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1.
Ibom Medical Journal ; 15(2): 62-67, 2022. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1379468

ABSTRACT

Background:Digital rectal examination (DRE) of the prostate is a simple, fast, cost effective and safe procedure, however, because of previous painful experience, some men may refuse it. Other negative factors include cultural barriers, fear of discovering cancer and embarrassments. However, some men accept DRE because of their symptoms and wishes to contribute to science. The aim of this study was to examine how previous experience of DRE could influence a repeat and to further evaluate their impression before and after DRE including pain score. Patients and Methods:We evaluated one hundred patients who met the inclusion criteria using a structured questionnaire that detailed information on patients biodata, their previous DRE experiences, expectations before and reactions after a repeat. Pain score was also examined using visual analog scale of 0 to 10. Data were collated and analysed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. P-value was set at <0.05. Results:Mean age of patients was 64.88±7.53 years ranging from 46 to 82 years. Forty five percent of them complained of pain from previous DRE while 55% reported no pain. Forty one percent of the men anticipated pain before this present procedure but only 8% of them reported that it was painful and humiliating after the procedure. Fifty nine percent had good impression before DRE and after the procedure 92% reported good impression. All patients expressed their willingness to repeat DRE in future if need be and to encourage friends who may need DRE evaluation of their condition. Mean pain score was 0.59± 1.349 (0 ­ 9). Conclusion:Patients previous experience of DRE could negatively influence a repeat procedure because of pain, improper counseling apart from some cultural barriers. DRE in the hands of Urologists has been better tolerated than other clinicians. This calls for proper exposure of medical students to this procedure and need for continuous medical education for other clinicians for skills improvement.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Prostate , Patients , Rectal Diseases , Digital Rectal Examination , Previous Analysis of Products
2.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 24(277): 5803-5818, jun.2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1253727

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: identificar os fatores associados à masculinidade no diagnóstico precoce do câncer de próstata. Método: trata-se de uma revisão narrativa realizada nas seguintes bases de dados: SCIELO, LILACS e PUBMED. Após a aplicação dos critérios de elegibilidade, a amostra do estudo foi composta por 14 artigos publicados entre 2000 e 2021. Resultados: os estudos abordam fortemente a influência dos aspectos socioeconômicos e culturais na busca preventiva dos homens pelo autocuidado. Os padrões estipulados pela sociedade dificultam a adesão masculina fazendo-os diminuir a procurar por serviços de saúde em relação às mulheres dificultando o diagnóstico precoce do câncer de próstata. O exame de toque retal encontra-se atrelado à transgressão de sua masculinidade repercutindo no medo de realizá-lo. Conclusão: concepções socioculturais acerca da masculinidade associam-se negativamente à saúde dos homens impondo dificuldades no diagnóstico precoce do câncer e, conseqüentemente, aumentando a mortalidade masculina.(AU)


Objective: to identify the factors associated with masculinity in the early diagnosis of prostate cancer. Method: this is a narrative review conducted in the following databases: SCIELO, LILACS and PUBMED. After applying the eligibility criteria, the study sample was composed of 14 articles published between 2000 and 2021. Results: the studies strongly address the influence of socioeconomic and cultural aspects on men's preventive search for self-care. The standards set by society hinder male adherence, making them less likely to seek health services than women, hindering the early diagnosis of prostate cancer. The rectal examination is linked to the transgression of their masculinity, resulting in the fear of performing it. Conclusion: sociocultural conceptions about masculinity are negatively associated with men's health, imposing difficulties in the early diagnosis of cancer and consequently increasing male mortality.(AU)


Objetivo: identificar los factores asociados a la masculinidad en el diagnóstico precoz del cáncer de próstata. Método: se trata de una revisión narrativa realizada en las siguientes bases de datos: SCIELO, LILACS y PUBMED. Tras aplicar los criterios de elegibilidad, la muestra del estudio estuvo compuesta por 14 artículos publicados entre 2000 y 2021. Resultados: los estudios abordan la influencia socioeconómica y cultural en la búsqueda preventiva del autocuidado por los hombres. Las normas estipuladas por la sociedad dificultan la adherencia masculina haciendo que reduzcan la búsqueda de servicios sanitarios en relación con las mujeres dificultando el diagnóstico precoz del cáncer de próstata. El tacto rectal está vinculado a la transgresión de su masculinidad, lo que provoca miedo a realizarlo. Conclusión: las concepciones socioculturales sobre la masculinidad se asocian negativamente con la salud del hombre imponiendo dificultades en el diagnóstico precoz del cáncer y, en consecuencia, aumentando la mortalidad masculina.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms , Early Detection of Cancer , Masculinity , Self Care , Digital Rectal Examination , Men's Health , Sociological Factors
3.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 138(6): 483-489, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1145135

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Population-wide screening for prostate cancer remains a controversial topic, given the need for an individualized approach to patients regarding the risks and benefits of prostate-specific antigen testing and digital rectal examination. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of, and factors associated with, prostate examination among men aged 45 or older. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional population-based study developed in the city of Rio Grande (RS), Brazil. METHODS: The outcome of interest was a history of prostate examination (prostate-specific antigen testing or digital rectal examination). The following independent variables were analyzed: age group, skin color, marital status, schooling, economic level, leisure-time physical activity, smoking habits, excessive alcohol consumption, overweight, health insurance, visits to the doctor during the preceding year, hypertension and diabetes. After a two-stage sampling process, the final sample consisted of 281 male individuals. RESULTS: The prevalence of a history of prostate-specific antigen testing or digital rectal examination was 68.3% (95% confidence interval (CI): 62.2 to 74.5). The highest prevalence rates were observed among men aged 70 years or older (88%) and the lowest among smokers (36%). The following characteristics were found to be associated with the outcome: advanced age; marital status other than single; more schooling and higher economic status; practicing physical activity; non-smoking habits; overweight; having health insurance; and having visited a doctor during the preceding year. CONCLUSION: Approximately two thirds of the study population had been screened for prostate examination, mostly older individuals, with higher socioeconomic status and a healthier lifestyle.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Digital Rectal Examination/statistics & numerical data , Early Detection of Cancer/statistics & numerical data , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cities
4.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(1): 34-41, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056354

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: Prostate cancer screening in the elderly is controversial. The Brazilian government and the National Cancer Institute (INCA) do not recommend systematic screening. Our purpose was to assess prevalence and aggressiveness of prostate cancer in men aged 70 years and above, on the first Latin American database to date. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study (n=17,571) from 231 municipalities, visited by Mobile Cancer Prevention Units of a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) based opportunistic screening program, between 2004 and 2007. The criteria for biopsy were: PSA>4.0ng/ml, or PSA 2.5-4.0ng/ml with free/total PSA ratio ≤15%, or suspicious digital rectal examination findings. The screened men were stratified in two age groups (45-69 years, and ≥70 years). These groups were compared regarding prostate cancer prevalence and aggressiveness criteria (PSA, Gleason score from biopsy and TNM staging). Results: The prevalence of prostate cancer found was 3.7%. When compared to men aged 45-69 years, individuals aged 70 years and above presented cancer prevalence about three times higher (prevalence ratio 2.9, p<0.01), and greater likelihood to present PSA level above 10.0ng/ml at diagnosis (odds ratio 2.63, p<0.01). The group of elderly men also presented prevalence of histologically aggressive disease (Gleason 8-10) 3.6 times higher (p<0.01), and 5-fold greater prevalence of metastases (PR 4.95, p<0.05). Conclusions: Prostate cancer screening in men aged over 70 may be relevant in Brazil, considering the absence of systematic screening, higher prevalence and higher probability of high-risk disease found in this age range of the population studied.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Mass Screening/methods , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Biopsy , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Risk Assessment , Digital Rectal Examination , Early Detection of Cancer , Neoplasm Grading , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging
5.
Ibom Medical Journal ; 13(3): 156-163, 2020.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1262928

ABSTRACT

Background: Digital rectal examination (DRE) is an indispensable tool for provisional diagnosis of prostate diseases. When abnormal prostate examination findings are elicited, a diagnosis of prostate cancer (Pca) is usually entertained and further tests to confirm or rule out the presence of Pca demands histological examination of biopsied tissue. A combination of DRE findings and serum PSA increases the predictive value for Pca diagnosis. In this study, we evaluated the degree of accuracy of DRE to diagnose Pca confirmed by histology reports of biopsy specimens.Materials and Methods: Two hundred and six (206) patients were studied over a period of three years. Information retrieved from their case notes were entered into a well-structured protocol for management of prostatic diseases. Analysis of variables collated was performed with the statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. Frequency table was used to analyze categorical variables while descriptive statistics was used for continuous variables. Level of significance was set at P<.05.Results: 206 patients were studied with mean age of 68.23±8.71 years ranging from 48 to 91 years. Men in the Pca group were older than those in the BPH group. Abnormal DRE was associated with high grade tumours, and high level of aggressive tumour characteristics by WHO grade group standard.Conclusion: DRE has a high level of accuracy in predicting a diagnosis of Pca which was confirmed by histology reports especially in prostates with abnormal findings


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Digital Rectal Examination , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms , Nigeria , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis
6.
Salud colect ; 16: e2176, 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094443

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El objetivo del estudio fue identificar y analizar los sentidos atribuidos por hombres a las prácticas relacionadas con la prevención del cáncer de próstata. Se realizó un estudio cualitativo, con entrevistas semiestructuradas, en el que participaron 21 hombres del municipio de Vitória da Conquista, Bahía. El período de recopilación de información fue entre julio y agosto de 2017. El análisis de los datos se basó en los principios de la hermenéutica-dialéctica. Se percibió que las prácticas relacionadas con la prevención del cáncer de próstata se elaboran con escasa información y permeadas por sentidos que remiten al miedo a la enfermedad, asumida como una sentencia a la vida, y a las repercusiones del tacto rectal, asimilado como una violación de la condición masculina. Se constató que las prácticas elaboradas para prevenir el cáncer de próstata reflejan las implicancias de la masculinidad en el cuidado de la salud de los hombres y, sobre todo, que la dureza masculina puede sentirse interpelada a partir de un tacto.


ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to identify and analyze meanings attributed to practices related to prostate cancer prevention among men. A qualitative methodology was employed, with semi-structured interviews being conducted with 21 men in the city of Vitoria da Conquista, Bahia, between July and August of 2017. Data analysis was based on a dialectical hermeneutic approach. We found that practices related to prostate cancer prevention were based on scarce information and permeated by a sense of fear of the disease, which was thought of as a death sentence. Additionally, these feelings were compounded by the repercussions of rectal examination, perceived as a violation of one's masculinity. We were able to observe that practices devised to prevent prostate cancer reflect the repercussions of conceptions of masculinity regarding men's health care, where manliness and toughness can be susceptible by the touch.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms/prevention & control , Prostatic Neoplasms/psychology , Touch , Digital Rectal Examination/psychology , Masculinity , Brazil , Qualitative Research , Fear , Hermeneutics
7.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 11(5): 1173-1179, out.-dez. 2019. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1022199

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Descrever o conhecimento, o comportamento e as práticas em relação ao câncer de próstata em adultos. Métodos: Estudo quantitativo, realizado com 130 homens. A coleta de dados ocorreu no primeiro semestre de 2015, por meio do Modelo de Crenças em Saúde. Resultados: Embora relatem conhecimento sobre o câncer, 30% realizam a dosagem do Antígeno Prostático Específico e 17,6% o exame de toque retal anualmente. A maioria percebe a susceptibilidade e a severidade do câncer e acredita que é capaz de fazer algo por si mesmo, beneficiando-se com esses cuidados. Quanto às barreiras, 16,9% apresentaram comportamento não preventivo. Conclusão: O medo da dor, a vergonha e a falta de coragem para realizar o exame constituem barreiras a esses indivíduos. A equipe de saúde deve oportunizar abordagens considerando esses aspectos, utilizando estratégias que ampliem o acesso dos homens ao serviço de saúde e estimulem a prática do autocuidado


Objective: The study's purpose has benn to describe the knowledge, behavior and health practices regarding the prostate cancer in adults. Methods: It is a cross-sectional and descriptive study with a quantitative approach, which had 130 participating men. Data collection took place from March to April 2015, using the Health Belief Model. Results: Although they report having knowledge about cancer, only 30% had done the prostate-specific antigen dosage and 17.6% the rectal examination annually. Most comprehend the susceptibility and severity of this cancer, and believe that they are capable of doing something for themselves and benefiting from such care. Regarding the barriers, 16.9% had non-preventive behavior. Conclusion: Fear of pain, shame, and lack of courage to take the exam are barriers to these individuals. The health team should opportunistically approach these aspects by using strategies that increase men's access to health care and encourage self-care practices


Objetivo: Describir el conocimiento, el comportamiento y las prácticas en relación al cáncer de próstata en adultos. Métodos: Estudio cuantitativo, realizado con 130 hombres. La recolección de datos ocurrió entre marzo a abril de 2015, a través del Modelo de Creencias en Salud. Resultados: Aunque reportan conocimiento sobre el cáncer, el 30% realiza la dosificación del Antígeno Prostático y el 17,6% el examen de tacto anual. La mayoría percibe la susceptibilidad y la severidad del cáncer y cree que es capaz de hacer algo por sí mismo y beneficiarse con esos cuidados. En cuanto a las barreras, el 16,9% presentó comportamiento no preventivo. Conclusión: El miedo al dolor, la vergüenza y la falta de coraje para realizar el examen constituyen barreras a esos individuos. El equipo de salud debe oportunizar enfoques considerando estos aspectos, utilizando estrategias que amplíen el acceso al servicio de salud y estimulen la práctica del autocuidado


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms , Self Care , Men's Health , Health Risk Behaviors , Brazil , Prostate-Specific Antigen/therapeutic use , Behavioral Research , Digital Rectal Examination/psychology
8.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 8(2): e162, ago. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1006593

ABSTRACT

El cáncer de próstata es un problema de salud pública a nivel mundial, el cual clásicamente se sospecha por alteració en el antígeno prostático (PSA) y/o tacto rectal (TR) y se confirma con biopsia prostática. No obstante, existen otros marcadores como la densidad del PSA (DPSA) que se emplean para determinar la necesidad de una biopsia. Objetivo: Verificar la utilidad actual de la DPSA como herramienta diagnóstica para cáncer de próstata. Métodos: Es un estudio descriptivo, prospectivo, tipo transversal, la selección de la muestra se efectuó mediante muestreo no probabilístico intencional, quedando integrada por el número de pacientes con criterios de biopsia prostática que acudieron al Servicio de Urología del Hospital Universitario de Caracas durante los meses de junio -julio del 2014. El análisis estadístico se realizó con el programa SPSS/PC versión 25.0. Resultados: El estudio estuvo conformado por 100 pacientes con edad media de 65±7,7. La tasa de detección de cáncer de próstata fue del 38% tomando en cuenta los criterios convencionales (PSA y TR), sin embargo, cuando el criterio es la DPSA se redujo el número de pacientes a 33 de los cuales el 69,7% (n 23) presentaron cáncer de próstata. Conclusión: La DPSA es una herramienta útil para ser usada como criterio para la realización de biopsia prostática con una tasa de detección general del 60,52% lo cual supera por si sola a los métodos de despistaje convencionales como lo son el valor del PSA y el tacto rectal(AU)


Prostate cancer is a public health problem worldwide, which is classically suspected due to alteration in prostatic antigen (PSA) and / or rectal examination (RE) and confirmed by prostate biopsy. However, there are other markers such as PSA density (DPSA) that are used to determine the need for a biopsy. Objective: To verify the actual usefulness of PSA density as a diagnostic tool for prostate cancer. Methods: Prospective, descriptive, cross-sectional, the selection of the sample was performed by intentional nonprobabilistic sampling, being composed of the number of patients with prostate biopsy criteria who attended the department of urology at University Hospital in Caracas during the months of june -july 2014. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS / PC Version 25.0 program. Descriptive statistics were used. Results: e study consisted of 100 patients with a mean age of 65 ± 7.7. e detection rate of prostate cancer was 38% taking into account the conventional criteria (PSA and RE), however when the criterion is the DPSA the number of patients was reduced to 33 of which 69.7% (n 23) prostate cancer. Conclusion: e DPSA is a useful tool to be used as a criterion for performing a prostate biopsy overall detection rate of 60.52% which exceeds by itself to conventional screening methods such as the value of PSA and DRE(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Prostatic Diseases/diagnosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Biopsy , Digital Rectal Examination
9.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(4): 775-781, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019893

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose To identify how the most frequently used parameters in daily clinical practice diagnosing bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) due to benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) correlate to each other. Materials and methods The study included 452 patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) of the UNICAMP urology outpatient clinic of LUTS. Inclusion criteria: patients with BOO due to BPH who agreed to participate in the study. Exclusion criteria: patients with urinary tract infection, neurological diseases that compromised the lower urinary tract, prior prostatic surgery, radiotherapy or urethral stenosis. Patient assessment: history, international prostate symptoms score (IPSS), nocturnal quality of life score (NQoL) questionnaires, physical and digital rectal examination (DRE), PSA, transabdominal ultrasound with intravesical prostate protrusion (IPP), post-mictional residue and free uroflowmetry. Results There was no strong Spearman correlation among the studied variables. The only moderate correlations occurred between IPSS and NQoL (p <0001; c=0.56) and between IPP and prostate volume (p <0001; c=0.57). Weak correlations between IPP and post-mictional residue (p <0001; c=0.31) and free uroflowmetry (p <0001; c=-0.26); and between IPSS and free uroflowmetry (p <0001, c=-0.21) were observed. Conclusion In this study, we found moderate, weak, very weak and absent correlation among the various parameters used in the diagnosis and management of BOO due to BPH. As the value of these tools is variable, the creation of a logical and objective algorithm was not possible and the treatment is based on the interpretation of clinical symptoms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Prostatic Hyperplasia/diagnosis , Urinary Bladder Neck Obstruction/diagnosis , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms/diagnosis , Organ Size , Prostate/pathology , Prostatic Hyperplasia/physiopathology , Prostatic Hyperplasia/pathology , Quality of Life , Reference Standards , Urination/physiology , Urodynamics/physiology , Urinary Bladder Neck Obstruction/physiopathology , Urinary Bladder Neck Obstruction/pathology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Regression Analysis , Ultrasonography/methods , Statistics, Nonparametric , Digital Rectal Examination , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms/physiopathology , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms/pathology , Middle Aged
10.
Medicina (Ribeiräo Preto) ; 52(2)abr.-jun., 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1025051

ABSTRACT

Background: Prostate cancer is the second most incident of the male population in Brazil. The aim of this study is to analyze the frequency of risk factors associated to the evolution of the prostate cancer and the impact of conducting examinations in the age range (55-69 years old), in assisting health professionals to manage and prevent the disease. Methods: A case-control study was performed on patients from 2011 to 2016 in Criciúma ­ SC, Brazil. The sample was divided into two groups, one with biopsy for prostate adenocarcinoma (case; n = 124) and the other with a negative biopsy (control; n = 251). The following variables were compared between the two groups: age, family history of prostate cancer, prostate specific antigen, and altered digital rectal examination. Results: In the case group, ranging between 55-69 years old, there was a significant higher of altered digital rectal examination (p < 0.001, odds ratio 15.5 and positive predictive value 91.3%), prostate-specific antigen ≥ 4 ng/mL (p < 0.001, odds ratio 7.02 and positive predictive value 56.2%) and when both exams were altered (p < 0.001, odds ratio was 19.63 and the positive predictive value was 90.5%). Conclusion: This findings show that, mainly between 55-69 years old, there is a significant correlation between positive biopsy, altered digital rectal examination, and PSA ≥ 4 ng/mL (AU)


Objetivo: O câncer de próstata é o segundo mais incidente na população masculina no Brasil. O objetivo do estudo é analisar a frequência dos fatores de risco associados ao desenvolvimento do câncer de próstata e o impacto da realização de exames na faixa etária de rastreamento (55-69 anos), auxiliando os profissionais de saúde no manejo e prevenção da doença. Método: Foi realizado um estudo caso-controle no período de 2011 a 2016 em Criciúma ­ SC, Brasil. A amostra foi dividida em dois grupos, um com biópsia de adenocarcinoma de próstata (casos; n = 124) e outro com biópsia negativa (controles; n = 251). Entre ambos os grupos, foram comparadas as variáveis: idade, história familiar de câncer de próstata, antígeno prostático específico e toque retal alterado. Resultados:No grupo dos casos, na faixa etária entre 55-69 anos, ocorreu maior significância de toque retal alterado (p < 0,001; odds ratio 15.5 e valor preditivo positivo 91,3%), antígeno prostático específico ≥ 4 ng/mL (p < 0,001; odds ratio 7.02 e valor preditivo positivo 56,2%) e quando os dois exames estavam alterados (p < 0,001; odds ratio 19.63 e valor preditivo positivo 90,5%). Conclusão: Há evidências, principalmente entre 55-69 anos, de maior correlação de biópsia positiva, toque retal alterado e PSA ≥ 4 ng/mL (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms , Risk Factors , Digital Rectal Examination , AlkB Homolog 3, Alpha-Ketoglutarate-Dependent Dioxygenase
11.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(2): 246-252, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002205

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: To evaluate the frequency of NIH category IV prostatitis, and the use of expressed prostatic secretions tests in an effort to improve the reliability of prostate specific antigen as an indicator, to avoid unnecessary prostate biopsy. Materials and Methods: 178 expressed prostatic secretion positive patients with serum prostate specific antigen levels of ≥ 2.5 ng / mL were included in present prospective study. The diagnostic evaluation included detailed history and physical examination, digital rectal examination, urine analysis, urine culture, and expressed prostatic secretions tests. Transrectal ultrasonography was used both to measure prostate volume and conduct 12 core prostate biopsy. Results: The prevalence of NIH category IV prostatitis was 36.9% (178 / 482) in our population of men. In our study patients (n: 178) prostate biopsy results were classified as; 66 prostatitis, 81 BPH, and 31 Pca. In asymptomatic prostatitis group, expressed prostatic secretion mean leucocyte ratio was higher compared to other two groups (p < 0.0001). The relation between number of expressed prostatic secretion leucocytes and prostatitis, benign prostate hyperplasia, and prostate cancer is analyzed. If 16 is taken as the cut of number for leucocyte presence, its sensitivity is 0.92 (AUC = 0.78 p = 0.01). Conclusions: The number of leucocytes in expressed prostatic secretion is higher in the chronic prostatitis group. If the leukocyte presence of 16 and above is taken as the cut off point, the sensitivity becomes 0.92 (AUC = 0.78). We firmly believe that our new cut off value may be used as to aid prostate specific antigen and derivates while giving biopsy decision.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Prostate/pathology , Prostatic Hyperplasia/metabolism , Prostatic Neoplasms/metabolism , Prostatitis/mortality , Biopsy/standards , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Prostate/metabolism , Prostatic Hyperplasia/diagnosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prostatitis/classification , Prostatitis/pathology , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism , Chronic Disease , Prospective Studies , Diagnosis, Differential , Digital Rectal Examination , Middle Aged
12.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(2): 229-236, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002210

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: The 8th edition of the TNM has been updated and improved in order to ensure a high degree of clinical relevance. A major change in prostate includes pathologically organ - confined disease to be considered pT2 and no longer subclassified by extent of involvement or laterality. The aim of this study was to validate this major change. Materials and Methods: Prostates were step - sectioned from 196 patients submitted to radical prostatectomy with organ confined disease (pT2) and negative surgical margins. Tumor extent was evaluated by a semiquantitative point count method. The dominant nodule extent was recorded as the maximal number of positive points of the largest single focus of cancer from the quadrants. Laterality was considered as either total tumor extent (Group 1) or index tumor extent (Group 2). Time to biochemical recurrence was analyzed with the Kaplan - Meier product limit analysis and prediction of shorter time to biochemical recurrence with Cox proportional hazards model. Results: In Group 1, 43 / 196 (21.9%) tumors were unilateral and 153 / 196 (78.1%) bilateral and in Group 2, 156 / 196 (79.6%) tumors were unilateral and 40 / 196 (20.4%) bilateral. In both groups, comparing unilateral vs bilateral tumors, there was no significant clinicopathological difference, and no significant association with time as well as prediction of shorter time to biochemical recurrence following surgery. Conclusions: Pathologic sub - staging of organ confined disease does not convey prognostic information either considering laterality as total tumor extent or index tumor extent. Furthermore, no correlation exists between digital rectal examination and pathologic stage.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Prostatectomy/methods , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Digital Rectal Examination , Neoplasm Staging/standards , Prognosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Prostatic Neoplasms/chemistry , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Neoplasm Grading , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Neoplasm Staging/methods , Neoplasms/classification
13.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 56(1): 79-83, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001335

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Digital rectal examination (DRE) is part of the physical examination, is also essential for the colorectal surgeon evaluation. A good DRE offers precious information related to the patient's complaints, which will help in decision making. It is simple, quick and minimally invasive. In many centers around the world, the DRE is still the only method to evaluate the anal sphincter prior to patient's management. On the other hand, anorectal manometry (ARM) is the main method for objective functional evaluation of anal sphincter pressures. The discrepancy of DRE depending on the examiner to determine sphincter tonus in comparison to ARM motivated this study. OBJECTIVE: To compare the DRE performed by proficient and non-experienced examiners to sphincter pressure parameters obtained at ARM, depending on examiners expertise. METHODS: Thirty-six consecutive patients with complaints of fecal incontinence or chronic constipation, from the anorectal physiology clinic of the University of São Paulo School of Medicine, were prospectively included. Each patient underwent ARM and DRE performed by two senior colorectal surgeons and one junior colorectal surgeon prior to the ARM. Patient's history was blinded for the examiner's knowledge, also the impressions of each examiner were blinded from the others. For the DRE rest and squeeze pressures were classified by an objective scale (DRE scoring system) that was compared to the parameters of the ARM for the analysis. The results obtained at the ARM were compared to the DRE performed by the seniors and the junior colorectal surgeons. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Descriptive analysis was performed for all parameters. For the rest and squeeze pressures the Gamma index was used for the comparison between the DRE and ARM, which varied from 0 to 1. The closer to 1 the better was the agreement. RESULTS: The mean age was 48 years old and 55.5% of patients were female. The agreement of rest anal pressures between the ARM and the DRE performed by the senior proficient examiners was 0.7 (CI 95%; 0.32-1.0), while for the junior non-experienced examiner was 0.52 (CI 95%; 0.09-0.96). The agreement of squeeze pressures was 0.96 (CI 95%; 0.87-1.0) for the seniors and 0.52 (CI 95%; 0.16-0.89) for the junior examiner. CONCLUSION: More experienced colorectal surgeons used to DRE had a more significant agreement with the ARM, thereafter would have more appropriate therapeutic management to patients with sphincter functional problems. ARM, therefore, persists as an important exam to objectively evaluate the sphincter complex, justifying its utility in the clinical practice.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Exame anorretal digital (EAD) faz parte do exame físico, também é essencial para a avaliação do cirurgião colorretal. Um bom EAD oferece informações preciosas relacionadas às queixas do paciente, que auxiliam na tomada de decisões. Sua realização é simples, rápida e minimamente invasiva. Em diversos centros ao redor do mundo, o toque retal ainda é o único método para avaliar o esfíncter anal antes do tratamento. Por outro lado, a manometria anorretal (MAR) é o principal método para avaliação funcional objetiva das pressões esfincterianas. A discrepância entre o EAD, dependendo do examinador para determinar o tônus esfincteriano em comparação à MAR motivou este estudo. OBJETIVO: Comparar o EAD com os parâmetros de pressão esfincteriana obtidos na MAR, dependendo da experiência dos examinadores. MÉTODOS: Trinta e seis pacientes consecutivos com queixas de incontinência fecal ou constipação crônica, do ambulatório de Fisiologia Anorretal da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, foram prospectivamente incluídos. Cada paciente foi submetido a MAR e EAD realizados por dois cirurgiões colorretais seniores e um júnior antes da MAR. A história dos pacientes propositalmente omitida dos examinadores, e os resultados de cada examinador foram cegos dos demais. Para o EAD, as pressões de repouso e contração foram classificadas por uma escala objetiva (EAD Scoring System), realizada pelos examinadores seniores e pelo júnior em todos os pacientes, que foi comparada com os parâmetros da MAR para a análise. ANÁLISE ESTATÍSTICA: A análise descritiva foi feita para todos os parâmetros. Para as pressões de repouso e contração, o índice Gamma foi utilizado para a comparação entre o EAD e a MAR, que variou de 0 a 1. Quanto mais próximo de 1 melhor a concordância entre os dois métodos de avaliação. RESULTADOS: A idade média foi de 48 anos e 55,5% dos pacientes eram do sexo feminino. A concordância das pressões anais de repouso entre a MAR e o EAD realizadas pelos examinadores seniores, proficientes, foi de 0,7 (IC 95%; 0,32-1,0), enquanto para o examinador júnior, menos experiente, foi de 0,52 (IC95%; 0,09-0,96). A concordância das pressões de contração foi de 0,96 (IC 95%; 0,87-1,0) para os examinadores seniores e de 0,52 (IC 95%; 0,16-0,89) para o júnior. CONCLUSÃO: Cirurgiões colorretais mais experientes, o EAD teve concordância mais significativa com a MAR, o que poderia levar a um manejo terapêutico mais adequado aos pacientes portadores de doença anorretais funcionais. A manometria anorretal permanece, portanto, como método de avaliação objetiva da função esfincteriana.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Anal Canal/physiopathology , Digital Rectal Examination/methods , Manometry/instrumentation , Pressure , Severity of Illness Index , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , Clinical Competence , Constipation/diagnosis , Constipation/physiopathology , Fecal Incontinence/diagnosis , Fecal Incontinence/physiopathology , Middle Aged , Muscle Tonus
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742136

ABSTRACT

Constipation is a common functional problem of the digestive system and may occur secondary to diet, drugs, endocrine diseases, metabolic diseases, neurological diseases, psychiatric disorders, or gastrointestinal obstruction. When there is no secondary cause, constipation is diagnosed as functional constipation. The first steps that should be taken to relieve symptoms are diet and lifestyle modifications, and if unsuccessful, laxative therapy should be initiated. If a patient does not respond to laxative therapy, diagnostic anorectal physiological tests are performed, though they are not routinely recommended. However, these tests may be considered earlier in patients strongly suspected to have a defecatory disorder. The revised guideline on the diagnosis and treatment of chronic constipation will undoubtedly aid the individualized management of chronic constipation in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Biofeedback, Psychology , Constipation , Diagnosis , Diet , Digestive System , Digital Rectal Examination , Endocrine System Diseases , Humans , Laxatives , Life Style , Metabolic Diseases
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765013

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the awareness and application of ROME IV criteria for functional constipation (FC) in real-world practices and assessed differences between pediatric gastroenterologists (PGs) and general pediatricians. METHODS: A total of 239 (47.8%) out of 500 nationwide pediatricians answered a questionnaire for diagnosis and management of pediatric FC; 60 were PGs (75% of total PGs in Korea). RESULTS: A total of 16.6% of pediatricians were aware of the exact ROME IV criteria. Perianal examination and digital rectal examination were practiced less, with a higher tendency among PGs (P 6 months (63.8%) than 1-year were lactulose (59.1%), followed by polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000 (17.7%), and probiotics (11.8%). Prescription priority significantly differed between PGs and general pediatricians; lactulose or PEG 4000 were most commonly prescribed by PGs (89.7%), and lactulose or probiotics (75.7%) were prescribed by general pediatricians (P < 0.001). For patients aged < 1-year, lactulose (41.6%) and changing formula (31.7%) were commonly prescribed. Most participants recommended diet modification, and PGs more frequently used defecation diary (P = 0.002). CONCLUSION: Discrepancies between actual practice and Rome IV criteria and between PGs and general pediatricians were observed. This survey may help construct practice guidelines and educational programs for pediatric FC.


Subject(s)
Child , Colonic Diseases, Functional , Constipation , Defecation , Diagnosis , Digital Rectal Examination , Enema , Feeding Behavior , Humans , Lactulose , Polyethylene Glycols , Prescriptions , Probiotics
16.
Annals of Coloproctology ; : 202-208, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762316

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for rectal cancer can be assessed using digital rectal examination, endoscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Precise assessment of clinical complete response (CR) after CRT is essential when deciding between optimizing surgery or organ-preserving treatment. The objectives of this study were to correlate the CR finding in endoscopy and MRI with pathologic CR and to determine the appropriate approach for combining endoscopy and MRI to predict the pathologic CR in patients with rectal cancer after neoadjuvant CRT. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 102 patients with rectal cancer who underwent endoscopy and MRI at 2–4 weeks after CRT. We assigned a confidence level (1–4) for the endoscopic and MRI assessments. Accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were analyzed based on the endoscopy, MRI, and combination method findings. Diagnostic modalities were compared using the likelihood ratios. RESULTS: Of 102 patients, 17 (16.7%) had a CR. The accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for the prediction CR of endoscopy with biopsy were 85.3%, 52.9%, and 91.8%, while those of MRI were 91.2%, 70.6%, and 95.3%, and those of combined endoscopy and MRI were 89.2%, 52.9%, and 96.5%, respectively. No significant differences were noted in the sensitivity and specificity of any each modality. The prediction rate for CR of the combination method was 92.6% after the posttest probability test. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that combining the interpretation of endoscopy with biopsy and MRI could provide a good prediction rate for CR in patients with rectal cancer after CRT.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Chemoradiotherapy , Cohort Studies , Digital Rectal Examination , Endoscopy , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Methods , Rectal Neoplasms , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762293

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although the height of a rectal tumor above the anal verge (tumor height) partly determines the treatment strategy, no practical standard exists for reporting this. We aimed to demonstrate the differences in tumor height according to the diagnostic modality used for its measurement. METHODS: We identified 100 patients with rectal cancers located within 15 cm of the anal verge who had recorded tumor heights measured by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), colonoscopy, and digital rectal examination (DRE). Tumor height measured by using MRI was compared with those measured by using DRE and colonoscopy to assess reporting inconsistencies. Factors associated with differences in tumor height among the modalities were also evaluated. RESULTS: The mean tumor heights were 77.8 ± 3.3, 52.9 ± 2.3, and 68.9 ± 3.1 mm when measured by using MRI, DRE, and colonoscopy, respectively (P < 0.001). Agreement among the 3 modalities in terms of tumor sublocation within the rectum was found in only 39% of the patients. In the univariate and the multivariate analyses, clinical stage showed a possible association with concordance among modalities, but age, sex, and luminal location of the tumor were not associated with differences among modalities. CONCLUSION: The heights of rectal cancer differed according to the diagnostic modality. Tumor height has implications for rectal cancer’s surgical planning and for interpreting comparative studies. Hence, a consensus is needed for measuring and reporting tumor height.


Subject(s)
Colonoscopy , Consensus , Digital Rectal Examination , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Multivariate Analysis , Phenobarbital , Rectal Neoplasms , Rectum
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760330

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of machine learning methods that combine data on age and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels for predicting prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed 943 patients who underwent transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy at Chungnam National University Hospital between 2014 and 2018 because of elevated PSA levels and/or abnormal digital rectal examination and/or TRUS findings. We retrospectively reviewed the patients’ medical records, analyzed the prediction rate of prostate cancer, and identified 20 feature importances that could be compared with biopsy results using 5 different algorithms, viz., logistic regression (LR), support vector machine, random forest (RF), extreme gradient boosting, and light gradient boosting machine. RESULTS: Overall, the cancer detection rate was 41.8%. In patients younger than 75 years and with a PSA level less than 20 ng/mL, the best prediction model for prostate cancer detection was RF among the machine learning methods based on LR analysis. The PSA density was the highest scored feature importances in the same patient group. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the prediction rate of prostate cancer using machine learning methods not inferior to that using LR and that these methods may increase the detection rate for prostate cancer and reduce unnecessary prostate biopsy, as they take into consideration feature importances affecting the prediction rate for prostate cancer.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Digital Rectal Examination , Forests , Humans , Logistic Models , Machine Learning , Medical Records , Prostate , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatic Neoplasms , Retrospective Studies , Support Vector Machine , Ultrasonography
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764104

ABSTRACT

Prostate cancer (CaP) is the most common cancer diagnosed among men in the United States and the fifth most common cancer among men in Korea. Unfortunately, the early stages of CaP may have no symptoms. Thus, early detection is very important and physicians managing voiding dysfunction must have awareness about CaP. The traditional tests used for early detection of CaP are the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test and digital rectal examination. However, a high PSA level is not specific for CaP. Benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostatitis, urinary tract infection, and urinary retention can all cause a high PSA level. Thus, no test shows sufficient accuracy to truly be useful for screening men for CaP. A prostate biopsy is the only method that yields a definitive diagnosis of CaP; however, this test is invasive and uncomfortable. Recently, new biomarkers for CaP detection have been proposed to improve the accuracy of the PSA test. In this review, we summarize our knowledge of various new biomarkers, including PSA-associated biomarkers (the prostate health index and 4Kscore), molecular biomarkers (PCA3, TMPRSS2: ERG fusion gene, and various miRNAs), and proteomics-associated biomarkers, and the ways in which they may improve the detection rate of CaP. Accordingly, this review can raise awareness about CaP to physicians managing voiding dysfunction and be a good reference for them.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Biopsy , Diagnosis , Digital Rectal Examination , Discrimination, Psychological , Early Detection of Cancer , Hematologic Tests , Humans , Korea , Male , Mass Screening , Methods , Prostate , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatic Hyperplasia , Prostatic Neoplasms , Prostatitis , United States , Urinary Retention , Urinary Tract Infections
20.
Oncol. (Guayaquil) ; 28(2): 84-92, Ago. 30, 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1000153

ABSTRACT

Las alteraciones morfológicas de la próstata, por las que se realiza cribado son la hiperplasia prostática benigna (HPB) y el cáncer de próstata (CaP). La HPB es el tumor benigno más frecuente en varones mayores de 50 años, se caracteriza por el aumento del volumen de la glándula y usualmente acompañado de síntomas urinarios. El CaP es la segunda causa de muerte relacionada con cáncer en Estados Unidos y Europa en mayores de 70 años, su incidencia por debajo de los 50 es rara. El cribado o pruebas de detección, tiene como meta el hallar el cáncer antes de la aparición de síntomas, el cribado no se realiza en pacientes por sospechar que tienen cáncer, sino como un método de pesquisa. El objetivo de este artículo, es efectuar una revisión a los referentes teóricos, y proponer un nuevo algoritmo diagnóstico de alteraciones morfológicas de la próstata, basado en la evidencia.


Morphological alterations of the prostate, for which screening is performed include benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa). BPH is the most common in men over 50 years benign tumor, is characterized by the increase in the volume of the gland and usually accompanied by urinary symptoms. PCa is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States and Europe in over 70 years, the incidence below 50 is rare. Screening or testing, aims the finding cancer before the onset of symptoms, screening is not performed in patients with suspected cancer, but as a method of investigation. The purpose of this article is to review the theoretical framework and propose a new diagnostic algorithm of morphological alterations of the prostate, based on evidence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prostatic Hyperplasia , Prostatic Neoplasms , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Mandatory Testing , Digital Rectal Examination
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