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Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(1): 247-255, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab
Article in English | ID: biblio-1153059


The goal of this work was to assess the biomass production and bromatological quality of ryegrass genotypes in ten municipalities of the Western and North Plateau regions of the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The cultivars La Estanzuela 284 (diploid), Bar HQ, Barjumbo, INIA Escorpio, Potro, and Winter Star (tetraploids) were compared, distributed in a randomized block design, in which the municipalities constituted the blocks, with three replications. The cuts were performed when the plants reached 30cm, leaving a residue of 10cm. In three cuts, the cultivars Barjumbo and Bar HQ were the most productive, exceeding 4.6 t ha-1 of dry matter. In the places in which five cuts were performed, the production of these cultivars exceeded 7.3 t ha-1, placing them again ahead of the others. The average crude protein content in three cuts was greater than 25% in all cultivars. There was no difference between the genotypes in the content of neutral detergent fiber and total digestible nutrients. There was a significant correlation between quantitative and qualitative productive variables. The assessed cultivars represented good options for composing short-term or long-term winter-feeding systems, adjusted to the integration with annual crops or warm-season pastures.(AU)

O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção de biomassa e qualidade bromatológica de genótipos de azevém, em dez municípios das regiões Oeste e Planalto Norte Catarinense, Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil. Foram comparados os cultivares La Estanzuela 284 (diploide), Bar HQ, Barjumbo, INIA Escorpio, Potro e Winter Star (tetraploides), distribuídos em um delineamento blocos casualizados, em que os municípios constituíram os blocos, com três repetições. Os cortes foram realizados quando as plantas atingiram 30cm, deixando um resíduo de 10cm. Sob três cortes, os cultivares Barjumbo e Bar HQ foram os mais produtivos, ultrapassando 4,6 t ha-1 de matéria seca. Nos locais em que ocorreram cinco cortes, a produção destes cultivares superou 7,3 t ha-1, posicionando-os novamente à frente dos demais. O teor médio de proteína bruta em três cortes foi superior a 25% em todos os cultivares. Não houve diferença entre os genótipos no teor de fibra detergente neutro e de nutrientes digestíveis totais. Verificou-se correlação significativa entre variáveis produtivas quantitativas e qualitativas. Os cultivares testados representam boas opções para compor sistemas forrageiros hiberno-primaveris de curta ou longa duração, ajustando-se à integração com lavouras ou pastagens anuais de estação quente.(AU)

Lolium/chemistry , Nutritive Value , Brazil , Agricultural Cultivation , Diploidy , Tetraploidy
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21190007, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153291


HIGHLIGHTS Low genetic similarity in Paspalum notatum accessions. High genetic distance among diploid accessions. The accessions have good potential to breeding program.

Abstract Paspalum notatum is an important forage grass contributing significantly to the coverage of the natural fields of Southern Brazil. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to evaluate the genetic similarity of strains within a P. notatum collection. Genomic DNA was extracted in bulk from young leaves of five plants from each accession obtained from the USDA. In the molecular analysis, the eight SSR markers evaluated formed seven distinct groups, and two isolated genotypes, with an average similarity index of 0.29, ranging from zero to 0.83. All the loci were polymorphic and the polymorphism information content ranging from 0.41 to 0.69. The results evidenced a low genetic similarity, which can be explored via parental selection in a breeding program.

Paspalum/genetics , Diploidy , Plant Breeding , Breeding , Genetic Markers , Hybrid Vigor
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 612-621, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827007


Apomixis has been widely concerned because of its great potential in heterosis fixation. Artificial apomixis is an important direction of current apomixis research. Mitosis instead of Meiosis (MIME) produces diploid gametes that is identical with the maternal genetic composition and is a key step in the artificial creation of apomixes. This paper reviews the occurrence of MIME and its application in crop apomixis and the problems encountered, in an aim to provide reference for expanding the application of MIME in crop apomixis.

Apomixis , Crops, Agricultural , Genetics , Diploidy , Germ Cells , Meiosis , Mitosis
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878828


In this study, the roots, stems and leaves of diploid and autotetraploid Dendrobium huoshanense were used as materials to compare their contents of polysaccharides and alkaloids, and the transcriptome sequencing analysis was carried out. The results showed that the contents of polysaccharides and alkaloids in the roots, stems and leaves of tetraploid were 7.6%, 34.5%, 17.2%, 0.01%, 0.024% and 0.035% higher than those of diploid D. huoshanense, respectively. The contents of active components in different tissues were significantly different. There were 3 687 differentially expressed genes in diploid and tetraploid D. huoshanense, of which 2 346 genes were up-regulated and 1 341 down regulated. Go functional analysis showed that these genes were mainly involved in growth and development, stress resistance and other related functions. KEGG pathway analysis showed that most of the differential genes were concentrated in the processes of carbon metabolism, signal transduction, carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism and energy metabolism. The differential expression of key genes involved in the metabolism of polysaccharides, terpenes and polyketones, amino acid metabolism, hormone synthesis and signal transduction in diploid and tetraploid plants may be the main reason for the high energy content, the increase of active components and the growth potential of tetraploid plants.

Alkaloids , Dendrobium/genetics , Diploidy , Plant Roots , Polysaccharides , Transcriptome
Braz. j. biol ; 79(2): 180-190, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989438


Abstract Synthetic polyploids are key breeding materials for watermelon. Compared with diploid watermelon, the tetraploid watermelon often exhibit wide phenotypic differences and differential gene expression. Digital gene expression (DGE) profile technique was performed in this study to present gene expression patterns in an autotetraploid and its progenitor diploid watermelon, and deferentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to the abiotic and biotic stress were also addressed. Altogether, 4,985 DEGs were obtained in the autotetraploid against its progenitor diploid, and 66.02% DEGs is up-regulated. GO analysis shows that these DEGs mainly distributed in 'metabolic process', 'cell' and 'catalytic activity'. KEGG analysis revealed that these DEGs mainly cover 'metabolic pathways', 'secondary metabolites' and 'ribosome'. Moreover, 134 tolerance related DEGs were identified which cover osmotic adjustment substance, protective enzymes/protein, signaling proteins and pathogenesis-related proteins. This study present the differential expression of stress related genes and global gene expression patterns at background level in autotetraploid watermelons. These new evidences could supplement the molecular theoretical basis for the better resistance after the genome doubling in the gourd family.

Resumo Poliploides sintéticos são materias fundamentais para melhoramento genético da melancia. Comparativamente ao seu homólogo diploide, a melancia tetraploide apresenta amplas diferenças genotípica e fenotípica e diferença de expressão gênica. A expressão gênica digital ou DGE (digital gene expression) foi utilizada neste estudo para representar o perfil de expressão gênica da melancia autotetraploide e seu progenitor diploide e a expressão diferencial de genes relacionados ao estresse biótico e abiótico. Os resultados mostraram que 4.985 DEGs foram observados no organismo autotetraploide, sendo que, deste total, 66.02%foram supra-regulados. A análise de ontologia gênica (GO) mostrou que estes DEGs estão relacionados principalmente com processos metabólicas, célula e atividade catalítica, abrangendo de acordo com a análise de genes e genoma (KEGG) rotas metabólicas, metabolismo secundário e ribossomos. Além disso, 134 genes de defesa foram identificados, abrangendo substâncias de ajuste osmótico, enzimas/proteínas de proteção, proteínas sinalizadoras e proteínas relacionadas à patogênese. Este estudo mostrou a expressão diferencial de genes relacionados ao estresse e o perfil global de expressão gênica de melancia autotetraploide, estes resultados podem complementar, a nível molecular, o entendimento do fator resistência após a duplicação do genoma em cucurbitáceas.

Polyploidy , Genes, Plant/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant/genetics , Citrullus/genetics , Citrullus/metabolism , Transcriptome/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling , Diploidy
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 17(3): e190069, 2019. graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-1040664


Gymnorhamphichthys britskii is a Neotropical electric fish of family Rhamphichthyidae described from the Paraná-Paraguay system. This study reports the first karyotypic description of G. britskii collected from the upper Paraná river basin, which presented 2n=38 chromosomes, karyotype composed of 14 metacentric, 8 submetacentric, 2 subtelocentric and 14 acrocentric chromosomes, and fundamental number as 62 for both sexes. Heteromorphic sex chromosomes were absent. A single pair of nucleolar organizing regions (NORs) was detected in the submetacentric chromosome pair number 9 by silver staining and confirmed by the 18S rDNA probe. The 5S rDNA was located in a single chromosome pair. Heterochromatic regions were clearly observed in the short arms of the NOR-bearing chromosome pair and in the telomeric positions of most acrocentric chromosomes. Besides the present data are valuable to help in understanding karyotypic evolution in Rhamphichthyidae, data from NORs confirmed the tendency of this family in presenting simple NORs sites, similar to the other Gymnotiformes clades. Yet, the presence of a large heterochromatic block in the NOR-bearing chromosome can be used as cytogenetic markers for G. britskii, and that centric fusions appear to be an important mechanism in the karyotype evolution and differentiation among Gymnotiformes species.(AU)

Gymnorhamphichthys britskii é um peixe neotropical da família Rhamphichthyidae descrita no sistema Paraná-Paraguai. Este estudo relata a primeira descrição cariotípica de G. britskii coletado na bacia do alto rio Paraná, que apresentou 2n = 38 cromossomos, cariótipo composto por 14 metacêntricos, 8 submetacêntricos, 2 subtelocêntricos e 14 acrocêntricos, e número fundamental 62 para ambos sexos. Cromossomos sexuais heteromórficos estavam ausentes. Um único par de regiões organizadoras de nucléolos (RONs) foi detectado no par de cromossomos submetacêntricos número 9 por coloração com prata e confirmado pela sonda DNAr 18S. O DNAr 5S foi localizado em um único par cromossômico. Regiões heterocromáticas foram claramente observadas nos braços curtos do par de cromossomos que carrega a RON e nas posições teloméricas da maioria dos cromossomos acrocêntricos. Além dos dados presentes serem valiosos para auxiliar na compreensão da evolução cariotípica em Rhamphichthyidae, dados de RONs confirmaram a tendência desta família em apresentar sítios simples de RONs, semelhantes aos demais clados de Gymnotiformes. No entanto, a presença de um grande bloco heterocromático no cromossomo portador da RON, pode ser usado como marcador citogenético para G. britskii e as fusões cêntricas parecem ser um mecanismo importante na evolução e diferenciação cariotípica entre as espécies de Gymnotiformes.(AU)

Cytogenetic Analysis/veterinary , Gymnotiformes/genetics , Diploidy , Karyotype
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714897


PURPOSE: Platycodon grandiflorum (a domestic diploid variety, DV-PG) has been used as a food and component of various traditional oriental medicines. Although DV-PG is known to have an anti-allergic effect, little is known about the beneficial health effects of the tetraploid ‘Etteum’ variety in the Platycodon grandiflorum (TV-PG), which is a recently developed variety. In this study, we investigated the effect of TV-PG on the rat basophilic leukemia mast cell (RBL-2H3)-mediated allergic response. METHODS: To examine the effects of TV-PG on the allergic response, RBL-2H3 cells were sensitized with dinitropheny (DNP)-immunoglobin E, treated with various concentrations of TV-PG, and challenged with DNP-human serum albumin. We estimated cell granulation by measuring the release of β-hexosaminidase and production of inflammatory mediators by ELISA. RESULTS: TV-PG had no effect on the proliferation or cytotoxicity of RBL-2H3 cells within the concentration range of 0 to 200 µg/mL. TV-PG inhibited degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells by antigen stimulation in a dose-dependent manner. TV-PG also suppressed the production of inflammatory cytokines and mediators such as interleukin-4, tumor necrosis factor-α, prostagladin E2, and leukotriene B4 in RBL-2H3 cells by antigen stimulation. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that TV-PG exhibits anti-allergic activity via inhibition of degranulation as well as suppression of inflammatory mediators and cytokine release. These findings suggest that TV-PG may have potential as a preventive and therapeutic agent for the treatment of various allergic diseases.

Animals , Basophils , Cytokines , Diploidy , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Functional Food , Hypersensitivity , Inflammation Mediators , Interleukin-4 , Leukemia , Leukotriene B4 , Mast Cells , Medicine, East Asian Traditional , Necrosis , Platycodon , Rats , Serum Albumin , Tetraploidy
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-66667


OBJECTIVE: To describe in vitro development of human embryos derived from an individual with a homozygous pathogenic variant in NLRP7 (19q13.42) and recurrent hydatidiform mole (HM), an autosomal recessive condition thought to occur secondary to an oocyte defect. METHODS: A patient with five consecutive HM pregnancies was genomically evaluated via next generation sequencing followed by controlled ovarian hyperstimulation, in vitro fertilization (IVF) with intracytoplasmic sperm injection, embryo culture, and preimplantation genetic screening. Findings in NLRP7 were recorded and embryo culture and biopsy data were tabulated as a function of parental origin for any identified ploidy error. RESULTS: The patient was found to have a pathogenic variant in NLRP7 (c.2810+2T>G) in a homozygous state. Fifteen oocytes were retrieved and 10 embryos were available after fertilization via intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Developmental arrest was noted for all 10 embryos after 144 hours in culture, thus no transfer was possible. These non-viable embryos were evaluated by karyomapping and all were diploid biparental; two were euploid and eight had various aneuploidies all of maternal origin. CONCLUSION: This is the first report of early human embryo development from a patient with any NLRP7 mutation. The pathogenic variant identified here resulted in global developmental arrest at or before blastocyst stage. Standard IVF should therefore be discouraged for such patients, who instead need to consider oocyte (or embryo) donation with IVF as preferred clinical methods to treat infertility.

Abortion, Habitual , Aneuploidy , Biopsy , Blastocyst , Diploidy , Embryonic Development , Embryonic Structures , Female , Fertilization , Fertilization in Vitro , Genetic Testing , Gestational Trophoblastic Disease , Humans , Hydatidiform Mole , In Vitro Techniques , Infertility , Oocytes , Parents , Ploidies , Pregnancy , Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 318-325, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-633647


INTRODUCTION: Hydatidiform mole (HM) is an abnormal gestation characterized by significant hydropic enlargement, trophoblastic proliferation and atypia involving part or all of the chorionic villi. The diagnosis and classification of hydatidiform moles is subject to great inter-observer variability due to significant morphologic overlaps. This study aims to evaluate the utility of p57KIP2 immunohistochemistry and ploidy by Her-2 FISH in refining the diagnosis of molar tissues. METHOD: 113 and 78 molar cases were retrieved from the archives of the Histopathology Section of the Philippine General Hospital and Pathology Department of Seoul National University Hospital, respectively. TMA sections were submitted for immunohistochemical analysis for p57KIP2. Ploidy was determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization using Her-2 probe. An interrater reliability analysis was done using the Kappa statistics with 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: All 68 (100%) cases diagnosed as CH were negative for p57KIP2 staining and are diploid. Among the 54 cases of PH, only 1 (2%) is positive for p57KIP2 and is diploid. The interrater reliability between p57KIP2 and Her-2 FISH ploidy results is 0.66 (p CONCLUSION: Morphologic assessment alone may not be sufficient in problematic cases. p57KIP2 in conjunction with by Her-2 FISH are good adjuncts in the diagnosis and classification of hydatidiform mole.

Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Chorionic Villi , Immunohistochemistry , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Diploidy , Reproducibility of Results , Hydatidiform Mole , Trophoblasts , Ploidies , Molar
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-89893


BACKGROUND: Malvidin is one of the most abundant components in red wines and black rice. The effects of malvidin on aging and lifespan under oxidative stress have not been fully understood. This study focused on the anti-aging effect of malvidin on stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) in WI-38 human lung-derived diploid fibroblasts. METHODS: In order to determine the viability of WI-38 cells, MTT assay was conducted, and malondialdehyde level was determined using thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance assay. Protein expression of inflammation-related factors was also evaluated by Western blot analysis. RESULTS: Acute and chronic oxidative stress via hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) treatment led to SIPS in WI-38 cells, which showed decreased cell viability, increased lipid peroxidation, and a shortened lifespan in comparison with non-H2O2-treated WI-38 cells. However, malvidin treatment significantly attenuated H2O2-induced oxidative stress by inhibiting lipid peroxidation and increasing cell viability. Furthermore, the lifespan of WI-38 cells was prolonged by malvidin treatment. In addition, malvidin downregulated the expression of oxidative stress-related proteins, including NF-κB, COX-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Furthermore, protein expression levels of p53, p21, and Bax were also regulated by malvidin treatment in WI-38 cells undergoing SIPS. CONCLUSIONS: Malvidin may potentially inhibit the aging process by controlling oxidative stress.

Aging , Blotting, Western , Cell Survival , Diploidy , Fibroblasts , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide , Lipid Peroxidation , Malondialdehyde , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II , Oxidative Stress , Wine
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 31(3): 883-889, may./jun. 2015.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-963897


O objetivo do estudo foi determinar, em casa de vegetação, as características estruturais de cultivares de azevém diplóides e tetraplóides, em regime de corte. Os tratamentos constaram de três cultivares diploides [Comum-RS (Lolium multiflorum), Pronto® (L. multiflorum var. westerwoldicum) e Conquest® (L. multiflorum var. italicum)]; e quatro tetraploides [INIA Titan® (L. multiflorum var. italicum), Winter Star® (L. multiflorum var. westerwoldicum), KLM 138® (L. multiflorum var. italicum) e Banquet II® (L. perenne)], alocados em delineamento completamente ao acaso com seis repetições. As cultivares foram semeadas na densidade de 10 sementes vaso-1 de 2500g de solo, com correção e fertilização realizada em dose única antes da semeadura. Quando as plantas atingiram 20 cm de altura foi realizado o primeiro corte, para dar condições ao adequado estabelecimento, enquanto os demais foram realizados quando era atingida altura média de 15 cm, deixando-se sempre resíduo de 7 cm. Por análise de variância e comparação de médias pelo teste de Tukey (P<0,05), foram analisadas as variáveis estruturais: Comprimento final da folha, número de folhas vivas por perfilho, densidade populacional de perfilhos, comprimento da planta e relação folha:colmo, avaliadas no dia de cada corte, momentos antes da execução deste. As cultivares Comum-RS, INIA Titan®, Winter Star®, Conquest®, KLM 138®, Pronto® e Banquet II® diferem quanto às características estruturais estudadas. A cultivar Banquet II® apresenta as melhores características estruturais, todavia as cultivares Winter Star®, Conquest® e KLM 138® também apresentam estrutura adequada ao pastejo durante todo seu ciclo, enquanto Pronto® e Comum-RS, ao final do ciclo, têm a acessibilidade das folhas comprometida.

The main goal was to determine, under defoliation, in greenhouse, ryegrass structural traits of diploid and tetraploid cultivars. Treatments consisted of three diploid cultivars [Comum-RS (Lolium multiflorum), Pronto® (L. multiflorum var. westerwoldicum) and Conquest® (L. multiflorum var. Italicum)], and four tetraploids [INIA Titan® (L. multiflorum var. Italicum), Winter Star® (L. multiflorum var. westerwoldicum), KLM 138® (L. multiflorum var. italicum) and Banquet II® (L. perenne)], in a completely randomized design with six replications. Cultivars were sown at a density of 10 seeds pot-1 2500g of soil; correction and fertilization was performed in a single dose before sowing. When plants reached 20 cm height the first cutting was made, to allow for appropriate establishment. The following cuttings were made when when plants reached 15 cm average height, always leaving a residue of 7 cm. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and means compared by Tukey test (P<0.05). Variables evaluated were: Final length leaf, number of life leaves, population tillers density, plant length and leaf/sheath ratio, evaluated on each cut, moments before the execution of this. Cultivars Comum-RS, INIA Titan®, Winter Star®, Conquest®, KLM 138®, Pronto® e Banquet II® differ as to structural characteristics studed. Banquet II® cultivar presents the best structural features, however the Winter Star®, Conquest® and KLM 138® cultivars also have adequate structure to grazing throughout your cycle, while Pronto® and Comum-RS, to the end of the cycle, have accessibility leaves compromised.

Plants , Lolium , Agricultural Cultivation , Diploidy , Tetraploidy
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-237673


To explore the growth and development and analyze the quality of the parthenocarpy fruit induced by exogenous hormones of Siraitia grosvenorii. the horizontal and vertical diameter, volume of the fruit were respectively measured by morphological and the content of endogenous hormones were determined by ELISA. The size and seed and content of mogrosides of mature fruit were determined. The results showed that the fruit of parthenocarpy was seedless and its growth and development is similar to the diploid fruit by hand pollination and triploid fruit by hand pollination or hormones. But the absolute value of horizontal and vertical diameter, volume of parthenocarpy fruit was less than those of fruit by hand pollination, while triploid was opposite. The content of IAA, ABA and ratio of ABA/GA was obviously wavy. At 0-30 d the content of IAA and ABA of parthenocarpy fruit first reduced then increased, content of IAA and GA parthenocarpy fruit was higher than that of fruit by hand pollination. Mogrosides of parthenocarpy fruit was close to pollination fruit. Hormones can induce S. grosvenorii parthenocarpy to get seedless fruit and the fruit shape and size and quality is close to normal diploid fruit by hand pollination and better than triploid fruit by hormone or hand pollination.

Cucurbitaceae , Chemistry , Genetics , Diploidy , Fruit , Chemistry , Genetics , Plant Growth Regulators , Pharmacology
Genomics & Informatics ; : 102-111, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-42765


The karyotypes of most species of crocodilians were studied using conventional and molecular cytogenetics. These provided an important contribution of chromosomal rearrangements for the evolutionary processes of Crocodylia and Sauropsida (birds and reptiles). The karyotypic features of crocodilians contain small diploid chromosome numbers (30~42), with little interspecific variation of the chromosome arm number (fundamental number) among crocodiles (56~60). This suggested that centric fusion and/or fission events occurred in the lineage, leading to crocodilian evolution and diversity. The chromosome numbers of Alligator, Caiman, Melanosuchus, Paleosuchus, Gavialis, Tomistoma, Mecistops, and Osteolaemus were stable within each genus, whereas those of Crocodylus (crocodylians) varied within the taxa. This agreed with molecular phylogeny that suggested a highly recent radiation of Crocodylus species. Karyotype analysis also suggests the direction of molecular phylogenetic placement among Crocodylus species and their migration from the Indo-Pacific to Africa and The New World. Crocodylus species originated from an ancestor in the Indo-Pacific around 9~16 million years ago (MYA) in the mid-Miocene, with a rapid radiation and dispersion into Africa 8~12 MYA. This was followed by a trans-Atlantic dispersion to the New World between 4~8 MYA in the Pliocene. The chromosomes provided a better understanding of crocodilian evolution and diversity, which will be useful for further study of the genome evolution in Crocodylia.

Africa , Alligators and Crocodiles , Arm , Cytogenetics , Diploidy , Genome , Karyotype , Mya , Phylogeny
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-29886


The emergence of regenerative medicine has raised the hope of treating an extraordinary range of disease and serious injuries. Understanding the processes of cell proliferation, differentiation and pattern formation in regenerative organisms could help find ways to enhance the poor regenerative abilities shown by many other animals, including humans. Recently, planarians have emerged as an attractive model in which to study regeneration. These animals are considering as in vivo plate, during which we can study the behavior and characristics of stem cells in their own niche. A variety of characteristic such as: simplicity, easy to manipulate experimentally, the existence of more than 100 years of literature, makes these animals an extraordinary model for regenerative medicine researches. Among planarians free-living freshwater hermaphrodite Schmidtea mediterranea has emerged as a suitable model system because it displays robust regenerative properties and, unlike most other planarians, it is a stable diploid with a genome size of about 4.8x108 base pairs, nearly half that of other common planarians. Planarian regeneration involves two highly flexible systems: pluripotent neoblasts that can generate any new cell type and muscle cells that provide positional instructions for the regeneration of anybody region. neoblasts represent roughly 25~30 percent of all planarian cells and are scattered broadly through the parenchyma, being absent only from the animal head tips and the pharynx. Two models for neo-blast specification have been proposed; the naive model posits that all neoblasts are stem cells with the same potential and are a largely homogeneous population.

Animals , Base Pairing , Cell Proliferation , Diploidy , Fresh Water , Genome Size , Head , Hope , Humans , Muscle Cells , Pharynx , Planarians , Regeneration , Regenerative Medicine , Stem Cells
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-64634


OBJECTIVE: It has previously been suggested that embryos developing from intracytoplasmic sperm-injected (ICSI) zygotes with three pronuclei (3PN) are endowed with a mechanism for self-correction of triploidy to diploidy. 3PN are also observed in zygotes after conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF). The parental origin, however, differs between the two fertilization methods. Whereas the vast majority of 3PN IVF zygotes are of dispermic origin and thus more likely to have two centrioles, the 3PN ICSI zygotes are digynic in origin and therefore, more likely to have one centriole. In the present study, we examine whether the parental origin of 3PN embryos correlates with the karyotype. METHODS: The karyotype of each nucleus was estimated using four sequential fluorescence in situ hybridizations-each with two probes-resulting in quantitative information of 8 different chromosomes. The karyotypes were then compared and correlated to the parental origin. RESULTS: 3PN ICSI embryos displayed a significantly larger and more coordinated reduction from the assumed initial 3 sets of chromosomes than 3PN IVF embryos. CONCLUSION: The differences in the parental origin-and hence the number of centrioles-between the 3PN IVF and the 3PN ICSI zygotes are likely to be the cause of the differences in karyotypes.

Centrioles , Diploidy , Embryonic Structures , Fertilization , Fertilization in Vitro , Fluorescence , Humans , Karyotype , Parents , Ploidies , Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic , Triploidy , Zygote
Braz. j. biol ; 74(1): 251-256, 2/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-715586


Kerodon acrobata is a caviidae rodent endemic from Brazilian Cerrado. It was described only in 1997 and the data about it is very scarce. The aim of this work was to characterize the karyotype of K. acrobata. Giemsa staining, nucleolar organizer region (NOR) banding, C-positive heterochromatin banding and DAPI fluorescence were used in N metaphases of a specimen collected in Asa Branca Farm, in Aurora do Tocantins municipality, Tocantins state, Brazil. K. acrobata showed the same diploid number, fundamental number and chromosome morphology as Kerodon rupestris. But its NOR location and heterochromatin distribution patterns indicated a unique cytogenetic profile when compared to its sister species, emphasizing the evolutionary uniqueness of this relatively new and unknown species. This record also extends the distribution of this species northward.

Kerodon acrobata é um roedor caviídeo endêmico do Cerrado brasileiro. A espécie foi descrita apenas em 1997, e as informações sobre ela são muito escassas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar o cariótipo K. acrobata. Coloração em Giemsa, bandeamento da região organizadora do nucléolo, bandeamento da heterocromatina C-positiva e fluorescência DAPI foram utilizados em N metáfases de um espécime coletado na fazenda Asa Branca, na cidade de Aurora do Tocantins, estado do Tocantins, Brasil. K. acrobata apresentou o mesmo número diplóide, número fundamental e morfologia dos cromossomos de Kerodon rupestris. Mas a localização de sua NOR e os padrões de distribuição de heterocromatina indicam um perfil citogenético único quando comparado com sua espécie irmã, enfatizando a singularidade evolutiva desta espécie pouco conhecida. Este registro também estende a distribuição desta espécie em direção ao norte.

Animals , Female , Chromosome Banding , Karyotyping , Rodentia/genetics , Brazil , Diploidy , Rodentia/classification
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1235-1246, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-345601


Abstract: In order to enhance the content of secondary metabolites patchouli alcohol in Pogostemon cablin, we induced polyploid hairy roots and their plant regeneration, and determined the content of patchouli alcohol through artificial chromosome doubling with colchicine. The highest rate of polyploidy induction was more than 40% when hairy roots were treated with 0.05% colchicine for 36 h. The obtained polyploid hairy roots formed adventitious shoots when cultured in an MS medium with 6-BA 0.2 mg/L and NAA 0.1 mg/L for 60 d. Compared with the control diploid plants, the polyploid hairy root-regenerated plants of P. cablin had more developed root systems, thicker stems, shorter internodes and longer, wider and thicker leaves. Observation of the chromosome number in their root tip cells reveals that the obtained polyploid regenerated plants were tetraploidy, with 128 (4n = 128) chromosomes. The leaves contained around twice as many stomatal guard cells and chloroplasts as the controls, but the stomatal density declined with increasing ploidy. The stomatal density in diploid plants was around 1.67 times of that in polyploid plants. GC-MS analysis shows that the content of patchouli alcholol in the hairy root-derived polyploid plants was about 4.25 mg/g dry weight, which was 2.3 times of that in diploid plants. The present study demonstrates that polyploidization of hairy roots can stimulate the content of patchouli alcholol in medicinal plant of P. cablin.

Colchicine , Diploidy , Lamiaceae , Genetics , Plant Roots , Plants, Medicinal , Genetics , Polyploidy , Regeneration , Sesquiterpenes , Chemistry
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 33(3): 468-486, set. 2013. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-698762


Introducción. Del 60 al 80 % de los pacientes con leucemia linfoblástica aguda de precursores B presentan alteraciones genéticas que influyen en el pronóstico de la enfermedad y en la biología del tumor. Objetivo. Analizar distintas alteraciones genéticas en leucemia linfoblástica aguda de precursores B en niños, y su relación con el inmunofenotipo y con la tasa de proliferación, en comparación con precursores B normales. Materiales y métodos. En 44 pacientes se evaluó, por citometría de flujo, el inmunofenotipo, el contenido de ADN y la proliferación, y por RT-PCR, las traslocaciones t(9;22), t(12;21), t(4;11) y t(1;19). Mediante un análisis jerarquizado de conglomerados se identificaron los patrones inmunofenotípicos de expresión asociados a las traslocaciones, tomando como referencia precursores B normales. Resultados. La cuantificación del ADN mostró que el 21 % de los casos de leucemia linfoblástica aguda de precursores B eran hiperdiploides de índice alto y, el 47,7 %, hiperdiploides de índice bajo. La presencia de hiperdiploidía se asoció con mayor proliferación tumoral y con inmunofenotipos aberrantes, que incluyeron expresión anormal de CD10, TdT, CD38 y CD45 y un mayor tamaño de los linfoblastos. La presencia de t(9;22) y t(12;21) discrimina células normales de células tumorales con aberraciones en la expresión de CD19, CD20, CD13, CD33, CD38, CD34 y CD45. Conclusiones. El perfil de aberraciones fenotípicas detectado en conjunto con anormalidades en la proliferación tumoral, se asocia de forma significativa con hiperdiploidiía de ADN y discrimina de forma clara linfoblastos con t(9;22) y t(12;21) de los precursores B normales. La identificación de estos parámetros será de gran utilidad como herramienta para la clasificación y seguimiento de los pacientes.

Introduction: Between 60 and 80% of patients with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia show genetic abnormalities which influence the prognosis of the disease and the biology of the tumor. Objective: To analyze different genetic abnormalities in acute B lymphoblastic leukemia in children, its relationship with the immunophenotype and the proliferative rate compared with normal B cell precursors. Materials and methods: We assessed immunophenotype, DNA content and proliferative rate in 44 samples by flow cytometry, and translocations t(9;22), t(12;21), t(4;11), and t(1;19) by RT-PCR. Using a hierarchical cluster analysis, we identified some immunophenotypic patterns associated to genetic abnormalities when compared with normal B cell precursors. Results: DNA quantification showed that 21% of the cases had high hyperdiploidy and 47.7% has low hyperdiploidy. The presence of hyperdiploidy was associated with increased tumor proliferation and aberrant immunophenotypes, including abnormal expression of CD10, TdT, CD38, and CD45 and an increased size of the lymphoblasts. The presence of t(9;22) and t(12;21) discriminates normal cells from tumor cells with aberrant immunophenotype in the expression of CD19, CD22, CD13, CD33, CD38, CD34, and CD45. Conclusions: The aberrant immunophenotype profile detected in neoplastic cells along with abnormalities in the proliferative rate were significantly associated with DNA hyperdiploidy and clearly distinguished lymphoblasts with t(9;22) and t(12;21) from normal B cell precursors. The identification of these parameters is useful as a tool for classification and monitoring of these patients.

Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , B-Lymphocytes/classification , Leukemia, B-Cell/genetics , Leukemia, B-Cell/immunology , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/genetics , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/immunology , Cell Proliferation , Diploidy , DNA, Neoplasm/analysis , Immunophenotyping
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(3): 376-382, maio 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-676976


In this study, we used fluorescence in situ hybridisation to determine the chromosomal location of 45S rDNA clusters in 10 species of the tribe Rhodniini (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae). The results showed striking inter and intraspecific variability, with the location of the rDNA clusters restricted to sex chromosomes with two patterns: either on one (X chromosome) or both sex chromosomes (X and Y chromosomes). This variation occurs within a genus that has an unchanging diploid chromosome number (2n = 22, including 20 autosomes and 2 sex chromosomes) and a similar chromosome size and genomic DNA content, reflecting a genome dynamic not revealed by these chromosome traits. The rDNA variation in closely related species and the intraspecific polymorphism in Rhodnius ecuadoriensis suggested that the chromosomal position of rDNA clusters might be a useful marker to identify recently diverged species or populations. We discuss the ancestral position of ribosomal genes in the tribe Rhodniini and the possible mechanisms involved in the variation of the rDNA clusters, including the loss of rDNA loci on the Y chromosome, transposition and ectopic pairing. The last two processes involve chromosomal exchanges between both sex chromosomes, in contrast to the widely accepted idea that the achiasmatic sex chromosomes of Heteroptera do not interchange sequences.

Animals , Female , Male , Chromosomes, Insect/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , /genetics , Triatominae/genetics , X Chromosome/genetics , Y Chromosome/genetics , Biological Evolution , Diploidy , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Karyotyping , Species Specificity
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 11(1): 125-131, Jan-Mar/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-670936


Cytogenetic analyses were carried out in 117 specimens of seven species of the genus Ancistrus from three hydrographic in Mato Grosso State: Paraguay, Araguaia-Tocantins and Amazon basins. Conventional cytogenetic techniques were used to obtain mitotic chromosomes. C-banding was performed to detect heterochromatic regions and silver nitrate staining was used to identify nucleolar organizer regions (Ag-NORs). The counted and paired chromosomes revealed diploid numbers ranging from 2n = 40 to 2n = 54 with karyotype formulae varying from FN = 80 to FN = 86. Single marks in distinct chromosomes identified the nucleolar organizer regions. The constitutive heterochromatin was scarce in the diploid number from 2n = 50 to 2n = 54 and conspicuous blocks were observed in a single species with 2n = 40 chromosomes. These data corroborate the hypotheses of reduction of diploid number in species with derived features such as presence of sex chromosomes and polymorphisms, besides allowing inferences about the evolutionary mechanisms and the ancestor karyotype that favored the diversification of this important genus in the tribe Ancistrini.

Foram realizadas análises citogenéticas de 117 espécimes do gênero Ancistrus de três bacias hidrográficas do estado de Mato Grosso: Paraguai, Araguaia-Tocantins e Amazônica, utilizando as técnicas de citogenética convencional para obtenção de cromossomos mitóticos, visualização de regiões heterocromáticas e regiões organizadoras de nucléolos. Os cromossomos pareados revelaram uma variação no número diploide de 2n = 40 a 2n = 54 e número fundamental de NF = 80 a NF = 86. As regiões organizadoras de nucléolos foram evidenciadas em um único par de cromossomos para todas as espécies e a heterocromatina é escassa nas espécies com números diploides elevados (2n = 50 a 2n = 54). Os blocos heterocromáticos mais evidentes foram observados nos pares portadores das AgRONs e em cromossomos da espécie com 2n = 40. Estes dados contribuem para a hipótese de redução do número diploide nas espécies que apresentam polimorfismos cromossômicos e cromossomos sexuais, além de contribuir para inferências sobre os mecanismos de evolução cariotípica que favoreceu a diversificação do gênero Ancistrus, o mais representativo na tribo Ancistrini.

Animals , Cytogenetic Analysis/veterinary , Diploidy , Catfishes/genetics , Heterochromatin/isolation & purification