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1.
Acta méd. colomb ; 46(1): 49-49, ene.-mar. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1278157

ABSTRACT

Masculino de 71 años, hipertenso, con tabaquismo activo (IPA 51); ingresó a urgencias por disminución progresiva de la agudeza visual bilateral hasta llegar a amaurosis bilateral, no dolor ocular. Asociado a cefalea crónica frontal bilateral, pulsátil. RNM cerebral mostró engrosamiento difuso de la meninge en relación con paquimeningitis. Biopsia de meninge mostró paquimeninge. Se descartaron casusas neoplásicas, infecciosas, autoinmunes, por lo cual se consideró una paquimeningitis hipertrófica idiopática (PHI). La paquimeningitis hipertrófica es una entidad clínica rara caracterizada por engrosamiento localizado o difuso de la duramadre, con o sin una inflamación asociada, produce déficit neurológico progresivo por compresión de las estructuras adyacentes (1). El dolor de cabeza es el síntoma inicial más común, seguido de síntomas oftalmológicos, como pérdida visual y diplopía (2). Su etiología es multifactorial, en estudios de imagen se encuentra engrosamiento dural en la fosa craneal posterior (2), imitando la torre Eiffel iluminada en noche (signo de Eiffel de noche) (3).


A 71-year-old hypertensive male who was an active smoker (IPA 51) was admitted to the emergency room due to progressively decreasing bilateral eyesight to the point of bilateral amaurosis, without ocular pain. This was associated with a chronic bilateral pulsatile frontal headache. A brain NMR showed diffuse meningeal thickening related to pachymeningitis. A meningeal biopsy showed pachymeninge. Neoplastic, infectious and autoimmune causes were ruled out; therefore, it was considered to be idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis (IHP). Hypertrophic pachymeningitis is a rare clinical entity characterized by localized or diffuse thickening of the dura mater, with or without associated inflammation. It causes progressive neurological deficit due to compression of the adjacent structures (1). Headache is the most common initial symptom, followed by ophthalmological symp-toms such as vision loss and diplopia (2). Its etiology is multifactorial. Dural thickening in the posterior cranial fossa, mimicking the Eiffel Tower illuminated at night (Eiffel-by-night sign), is found on imaging studies. References 1. Uchida H, Ogawa Y, Tominaga T. Marked effectiveness of low-dose oral methotrexate for steroid-resistant idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis: Case report. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2018 May;168:30­3. 2. Hahn LD, Fulbright R, Baehring JM. Hypertrophic pachymeningitis. J Neurol Sci. 2016 Aug;367:278­83. 3. Dash GK, Thomas B, Nair M, Radhakrishnan A. Clinico-radiological spectrum and outcome in idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis. J Neurol Sci. 2015 Mar;350(1­2):51­60. Figure 1. A: Brain NRM with gadolinium, coronal view. Diffuse meningeal thickening, mainly on the right, with significant enhancement on diffuse gadolinium application, compatible with pachymeningitis. B: Orbital NRM with gadolinium. Diffuse pachymeningitis changes which reach the left and right orbital fissures. Figure 2. Meningeal biopsy (H&E 40X). Fibroconnective tissue can be seen, with fibroblast proliferation, increased collagen, cal-cifications and mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate throughout its thickness, compatible with pachymeninge.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Visual Acuity , Meningitis , Vision, Ocular , Biopsy , Cranial Fossa, Posterior , Diplopia , Eye Pain , Headache
2.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 79(4): 263-265, July-Aug. 2020. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137976

ABSTRACT

Resumo Paciente do sexo feminino, 19 anos, com queixa de diplopia, náusea e vômito de início súbito. Ao exame físico, a paciente apresentava rotação da cabeça para a esquerda e limitação da adução do olho direito, sugerindo paresia do músculo reto medial. Ausência de ptose palpebral ou paresia de outra musculatura ocular extrínseca e sem outras alterações na avaliação oftalmológica. Foi relatado pelo paciente o uso de Metronidazol, duas doses de 500 mg, no mesmo dia em que os sintomas começaram. A ressonância magnética do crânio foi solicitada. O resultado mostrou um cisto da glândula pineal, estando os outros aspectos dentro da normalidade. A paresia do músculo reto medial e diplopia persistiram por 14 dias, mesmo após a suspensão do antibiótico, optando, assim, por iniciar a corticoterapia oral, evoluindo com boa resposta clínica, melhora dos sintomas e regressão da paresia muscular.


Abstract Female patient, 19 years old, with a complaint of diplopia, nausea and vomiting of sudden onset. Upon physical examination, the patient presented herself with the head position rotated to the left and limitation of adduction of the right eye, suggesting paresis of the medial rectus muscle. Absence of palpebral ptosis or paresis of other extrinsic musculature of the eye, and without other alterations in the ophthalmological evaluation. It was reported by the patient the use of Metronidazole, two doses of 500 mg, the same day the symptoms started. The magnetic resonance imaging of the skull was requested. The result showed a cyst of the pineal gland, the other aspects being within normality. The paresis of the medial rectus muscle and diplopia persisted for 14 days, even after the antibiotic was discontinued, thus opting to initiate oral corticosteroid therapy, evolving with good clinical response, improvement of symptoms and regression of muscular paresis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Oculomotor Nerve Diseases/chemically induced , Diplopia/chemically induced , Metronidazole/adverse effects , Metronidazole/toxicity , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/toxicity , Administration, Oral
3.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(3): e333-e337, jun. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1117361

ABSTRACT

El síndrome anti-GQ1b reúne el síndrome de Miller-Fisher y la encefalitis del tronco cerebral de Bickerstaff, entre otras entidades. Tienen etiopatogenia común, constituida por la presencia de anticuerpos anti-GQ1b que reaccionan contra los sitios GQ1b del sistema nervioso según sea su accesibilidad. La prevalencia anual del síndrome de Miller-Fisher es de 0,09 casos por 100 000 habitantes por año y no existen estudios epidemiológicos sobre la encefalitis del tronco cerebral de Bickerstaff, que sería menos frecuente. De evolución natural hacia la mejoría, se beneficia del tratamiento con gammaglobulina endovenosa.Se presenta a un paciente de 12 años con síndrome de Miller-Fisher­Bickerstaff tras un episodio de diarrea aguda por Campylobacter jejuni en el que los anticuerpos anti-GQ1b resultaron positivos. Es nuestro objetivo comunicar sobre un síndrome de presentación poco habitual en pediatría a fin de advertir acerca de la necesidad de su sospecha precoz y solicitud de estudios de laboratorio específico


Miller-Fisher syndrome and Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis, among others, constitute the anti-GQ1b syndrome, with a common immune pathophysiologic pathway characterized by the presence of anti-GQ1b antibodies, which react against the different nervous system GQ1b sites according to their different accessibility. The Miller-Fisher syndrome has a prevalence of 0.09 cases per 100 000 people-year but there are not epidemiological studies about Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis, that it seems to be less frequent. In spite of having a good natural outcome, the immunoglobulin administration has been established as efficacious at improving it. A twelve-year-old boy suffering from Miller-Fisher-Bickerstaff syndrome after an acute Campylobacter jejuni diarrhea with positive titers of anti-GQ1b and anti-QGT1a antibodies is presented. We communicate a very uncommon pediatric disease with the aim of warning about the importance of its early suspicion and the need of specific laboratory determination


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Miller Fisher Syndrome , gamma-Globulins/therapeutic use , Diarrhea , Diplopia , Encephalitis , Antibodies
4.
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 19(1): e576, ene.-abr. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093132

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El abordaje del espacio subaracnoideo fue descrito por Quincke en el 1891. En la actualidad es práctica común para la realización de la anestesia neuroaxial subaracnoidea en las pacientes obstétricas. Las complicaciones descritas, asociadas a esto, son varias. Dentro de estas, la parálisis del nervio abducens o VI par no es frecuente y en ocasiones, no está relacionada a la punción ya que se produce días después del evento. Objetivo: Revisar la información relacionada con la complicación de parálisis del VI par. Presentación del caso: Paciente de 33 años de edad, femenina, de profesión médico, con antecedentes personales de migraña, historia de anestesia neuroaxial epidural sin complicaciones, que para la realización de una cesárea de segmento arciforme y salpinguectomia parcial bilateral, recibió una anestesia combinada peridural-espinal. El transoperatorio transcurre con estabilidad hemodinámica, hizo cefalea al tercer día del posoperatorio, que la atribuyó al antecedente de migraña y fue tratada sin evaluación por anestesiología con dipirona. A los 10 días de operada hace desviación de la mirada y diplopia, se diagnostica parálisis del VI par. Fue tratada por Neurología y se plantean varios diagnósticos diferenciales. Los estudios imagenológicos resultan negativos, se trató con vitaminas y se produjo remisión a las 6 semanas. Conclusiones: El diagnóstico de esta complicación es necesario ya que puede pasar inadvertida la relación con la anestesia y, por tanto, ser mal conducido su tratamiento(AU)


Introduction: The approach to the subarachnoid space was described by Quincke in 1891. It is now a common practice to perform subarachnoid neuroaxial anesthesia in obstetric patients. The complications described, associated with this, are several. Within these, the paralysis of the abducens nerve or sixth pair is not frequent and sometimes is not related to the puncture, since it occurs days after the event. Objective: To review the information related to the complication of paralysis of the sixth pair. Case presentation: A 33-year-old female patient, a physician, with a personal history of migraine, a history of epidural neuroaxial anesthesia without complications, who underwent combined epidural-spinal anesthesia for performing a cranial segment cesarean section and bilateral partial salpingectomy. The transoperative period runs with hemodynamic stability. There was headache three days after surgery, which was attributed to the migraine history and the patient was treated, without evaluation by anesthesiology, with dipyrone. At 10 days after surgery, the eyes are diverted and diplopia is manifested, paralysis of the sixth pair is diagnosed. She was treated by neurology and several differential diagnoses were proposed. Imaging studies are negative. She was treated with vitamins and remission occurred at six weeks. Conclusions: The diagnosis of this complication is necessary, since the relationship with anesthesia may go unnoticed and, therefore, its treatment may be poorly conducted(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Spinal Puncture/adverse effects , Abducens Nerve Diseases/complications , Anesthesia, Spinal/adverse effects , Diplopia/etiology
5.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811332

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To report the clinical manifestations and computed tomography (CT) findings of patients with a trapdoor type medial orbital wall blowout fracture.METHODS: From March 2009 to October 2016, the clinical records and computed tomography findings of patients who underwent surgical treatment for a trapdoor type medial orbital wall blowout fracture were retrospectively analyzed.RESULTS: A total of eight patients (six males and two females) were enrolled with a combined mean age of 14.4 years. Clinical manifestations were eyeball movement limitation (abduction and adduction) and ocular motility pain (eight patients, 100%), diplopia (seven patients, 87.5%), and nausea and vomiting (four patients, 50%). On CT, the distance from the orbital apex to the fracture site was an average of 22.0 mm and occurred in the middle position of the entire wall. Two patients had missed rectus completely dislocated into the ethmoid sinus through the fracture gap and six patients had definite involvement in the fracture gap and edema of the medial rectus muscle. The medial rectus muscle cross-sectional area was 47.7 mm² which was edematous compared to the contralateral eye (40.1 mm²). Orbital wall reconstruction was performed an average of 4.1 days after the injury. In all patients with oculocardiac reflex-like nausea and vomiting immediately improved after surgery. Six out of eight patients who had eyeball movement limitations (abduction and adduction) preoperatively showed adduction limitation after surgery. The eyeball movement limitation and diplopia disappeared 11.7 days and 46.7 days after surgery, respectively.CONCLUSIONS: Patients with trapdoor type medial wall blowout fracture showed characteristic computed tomographic findings and clinical manifestations such as eyeball movement limitation, ocular motility pain, diplopia, and oculocardiac reflex. An understanding of clinical findings and quick surgical treatment are therefore required. The type of eyeball movement limitation was abduction and adduction limitation preoperatively and adduction limitation postoperatively.


Subject(s)
Diplopia , Edema , Ethmoid Sinus , Humans , Male , Nausea , Orbit , Reflex, Oculocardiac , Retrospective Studies , Vomiting
6.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 78(1): 56-58, jan.-fev. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-990794

ABSTRACT

Resumo O presente trabalho relata o caso de um paciente, masculino, 38 anos, com estrabismo incomitante e consequente diplopia, submetido à cirurgia debilitadora com recuo e fortalecimento com ressecção do músculo reto inferior direito. O objetivo desta técnica cirúrgica é a correção do desvio em sua posição de maior incomitância, sem prejudicar o alinhamento ocular na posição primária do olhar (PPO). O resultado satisfatório, em concordância com os dados da literatura atual, contribui para fazer desta técnica uma opção no tratamento de estrabismos incomitantes de difícil manejo.


Abstract The present study reports a case of a patient, 38-year-old man, with incomitant strabismus and consequent diplopia, submitted to debilitating surgery with recession and strengthening resection of the right inferior rectus muscle. This surgical technique aims to correct the deviation in its greater incomitence position, without impairing the ocular alignment in the primary position of the eye (PPO). The satisfactory result, in agreement with data of current literature, contributes to make this technique an option in the treatment of challenging incomitant strabismus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Esotropia/surgery , Diplopia/diagnosis , Eye Movements , Oculomotor Muscles/surgery
7.
Rev. medica electron ; 41(1): 163-172, ene.-feb. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-991334

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Los trastornos de la motilidad ocular constituyen motivo de consulta periódica en Oftalmología. La regeneración aberrante, trastorno muy poco reportado, es considerada la sincinesia oculomotora de mayor invalidez y complejidad. Diversas condiciones neuroftalmológicas están implicadas en la etiopatogenia de la enfermedad, la mayoría de las cuales puede ocasionar la muerte. El manejo de los síntomas y signos provocados por paradójicos movimientos oculares conjugados es difícil. Se reportó un caso con remisión tardía a neuroftalmología por diagnóstico inicial y evolución desfavorable. La historia psicofísica arrojó diagnóstico definitivo de regeneración aberrante del III nervio craneal secundario, a aneurisma cerebral de la carótida interna bilateral, agravado por reanastomosis quirúrgica. Una rigurosa, obligatoria e impostergable historia neuroftalmológica, se impone ante toda parálisis del III nervio craneal para brindar un diagnóstico etiológico preciso y de esta forma proteger la vida.


ABSTRACT The disturbances in ocular motility are the cause of periodical consultation in Ophthalmology. The aberrant regeneration, a scarcely reported disturbance, is considered the oculomotor synkinesis of highest disability and complexness. Several neuro-ophthalmologic conditions are implicated in the disease ethiopathogeny, and most of them could lead to death. The management of the symptoms and signs caused by paradoxical conjugated ocular movements is difficult. A case is reported of late remission to Neuro-ophthalmology due to unfavorable diagnosis and evolution. The psycho-physical history led to a definitive diagnosis of aberrant regeneration of the III secondary cranial nerve, to cerebral aneurism of the bilateral internal carotid, worsened by surgical re-anastomosis. In front of any paralysis of the III cranial nerve, it is necessary a rigorous, obligatory and immediate neuro-ophthalmological history to arrive to a precise etiological diagnosis, protecting life in that way.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Ocular Motility Disorders/diagnosis , Oculomotor Nerve Diseases/diagnosis , Oculomotor Nerve Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Synkinesis/diagnosis , Diplopia/diagnosis
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785934

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Several studies have reported that periprocedural dual antiplatelet therapy lowers the incidence of thromboembolic complications (TEC) associated with coiling of unruptured aneurysms. We hypothesized that preprocedural administration of dual antiplatelet agents (aspirin and cilostazol) for 7days may reduce the risk of complications associated with diagnostic cerebral digital subtraction angiography (DSA).METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients who underwent diagnostic cerebral DSA between September 2015 and April 2018. Of the 419 patients included (149 men, 270 women, mean age 58.5 years), 221 (72 men, 149 women, mean age 57.8 years) who underwent cerebral DSA between September 2015 and June 2016 were not premedicated with antiplatelet therapy. The remaining 198 (77 men, 121 women, mean age 59.4 years) who underwent cerebral DSA between July 2016 and April 2018 were premedicated with dual antiplatelet therapy (aspirin and cilostazol). We defined ischemic stroke as a cerebral DSA-induced complication identified on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) among patients with neurological symptoms.RESULTS: Of the 221 patients who did not receive antiplatelet therapy, 210 (95.0%) showed no neurological symptoms; however, 11 (5.0%) developed neurological symptoms with MRI-proven ischemic stroke, which represents a TEC. Of the 198 patients who received dual antiplatelet therapy, 196 patients (99.0%) showed no evidence of TEC. The remaining 2 (1.0%) developed diplopia and motor weakness each, and MRI confirmed acute ischemic stroke (p=0.019).CONCLUSIONS: The use of dual antiplatelet agents (aspirin and cilostazol) for 7 days before DSA may reduce the risk of cerebral DSA-induced TEC.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Angiography, Digital Subtraction , Diplopia , Female , Humans , Incidence , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors , Premedication , Retrospective Studies , Stroke , Thromboembolism
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759613

ABSTRACT

Atorvastatin is one of the most widely prescribed medications for dyslipidemia treatment. In Korea, post combined therapy with ezetimibe, a 73-year-old woman was reported by a community pharmacy to have experienced visual field defect, which recovered after drug discontinuation. She had never experienced this symptom before, and several studies have reported an association between use of statins and visual disorders such as blurred vision, diplopia, and cataract. Blockage of cholesterol accumulation, oxidative stress, or myopathy is expected to be a cause of this symptom. Naranjo scale, Korean causality assessment algorithm (Ver.2), and World Health Organization-Uppsala Monitoring Center (WHO-UMC) criteria were the three tools used to determine causality between the visual disorder and atorvastatin. The results represent ‘probable’, ‘certain’, and ‘probable/likely’ causality, respectively. Our results, in combination with a review of literature, indicate that ocular adverse effects are highly likely related to atorvastatin.


Subject(s)
Aged , Atorvastatin , Cataract , Cholesterol , Diplopia , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Dyslipidemias , Ezetimibe , Female , Global Health , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Korea , Muscular Diseases , Oxidative Stress , Pharmacies , Vision Disorders , Visual Fields
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758447

ABSTRACT

Oculomotor nerve palsy limits the specific direction eyeball movement, and represents diplopia, mydriasis, and ptosis. The vascular-associated etiologies of oculomotor nerve palsy are the microvascular ischemia due to hypertension or diabetes, or compression of the nerve by the aneurysm. For the aneurysm, if not treated properly, it may result in mortality or severe neurological impairment. Thorough history taking, physical examinations, and proper imaging modality are needed to make an accurate diagnosis. A 76-year-old female with decreased mentality and anisocoria presented at our emergency department. An 83-year-old female presented with right ptosis and lateral-side deviated of the right eyeball. No definite lesion was noted on the initial non-contrast brain computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging diffusion. An aneurysm was detected on CT angiography taken several hours later in the former patient. For the latter patient, a giant aneurysm was detected on magnetic resonance angiography that had been performed at another hospital 4 days earlier. These two patients underwent transfemoral cerebral angiography with coiling. They were discharged with no neurological sequelae.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aneurysm , Angiography , Anisocoria , Brain , Carotid Artery, Internal , Cerebral Angiography , Diagnosis , Diffusion , Diplopia , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Humans , Hypertension , Ischemia , Magnetic Resonance Angiography , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mortality , Mydriasis , Oculomotor Nerve Diseases , Oculomotor Nerve , Physical Examination
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762775

ABSTRACT

Orbital tuberculosis is a rare form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, even in endemic areas. It may involve the soft tissue, lacrimal gland, periosteum, or bones of the orbital wall. We present a case of orbital tuberculosis on the lower eyelid. An 18-year-old woman with no underlying disease visited our clinic for evaluation of an oval nodule (1.5× 1.2 cm) on the right lower eyelid. Incision and drainage without biopsy was performed 2 months ago in ophthalmology department, but the periorbital mass had deteriorated, as the patient had erythematous swelling, tenderness, and cervical lymphadenopathy. Visual acuity was normal; there were no signs of proptosis, diplopia, or ophthalmoplegia. Computed tomography revealed a small abscess cavity without bony involvement. We performed an excision and biopsy through a percutaneous incision under local anesthesia. Histological examination revealed a granuloma and was diagnosed as orbital tuberculosis. The patient was additionally treated with anti-tuberculosis therapy for 6 months and recovered without complication or recurrence by 7 months. Orbital tuberculosis occurs in patients with or without associated pulmonary tuberculosis, and should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients with inflammatory orbital disease and an orbital mass. If recurrence occurs despite adequate initial treatment, we recommend an additional examination and excisional biopsy.


Subject(s)
Abscess , Adolescent , Anesthesia, Local , Biopsy , Diagnosis, Differential , Diplopia , Drainage , Exophthalmos , Eyelids , Female , Granuloma , Humans , Lacrimal Apparatus , Lymphatic Diseases , Ophthalmology , Ophthalmoplegia , Orbit , Orbital Diseases , Periosteum , Recurrence , Tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Visual Acuity
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762754

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To date, a variety of surgical approaches have been used to reconstruct the medial orbital wall fracture. Still however, there is still a controversy as to their applicability because of postoperative scars, injury of anatomical structures and limited visual fields. The purpose of this study was to introduce a useful additional medial subbrow approach for better reduction and securement more accurate implant pocket of medial orbital wall fracture with the subciliary technique. METHODS: We had performed our technique for a total of 14 patients with medial orbital wall fracture at our medical institution between January 2016 and July 2017. All fractures were operated through subciliary technique combined with the additional medial subbrow approach. They underwent subciliary approach accompanied by medial wall dissection using a Louisville elevator through the slit incision of the medial subbrow procedure. This facilitated visualization of the medial wall fracture site and helped to ensure a more accurate pocket for implant insertion. RESULTS: Postoperative outcomes showed sufficient coverage without displacement. Twelve cases of preoperative diplopia improved to two cases of postoperative diplopia. More than 2 mm enophthalmos was 14 cases preoperatively, improving to 0 case postoperatively. Without damage such as major vessels or extraocular muscles, enophthalmos was corrected and there was no restriction of eyeball motion. CONCLUSION: Our ancillary procedure was useful in dissecting the medial wall, and it was a safe method as to cause no significant complications in our clinical series. Also, there is an only nonvisible postoperative scar. Therefore, it is a recommendable surgical modality for medial orbital wall fracture.


Subject(s)
Cicatrix , Diplopia , Elevators and Escalators , Enophthalmos , Fracture Fixation , Humans , Methods , Muscles , Orbit , Orbital Fractures , Visual Fields
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760091

ABSTRACT

Thyroid ophthalmopathy is an autoimmune disease that affect the orbital and periorbital soft tissue, characterized by bulging eye (exophthalmos) and compressed orbital structures, such as the optic nerves. The indications for surgical treatment for thyroid ophthalmopathy include decreased visual acuity caused by optic neuropathy, conjunctivitis and progressive facial deformity caused by exophthalmos. Orbital wall decompression by nasal endoscopy resulte in good cosmetic effects and visual recovery. Balanced orbital decompression is considered to be a safe and effective surgery that can help avoid postoperative diplopia. We introduce three successful cases of orbital wall decompression for the treatment of thyroid ophthalmopathy.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , Congenital Abnormalities , Conjunctivitis , Decompression , Diplopia , Endoscopy , Exophthalmos , Optic Nerve , Optic Nerve Diseases , Orbit , Thyroid Gland , Visual Acuity
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760042

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the long-term efficacy of slanted lateral rectus recession in children for reducing distance and near exodeviation and near-distance deviation difference in intermittent exotropia with convergence insufficiency. METHODS: The medical records of 53 patients with convergence insufficiency intermittent exotropia who underwent slanted bilateral lateral rectus recession performed by a single surgeon and received follow-up for more than 12 months were retrospectively analyzed. Deviation angles at 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months postoperatively and on the last visit were reviewed. Surgical success was defined as postoperative residual distance and near deviation angles ≤8 prism diopters and a difference between the near and distance angles ≤8 prism diopters. RESULTS: The mean duration of follow-up was 24 months (range, 12 to 61 months). On the last visit, the residual deviation angles were ≤8 prism diopters in 75.5% for distance, 62.3% for near, and 81.1% for the near-distance difference. Surgical success was achieved in 31 (58.5%) patients, and none of them manifested limitations in eye movements or diplopia at the last follow-up visit. CONCLUSIONS: Slanted lateral rectus recession is an effective surgical method for reducing distance and near exodeviation and near-distance deviation difference in intermittent exotropia with convergence insufficiency.


Subject(s)
Child , Diplopia , Exotropia , Eye Movements , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Medical Records , Methods , Ocular Motility Disorders , Retrospective Studies
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766904

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We report a patient with delayed-onset abducens nerve palsy and Horner syndrome after endovascular treatment of traumatic carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF). CASE SUMMARY: A 68-year-female visited our ophthalmic department complaining of gradual-onset ptosis of the left eye and horizontal diplopia. She had undergone endovascular treatment to treat left-sided traumatic CCF after a car accident 10 years before; she had been told at that time that the treatment outcome was favorable. The left-sided ptosis gradually developed 6 years after the procedure, accompanied by diplopia. The left eye exhibited miosis and the extent of anisocoria increased in dim light. An extraocular examination revealed 30 prism diopters of left esotropia in the primary gaze and a −4 abduction limitation of the left eye. CCF recurrence was suspected; however, magnetic resonance imaging with magnetic resonance angiography of brain did not support this. The esotropia did not improve during the 6-month follow-up and strabismus surgery was performed. CONCLUSIONS: Delayed-onset abducens nerve palsy and Horner syndrome can develop even after successful endovascular treatment of CCF. Strabismus surgery should be considered in patients whose diplopia does not spontaneously improve.


Subject(s)
Abducens Nerve Diseases , Abducens Nerve , Anisocoria , Brain , Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula , Diplopia , Esotropia , Fistula , Follow-Up Studies , Horner Syndrome , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Angiography , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Miosis , Recurrence , Strabismus , Treatment Outcome
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766888

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To report a case of resection and transposition of the inferior oblique muscle combined with superior rectus recession as treatment for large-angle hypertropia due to unilateral loss of the inferior rectus muscle. CASE SUMMARY: A 39-year-old man presented with a complaint of left hypertropia and vertical diplopia caused by blunt trauma 20 years previously. Left hypertropia of 70 prism diopters (PD) and exotropia of 16 PD in the primary gaze were noted; ocular movements of the left eye showed overactive supraduction (+4) and underactive infraduction (−5). On surgical exploration, neither the inferior rectus muscle nor capsule were present at the insertion site. The patient was diagnosed with loss of the inferior rectus muscle, thus, 7 mm of the inferior oblique muscle was resected and transposed at the original insertion site of the inferior rectus muscle; the superior rectus muscle was then recessed by 4.5 mm. After the surgery, vertical alignment was straight in the primary position, infraduction limitation was changed from −5 preoperative to −2 postoperative, and supraduction was changed from +4 preoperative to −2 postoperative. CONCLUSIONS: Extensive resection and transposition of the inferior oblique muscle combined with recession of the superior rectus may help in obtaining a successful surgical outcome in patients with inferior rectus muscle loss with a large angle of vertical deviation.


Subject(s)
Adult , Diplopia , Exotropia , Humans , Strabismus
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766872

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To identify predictive factors for recovery time in patients with orbital fracture with diplopia through analysis of preoperative and postoperative computed tomography (CT) images and postoperative recovery time. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed CT findings-preoperative: fracture size, type of fracture, fracture site, extraocular muscle (EOM) swelling, EOM and soft tissue injury, and the amount of soft tissue herniation; post-operative: degree of enophthalmos, and diplopia recovery period in 379 patients who underwent surgical treatment for orbital fracture between March 2006 and December 2015. RESULTS: The average postoperative follow-up period was 556.2 ± 59.5 days, and the mean duration of recovery was 23.9 ± 42.5 (range, 3–186) days. The recovery time of diplopia was significantly increased with the following preoperative CT findings: fracture size (small and medium < large) (p = 0.049), type of fracture (linear < hinge < comminuted, trap-door) (p < 0.01), fracture site (inferior < medial and both) (p < 0.01), EOM and soft tissue injury (prolapse and torsion, muscle entrapment, kinked muscle) (p < 0.01), and the amount of soft tissue herniation (small and medium < large) (p < 0.001). The mechanism of injury, sex, age, and the degree of enophthalmos were not related to the length of the diplopia recovery period. CONCLUSIONS: The length of diplopia recovery could be predicted by CT findings.


Subject(s)
Diplopia , Enophthalmos , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Orbit , Orbital Fractures , Retrospective Studies , Soft Tissue Injuries
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766863

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of steroid treatment on strabismus associated with thyroid ophthalmopathy. METHODS: The present retrospective study was conducted on 22 patients diagnosed with strabismus associated with thyroid ophthalmopathy, who were treated with steroids orally or intravenously and followed up for more than one year. Patients were divided into three groups for analysis: an improved group, with no strabismus at the final follow-up visit; a stable group, with no change in the strabismus angle; and a deteriorated group, in which the strabismus angle had worsened. We investigated the characteristics of each group. RESULTS: In the gender/sex distribution of the 22 patients, 11 of the 15 patients in the improved or stable group were female; six of seven patients in the deteriorated group were male (p = 0.012). Two of the 15 patients in the improved or stable group had a smoking history. However, none smoked after the treatment had started. On the other hand, five of seven patients in the deteriorated group had a smoking history and continued to smoke during and after treatment (p = 0.001). No significant between-group differences were observed with respect to age, diplopia period, strabismus angle, or thyroid function level. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with steroids may improve or stabilize strabismus associated with thyroid ophthalmopathy. However, the effect of treatment may differ, depending on whether the patient continues to smoke after treatment is initiated.


Subject(s)
Diplopia , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hand , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Smoke , Smoking , Steroids , Strabismus , Thyroid Gland
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766857

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical effects of medial orbital decompression in patients with thyroid orbitopathy. METHODS: Forty-three orbits of 28 patients who underwent medial orbital decompression for cosmetic purposes between January 2014 to January 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Changes in visual acuity, intraocular pressure, exophthalmos, strabismus, and diplopia were checked before, 3 months, and 1 year after surgery. RESULTS: The average exophthalmos reduction was −2.99 ± 0.96 mm at postoperative 3 months and −3.07 ± 1.24 mm after 1 year (both, p < 0.001). In patients who underwent unilateral orbital decompression, the mean difference in exophthalmometry between the two eyes was significantly reduced from 3.06 ± 0.78 mm to 0.38 ± 0.44 mm after 3 months, and to 0.50 ± 0.46 mm after 1 year (p = 0.011 and p = 0.012, respectively). After surgery, the final postoperative intraocular pressure decreased significantly at postoperative 3 months and 1 year (both, p < 0.001). The mean preoperative horizontal deviation was 0.88 ± 4.85 prism diopters (PD) and 5.50 ± 6.74 PD at postoperative 3 months, which demonstrated significant esodeviation postoperatively (p = 0.007). Three patients had new onset esotropia (8.33%), but no surgical treatment was needed. CONCLUSIONS: Medial orbital decompression is a less invasive and safe surgical procedure for patients with asymmetric or mild thyroid-associated orbitopathy, which can be beneficial for reducing proptosis.


Subject(s)
Decompression , Diplopia , Esotropia , Exophthalmos , Humans , Intraocular Pressure , Orbit , Retrospective Studies , Strabismus , Thyroid Gland , Visual Acuity
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766828

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To report a case of pituitary apoplexy presenting as isolated bilateral oculomotor nerve palsy. CASE SUMMARY: A 46-year-old male presented with bilateral ptosis and acute severe headaches for 6 days. He underwent head surgery and bilateral vitrectomy 12 years prior to his visit because of ocular and head trauma. He mentioned that previous visual acuities in both eyes were not good. The initial corrected visual acuity was finger counting in the right eye and 20/500 in the left eye. Ocular motility testing revealed the limitation of adduction, supraduction, and infraduction with complete bilateral ptosis in both eyes, and his left pupil was dilated. He was diagnosed with an isolated bilateral oculomotor nerve palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging indicated pituitary gland hemorrhage with a tumor, which was suspicious of pituitary apoplexy. The patient was treated intravenous with 1.0 g methylprednisolone to prevent the corticotropic deficiency. In addition, he underwent surgical decompression using a navigation-guided transsphenoidal approach and aspiration biopsy. He was confirmed with pituitary adenoma using a pathological examination. The patient's ocular movements began to dramatically improve by the third day postoperatively. At 4 months postoperative follow-up, his ocular movement and double vision were completely recovered. CONCLUSIONS: This was a rare case of pituitary apoplexy with bilateral isolated oculomotor nerve palsy, which was the first report in the Republic of Korea. A full recovery was achieved after early surgical treatment.


Subject(s)
Biopsy, Needle , Cranial Nerve Diseases , Craniocerebral Trauma , Decompression, Surgical , Diplopia , Fingers , Follow-Up Studies , Head , Headache , Hemorrhage , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Methylprednisolone , Middle Aged , Oculomotor Nerve Diseases , Oculomotor Nerve , Pituitary Apoplexy , Pituitary Gland , Pituitary Neoplasms , Pupil , Republic of Korea , Visual Acuity , Vitrectomy
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