzymes suggests their potential use in the prevention and/or treatment of several pathologies. New studies could provide information on how the compounds present in the extracts and the different enzymes interact.


A Achyrocline satureioides é popularmente conhecida por sua riqueza em compostos fenólicos e por suas propriedades medicinais (anti-inflamatória, analgésica e hepatoprotetora). No presente estudo, com o objetivo de ampliar o conhecimento sobre o potencial farmacológico exercido por esses extratos, os extratos aquoso e etanólico de A. satureioides foram caracterizados por HPLC e testados quanto à sua ação modulatória sobre as fosfolipases A2 e proteases de peçonhas de serpentes. Além disso, também foram testados em atividades de enzimas digestivas. As peçonhas de serpentes foram usadas como ferramentas por apresentarem enzimas com alta homologia funcional e estrutural às humanas. Os resultados demonstram que os extratos de A. satureioides atuam como inibidores ou potencializadores enzimáticos, interferindo em processos relacionados à hemostasia, como coagulação e dissolução do trombo. Além do mais, destacam seu potencial antigenotóxico e as inibições exercidas sobre as enzimas digestivas direcionando seu potencial de uso na prevenção e/ou tratamento de diversas patologias. Novos estudos poderão fornecer informações sobre os mecanismos de interação entre os compostos presentes nos extratos e as diferentes enzimas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Snakes , Blood Coagulation , Achyrocline , Digestion , Enzymes , Dissolution , Phospholipases A2 , Hemostasis , Analgesics , Inflammation
4.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(2): 469-476, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1248951

ABSTRACT

This study was aimed to evaluate and compare the nutrient digestibility of grain-inclusive and grain-free commercial dry dog foods using the method of total fecal collection and also explore their effects on fecal consistency. 21 different foods, including 14 grain-inclusive (7 grain-chicken meat, 7 grain-lamb meat) and 7 grain-free were investigated. 12 adult Golden retriever dogs (age 3-4 years, body weight=22.5±1.7kg) were divided into 3 groups. The results of digestibility trials indicated that the grain-lamb meat foods showed the highest digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and crude fiber. Overall, in the grain-inclusive and grain-free group evaluation, grain-inclusive foods showed higher digestibility of crude fibers while grain-free foods had higher ether extract digestibility whereas the differences in the scores of fecal consistencies between the groups were insignificant. Contrary to popular belief, grain-inclusive foods were more digestive than grain-free foods in terms of dry matter and organic matter. There are studies involving starch sources in the dog food formulations, but there is a need to study the digestibility of complete dog food to supply them with adequate nutrients. Also, each diet should be assessed based on its overall nutrient profile and digestibility rather than individual ingredients.(AU)


Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar e comparar as digestibilidades de nutrientes de alimentos secos para cães comerciais, com grãos e livres de grãos, usando o método de coleta fecal total, bem como explorar seus efeitos na consistência fecal. Vinte e um alimentos diferentes, incluindo 14 grãos inclusivos (sete grãos de carne de frango, sete grãos de carne de cordeiro) e sete livres de grãos, foram investigados. Doze cães Golden Retriever adultos (idade de três-quatro anos, peso corporal = 22,5 ± 1,7kg) foram divididos em três grupos. Os resultados dos ensaios de digestibilidade indicaram que os alimentos cárneos de cordeiro apresentaram as maiores digestibilidades de matéria seca, matéria orgânica e fibra bruta. Em geral, na avaliação do grupo com grãos inclusivos e do grupo sem grãos, os alimentos com grãos inclusivos mostraram maior digestibilidade das fibras brutas, enquanto os alimentos sem grãos tiveram maior digestibilidade do extrato etéreo; já as diferenças nos escores de consistência fecal entre os grupos foram insignificantes. Ao contrário da crença popular, os alimentos com inclusão de grãos eram mais digestivos do que os sem grãos, em termos de matéria seca e matéria orgânica. Existem estudos envolvendo fontes de amido em formulações de rações, mas é necessário estudar a digestibilidade de rações completas para fornecer nutrientes adequados. Além disso, cada dieta deve ser avaliada com base em seu perfil geral de nutrientes e digestibilidade, em vez de ingredientes individuais.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Dietary Proteins/administration & dosage , Nutrients/analysis , Edible Grain , Digestion , Animal Feed/analysis , Animal Feed/classification
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(1): 44-52, Feb. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153322

ABSTRACT

Abstract Three trials were executed to examine the nutritive profile, metabolisable energy and digestible amino acid (AA) contents of four indigenous feed ingredients including wheat (W), wheat middling (WM), canola meal (CM) and rapeseed meal (RSM) in Nile tilapia. Three samples of each test ingredient were collected from three different locations of Multan (MUL) and Sukkar (SKR), of Pakistan. The collected three samples were pooled thereafter to make a homogenous/ representative sample of each test ingredient from a particular study site. Nutrients composition, AA and energy digestibility of these indigenous ingredients were evaluated by using laboratory analyses and fish studies. Proximate analysis indicated variations in some of the nutrients due to location (p < 0.05). Differences were also observed in some AA including arginine, lysine, serine, cysteine, glutamic and aspartic acids, histidine, valine and glycine contents of these ingredients (p < 0.05). Digestibility of leucine, glycine and glutamic acid was higher (p < 0.05) in RSM from MUL. Among W samples from MUL, AA digestibility for lysine, threonine, and aspartic acid was higher (p < 0.05). Crude protein, arginine, alanine, serine, and aspartic acid had higher digestibility (p < 0.05), whereas digestibility was lower (p < 0.05) for threonine, valine and tyrosine in RSM from MUL. Metaboliseable energy contents did not differ among W, WM, CM and RSM regarding their origin (p > 0.05). The results indicated that nutritional profiles and their digestibility indices vary with the location for Nile tilapia.


Resumo Três experimentos foram executados para examinar o perfil nutritivo, a energia metabolizável e o conteúdo de aminoácidos digestíveis (AA) de quatro ingredientes alimentícios, incluindo trigo (W), farelo de trigo (WM), farelo de canola (CM) e farelo de colza (RSM) em tilápia do Nilo. Três amostras de cada ingrediente do teste foram coletadas de dois locais diferentes (Multan (MUL) e Sukkar (SKR), do Paquistão) e assim agrupadas. A composição nutricional, AA e digestibilidade energética desses ingredientes indígenas foram avaliadas por meio de análises laboratoriais e estudos de peixes. A análise imediata indicou variações (p <0,05) em alguns dos nutrientes devido à localização. Variações (p <0,05) também foram observadas em alguns teores de AA desses ingredientes. A digestibilidade da leucina, glicina e ácido glutâmico foi maior (p <0,05) em RSM de MUL. Entre as amostras de W da MUL, a digestibilidade de AA para Lys, Thr e Asp foi maior (p <0,05). Proteína Crud, arginina, alanina, serina e ácido aspártico apresentaram maior digestibilidade (p <0,05), e menor (p <0,05) para treonina, valina e tirosina em MRS. Nenhuma diferença (p> 0,05) relacionada a energia metabolizável foi observada entre esses ingredientes em relação à sua origem. Os resultados indicaram que os perfis nutricionais e sua digestibilidade variam com a localização.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cichlids , Amino Acids , Pakistan , Diet , Digestion , Ileum , Animal Feed/analysis , Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
6.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(1): 82-90, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153042

ABSTRACT

Essential oils (EO) such as carvacrol represent a wide range of mainly volatile aromatic plant compounds which hold antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal potential, in addition to other properties of interest to animal health, such as the ability to modulate the microbiome. Current horse care commonly involves an intensive management system with an excessive use of concentrated feed, which can lead to severe digestive and metabolic disorders. Studies with EO in horses are limited, but the use of carvacrol essential oil (CEO) can promote benefits in microbial fermentation. The objective was to investigate the effect of different quantities of CEO on the apparent total digestibility of nutrients, microbial profile in the feces and postprandial blood glucose and insulin response when added to the equine diet. Eight Mini-Horse geldings were used (42±6 months; 135±15 kg BW) and fed with a proportion of 60% concentrate and 40% grass hay. The treatments were: 0, 100, 200 and 300 ppm of CEO. The addition of CEO up to 300 ppm did not influence the apparent digestibility of nutrients or the postprandial plasma glucose and insulin response. The use of CEO maintained the fermentative digestive health of horses fed with concentrate diets.(AU)


Os óleos essenciais (EO), como o carvacrol, são descritos por representarem ampla gama de compostos principalmente voláteis de plantas aromáticas, com potencial antioxidante, antibacteriano, antifúngico, entre outras propriedades de interesse para a saúde animal, como a modulação do microbioma. Atualmente, os cavalos são submetidos a manejo intensivo, com uso excessivo de ração concentrada, o que pode causar graves distúrbios digestivos e metabólicos. Em cavalos, estudos com EO são limitados, mas o uso de óleo essencial de carvacrol (CEO) poderia promover benefícios na fermentação microbiana. O objetivo da presente pesquisa foi investigar o efeito de diferentes quantidades de óleo essencial de carvacrol, adicionadas à dieta de equinos, sobre a digestibilidade aparente total de nutrientes, o perfil microbiano por meio das fezes e a resposta sanguínea pós-prandial de glicose e insulina. Foram utilizados oito cavalos castrados, da raça Mini-Horse (42±6 meses), 135±15kg PV, alimentados na proporção de 60% concentrado e 40% feno de capim. Os tratamentos foram: 0, 100, 200 e 300ppm de CEO. A adição de CEO até 300ppm não influencia a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes e a resposta de glicose e insulina plasmática pós-prandial. O uso de EO demonstra manter a saúde digestiva fermentativa quando os cavalos são alimentados com dieta rica em concentrado.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Digestion/drug effects , Glucose , Horses/blood , Insulin/blood , Dietary Supplements/analysis , Monoterpenes
7.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 48: 29-35, nov. 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254696

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cellulose as a potential feed resource hinders its utilization because of its complex structure, and cellulase is the key to its biological effective utilization. Animal endogenous probiotics are more susceptible to colonization in the intestinal tract, and their digestive enzymes are more conducive to the digestion and absorption of feed in young animals. Min pigs are potential sources of cellulase probiotics because of the high proportion of dietary fiber in their feed. In this study, the cellulolytic bacteria in the feces of Min pigs were isolated and screened. The characteristics of enzymes and cellulase production were studied, which provided a theoretical basis for the rational utilization of cellulase and high-fiber food in animal production. RESULTS: In our study, 10 strains of cellulase producing strains were isolated from Min pig manure, among which the M2 strain had the best enzyme producing ability and was identified as Bacillus velezensis. The optimum production conditions of cellulase from strain M2 were: 2% inoculum, the temperature of 35°C, the pH of 5.0, and the liquid loading volume of 50 mL. The optimum temperature, pH and time for the reaction of cellulase produced by strain M2 were 55°C, 4.5 and 5 min, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Min pigs can be used as a source of cellulase producing strains. The M2 strain isolated from feces was identified as Bacillus velezensis. The cellulase from M2 strain had a good activity and the potential to be used as feed additive for piglets.


Subject(s)
Animals , Swine, Miniature , Bacteria/enzymology , Cellulase/biosynthesis , Bacillus , Dietary Fiber , Probiotics , Digestion , Feces , Animal Feed
8.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 48: 62-71, nov. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254807

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A key challenge for manufacturers of pro-health food containing active probiotic microorganisms is to develop a product with attractive sensory features along with maintenance of declared number of microorganisms during storage and transfer by alimentary tract. RESULTS: The highest concentration of polyphenols was observed in snacks without an additive of probiotics as well as those with an additive of L. rhamnosus and B. animalis bacteria and concentration of these compounds increased by 9.5% during six months of storage. None of the products distinguished itself in the sensorial assessment although each was assessed positively. The number of microorganisms was stable and comparatively high during six months of storage at a room temperature and in cooling conditions (108 cfu/g). In the digestion model, an influence of aggressive digestion conditions was examined in the alimentary tract on the number of microorganisms, which allowed to arrange strains from the most resistant (S. boulardii) to the most sensitive (B. breve). It must be noted that currently on the market there is no available snack containing probiotic yeast as well as there is no literature data on works on such formulation of food. CONCLUSIONS: In the newly developed snack made of chocolate, in which sugar has been replaced with maltitol, a raw material was added in the form of raspberry, prebiotic in the form of inulin and a strain of probiotic bacteria, including the unprecedented so far S. boulardii, which stands a high chance to occupy a good place on the market of functional food.


Subject(s)
Probiotics , Functional Food , Chocolate/microbiology , Sugar Alcohols , Temperature , Whole Foods , Digestion , Food Storage , Prebiotics , Synbiotics , Polyphenols , Snacks , Rubus , Maltose/analogs & derivatives
9.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(5): 1971-1979, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131529

ABSTRACT

The objective was to evaluate the effects of cranberry on blood and urinary parameters of dogs (experiment I), digestibility of nutrients (experiment II), palatability of diet (experiment III) and the influence of cranberry on E. coli UPEC-MRHA fimbriae in vitro (experiment IV). For experiment I and II, ten dogs were fed with diets containing 0% or 0.4% cranberry for 30 days. Experiment III compared the diets containing 0% and 0.4% cranberry using 16 adult dogs. There were no statistical differences (P>0.05) in the blood parameters evaluated. Dogs consuming cranberry presented lighter color and appearance of urine, compared to the control group (P<0.05). The diet containing cranberry showed higher digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, ether extract, higher metabolizable energy (P<0.05) and reduced fecal sialic acid concentration (P<0.05) compared to the control diet. There was no influence of cranberry on the formation of fimbriae of E. coli UPEC-MRHA. There was a lower intake ratio of the diet containing cranberry (P<0.05). The inclusion of 0.4% cranberry increases the digestibility of nutrients and influences the color and appearance of urine of dogs. However, it reduces diet palatability and does not alter the adhesion of E. coli UPEC-MRHA in vitro.(AU)


O objetivo foi avaliar os efeitos do cranberry nos parâmetros sanguíneos e urinários de cães (experimento I), na digestibilidade dos nutrientes (experimento II), na palatabilidade da dieta (experimento III) e a influência do cranberry sobre E. coli UPEC-MRHA fimbriae in vitro (experimento IV). Para os experimentos I e II, 10 cães foram alimentados com dietas contendo 0% ou 0,4% de cranberry por 30 dias. O experimento III comparou as dietas contendo 0% e 0,4% de cranberry usando 16 cães adultos. Não houve diferenças estatísticas (P>0,05) nos parâmetros sanguíneos avaliados. Cães que consumiram cranberry apresentaram cor e aparência mais claras da urina, em comparação com o grupo controle (P<0,05). A dieta contendo cranberry apresentou maior digestibilidade da matéria seca, extrato etéreo, matéria orgânica, maior energia metabolizável (P<0,05) e menor concentração de ácido siálico fecal (P<0,05) comparada à dieta controle. Não houve influência do cranberry na formação de fímbrias de E. coli UPEC-MRHA. Houve uma menor taxa de ingestão da dieta contendo cranberry (P<0,05). A inclusão de 0,4% de cranberry aumenta a digestibilidade dos nutrientes, influencia a cor e a aparência da urina dos cães. No entanto, reduz a palatabilidade da dieta e não altera a adesão de E. coli UPEC-MRHA in vitro.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Dietary Supplements , Cystitis , Vaccinium macrocarpon/metabolism , Digestion , Urinary Tract Infections/veterinary , Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
10.
Afro-Egypt. j. infect. enem. Dis ; 1(3): 199-208, 2020. ilus
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1258725

ABSTRACT

Background: The aim of Trichinella inspection is to reliably detect larvae in meat at levels which are capable of causing human trichinellosis. Trichinoscopy is a rapid, cost effective but is less sensitive in detection of low muscle larvae (ML)numbers. Artificial digestion is more convenient, and flexible, but may destroy immature larvae. Baermann technique may enhance the efficiency of diagnosis. Giemsa and Leishman stains provide identical contrasting coloration as Hematoxylin and Eosin (H-E) with the both advantages of that they can be used for staining non-histological sectionsand rapid preparation.The primary aim of the study was to compare the efficiency of digestion and Baermann techniques for detection of ML in muscles. Secondary aim was detection of ML by Geimsa and Leishman stain and their comparison with routinely used stain H-E. Methods: Muscles from 36 mice orally infected with Trichinella spiralis encysted larvae were examined. Larvae from 1 g samples of different muscles were recovered by digestion and Baermann techniques after different dose of infection. Muscle samples were prepared for staining with Giemsa, Leishman and H-E. Results: Number of larvae recovered by Baermann was higher recovered by digestion method (P ˃0.5). Leishman stain was the best stain for rapid detection of ML after 30 min followed in validity by Geimsa then H-E. Conclusion: Baermann concentration technique showed higher sensitivity than digestion method. Leishman stain is superior to Giemsa stain as it takes less time. Both stains are considered good alternative to H-E for rapid and easy diagnosis of trichinellosis in post-mortem animals


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Experimental , Azure Stains , Digestion , Egypt
11.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2435-2442, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878499

ABSTRACT

In recent years, mass spectrometry has been widely used to study membrane protein structure and function. However, the application of mass spectrometry to study integral membrane protein is limited because there are many hydrophobic amino acids in the trans-membrane domain of integral membrane protein to cause low sequence coverage detected by LC-MS/MS. Therefore, we used vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKORC1), a human integral membrane protein, as a model to optimize the digestion conditions of chymotrypsin, and developed an in-gel digestion method of chymotrypsin to improve sequence coverage of membrane protein by mass spectrometry. By exploring the effects of calcium concentration, pH value and buffer system on the percentage of sequence coverage, number of total detected and types of unique peptide, and the size of unique peptide, sequence coverage and peptide diversity could be considered under condition of Tris-HCl buffer with 5-10 mmol/L calcium ion concentration and pH value 8.0-8.5. This method could make the sequence coverage of membrane protein to reach more than 80%. It could be widely used in the study of membrane protein structure and function, identification of interaction site between membrane proteins, and identification of binding site between membrane protein and small molecular drug.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Chromatography, Liquid , Chymotrypsin/metabolism , Digestion , Humans , Membrane Proteins , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Trypsin , Vitamin K Epoxide Reductases
12.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(3): 1015-1026, May-June 2019. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1011301

ABSTRACT

O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a conversão alimentar, a digestibilidade do amido, o comportamento ingestivo e o escore de sobras da dieta e de fezes de novilhos confinados, suplementados com doses do complexo enzimático (0; 2,5; 5,0 e 7,5g animal-1 dia-1) e alimentados com dieta constituída por 85% de grão de milho e 15% de núcleo proteico, vitamínico e mineral, na base seca, isenta de forragem. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso contendo quatro tratamentos e quatro repetições. Trinta e dois novilhos inteiros, ½ sangue Angus Nelore, com idade média de 12 meses e peso vivo médio inicial de 422kg, foram confinados por um período de 77 dias. Cada grama de inclusão de complexo enzimático melhorou a conversão alimentar em 0,1652%, reduziu a matéria seca das fezes em 0,4648% e o tempo de ingestão de água em 0,0068 horas dia-1. A máxima digestibilidade do amido foi alcançada na dose de 5,08g animal-1 dia-1. A inclusão progressiva do complexo enzimático à dieta de alta densidade energética promoveu melhoria na conversão alimentar, redução na matéria seca das fezes e diminuição do tempo de ingestão de água. A dose de 5g animal-1 dia-1 do complexo enzimático aumentou a digestibilidade do amido.(AU)


The objective was to evaluate the feed conversion, starch digestibility, ingestive behavior, diet leftover score and feces score of steers supplemented with doses of enzyme complex (0; 2.5; 5.0 and 7 .5g animal -1 day -1 ) fed with roughage-free diet composed of a mixture of 85% whole corn grain and 15% protein-mineral-vitamin mix, on a dry matter basis. A completely randomized block design was adopted, consisting of four treatments and four replicates. Thirty-two ½ Angus ½ Nellore crossbred steers at an average age of 12 months, with an average initial weight of 422kg, were kept in a feedlot for 77 days. Each gram of enzyme complex inclusion improved feed conversion in 0.1652%, decreased feces dry matter in 0,4648% and time of water intake in 0.0068 hours day -1 . The maximum starch digestibility was reached in the dose of 5,08g animal -1 day -1 . The gradual inclusion of enzyme complex promoted improvement in feed conversion, reduction in the dry matter of feces and redution in the time of water intake. The enzyme complex dose of 5.0g animal -1 day -1 increased the starch digestibility.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Starch/metabolism , Diet/veterinary , Digestion , Enzymes/administration & dosage , Starch and Fecula
13.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(3): 990-996, May-June 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1011324

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de complexos enzimáticos sobre a energia metabolizável e o coeficiente de digestibilidade de nutrientes do milheto para frangos de corte. Quinhentos e setenta e seis frangos machos foram distribuídos em 36 gaiolas, com três tratamentos: T1 - composição de milheto sem complexo enzimático; T2 - composição de milheto com complexo enzimático (CES) e T3 - composição de milheto com complexo enzimático (CEV). Os tratamentos foram definidos com base em seis dietas (três dietas referências e três dietas testes). As dietas testes foram obtidas pela substituição de 40% da dieta referência por milheto inteiro, e a adição de enzimas consistiu de dois complexos enzimáticos: CES, constituído pelas enzimas fitase, protease, xilanase, ß-glucanase, celulase, amilase e pectinase; e CEV. constituído pelas enzimas protease, celulase e amilase. Na fase de 11 a 20 dias, a suplementação com o CEV reduziu os valores de EMA, EMAn e CDPB. A suplementação com CES melhorou o CDPB, e não houve efeito significativo para CDMS e CDEB. Na fase de 21 a 30 dias, houve menor aproveitamento da energia e dos nutrientes com as suplementações CES e CEV. Na fase de 31 a 40 dias, as suplementações reduziram os valores de EMA, EMAn, e o complexo CEV foi efetivo em aumentar o valor de CDPB. A inclusão dos complexos enzimáticos CES (fitase, protease, xilanase, ß-glucanase, celulase, amilase e pectinase) e CEV (protease, celulase e amilase) não favoreceu a utilização da energia do milheto, no entanto melhorou o coeficiente de digestibilidade da proteína do milheto nos períodos de 11 a 20 e de 31 a 40 dias de idade.(AU)


The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of enzymatic complexes on metabolizable energy and nutrient digestibility coefficient of millet for broilers chickens. 576 male chickens, were distributed in 36 cages with three treatments: T1 - millet composition without enzymatic complex; T2 - millet composition with enzymatic complex (ECS); and T3 - millet composition with enzymatic complex (ECV). The treatments were defined from six diets (3 reference diets and 3 test diets). The test diets were obtained from the substitution of 40% for reference diet by whole millet, and the enzyme addition consisted of two enzymatic complex, ECS constituted by phytase, protease, xylanase, ß-glucanase, cellulase, amylase and pectinase enzymes, and ECV constituted by protease, cellulase and amylase enzymes. In the 11 to 20 days phase, a supplementation with the ECV reduced the AME, AMEn and CDPB values, a ECS supplementation improved the CDPB, and there was no significant effect for CDMS and CDEB. In the 21 to 30 days phase, there were less profit of the energy and nutrients with ECS and ECV supplements. In the 31 to 40 days phase as supplements reduced the values of AME, AMEn, and the ECV complex was effective in increasing the value of CDPB. The inclusion of ECS enzymatic complexes, (phytase, protease, xylanase, ß-glucanase, cellulase, amylase and pectinase) and ECV (protease, cellulase and amylase), did not favor millet's energy utilization, however, favored the millet's protein digestibility coefficient on 11 to 20 and 31 to 40 periods.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Chickens , Enzymes , Millets , Animal Feed/analysis , Digestion
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775939

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effect on the recovery of gastrointestinal function after cesarean section treated with transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation at Zusanli (ST 36) on the basis of routine treatment.@*METHODS@#A total of 110 primiparas after cesarean section were randomized into an observation group and a control group, 55 cases in each one. The conventional treatment was applied in the two groups, after operation, transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation at Zusanli (ST 36) was used immediately in the observation group, the skin electrode of disposable anti-magnetic buckle was attached to Zusanli (ST 36) and the corresponding part of the inner lower leg, with disperse-dense wave, 30 Hz/60 Hz and 15-20 mA. The treatment was given for 30 min every time, once every 8 h, until the end of the first bowel movement. The recovery of gastrointestinal function after cesarean section (the restoring time of borborygmus, the time of first anal exsufflation and the first defecation time), the time of secretion of foremilk, complications (abdominal distension, abdominal pain, nausea etc.), hospital stays after operation and the satisfaction of primiparas after bowel movement were compared between the two groups.@*RESULTS@#The observation group was superior to the control group in the restoring time of borborygmus, the time of first anal exsufflation, the first defecation time and the time of secretion of foremilk (<0.01, <0.05). In the observation group, the incidence of postoperative complications such as abdominal pain, abdominal distension and nausea was 3.6% (2/55), which was lower than 16.4% (9/55) in the control group (<0.05). Compared with the control group, the observation group had shorter hospital stays (<0.01). The satisfaction of effect was 89.1% (49/55) in the observation group, which was superior to 72.7% (40/55) in the control group (<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation at Zusanli (ST 36) can speed up the recovery of gastrointestinal function after cesarean section, reduce complications such as abdominal pain, abdominal distension, shorten hospital stays, promote patient nutrition intake and lactation, and improve comfort level and satisfaction of primiparas.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Cesarean Section , Digestion , Female , Humans , Parity , Pregnancy , Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation
15.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 414-419, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762357

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Herbs have been used worldwide as complementary and alternative medicines. In Korea, herbs for medical purpose are strictly controlled by the Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA). But it does not provide standards for metal antigens. OBJECTIVE: This study conducted to identify the metal contents of Korean herbs and herbal products and to give information on counselling metal allergic patient. METHODS: The concentration of three metal allergens with high antigenicity, cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) was quantitatively determined using inductively coupled plasma with a mass spectrometer after nitric acid (HNO₃) digestion. The herbal objects are as follows: 1) ten kinds of herb plants, 2) ten herbal products sold in Korean drugstores, and 3) ten herbal extracts prescribed by Korean herbal doctors. RESULTS: In 30 samples, Ni and Cr were detected in all items. Co was not detected in two drugstore products. CONCLUSION: Although the levels of metal detected in this study were very low relative to international guidelines and KFDA regulations, the herbal preparations contained similar or higher metal levels than known metal-rich foods. It can cause problems when it added to the daily diet and cause deterioration of skin lesions of metal sensitized person.


Subject(s)
Allergens , Chromium , Cobalt , Complementary Therapies , Dermatitis , Diet , Digestion , Herbal Medicine , Humans , Korea , Metals , Nickel , Nitric Acid , Plant Preparations , Plasma , Skin , Social Control, Formal , United States Food and Drug Administration
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761760

ABSTRACT

The infection status of Clinostomum complanatum metacercariae (CcMc) was broadly surveyed in fishes from water systems of Nakdong-gang (River) in the Republic of Korea (Korea) for 5 years. All 4,468 fishes collected were individually examined by the artificial digestion methods. No CcMc were detected in fishes from Naeseongcheon in Yecheon-gun, Gigyecheon in Gyeongju-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do, and Hamancheon in Haman-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do. In fishes from Wicheon in Gunwi-gun, Gyeongsangbuk-do, CcMc were detected in 180 (15.4%) out of 1,168 fishes and their intensity was 5.8 per fish infected. The prevalences with CcMc in positive fish species from 3 other surveyed areas, i.e., Banbyeoncheon in Yeongyang-gun, Nakdong-gang in Sangju-si and Hoecheon in Goryeong-gun, in Gyeongsangbuk-do were 19.3%, 33.3%, and 19.0% and their intensities were 1.5, 17.6, and 2.6 per fish infected respectively. In fishes from Yangcheon in Sancheong-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do, CcMc were detected in 811 (45.6%) out of 1,779 fishes examined and their intensity was 9.8 per fish infected. The prevalence was most high in Squalidus spp. (97.7%) and followed by acheilognathinid fish (66.8%), Pungtungia herzi (52.0%), rasborinid fish (39.6%) and Hemibarbus spp. (25.9%) from Yangcheon. The intensity was also most high in Squalidus spp. (27.0). The endemicity with CcMc was very low in fishes from water systems of Nakdong-gang in the east coast of Korea. Conclusively, it is confirmed that various fish species act as the second intermediate hosts of C. complanatum, and the endemicities of CcMc are more or less different by the fish species and group from Yangcheon, in Sancheong-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea.


Subject(s)
Digestion , Fishes , Korea , Metacercariae , Prevalence , Republic of Korea , Water
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761742

ABSTRACT

The infection status of digenetic trematode metacercariae (DTM) was investigated in fishes from 2 representative visiting sites of migratory birds in Gyeongsangnam-do, the Republic of Korea (Korea). A totaly 220 freshwater fishes (7 species) were collected from Junam-jeosuji (reservoir), and 127 fishes (7 species) were also collected from Woopo-neup (swamp) in June and October 2017. As the control group, total 312 fish (22 spp.) from Yangcheon in Sancheong-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do were also collected in June and October 2017. All fishes collected in 3 sites were examined with the artificial digestion method. In the fishes from Junam-jeosuji, more than 4 species, i.e., Clonorchis sinensis, Echinostoma spp., Diplostomum spp. and Cyathocotyle orientalis, of DTM were detected and their endemicy was very low, 0.70. More than 6 species, i.e., C. sinensis, Echinostoma spp., Metorchis orientalis, Clinostomum complanatum, Diplostomum spp. and C. orientalis, of DTM were found in the fishes from Woopo-neup, and their endemicy was low, 5.16. In the fishes from Yangcheon, more than 8 species, i.e., C. sinensis, Metagonimus spp., Centrocestus armatus, C. complanatum, C. orientalis, M. orientalis, Echinostoma spp., and Diplostomum spp., of DTM were detected, and their endemicity was relatively high, 95.48. The percentages of avian trematode metacercariae (ATM) were 99.6% and 94.7% in fishes from Junam-jeosuji and Woopo-neup whereas it was 74.1% in the control site, Yangcheon. The above findings suggested that migratory birds partly affect in endemicity of DTM in the fish in the 2 visiting sites in Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea.


Subject(s)
Birds , Clonorchis sinensis , Digestion , Echinostoma , Fishes , Fresh Water , Heterophyidae , Korea , Metacercariae , Methods , Republic of Korea
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761727

ABSTRACT

The infection status with Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae (CsMc) was examined in freshwater fishes from Yangcheon (a branch of Gyeongho-gang), which is located in Sancheong-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do, the Republic of Korea. Total 2,201 fishes in 26 species were examined by the artificial digestion method through 7 years. CsMc were detected in 1,171 (53.2%) fishes in 21 spp. (80.8%) and their density was 85 per fish infected. Total 532 (99.6%) out of 534 Pungtungia herzi (index fish) examined were infected with 147 CsMc per fish infected. Metacercarial densities in this fish were highest in 2015 (179 CsMc), followed by 2012 (168), 2013 (152), 2016 (145), 2014 (114), and 2017 (89) respectively. In the gobioninid fish group, i.e., P. herzi, Sarcocheilichthys spp., Squalidus spp., Pseudogobio esocinus, Hemibarbus longirostris, and Hemibarbus labeo, 841 (92.7%) fishes were infected with 117 CsMc per fish infected. Total 250 (54.7%) acheilognathinid fish (bitterlings), Acheilognathus spp. and Acanthorhodeus spp. were infected with 5.8 CsMc. In the rasborinid fish (chubs) group, i.e., Zacco platypus, Zacco temminckii, and Zacco koreanus, 77 (13.7%) out of 563 fish examined were infected with 2.4 CsMc in average. The susceptibility indices of CsMc were 49.09 in the overall positive fish group, 104.15 in the gobioninid group, 3.17 in the acheilognathinid group and 0.35 in the rasborinid fish group respectively. Only 1 CsMc was detected in 3 fish species, Coreoperca herzi, Channa argus, and Lepomis macrochirus, respectively. Conclusively, it was confirmed that CsMc are moderately prevalent in fishes from Yangcheon in Sancheon-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea.


Subject(s)
Clonorchis sinensis , Cyprinidae , Digestion , Fishes , Fresh Water , Korea , Metacercariae , Methods , Platypus , Republic of Korea
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786636

ABSTRACT

We identified the echinostome metacercariae in Chinese mystery snails, Cipangopaludina chinensis malleata, from Xiengkhuang Province, Lao PDR with morphologies of adult worms recovered. Total 20 snails were examined with artificial digestion method and then the collected metacercariae were orally infected to a mouse and a rat. Adult worms recovered from experimental animals were observed with a light microscope and a SEM. The metacercariae were round, 125×123 μm in average size, with a moderately thick cyst wall, collar spines distributed in the head collar and excretory granules in 2 canals of excretory tube. Adult flukes (3-week-old in a rat) were elongated, ventrally curved and 5.310×1.023 mm in average size. Head collar distinct, bearing 43 collar spines with 5 end group ones on each side. Oral sucker subterminal, prepharynx very short, pharynx well developed, and esophagus relatively short. Cirrus sac well developed, with a saccular seminal vesicle, and ventral sucker very large. Ovary round and on the median line of the body. Testes tandom and elongated. Eggs operculated, elliptical and 90×57 μm in average size. In the SEM observation, the head crown prominent, with 43 collar spines resembled with horns of younger stag. Scale-like tegumental spines were densely distributed on the surface between the head collar and ventral sucker, and their densities were decreased posteriorly. Conclusively, the metacercariae detected in C. chinensis malleata from Lao PDR were identified as those of Echinostoma macrorchis based on the morphological characteristics of adult worms.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Asians , Crowns , Digestion , Echinostoma , Eggs , Esophagus , Female , Head , Horns , Humans , Metacercariae , Methods , Mice , Ovary , Ovum , Pharynx , Rats , Seminal Vesicles , Snails , Spine , Testis , Trematoda
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786633

ABSTRACT

The infection status of digenetic trematode metacercariae (DTM) was investigated in fishes from coastal lakes in Gangwon-do, the Republic of Korea (Korea). All fishes collected in 5 lakes were examined with the artificial digestion method. More than 10 species, i.e., Metagonimus spp., Pygidiopsis summa, Centrocestus armatus, Metorchis orientalis, M. taiwanensis, Clinostomum complanatum, Echinostoma spp., Stictodora spp., Diplostomum sp. and Diplostomid No. 1. by Morita (1960), of DTM were detected in fishes from 5 coastal lakes in Gangwon-do. Metagonimus spp. metacercariae were found in 52 (41.3%) out of 126 sea rundace, Tribolodon hakonensis, from 5 lakes, and their density was 14.6 per fish infected. P. summa metacercariae were detected in 48 (84.2%) out of 57 mullets from 5 lakes, and their density was 316 per fish infected. C. armatus metacercariae were detected in 7 (14.6%) T. hakonensis and 3 (15.0%) Tridentiger brevispinis from Hyang-ho, and 5 (19.2%) Acanthogobius flavimanus from Gyeongpo-ho. Stictodora spp. metacercariae were found in 4 fish species, i.e., Tridentiger obscurus, Tridentiger trigonocephalus, Chelon haematocheilus, and Acanthogobius lactipes, from Gyeongpo-ho. Total 15 C. complanatum metacercariae were detected in 2 (9.1%) crucian carp, Carassius auratus, from Songji-ho. M. taiwanensis metacercariae were found in T. hakonensis from Hyang-ho and Gyeongpo-ho and in Pseudorasbora parva from Gyeongpo-ho. Total 11 M. orientalis metacercariae were detected in 3 (6.3%) T. hakonensis from Hyang-ho. From the above results, it was confirmed that various species of DTM are infected in fishes from coastal lakes in Gangwon-do, Korea.


Subject(s)
Carps , Digestion , Echinostoma , Fishes , Goldfish , Heterophyidae , Korea , Lakes , Metacercariae , Methods , Republic of Korea , Smegmamorpha
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL