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1.
Clin. biomed. res ; 40(1): 37-43, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1117078

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The androgen receptor (AR) plays an important role in normal development of the prostate gland, as well as in prostatic neoplasms. Transcriptional regulation by AR is modulated by its interaction with co-activators or co-repressors, such as NCoR1 (nuclear receptor co-repressor 1), which is involved in reducing AR activity over the target gene transcription. Methods: To identify the role of NCoR1 in the prostate cancer androgen independence in a cell line model, we aimed to evaluate the effects of silencing NCoR1 on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) gene expression, the proliferative response and PSA secretion on the supernatant of C4-2B and LNCaP cells that were submitted to small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) transfection, and to treatments with different androgen dosages. Results: In LNCaP and C4-2B cells with no dihydrotestosterone (DHT) treatment, a decrease in PSA mRNA expression was observed 48 hours and 72 hours after gene silencing in the siNCoR group when compared to the control and siNC groups. The LNCaP and C4-2B cells showed a biphasic pattern in response to dihydrotestosterone treatment in transfected groups (siNCoR and siNC) as well as in the control condition (without transfection). The secretion of PSA in cell supernatant of LNCaP and C4-2B cells was higher in the siNCoR group, and, in relation to hormonal treatment, higher in the 10-8 M DHT group. Conclusions: A reduction in the NCoR1 levels seems to have a double influence on the activity of AR in PCa cells. These results suggest that NCoR may act as an AR co-repressor depending upon hormonal stimulation.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Cell Proliferation , Nuclear Receptor Co-Repressor 1 , Dihydrotestosterone , Receptors, Androgen , Cell Line , Co-Repressor Proteins
2.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 530-537, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762376

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Androgenic alopecia (AGA) is the most common type of hair loss. It is likely inherited genetically and is promoted by dihydrotestosterone. 5α-reductase has been proven a good target through finasteride use. However, the pathogenesis of AGA cannot be fully explained based only on dihydrotestosterone levels. OBJECTIVE: To identify similar hairloss inhibition activity of RE-ORGA with mode of action other than finasteride. METHODS: We prepared RE-ORGA from Korean herb mixtures. We performed MTT assays for cytotoxicity, Cell Counting Kit-8 assays for cell proliferation, and western blot to identify expression levels of 5α-reductase and Bax. RNA-sequencing was performed for the expression patterns of genes in dihydrotestosterone-activated pathways. Anti-inflammatory activity was also assessed by the expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6. RESULTS: REORGA could promote the proliferation of human dermal papilla cells and showed low cytotoxicity. It also inhibited the expression of 5α-reductases and Bax in the cells. RNA-sequencing results verified that the mRNA expressions of SRD5A1, Bax, transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1), and TGF-β1 induced transcript 1 (TGFβ1I1) were decreased, whereas expression of protein tyrosine kinase 2 beta (PTK2β) was more elevated. REORGA also showed anti-inflammatory activity through decreased mRNA levels of TNF-α. CONCLUSION: Transcriptionally, up-regulation of PTK2β and concomitant down-regulation of TGFβ1I1 imply that RE-ORGA can modulate androgen receptor sensitivity, decreasing the expression of 5α-reductase type II and Bax together with TGF-β1 transcripts; RE-ORGA also showed partial anti-inflammatory activity. Overall, RE-ORGA is expected to alleviate hair loss by regulating 5α-reductase activity and the receptor's androgen sensitivity.


Subject(s)
Alopecia , Blotting, Western , Cell Count , Cell Proliferation , Cholestenone 5 alpha-Reductase , Dihydrotestosterone , Down-Regulation , Finasteride , Hair , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Receptors, Androgen , RNA, Messenger , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Up-Regulation
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761887

ABSTRACT

Androgen receptor (AR) is a steroid receptor transcriptional factor for testosterone and dihydrotestosterone consisting of four main domains, the N-terminal domain, DNA-binding domain, hinge region, and ligand-binding domain. AR plays pivotal roles in prostate cancer, especially castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Androgen deprivation therapy can suppress hormone-naïve prostate cancer, but prostate cancer changes AR and adapts to survive under castration levels of androgen. These mechanisms include AR point mutations, AR overexpression, changes of androgen biosynthesis, constitutively active AR splice variants without ligand binding, and changes of androgen cofactors. Studies of AR in CRPC revealed that AR was still active in CRPC, and it remains as a potential target to treat CRPC. Enzalutamide is a second-generation antiandrogen effective in patients with CRPC before and after taxane-based chemotherapy. However, CRPC is still incurable and can develop drug resistance. Understanding the mechanisms of this resistance can enable new-generation therapies for CRPC. Several promising new AR-targeted therapies have been developed. Apalutamide is a new Food and Drug Administration-approved androgen agonist binding to the ligand-binding domain, and clinical trials of other new AR-targeted agents binding to the ligand-binding domain or N-terminal domain are underway. This review focuses on the functions of AR in prostate cancer and the development of CRPC and promising new agents against CRPC.


Subject(s)
Androgen Antagonists , Castration , Dihydrotestosterone , Drug Resistance , Drug Therapy , Humans , Point Mutation , Prostate , Prostatic Neoplasms , Receptors, Androgen , Receptors, Steroid , Testosterone
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773143

ABSTRACT

In this study,mouse models of benign prostatic hyperplasia induced by subcutaneous injection of testosterone propionate was used to investigate the therapeutic effect and mechanism of Urtica hyperborean( UW) extracts on prostate hyperplasia in mice. The effects of UW extracts on prostate index,serum epidermal growth factor( EGF) and dihydrotestosterone( DHT) in model mice were observed,and the EGF and anti-apoptotic factor( Bcl-2) mRNA expression levels were detected as well as pathological changes in prostate tissue. The results showed that the ethyl acetate extraction and alcohol soluble fraction of the UW could significantly reduce the prostate index,reduce the serum DHT and EGF levels( P<0. 01),and significantly decrease the EGF and Bcl-2 mRNA expression( P<0. 01),significantly improved the morphological structure of prostate tissue. The above results confirmed that ethyl acetate extract and alcohol-soluble parts of UW have a good preventive effect on mice prostatic hyperplasia model,and its mechanism may be to reduce androgen levels by regulating polypeptide growth factors and/or inhibiting cell hyperproliferation and promoting apoptosis. This study laid the foundation for the further research on UW.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dihydrotestosterone , Blood , Epidermal Growth Factor , Blood , Male , Medicine, Tibetan Traditional , Mice , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Prostatic Hyperplasia , Drug Therapy , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 , Metabolism , Testosterone Propionate , Urticaceae , Chemistry
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742362

ABSTRACT

Finasteride is primarily used to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and male androgenetic alopecia (MAA). Five-alpha reductase inhibitors (5α-RIs) could induce male sexual dysfunction due to their effects on testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. There is evidence suggesting that 5α-RIs may independently increase the risk of erectile dysfunction (ED). However, many investigators believe that side effects of 5α-RIs will disappear with continuous treatment. Considerable controversy exists regarding the severity and persistence of side effects of finasteride on ED. The aim of this review was to summarize current research studies on finasteride associated with ED. The search strategy used each term of finasteride and ED against PubMed database to identify related studies. ED data reported from available trials for finasteride were summarized and reviewed. Although there is not enough evidence to prove the relationship between finasteride and ED, most studies in this review found that finasteride for BPH was correlated with ED. However, most studies included in this review revealed that finasteride for MAA was not correlated with ED. On the other hand, some studies reported side effects of finasteride associated with sexual dysfunction, including ED, male infertility, ejaculation problem, and loss of libido, even in MAA patients. Well-designed randomized controlled trials are needed to further determine the mechanism and effects of finasteride on ED. However, physicians should discuss with their patients possible long-term effects of finasteride on sexual function, although we do not have evidence showing that adverse events of sexual dysfunction are absolutely associated with 5α-RIs.


Subject(s)
Alopecia , Dihydrotestosterone , Ejaculation , Erectile Dysfunction , Finasteride , Hand , Humans , Infertility, Male , Libido , Male , Male , Oxidoreductases , Prostatic Hyperplasia , Research Personnel , Testosterone
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717727

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) is a major cause of abnormal overgrowth of the prostate mainly in the elderly. Corni Fructus has been reported to be effective in the prevention and treatment of various diseases because of its strong antioxidant effect, but its efficacy against BPH is not yet known. This study was designed to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of Corni Fructus water extract (CF) in testosterone-induced BPH rats. MATERIALS/METHODS: To induce BPH, rats were intraperitoneal injected with testosterone propionate (TP). Rats in the treatment group were orally administered with CF with TP injection, and finasteride, which is a selective inhibitor of 5α-reductase type 2, was used as a positive control. RESULTS: Our results showed that the increased prostate weight and histopathological changes in BPH model rats were suppressed by CF treatment. CF, similar to the finasteride-treated group, decreased the levels of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone by TP treatment in the serum, and it also reduced 5α-reductase expression and concentration in prostate tissue and serum, respectively. In addition, CF significantly blocked the expression of the androgen receptor (AR), AR co-activators, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in BPH rats, and this blocking was associated with a decrease in prostate-specific antigen levels in serum and prostate tissue. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that CF may weaken the BPH status through the inactivation of at least 5α-reductase and AR activity and may be useful for the clinical treatment of BPH.


Subject(s)
Aged , Animals , Antioxidants , Cornus , Dihydrotestosterone , Finasteride , Humans , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen , Prostate , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatic Hyperplasia , Rats , Receptors, Androgen , Testosterone , Testosterone Propionate , Water
7.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 111-117, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717160

ABSTRACT

Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) is a male reproductive disease that has gained increasing importance in recent years. The present study investigated whether Pycnogenol® (PYC), a standardized French maritime pine bark extract, could prevent BPH induced by testosterone propionate (TP) in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups of six rats. One group was used as a normal control rats and the other groups received subcutaneous injections of TP for 4 weeks to induce BPH. In the two treatment groups, PYC (20 or 40 mg/kg) was administered daily for 4 weeks by oral gavage concurrently with the induction of TP. All rats were sacrificed at the scheduled termination time, the prostates were weighed, and histopathologic examinations were conducted. Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels in serum and the prostate were measured, and the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Ki-67 proteins was investigated. BPH-treated animals showed increases in the relative weight of the prostate, higher concentrations of DHT in serum and the prostate, and higher expression of PCNA and Ki-67 in the prostate; in contrast, PYC-treated animals had significant reductions in these factors compared with the BPH animals. These findings indicated that PYC inhibited the development of BPH and that this was closely associated with a reduction in DHT concentration.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dihydrotestosterone , Humans , Hyperplasia , Injections, Subcutaneous , Male , Models, Animal , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen , Prostate , Prostatic Hyperplasia , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Testosterone Propionate , Testosterone
8.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 67(1): 1-5, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-843365

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of intracerebroventricularly administered rocuronium bromide on the central nervous system, determine the seizure threshold dose of rocuronium bromide in rats, and investigate the effects of rocuronium on the central nervous system at 1/5, 1/10, and 1/100 dilutions of the determined seizure threshold dose. Methods: A permanent cannula was placed in the lateral cerebral ventricle of the animals. The study was designed in two phases. In the first phase, the seizure threshold dose of rocuronium bromide was determined. In the second phase, Group R 1/5 (n = 6), Group 1/10 (n = 6), and Group 1/100 (n = 6) were formed using doses of 1/5, 1/10, and 1/100, respectively, of the obtained rocuronium bromide seizure threshold dose. Results: The rocuronium bromide seizure threshold value was found to be 0.056 ± 0.009 µmoL. The seizure threshold, as a function of the body weight of rats, was calculated as 0.286 µmoL/kg-1. A dose of 1/5 of the seizure threshold dose primarily caused splayed limbs, posturing, and tremors of the entire body, whereas the dose of 1/10 of the seizure threshold dose caused agitation and shivering. A dose of 1/100 of the seizure threshold dose was associated with decreased locomotor activity. Conclusions: This study showed that rocuronium bromide has dose-related deleterious effects on the central nervous system and can produce dose-dependent excitatory effects and seizures.


Resumo Justificativa: O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar os efeitos do brometo de rocurônio administrado intracerebroventricularmente sobre o sistema nervoso central, determinar a dose do limiar convulsivo de rocurônio em ratos e investigar os efeitos de rocurônio no sistema nervoso central em diluições de 1/5, 1/10 e 1/100 da dose do limiar convulsivo determinada. Métodos: Uma cânula permanente foi colocada no ventrículo lateral do cérebro dos animais. O estudo foi projetado em duas fases. Na primeira, a dose do limiar convulsivo do brometo de rocurônio foi determinada. Na segunda, o Grupo R 1/5 (n = 6), o Grupo 1/10 (n = 6) e Grupo 1/100 (n = 6) foram formados com doses de 1/5, 1/10 e 1/100, respectivamente, da dose do limiar convulsivo de brometo de rocurônio obtida. Resultados: Descobrimos que o valor do limiar convulsivo de brometo de rocurônio é 0,056 ± 0,009 µmoL. O limiar convulsivo, como uma função do peso corporal dos ratos, foi calculado como 0,286 µmoL/kg-1. Uma dose de 1/5 da dose do limiar convulsivo causou principalmente abertura postural dos membros e tremores em todo o corpo, enquanto uma dose de 1/10 da dose do limiar convulsivo causou agitação e tremores. Uma dose de 1/100 da dose do limiar convulsivo foi associada à diminuição da atividade locomotora. Conclusões: Este estudo mostrou que o brometo de rocurônio tem efeitos deletérios relacionados com a dose sobre o sistema nervoso central e pode produzir efeitos excitatórios dependentes da dose e convulsões.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Dihydrotestosterone/pharmacology , Central Nervous System/drug effects , Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents/pharmacology , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents/administration & dosage , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Rocuronium , Injections, Intraventricular , Androstanols/administration & dosage , Locomotion/drug effects
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-51186

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of a corn silk extract on improving benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). MATERIALS/METHODS: The experimental animals, 6-week-old male Wistar rats, were divided into sham-operated control (Sham) and experimental groups. The experimental group, which underwent orchiectomy and received subcutaneous injection of 10 mg/kg of testosterone propionate to induce BPH, was divided into a Testo Only group that received only testosterone, a Testo+Fina group that received testosterone and 5 mg/kg finasteride, a Testo+CSE10 group that received testosterone and 10 mg/kg of corn silk extract, and a Testo+CSE100 group that received testosterone and 100 mg/kg of corn silk extract. Prostate weight and concentrations of dihydrotestosterone (DHT), 5α-reductase 2 (5α-R2), and prostate specific antigen (PSA) in serum or prostate tissue were determined. The mRNA expressions of 5α-R2 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in prostate tissue were also measured. RESULTS: Compared to the Sham group, prostate weight was significantly higher in the Testo Only group and decreased significantly in the Testo+Fina, Testo+CSE10, and Testo+CSE100 groups (P < 0.05), results that were consistent with those for serum DHT concentrations. The concentrations of 5α-R2 in serum and prostate as well as the mRNA expression of 5α-R2 in prostate were significantly lower in the Testo+Fina, Testo+CSE10, and Testo+CSE100 groups than that in the Testo Only group (P < 0.05). Similarly, the concentrations of PSA in serum and prostate were significantly lower in the Testo+Fina, Testo+CSE10, and Testo+CSE100 groups (P < 0.05) than in the Testo Only group. The mRNA expression of PCNA in prostate dose-independently decreased in the Testo+CSE-treated groups (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: BPH was induced through injection of testosterone, and corn silk extract treatment improved BPH symptoms by inhibiting the mRNA expression of 5α-R2 and decreasing the amount of 5α-R2, DHT, and PSA in serum and prostate tissue.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dihydrotestosterone , Finasteride , Humans , Injections, Subcutaneous , Male , Models, Animal , Orchiectomy , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen , Prostate , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatic Hyperplasia , Rats , Rats, Wistar , RNA, Messenger , Silk , Testosterone , Testosterone Propionate , Zea mays
10.
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 122-127, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-304740

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To determine the expression of Skp2 in different prostate cancer (PCa) cell lines and tissues, and explore its influence on the androgen receptor (AR) signaling pathway and development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The expression levels of Skp2 and AR in different PCa cell lines were detected by Western blot. After knockdown of Skp2 in the C4-2 and 22RV1 cells transfected with shRNA, the expressions of AR and P27 were determined and the activity of ARR3-Luc measured by dual-luciferase reporter gene assay following treatment with dihydrotestosterone (DHT). The expressions of AR and Skp2 in human naïve PCa or CRPC specimens were detected by immunohistochemical staining followed by analysis of their differences and correlation.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The Skp2 protein expression level was significantly higher in the C4-2 or 22RV1 cells than in the LNCaP cells. DHT treatment increased the expression of Skp2 in the C4-2 cells, but knock-down of Skp2 significantly up-regulated the expression of the well-known downstream protein P27 and down-regulated that of AR. Consistently, DHT treatment increased the activity of ARR3-Luc, while knockdown of Skp2 remarkably decreased it in the C4-2 and 22RV1 cells (P < 0.05). In addition, significantly higher expressions of Skp2 and AR were observed in the CRPC than in the naïve specimens (P < 0.05), with a positive correlation between the two proteins (r = 0.658 1, P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Skp2 can enhance the expression and transcription activity of the AR protein in CRPC cells or tissues and is promising to be a critical molecular therapeutic target.</p>


Subject(s)
Androgens , Pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Dihydrotestosterone , Pharmacology , Disease Progression , Gene Knockdown Techniques , Humans , Male , Neoplasm Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant , Metabolism , Receptors, Androgen , Genetics , Metabolism , S-Phase Kinase-Associated Proteins , Physiology , Transcriptional Activation , Up-Regulation
11.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 327-334, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-105048

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) induces androgenic alopecia by shortening the hair follicle growth phase, resulting in hair loss. We previously demonstrated how changes in the microRNA (miRNA) expression profile influenced DHT-mediated cell death, cell cycle arrest, cell viability, the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and senescence. Protective effects against DHT have not, however, been elucidated at the genome level. OBJECTIVE: We showed that epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major component of green tea, protects DHT-induced cell death by regulating the cellular miRNA expression profile. METHODS: We used a miRNA microarray to identify miRNA expression levels in human dermal papilla cells (DPCs). We investigated whether the miRNA expression influenced the protective effects of EGCG against DHT-induced cell death, growth arrest, intracellular ROS levels, and senescence. RESULTS: EGCG protected against the effects of DHT by altering the miRNA expression profile in human DPCs. In addition, EGCG attenuated DHT-mediated cell death and growth arrest and decreased intracellular ROS levels and senescence. A bioinformatics analysis elucidated the relationship between the altered miRNA expression and EGCG-mediated protective effects against DHT. CONCLUSION: Overall, our results suggest that EGCG ameliorates the negative effects of DHT by altering the miRNA expression profile in human DPCs.


Subject(s)
Aging , Alopecia , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Cell Death , Cell Survival , Computational Biology , Dihydrotestosterone , Genome , Hair , Hair Follicle , Humans , MicroRNAs , Reactive Oxygen Species , Tea
12.
Rev. latinoam. enferm ; 23(2): 352-360, Feb-Apr/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-747162

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: to analyze the scientific literature on home-based family care of people with severe mental illness. METHOD: integrative review of 14 databases (CINALH, Cochrane Plus, Cuidatge, CUIDEN, Eric, IBECS, EMI, ISOC, JBI COnNECT, LILACS, PsycINFO, PubMed, SciELO, and Scopus) searched with the key words "family caregivers", "severe mental illness", and "home" between 2003 and 2013. RESULTS: of 787 articles retrieved, only 85 met the inclusion criteria. The articles appeared in 61 journals from different areas and disciplines, mainly from nursing (36%). The countries producing the most scientific literature on nursing were Brazil, the UK, and the US, and authorship predominantly belonged to university centers. A total of 54.12% of the studies presented quantitative designs, with descriptive ones standing out. Work overload, subjective perspectives, and resources were the main topics of these papers. CONCLUSIONS: the international scientific literature on home-based, informal family care of people with severe mental disorder is limited. Nursing research stands out in this field. The prevalent topics coincide with the evolution of the mental health system. The expansion of the scientific approach to family care is promoted to create evidence-based guidelines for family caregivers and for the clinical practice of professional caregivers. .


OBJETIVO: analisar a produção científica sobre o cuidado familiar de pessoas com transtorno mental grave em casa. MÉTODO: revisão integrativa de 14 bases de dados (CINALH, Cochrane Plus, Cuidatge, CUIDEN, Eric, IBECS, EMI, ISOC, JBI Connect, LILACS, PsycInfo e PubMed, SciELO, e Scopus), com as palavras-chave "cuidadores familiares", "TMG" (transtornos mentais graves ) e "casa", realizada entre 2003 e 2013. RESULTADOS: dos 787 artigos retornados, somente 85 atenderam os critérios de inclusão. Os artigos vieram de 61 periódicos de diferentes áreas e disciplinas, principalmente de enfermagem (36%). Os países com maior produção científica sobre enfermagem foram o Brasil, o Reino Unido e os Estados Unidos, e a autoria era predominantemente de centros universitários. Um total de 54,12% dos estudos apresentou delineamento quantitativo, e os descritivos se destacaram. Os principais temas desses trabalhos foram sobrecarga de trabalho, perspectivas subjetivas e recursos. CONCLUSÕES: a produção cientifica internacional sobre o cuidado familiar informal de pessoas com doenças mentais graves em casa é limitada. A pesquisa em enfermagem se destaca nesse campo. Os temas prevalentes coincidem com a evolução do sistema de saúde mental. Estimula-se a expansão da abordagem científica do cuidado familiar de modo a encontrar evidências para criar guias para cuidadores familiares e para a prática clínica de cuidadores profissionais. .


OBJETIVO: analizar la producción científica sobre el cuidado familiar de la persona con trastorno mental grave en el hogar familiar. MÉTODO: revisión integradora en 14 bases de datos (CINALH, Cochrane Plus, Cuidatge, CUIDEN, Eric, IBECS, IME, ISOC, JBI ConNECT, LILACS, PsycInfo, PubMed, SciELO y Scopus), con las palabras clave "cuidadores familiares", "TMG" y "hogar"; realizada entre 2003 y 2013. RESULTADOS: de 787 artículos recuperados, sólo 85 cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión. Los artículos procedieron de 61 revistas de diferentes áreas y disciplinas destacando la disciplina de enfermería (36%). Los países con mayor producción científica sobre enfermería fueron Brasil, Reino Unido y EEUU. En la autoría predominaron los centros universitarios. El 54,12% de los estudios presentó diseño cuantitativo, sobresaliendo los descriptivos. Las temáticas destacadas fueron sobrecarga, perspectivas subjetivas y recursos. CONCLUSIONES: la producción científica internacional sobre el cuidado informal familiar de la persona con trastorno mental grave, en el contexto del hogar familiar, es limitada. En este campo, destaca la investigación de enfermería. Las temáticas prevalentes coinciden con la evolución del sistema de salud mental. Se estimula la ampliación del abordaje científico del cuidado familiar con el fin de encontrar evidencias para la elaboración de guías de cuidadores familiares y para la práctica clínica de cuidadores profesionales. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adipogenesis , Adipocytes/metabolism , Adult Stem Cells/physiology , Androgens/physiology , Dihydrotestosterone/pharmacology , Testosterone/physiology , Androgen Antagonists/pharmacology , Androgens/pharmacology , /metabolism , CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-beta/genetics , CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-beta/metabolism , CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins/genetics , CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Flutamide/pharmacology , Gene Expression , Lipid Metabolism , PPAR gamma/genetics , PPAR gamma/metabolism , Receptors, Androgen/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Testosterone/pharmacology
13.
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 17-22, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-319549

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the molecular mechanism of dutasteride inhibiting fertility by studying its effects on the expressions of the epididymal epithelial junction proteins Claudin1 and β-catenin in rats.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Sixteen 3-month-old SD male rats were equally divided into an experimental and a negative control group to be treated intragastrically with dutasteride at 40 mg/kg per day and the same dose of solvent, respectively, for 14 consecutive days. Then, the sperm motility and morphology of the rats were detected by computer-assisted sperm analysis, the serum levels of testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) measured by ELISA, changes in the tight junction of epididymal cells observed under the transmission electron microscope, the protein and gene expressions of Claudin1 and β-catenin determined by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, and the conception rate of the mated female rats calculated.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Dutasteride significantly suppressed the serum DHT level, sperm motility, and fertility of the rats (P <0.05). Interspaces between epididymal epithelial cell tight junctions were observed, the volume of epididymal fluid obviously increased, and the expressions of Claudin1 and β-catenin gene and protein remarkably downregulated in the experimental rats (P <0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Dutasteride can significantly inhibit the fertility of male rats by reducing the serum DHT level, suppressing Claudin1 and β-catenin expressions, and damaging epididymal epithelial cell junctions.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Azasteroids , Pharmacology , Claudin-1 , Metabolism , Dihydrotestosterone , Blood , Dutasteride , Epididymis , Metabolism , Female , Fertility , Humans , Intercellular Junctions , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sperm Motility , Testosterone , Blood , Urological Agents , Pharmacology , beta Catenin , Metabolism
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-148913

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Steroid 5-alpha reductase type 2 (SRD5A2) modifies testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in the prostate. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the SRD5A2 gene might affect DHT. We sought to understand the relationship of SRD5A2 SNPs to prostate cancer in the Korean population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-six common SNPs in the SRD5A2 gene were assessed in 272 prostate cancer cases and 173 controls. Single-locus analyses were conducted by using conditional logistic regression. Additionally, we performed a haplotype analysis for the SRD5A2 SNPs tested. RESULTS: Among the 20 SNPs and 4 haplotypes, there were no statistically significant results in the prostate cancer patients and the controls. In the logistic analysis of SRD5A2 polymorphisms with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) criteria, two SNPs (rs508562, rs11675297) and haplotype 1 displayed significant results (odds ratio [OR], 1.76; p=0.05; OR, 1.88-2.02; p=0.01-0.04; OR, 0.59; p=0.02, respectively). rs508562, rs11675297, rs2208532, and haplotype 1 (OR, 1.49; p=0.05; OR, 2.02; p=0.05; OR, 2.01; p=0.04; OR, 0.56-0.64, p=0.03-0.04, respectively) had significant associations with Gleason score. rs508562, rs11675297, and haplotype 1 (OR, 1.41-2.34; p=0.004-0.05; OR, 1.74-1.82; p=0.03-0.05; OR, 0.42-0.67; p=0.0005-0.03, respectively) were significantly associated with clinical stage. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that there was no significant association between SRD5A2 SNPs and the risk of prostate cancer in the Korean population. However, we found that some SNPs and 1 haplotype influenced PSA level, Gleason score, and clinical stage.


Subject(s)
3-Oxo-5-alpha-Steroid 4-Dehydrogenase/genetics , Aged , Case-Control Studies , Dihydrotestosterone/metabolism , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genotype , Haplotypes , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Grading , Neoplasm Staging , Odds Ratio , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Testosterone/genetics
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-80632

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Dutasteride affects the prostate by reducing intraprostatic dihydrotestosterone and prostate tissue vascularity. We evaluated the effect of pretreatment with dutasteride for two weeks on perioperative and postoperative bleeding during transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-three patients who had benign prostatic hyperplasia together with the criteria for eligibility for TURP were included. The dutasteride group consisted of 40 patients who were treated with dutasteride (0.5 mg/d) for two weeks before surgery, and the control group consisted of 43 patients who did not receive dutasteride. Blood loss was evaluated in terms of reduction in serum hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct) levels, which were measured before, immediately after, and 24 hours after surgery. We also measured the durations of indwelling urethral catheter use, continuous saline bladder irrigation, and hospitalization. RESULTS: Lower mean blood loss was observed in the dutasteride group than the control group immediately after and 24 hours after surgery (DeltaHb=0.65+/-1.27 g/dL vs. 1.16+/-0.73 g/dL, 1.30+/-1.00 g/dL vs. 1.86+/-1.05 g/dL respectively, p=0.019, p=0.011; DeltaHct=1.89%+/-3.83% vs. 3.47%+/-2.09%, 3.69%+/-2.95% vs. 5.39%+/-3.23% respectively, p=0.016, p=0.011). In addition, there were fewer days of indwelling urethral catheter use (2.95+/-1.02 d vs. 3.92+/-1.14 d, p=0.000), continuous saline bladder irrigation (1.81+/-1.08 d vs. 2.36+/-1.06 d, p=0.016), and hospitalization after TURP (3.95+/-1.09 d vs. 4.76+/-1.19 d, p=0.001) in the dutasteride group. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative treatment with dutasteride for two weeks before TURP reduces surgical bleeding and length of hospitalization after TURP. This pretreatment can be used to decrease surgical bleeding associated with TURP.


Subject(s)
Dihydrotestosterone , Hematocrit , Hemorrhage , Hospitalization , Humans , Prostate , Prostatic Hyperplasia , Transurethral Resection of Prostate , Urinary Bladder , Urinary Catheters , Dutasteride
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-34607

ABSTRACT

Dual inhibition of both 5AR1 and 5AR2 by dutasteride provides greater and more consistent inhibition of the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) than selective inhibition of 5AR2 alone. Beyond the benefit of symptomatic improvement in lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hyperplasia by dutasteride, recently, several pioneering studies have shown cancer-protective roles of dutasteride in localized prostate cancer. This can be summarized into two categories: management of biochemical recurrence after radical therapy and management of active surveillance of low-risk prostate cancer. This review concerns the rationale and superiority of dutasteride as a cancer-protective agent in localized prostate cancer and its possible mechanisms, reinforced by two recent randomized controlled trials, the Avodart after radical therapy for prostate cancer study ("ARTS") and reduction by dutasteride of clinical progression events in expectant management ("REDEEM") studies.


Subject(s)
Dihydrotestosterone , Prostate , Prostatic Hyperplasia , Prostatic Neoplasms , Recurrence , Testosterone , Urinary Tract , Dutasteride
17.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2015; 28 (1): 49-58
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-153878

ABSTRACT

The effects of extracts and sub-fractions of Avicennia marina, Crocus sativus and sildenafil on the sexual behavior of male rats and their effects on the intracavernosal pressure [I.CV], intracavernosal cyclic GMP and dihydrotestosterone plasma level were examined. The sexual behavior was followed for four hours using infra-red video cameras to quantify the effects on various male sexual behaviors. The results revealed that the active sub-fraction in case of A. marina was the hexane fraction of the chloroform extracts [C/H] whereas that of C. sativus was the hexane fraction of the alcoholic extract [A/H]. [C/H], [A/H] and sildenafil significantly increased the total sexual stimulation index from 53.8 +/- 2.7 [control] to 406 +/- 7.8, 225 +/- 4 and 401 +/- 30.1, respectively [P<0.001, N=6]. They significantly increased the index of successful mounting and ejaculation from 2.6 +/- 0.5 [control] to 40 +/- 2.7, 21 +/- 2.3 and 18 +/- 1.7, respectively [P<0.01, N=6]. They significantly increased the cyclic GMP level from 0.94 +/- 0.07 [control] to 3.1 +/- 0.13, 1.59 +/- 0.11 and 3.66 +/- 0.19 ng/mg wet tissue, respectively [P<0.05, N=7]. They did not affect dihydrotestosterone plasma level. [C/H], [A/H] and sildenafil increased the [I.CV] pressure by 4.8 +/- 0.3, 1.4 +/- 0.8 and 4.2 +/- 0.9 mmHg. The [C/H] seemed to be more active than sildenafil and twice active than [A/H]. Both extracts and sildenafil acted via an increase in cyclic GMP


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Crocus , Sexual Behavior/drug effects , Cyclic GMP , Dihydrotestosterone/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Plant Extracts
18.
Braz. j. phys. ther. (Impr.) ; 18(6): 513-520, 09/01/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-732354

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Knowing the potential for and limitations of information generated using different evaluation instruments favors the development of more accurate functional diagnoses and therapeutic decision-making. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between the number of compensatory movements when climbing up and going down stairs, age, functional classification and time taken to perform a tested activity (TA) of going up and down stairs in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). METHOD: A bank of movies featuring 30 boys with DMD performing functional activities was evaluated. Compensatory movements were assessed using the climbing up and going down stairs domain of the Functional Evaluation Scale for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (FES-DMD); age in years; functional classification using the Vignos Scale (VS), and TA using a timer. Statistical analyses were performed using the Spearman correlation test. RESULTS: There is a moderate relationship between the climbing up stairs domain of the FES-DMD and age (r=0.53, p=0.004) and strong relationships with VS (r=0.72, p=0.001) and TA for this task (r=0.83, p<0.001). There were weak relationships between the going down stairs domain of the FES-DMD-going down stairs with age (r=0.40, p=0.032), VS (r=0.65, p=0.002) and TA for this task (r=0.40, p=0.034). CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that the evaluation of compensatory movements used when climbing up stairs can provide more relevant information about the evolution of the disease, although the activity of going down stairs should be investigated, with the aim of enriching guidance and strengthening accident prevention. Data from the FES-DMD, age, VS and TA can be used in a complementary way to formulate functional diagnoses. Longitudinal studies and with broader age groups may supplement this information. .


CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Conhecer as potencialidades e limitações das informações geradas por diferentes instrumentos de avaliação favorece o desenvolvimento mais preciso do diagnóstico funcional e da tomada de decisão terapêutica. OBJETIVO : Investigar a relação entre o número de movimentos compensatórios ao subir e descer escadas, idade, classificação funcional e tempo de realização de atividade (TA) em meninos com Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne (DMD). MÉTODO : Foi utilizado banco de filmes de 30 meninos com DMD realizando atividades funcionais. Os movimentos compensatórios foram avaliados pela Escala de Avaliação Funcional para Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne (FES-DMD), domínio subir e descer escada; a idade, mensurada em anos; a classificação funcional foi pesquisada pela Escala de Vignos (EV), e o TA foi cronometrado. Foi utilizado o teste de correlação de Spearman. RESULTADOS : Existe moderada relação entre a FES-DMD-subir escada e a idade (r=0,53, p=0,004) e forte relação com a EV (r=0,72, p=0,001) e TA dessa tarefa (r=0,83, p<0,001). Houve fraca relação entre a FES-DMD-descer escada e a idade (r=0,40, p=0,032), EV (r=0,65, p=0,002) e o TA dessa tarefa (r=0,40, p=0,034). CONCLUSÃO : Esses achados indicam que a avaliação da tarefa de subir escada pode trazer informações mais relevantes sobre a evolução da doença, embora a atividade de descer escada deva ser pesquisada visando à orientação e prevenção de acidentes. A utilização conjunta de dados provenientes da FES-DMD, da idade e do TA pode se complementar para formulação do diagnóstico funcional. Estudos longitudinais e com outras faixas etárias mais amplas podem complementar tal informação. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Prostatic Hyperplasia/metabolism , Receptors, Androgen/metabolism , Binding, Competitive , Buffers , Charcoal , Cytosol/metabolism , Dextrans , Dihydrotestosterone/metabolism , Electrophoresis, Agar Gel , Enzyme Activation/drug effects , Estrenes/metabolism , Metribolone , Molybdenum/pharmacology , Progesterone/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Temperature , Tartrates/pharmacology , Testosterone Congeners/metabolism
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-169113

ABSTRACT

Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer. Although prostate tumors respond to androgen ablation therapy at an early stage, they often acquire the potential of androgen-independent growth. Elevated transcriptional activity of androgen receptor (AR) and/or signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) contributes to the proliferation of prostate cancer cells. In the present study, we examined the effect of resveratrol, a phytoalexin present in grapes, on the reporter gene activity of AR and STAT3 in human prostate cancer (LNCaP-FGC) cells stimulated with interleukin-6 (IL-6) and/or dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Our study revealed that resveratrol suppressed the growth of LNCaP-FGC cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Whereas the AR transcriptional activity was induced by treatment with either IL-6 or DHT, the STAT3 transcriptional activity was induced only by treatment with IL-6 but not with DHT. Resveratrol significantly attenuated IL-6-induced STAT3 transcriptional activity, and DHT- or IL-6-induced AR transcriptional activity. Treatment of cells with DHT plus IL-6 significantly increased the AR transcriptional activity as compared to DHT or IL-6 treatment alone and resveratrol markedly diminished DHT plus IL-6-induced AR transcriptional activity. Furthermore, the production of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was decreased by resveratrol in the DHT-, IL-6- or DHT plus IL-6-treated LNCaP-FGC cells. Taken together, the inhibitory effects of resveratrol on IL-6- and/or DHT-induced AR transcriptional activity in LNCaP prostate cancer cells are partly mediated through the suppression of STAT3 reporter gene activity, suggesting that resveratrol may be a promising therapeutic choice for the treatment of prostate cancer.


Subject(s)
Dihydrotestosterone , Genes, Reporter , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Prostate , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatic Neoplasms , Receptors, Androgen , Transducers , Vitis
20.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 711-715, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-342512

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>5α-Reductase inhibitors (5α-RI) act by inhibiting the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT), thereby preventing DHT induced benign prostatic hyperplasia. The existing 5α-RIs can be classified into two types: competitive and noncompetitive. Currently, limited evidence is available concerning the effect differences between the two types of 5α-RI on androgens. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of competitive and noncompetitive 5α-RIs on serum and intra-prostatic androgens in beagle dogs.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Twenty beagles with spontaneous benign prostatic hyperplasia were randomly allocated into two groups: epristeride group (n = 10) in which beagles were treated with epristeride at 1 mg/kg once a day for 3 months, and finasteride group (n = 10) in which beagles were treated with finasteride at 1 mg/kg once a day for 3 months. The levels of intra-prostatic testosterone and DHT were measured before treatment and on day one after three months medication. Serum levels of testosterone and DHT were measured at the same time points. Changes in androgen levels before and after treatment were analyzed, and comparisons were made within each treatment group and between treatment groups.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>After 3-month treatment, serum and intra-prostatic DHT levels all decreased significantly in both the epristeride and finasteride groups. The change of DHT in serum was significantly higher in the finasteride group (-14% and -43% in epristeride and finasteride groups respectively, with P < 0.001); however there was no significant difference in the changes of intra-prostatic DHT between the two groups (-47% and -51% in epristeride and finasteride groups, respectively, P = 0.304). The decreases in DHT levels were accompanied by reciprocal increases in serum and intra-prostatic testosterone levels. Changes of testosterone were significantly higher in finasteride group both in serum (20% and 42% in epristeride and finasteride groups, respectively, P < 0.001) and in prostate tissue (18% and 29% in epristeride and finasteride groups, respectively, P = 0.004).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Two types of 5α-RI have similar effects in reducing DHT in prostate tissue in beagles. Competitive 5α-RI may reduce serum DHT to a greater scale, and significantly increase testosterone in beagle serum and prostate.</p>


Subject(s)
5-alpha Reductase Inhibitors , Pharmacology , Androgens , Blood , Metabolism , Androstadienes , Pharmacology , Animals , Dihydrotestosterone , Blood , Metabolism , Dogs , Finasteride , Pharmacology , Male , Prostate , Metabolism
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