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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(3): 369-376, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001452

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to inventory the herbivore insects associated with Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell.) Morong (Fabaceae) fruits and seeds and their primary and secondary parasitoids. Six samples collected between May and October 2013 yielded 210 fruits, from which 326 insects of six orders emerged: Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera, Thysanoptera and Psocoptera. Coleoptera (five families) was represented by the seed consumers Merobruchus bicoloripes Pic, Stator sp. Bridwell (Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae), two species of Silvanidae, one species of Scolytinae (Curculionidae), one species of Nitidulidae and one species of Cerambycidae. The cerambycid was also observed forming galleries on fruit mesocarp. Immature individuals of Lepidoptera were observed consuming the fruits and seeds. From the seven Hymenoptera families, only two species were associated with Coleoptera, being Horismenus Walker sp. (Eulophidae) as parasitoid of M. bicoloripes, and Neoheterospilus falcatus (Marsh) (Braconidae) as parasitoid of Scolytinae. The Lepidoptera parasitoids represented four genera: Pseudophanerotoma Zetel, Chelonus Panzer (Braconidae), Orgilus Nees (Braconidae) and Goniozus Forster (Bethylidae). The host associations for the reared parasitoids Bracon Fabricius (Braconidae), Pimplinae sp. (Ichneumonidae) and Perilampus Forster (Perilampidae) were not confirmed. We obtained a single representative of Diptera (Tachinidae) associated with Lepidoptera hosts in this food web.


Resumo Este estudo teve como objetivo inventariar os insetos herbívoros associados a frutos e sementes de Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell.) Morong (Fabaceae) e seus parasitoides primários e secundários. De seis amostras coletadas entre maio e outubro de 2013, obteve-se 210 frutos, dos quais emergiram 326 insetos pertencentes a seis ordens: Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera, Thysanoptera e Psocoptera. Coleoptera (cinco famílias) foi representada pelos consumidores de sementes: Merobruchus bicoloripes Pic, Stator sp. Bridwell (Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae), Silvanidae sp. 1 e sp. 2, Scolytinae sp. (Curculionidae), Nitidulidae sp. e Cerambycidae sp. A última espécie também foi observada formando galerias no mesocarpo do fruto. Indivíduos imaturos de Lepidoptera também foram observados consumindo os frutos e sementes. Dos Hymenoptera (sete famílias), duas espécies foram associadas a Coleoptera, sendo Horismenus Walker sp. (Eulophidae) parasitoide de M. bicoloripes e Neoheterospilus falcatus (Marsh) (Braconidae) parasitoide de Scolytinae. Os parasitoides de Lepidoptera foram totalizados em quatro gêneros: Pseudophanerotoma Zetel e Chelonus Panzer (Braconidae), Orgilus Nees (Braconidae) e Goniozus Forster (Bethylidae). As interações para os parasitoides Bracon Fabricius (Braconidae), Pimplinae sp. (Ichneumonidae) e Perilampus Forster (Perilampidae) não foram confirmadas. Nós encontramos apenas um único representante de Diptera (Tachinidae) como parasitoide de Lepidoptera nesta rede trófica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Food Chain , Herbivory , Host-Parasite Interactions , Insecta/physiology , Insecta/parasitology , Fabaceae/growth & development , Coleoptera/growth & development , Coleoptera/physiology , Coleoptera/parasitology , Brazil , Diptera/physiology , Fruit/physiology , Insecta/growth & development , Larva/growth & development
2.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 27(3): 295-300, July-Sept. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-959190

ABSTRACT

Abstract Twenty-six newborn lambs were evaluated for 21 weeks, from birth to slaughter, to assess their plasma anti-Oestrus ovis immunoglobulin (IgG) using the ELISA technique. On the last day of sampling, all the lambs were slaughtered and O. ovis larvae were recovered, quantified and identified according to the larval stage. High levels of IgG were observed over the first three weeks of life, thus indicating that antibodies are transferred via colostrum from ewes to lambs. Afterwards, the antibody levels declined progressively until the lambs were 11 weeks of age and subsequently started to increase again when they were around 13 weeks of age, reaching the apex on the last week of sampling. All the lambs were parasitized with different larval stages of O. ovis, with an average of 39 larvae per lamb, and the intensity of the infestation ranged from 10 to 97 larvae. However, there was non-significant correlation coefficients between IgG levels and O. ovis larval burden (P > 0.05). In conclusion, although the lambs became infested with O. ovis at an early age, the larval burden was not associated with specific IgG levels.


Resumo Vinte e seis cordeiros recém-nascidos foram avaliados por 21 semanas, desde o nascimento até o abate, para avaliar os níveis plasmáticos de imunoglobulina (IgG) anti-Oestrus ovis utilizando-se a técnica de ELISA. No último dia de coleta, todos os cordeiros foram abatidos e as larvas de O. ovis foram recuperadas, quantificadas e identificadas de acordo com o estádio larval. Foram observados altos níveis de IgG nas primeiras três semanas de vida, indicando que os anticorpos são transferidos por meio do colostro das ovelhas para os cordeiros. Posteriormente, os níveis de anticorpos diminuíram progressivamente, até os cordeiros completarem 11 semanas de vida. Os níveis de IgG começaram a aumentar novamente a partir de 13 semanas de idade, atingindo o ápice na última semana de coleta. Todos os cordeiros estavam parasitados com diferentes estádios larvais de O. ovis com uma média de 39 larvas por cordeiro, e a intensidade da infestação variou de 10 a 97 larvas. Porém, não houve correlação significativa entre os níveis de IgG e a carga larval de O. ovis (P > 0,05). Em conclusão, embora os cordeiros tenham sido infestados com O. ovis ainda jovens, a carga larval não foi associada a níveis específicos de IgG.


Subject(s)
Animals , Sheep Diseases/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Sheep/parasitology , Diptera/physiology , Ectoparasitic Infestations/veterinary , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Sheep Diseases/parasitology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Diptera/classification , Ectoparasitic Infestations/immunology , Larva , Animals, Newborn
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 77(1): 170-175, Jan-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839167

ABSTRACT

Abstract A new species of gall midge that induces stem galls on Aeschynomene denticulata (Fabaceae) is described based on material collected in Pantanal (Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil). This species is unique among the Brazilian congeners in having spatula with three convex teeth, cruciate, with defined anterolateral extensions, four lateral papillae on each side of the spatula, and three pairs of terminal papillae (larva), four-segmented palpi (adult), 17 flagellomeres (female), ovipositor about 11 times length of seventh tergite.


Resumo Uma nova espécie de Cecidomyiidae que induz galhas caulinares em Aeschynomene denticulata (Fabaceae) é descrita com base em material coletado no Pantanal (Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil). Esta espécie é única entre as congenéricas brasileiras por possuir espátula com três dentes convexos, com extensões anterolaterais cruzadas e bem definidas, quatro papilas laterais de cada lado da espátula e três pares papilas terminais (larva), palpos com quatro segmentos (adulto), 17 flagelômeres (fêmeas), ovipositor cerca de 11 vezes mais longo que o sétimo tergito.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Diptera/classification , Fabaceae , Oviposition/physiology , Plant Diseases/etiology , Brazil , Chironomidae , Diptera/physiology , Host-Parasite Interactions , Larva/classification , Larva/physiology
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 76(3): 787-795, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-785051

ABSTRACT

Abstract Thirty-one morphotypes of insect galls and two flower damages were found on 16 families, 22 genera and 24 plant species in Restinga de Marambaia (Barra de Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, RJ). Fabaceae and Myrtaceae were the plant families with the greatest richness of insect galls (4 and 6 morphotypes, respectively), and the greatest number of galled plants (four and three species, respectively). Galls were mostly found on leaves and stems (77% and 10%, respectively). The galling insects are represented by Diptera, Lepidoptera, and Hemiptera. The majority of the galls (81%) were induced by gall midges (Cecidomyiidae: Diptera).


Resumo Foram encontrados 31 morfotipos de galhas de insetos e dois danos em flores em 16 famílias, 22 gêneros e 24 espécies de plantas, na Restinga de Marambaia (Barra de Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, RJ). Fabaceae e Myrtaceae foram as famílias de plantas com maior riqueza de galhas (4 e 6 morfotipos, respectivamente) e maior número de espécies com galhas (quatro e três espécies, respectivamente). As galhas predominaram nas folhas e caules (77% e 10%, respectivamente). Os insetos galhadores estão representados por Diptera, Lepidoptera e Hemiptera. A maioria das galhas (81%) foi induzida por Cecidomyiidae (Diptera).


Subject(s)
Animals , Plant Tumors/parasitology , Plants/parasitology , Host-Parasite Interactions/physiology , Insecta/physiology , Plant Tumors/classification , Brazil , Plant Stems/parasitology , Plant Leaves/parasitology , Myrtaceae/parasitology , Diptera/classification , Diptera/physiology , Hemiptera/classification , Hemiptera/physiology , Insecta/classification , Fabaceae/parasitology , Lepidoptera/classification , Lepidoptera/physiology
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 76(3): 782-786, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-785032

ABSTRACT

Abstract Clinodiplosis agerati, a new galling species that induces stem galls on Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae) is described and illustrated (larva, pupa, male, female and gall) based on material collected in Minas Gerais, Brazil. The new species is compared with the other Neotropical species. This is the first record of the Clinodiplosis in Ageratum.


Resumo Clinodiplosis agerati, uma nova espécie cecidógena que induz galhas caulinares em Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae) é descrita e ilustrada (larva, pupa, macho, fêmea e galha) com base em material coletado em Minas Gerais, Brasil. A nova espécie é comparada com as outras espécies neotropicais. Este é o primeiro registro de Clinodiplosis em Ageratum.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Plant Tumors/parasitology , Ageratum/parasitology , Diptera/classification , Diptera/physiology , Pupa , Brazil , Host-Parasite Interactions/physiology , Larva
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 76(2): 307-314, Apr.-June 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-781385

ABSTRACT

Abstract Mass production of predatory stinkbugs in the laboratory is prioritized to release them into the field as part of IPM programs. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the best prey for rearing the predator Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas, 1851) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) among five different species of insect (three of Lepidoptera, one of Coleoptera, and one of Diptera). Second-instar P. nigrispinus nymphs were conditioned in transparent 1000-mL plastic pots, adults were placed in Petri dishes for mating, and both stages were maintained under controlled conditions (25 ± 1°C, 12 hours of photophase, 70 ± 10% RH). Nymphs and adults of P. nigrispinus consumed more Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) larvae than the other tested prey. The consumption of fly larvae was 1.5 larvae/day/nymph and adults 1.7 larvae/day/adult. However, the number of eggs per female was less when the predator consumed M. domestica larvae (407.8 eggs/female) and most when consumed the Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larvae (797.7 eggs/female). Furthermore, the percentage of hatched eggs was greater when the predator females consumed D. saccharalis larvae (90.0%). D. saccharalis larvae is the best prey to rearing P. nigrispinus.


Resumo A produção massal de percevejos predadores no laboratório é priorizada para liberá-los no campo, como parte de programas de MIP. Portanto, o objetivo deste estudo foi identificar a melhor presa para a criação do predador Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas, 1851) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) entre cinco espécies diferentes de insetos (três de Lepidoptera, uma de Coleoptera e uma de Diptera). Ninfas de segundo ínstar de P. nigrispinus foram acondicionadas em recipientes plásticos transparentes de 1000 ml, adultos foram colocados em placas de Petri para o acasalamento e, ambos os estágios foram mantidos sob condições controladas (25 ± 1°C, fotofase de 12 horas e 70 ± 10% UR). Ninfas e adultos de P. nigrispinus consumiram mais larvas de Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) do que as outras presas testadas. O consumo de larvas de mosca foi de 1,5 larvas/dia/ninfa e adultos 1,7 larvas/dia/adulto. No entanto, o número de ovos por fêmea foi menor quando o predador consumiu larvas de M. domestica (407,8 ovos/fêmea) e maior quando consumiu larvas de Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) (797,7 ovos/fêmea). Além disso, a percentagem de eclosão de ninfas foi maior quando as fêmeas do predador consumiram larvas de D. saccharalis larvas (90,0%). Larvas de D. saccharalis é a melhor presa para a criação de P. nigrispinus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Sexual Behavior, Animal/physiology , Coleoptera/physiology , Food Chain , Hemiptera/physiology , Lepidoptera/physiology , Reproduction/physiology , Diptera/physiology , Life Cycle Stages/physiology
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 75(4): 999-1007, Nov. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-768202

ABSTRACT

Abstract In this contribution we examine the diversity, abundance and species richness of Calliphoridae in the Tijuca National Park, Rio de Janeiro, RJ. Specimens were collected monthly between September 2009 and August 2010, using sardines as bait, in three points: A, on the forest edge (22°56’846"S 43°17’496"W), B, 700m from it (22°57’073"S 43°17’832"W) and C, 1,200m into the forest (22°57’321"S 43°18’031"W), evaluating the indicator species at each point and the anthropogenic influences and abiotic factors that determine species distribution. A total of 16,364 Calliphoridae were collected and 17 species were identified. Species abundance was strongly positively correlated with temperature. The greatest number of flies was collected at A, but in this point, diversity was lower and most individuals collected belonged to the dominant species. Point C, conversely, had the lower abundance and the highest diversity. Chrysomya megacephala, an urban and synanthropic species, was dominant at point A, whereas Laneela nigripes and Mesembrinella peregrina, typically forest species, were considered indicators at points B and C, respectively, showing that the anthropogenic influence is more intense at the forest edge.


Resumo O presente estudo visou analisar a diversidade, abundância e riqueza de espécies de Calliphoridae no Parque Nacional da Tijuca, Rio de Janeiro, RJ. Foram realizadas coletas mensais de setembro de 2009 a agosto de 2010, utilizando sardinha como isca, em três pontos: A, na borda (22°56’846"S 43°17’496"W); B, a 700m (22°57’073"S 43°17’832"W) e C, a 1.200m para o interior da mata (22°57’321"S 43°18’031"W), avaliando as espécies indicadoras em cada ponto, além da influência antrópica e os fatores abióticos que determinam a distribuição das espécies. Foram coletados 16.364 califorídeos, de 17 espécies. A abundância teve correlação extremamente forte e positiva com a temperatura. O ponto A foi o mais abundante, porém o menos diverso e com maior dominância. O ponto C, no entanto, foi o menos abundante e o mais diverso. Chrysomya megacephala, espécie sinantrópica e urbana, foi a espécie mais abundante no ponto A, enquanto Laneela nigripes e Mesembrinella peregrina, espécies caracteristicamente florestais, foram consideradas indicadoras para os pontos B e C, respectivamente, demonstrando que a influência antrópica atua de forma mais intensa no ponto da borda.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Animal Distribution , Biodiversity , Diptera/physiology , Environment , Brazil , Forests , Parks, Recreational , Population Density
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 75(4,supl.1): 196-205, Nov. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-768221

ABSTRACT

Abstract In this study we describe the diversity of Mesembrinelinae in a biological reserve in the city of Nova Iguaçu, State of Rio de Janeiro. Traps containing sardines were distributed seasonally, at four sites: Site A (22° 58.788’ S, 43° 43.459’ W), in a forest edge, and sites B (22° 58.523’ S, 43° 44.540’ W), C (22° 58.350’ S, 43° 44.678’ W), and D (22° 34.865’ S, 43° 27.063’ W), located 1,000m, 500m, and 2,000m respectively, inwards from the edge. A total of 2,150 individuals of Mesembrinellinae were collected, representing ten species. Laneela nigripes Guimarães, 1977 was the most abundant species, followed by Mesembrinella bellardiana Aldrich, 1922, Eumesembrinella cyaneicincta (Surcouf, 1919) and Mesembrinella semihyalina Mello, 1967. These species were common and constant during the study period. Mesembrinella batesi Aldrich, 1922, Eumesembrinella quadrilineata (Fabricius, 1805) and Huascaromusca aeneiventris (Wiedmann, 1830) were the less abundant flies, being considered rare and accidental. Eumesembrinella besnoiti (Seguy, 1925) was rare and accessory. Eumesembrinella cyaneicincta, M. bellardiana, M. semihyalina and M. bicolor were mostly collected in site B, while L. nigripes was mostly collected in site C. The edge effect was not evident since the four sites showed similar populations. Site B showed a strong positive relationship between abundance and richness, in site C the correlation was positive and weak, and there was no correlation in A and D. The highest abundance of specimens was recorded during autumn and winter. These flies occurred from the edge up to 2,000m inside the forest.


Resumo Nesse estudo, descrevemos a diversidade de Mesembrinelinae, em uma reserva biológica na cidade de Nova Iguaçu, Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Armadilhas contendo sardinha foram distribuídas sazonalmente em quatro pontos: Ponto A (22° 58.788’ S, 43° 43.459’ W), na borda da mata B (22° 58.523’ S, 43° 44.540’ W), C (22° 58.350’ S, 43° 44.678’ W), e D (22° 34.865’ S, 43º 27.063’ W), localizados a 1.000m, 500m e 2.000m para o interior da borda respectivamente. Foram coletados 2.159 exemplares de Mesembrinellinae, com um total de dez espécies. Laneela nigripes Guimarães, 1977 foi a espécie mais abundante, seguida por Mesembrinella bellardiana Aldrich, 1922, Eumesembrinella cyaneicincta (Surcouf, 1919) e Mesembrinella semihyalina Mello, 1967. Essas espécies foram consideradas comuns e contantes durante o período de estudo. Mesembrinella batesi Aldrich, 1922, Eumesembrinella quadrilineata Fabricius, 1805 e Huascaromusca aeneiventris (Wiedmann, 1830) foram as moscas com as menores abundâncias, sendo consideradas raras e acidentais, Eumesembrinella besnoiti (Seguy, 1925) foi rara e acessória. Eumesembrinella cyaneicincta, M. bellardiana, M. semihyalina e M. bicolor foram as mais coletadas no ponto B, enquanto L. nigripes foi a mais coletada no ponto C. Os efeitos de borda não foram evidentes porque os quatro pontos apresentaram populações similares. O ponto B apresentou uma relação forte e positiva entre a abundância e a riqueza, no ponto C a correlação foi positiva e fraca e não houve correlação nos pontos A e D. A maior abundância de indivíduos foi registrada nas estações do outono e inverno. Espécimes da subfamília Mesembrinellinae ocorreram da borda até 2.000 metros para o interior da mata.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Biodiversity , Diptera/physiology , Brazil , Forests , Population Dynamics , Seasons
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 74(4): 870-876, 11/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-732319

ABSTRACT

In the present contribution we compared the entomological succession pattern of a burned carcass with that of an unburned one. For that, we used domestic pig carcasses and focused on Calliphoridae, Muscidae and Sarcophagidae flies, because they are the ones most commonly used in Postmortem Interval estimates. Adult and immature flies were collected daily. A total of 27 species and 2,498 specimens were collected, 1,295 specimens of 26 species from the partially burned carcass and 1,203 specimens of 22 species from the control carcass (unburned). The species composition in the two samples differed, and the results of the similarity measures were 0.875 by Sorensen and 0.756 by Bray-Curtis index. The results obtained for both carcasses also differ with respect to the decomposition process, indicating that the post mortem interval would be underestimated if the entomological succession pattern observed for a carcass under normal conditions was applied to a carbonized carcass.


Nesta contribuição, nós comparamos o padrão de sucessão entomológica de uma carcaça carbonizada com outra não carbonizada. Para tal, nós usamos carcaças de porcos domésticos e focamos nos dípteros Calliphoridae, Muscidae e Sarcophagidae, por estes serem os grupos de insetos mais comumente usados na estimativa do intervalo pós-morte. Moscas adultas e seus imaturos foram coletados diariamente. Um total de 27 espécies e 2.498 espécimes foi coletado, 1.295 espécimes de 26 espécies na carcaça parcialmente carbonizada e 1.203 espécimes de 22 espécies na carcaça controle (não carbonizada). A composição específica das duas amostras foi diferente e os cálculos de similaridade resultantes foram 0,875 pelo índice de Sorensen e 0,756 pelo índice de Bray-Curtis. Os resultados obtidos para ambas as carcaças também diferiram em relação ao processo de decomposição, indicando que o intervalo pós-morte poderia ser subestimado se o padrão de sucessão entomológica observado na decomposição de uma carcaça sob condições normais fosse aplicado a uma carcaça carbonizada.


Subject(s)
Animals , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Diptera/physiology , Sus scrofa/parasitology , Brazil , Diptera/classification , Muscidae/classification , Muscidae/physiology , Sarcophagidae/classification , Sarcophagidae/physiology , Time Factors
10.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 23(3): 315-319, Jul-Sep/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-722706

ABSTRACT

Among the factors that influence the diversity of ectoparasites on bat hosts are the kind of roost and the host's social behavior. Other factors such as sex, reproductive condition and host size may influence the distribution and abundance of ectoparasites. The aim of the present study was to analyze the variation in Streblidae ectoparasites on the bat Phyllostomus hastatus, according to sex and roost type. We caught bats in four houses on Marambaia Island, municipality of Mangaratiba, and in one house at the Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, municipality of Seropédica. We caught 65 females and 50 males of P. hastatus and 664 streblids of four species: Aspidoptera phyllostomatis, Strebla consocia, Trichobius “dugesii” complex and Trichobius longipes. The species T. longipes accounted for more than 99% of all the ectoparasites caught. Female bats were more parasitized than males, in terms of both prevalence and average intensity. The total number of parasites did not vary between resident and non-resident bats. The relationship between the number of individuals of T. longipes and sex and roost type was significant for resident bats. The total number of parasites on males did not differ between bachelor roosts and mixed-sex roosts. The differences found between roosts reflected the differences between the sexes.


Os fatores que influenciam a diversidade de artrópodes ectoparasitos no morcego hospedeiro incluem o tipo de abrigo e o comportamento social da espécie hospedeira. Aspectos como sexo, condição reprodutiva e tamanho do hospedeiro podem influenciar a distribuição e a abundância dos ectoparasitos. Este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar a variação no parasitismo de estreblídeos em Phyllostomus hastatus, considerando os sexos e diferentes abrigos. Os morcegos foram capturados em quatro casas na Ilha da Marambaia, município de Mangaratiba, e em uma casa na Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, município de Seropédica. Foram capturados 65 fêmeas e 50 machos de P. hastatus e 664 dípteros estreblídeos distribuídos em quatro espécies: Aspidoptera phyllostomatis, Strebla consocia, Trichobius complexo “dugesii” e Trichobius longipes. A espécie T. longipes representou mais de 99% das capturas de Streblidae. Fêmeas de morcegos foram mais parasitadas que os machos, tanto em prevalência quanto em intensidade média. O total de parasitos não variou entre os morcegos residentes e os não residentes. O modelo considerado entre o total de T. longipes, o sexo e o abrigo para indivíduos residentes mostrou-se significativo. O total de parasitos em machos não difere entre aqueles oriundos de abrigos de machos solteiros e de abrigos heterossexuais. As diferenças entre os abrigos refletem a diferença no parasitismo entre os sexos dos hospedeiros.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Chiroptera/parasitology , Diptera/physiology , Brazil
11.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 23(2): 164-170, 06/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-714777

ABSTRACT

Because of the few records of Streblidae on bats, despite extensive study on these mammals in the state of Rio de Janeiro, a survey was carried out in an area of Atlantic Forest, in the municipality of Nova Iguaçu, known as the Tinguá region. Thirteen species were added to the list of Streblidae in the state of Rio de Janeiro, of which two were new records for Brazil. Thirty-one species have now been reported this state.


Devido aos poucos registros de Streblidae em morcegos, apesar do amplo estudo com esses mamíferos no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, foi realizado um levantamento numa área de Floresta Atlântica, no Município de Nova Iguaçu, conhecida como região do Tinguá. Foram adicionadas à lista de Streblidae do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, 13 espécies, sendo dois novos registros para o Brasil, totalizando 31 espécies relatadas para o estado.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Chiroptera/parasitology , Diptera/physiology , Brazil , Forests
12.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(supl.1): 26-33, 2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-697833

ABSTRACT

Acoustic signalling has been extensively studied in insect species, which has led to a better understanding of sexual communication, sexual selection and modes of speciation. The significance of acoustic signals for a blood-sucking insect was first reported in the XIX century by Christopher Johnston, studying the hearing organs of mosquitoes, but has received relatively little attention in other disease vectors until recently. Acoustic signals are often associated with mating behaviour and sexual selection and changes in signalling can lead to rapid evolutionary divergence and may ultimately contribute to the process of speciation. Songs can also have implications for the success of novel methods of disease control such as determining the mating competitiveness of modified insects used for mass-release control programs. Species-specific sound “signatures” may help identify incipient species within species complexes that may be of epidemiological significance, e.g. of higher vectorial capacity, thereby enabling the application of more focussed control measures to optimise the reduction of pathogen transmission. Although the study of acoustic communication in insect vectors has been relatively limited, this review of research demonstrates their value as models for understanding both the functional and evolutionary significance of acoustic communication in insects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animal Communication , Diptera/physiology , Hemiptera/physiology , Insect Vectors/physiology , Sound , Species Specificity , Sexual Behavior, Animal/physiology
13.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 20(2): 178-180, Apr.-June 2011. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-604704

ABSTRACT

From May to October of 2006 we collected 143 louse flies of the genus Lipoptena on the body surface of 16 pampas deer Ozotocerus bezoarticus captured in four farms from the central area of the Brazilian Pantanal wetlands. We also examined 172 cattle individuals and none of them had louse flies. Most of the parasites identified were Lipoptena guimaraesi but one specimen of L. mazamae was also found, representing a new host record for this ked fly. The prevalence of L. guimaraesi was 93.8 percent, the mean intensity of infestation was 9.5, and the index of discrepancy was 0.444.


De Maio a Outubro de 2006, 143 hipoboscídeos do gênero Lipoptena foram coletados sobre a superfície corporal de 16 veados-campeiros Ozotocerus bezoarticus capturados em quatro fazendas localizadas na área central do Pantanal brasileiro. Também foram examinados 172 bovinos na mesma área, sobre os quais não foram encontrados hipoboscídeos. Muitos dos parasitos foram identificados como Lipoptena guimaraesi apesar de um indivíduo de L. mazamae, registrado pela primeira vez sobre veado-campeiro. A prevalência de L. guimaraesi foi de 93,8 por cento, a intensidade média de infestação foi de 9,5 e o índice de discrepância foi de 0,444.


Subject(s)
Animals , Artiodactyla/parasitology , Cattle/parasitology , Diptera/physiology , Brazil , Wetlands
14.
Neotrop. entomol ; 40(3): 312-315, May-June 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-591330

ABSTRACT

Among the pests of cassava, the shoot fly, Neosilba perezi (Romero & Ruppell), is one of the most prevalent. It attacks mainly the terminal shoots and causes infested plants to produce lateral shoots. Reports on this species are rare or inexistent; thus, the purpose of this study was to assess three different areas for N. perezi infestation. The survey began in March 2008 and finished in February 2009. Fortnightly analyses were performed starting 45 days after planting, calculating the rate of infestation by N. perezi larvae in each study area. The areas were correlated separately for each parameter: fortnightly mean temperature, fortnightly mean rainfall, and plant age. The N. perezi larvae occurrence rate was higher in area 1 - which presented the highest population peaks in autumn and winter. There was only a single population peak in area 2, in winter; and area 3 presented the weakest population peak among the three, in November. The shoot fly population dynamics in the studied region is separately correlated to temperature, rainfall and plant age: temperatures above 23ºC, relatively high rainfall and older plants seem to have a negative effect on populations of this insect.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diptera/physiology , Manihot/parasitology , Brazil , Larva
15.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 106(3): 274-278, May 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-589034

ABSTRACT

Streblidae flies are specialised parasites of bat hosts, mainly phyllostomids. There is a high richness of streblids in the savannah-like Cerrado region; however, there is little quantitative data available in parasitological indices. Here, we describe the component community, prevalence and intensity of a streblid infestation on a phyllostomid bat assemblage in Serra da Bodoquena, a Cerrado region in Southwest Brazil. We conducted surveys by capturing and inspecting bat hosts during the seven-month period between October 2004-December 2005. All the ectoparasites found on the bats were collected in the field and then counted and identified in the laboratory. We captured 327 bats belonging to 13 species, of which eight species were parasitized by 17 species of streblids. Carollia perspicillata and Glossophaga soricina were infested with seven streblid species, whereas the other bat species were infested with four or fewer streblid species. Megistopoda proxima and Aspidoptera falcata flies were found on Sturnira lilium, and Trichobius joblingi was the most prevalent fly on C. perspicillata. Megistopoda aranea and Aspidoptera phyllostomatis were highly prevalent and had a high intensity of infestation on Artibeus planirostris. Overall comparisons of the available data suggest that the component communities of streblids vary more between the Cerrado and Atlantic Forest phytogeographical regions than between localities within the same phytogeographical region.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chiroptera , Diptera/physiology , Ectoparasitic Infestations , Brazil , Chiroptera , Ectoparasitic Infestations , Host-Parasite Interactions , Prevalence , Species Specificity
16.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 106(2): 170-176, Mar. 2011. graf, mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-583941

ABSTRACT

We studied the ectoparasitic bat flies of three phyllostomid vampire bat species. Bats were collected monthly from April 2004-March 2005 in caves within the Cafuringa Environmental Protection Area in the Federal District of Brazil. A total of 1,259 specimens from six species in the Streblidae family were collected from 332 bats. High host affinity from the sampled bat fly species and high prevalence of bat flies confirms the primary fly-host associations (Strebla wiedemanni, Trichobius parasiticus and Trichobius furmani with Desmodus, Trichobius diaemi and Strebla diaemi with Diaemus and T. furmani with Diphylla). Male flies outnumbered females in several associations. Some of the observed associations (e.g., Strebla mirabilis with Desmodus and S. mirabilis, Trichobius uniformis and S. wiedemanni with Diphylla) were inconclusive and the causes of the associations were unclear. There are several explanations for these associations, including (i) accidental contamination during sampling, (ii) simultaneous capture of several host species in the same net or (iii) genuine, but rare, ecological associations. Although various species of vampire bats share roosts, have similar feeding habits and are close phylogenetic relatives, they generally do not share ectoparasitic streblid bat flies. T. diaemi and S. diaemi associations with Diaemus youngi have not been previously reported in this region.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Chiroptera , Diptera/physiology , Ectoparasitic Infestations/veterinary , Brazil , Diptera , Ectoparasitic Infestations , Ectoparasitic Infestations , Host-Parasite Interactions , Sex Ratio
17.
Rev. biol. trop ; 58(4): 1157-1163, dic. 2010. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-637990

ABSTRACT

Predatory syrphid larvae feed on relatively immobile prey, but here we report the first case (as far as we are aware) of obligatory predation on very mobile prey. Larvae of an undescribed species of Ocyptamus (Diptera: Syrphidae) were found in whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) aggregations on the undersides of citrus leaves. However, instead of preying on the whitefly nymphs (as would be expected), the larvae preyed on adult flies (Diptera) that were attracted to the honeydew. In the laboratory, larvae captured significantly more flies on whitefly infested leaves than on washed leaves, and generally abandoned leaves that lacked whiteflies. Most cases of successful prey capture involved flies that probed the anterior part of the larva’s body with its proboscis (as if it were honeydew). The syrphid larva lashed out at the fly and entangled it in sticky oral secretion. The prey did not recover when they were removed from the larva, suggesting that this new predatory species also employs venom to subdue its prey. Although the larvae consumed some honeydew, they were unable to complete their development on this diet. Two parasitoids were reared from Ocyptamus puparia, Proaspicera sp. (Hymenoptera: Figitidae) and Paracarotomus sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), both of which are endoparasitic koinobionts. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (4): 1157-1163. Epub 2010 December 01.


Las larvas depredadoras de Syrphidae se alimentan de presas relativamente inmóviles, pero aquí reportamos el primer caso (hasta ahora conocido) de la depredación obligatoria en presas muy móviles. Se encontraron las larvas de una especie no descrita de Ocyptamus (Diptera: Syrphidae) juntas con ninfas de mosca blanca (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) en el envés de las hojas de cítricos. Sin embargo, en vez de alimentarse de las ninfas de mosca blanca (como debería esperarse), las larvas se alimentaron de moscas adultas (Diptera) que fueron atraídas a las excreciones azucaradas de la mosca blanca. En el laboratorio, las larvas capturaron más moscas cuando estaban en hojas con mosca blanca que cuando estaban en hojas lavadas, y generalmente abandonaron las hojas sin mosca blanca. La mayoría de las capturas exitosas de presas ocurrieron cuando la mosca extendió su proboscis y tocó la parte anterior de la larva del sírfido. La larva regurgita hilos pegajosos en el momento de capturar una presa y presas removidas de la larva no recuperaron su movibilidad, lo cual sugiere que el depredador utiliza un veneno para inmovilizar la presa. Aunque las larvas se alimentaron de excreciones azucaradas de mosca blanca, no pudieron completar su desarrollo en esta dieta. Se obtuvieron dos parasitoides de los puparios del sírfido, Proaspicera sp. (Hymenoptera: Figitidae) Paracarotomus sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), ambos son koinobiontes endoparasíticos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diptera/physiology , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Hemiptera/physiology , Larva/physiology , Predatory Behavior/physiology , Costa Rica , Diptera/classification , Hemiptera/classification
18.
Acta amaz ; 40(3): 605-612, set. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: lil-560533

ABSTRACT

Foram realizadas coletas de tabanídeos a 40 metros de altura, em uma torre metálica, na Estação Experimental de Silvicultura Tropical, Amazonas, Brasil. As coletas foram realizadas de janeiro a dezembro de 2004, durante três noites de transição lunar minguante/nova de cada mês, das 18 às 6 horas. As mutucas foram capturadas em um lençol iluminado com lâmpada de luz mista de vapor de mercúrio de 250 watts e lâmpada de 20 watts BLB. Foram coletados 216 espécimes, dos quais 135 machos e 81 fêmeas, alocados em 29 espécies. Três machos desconhecidos são descritos pela primeira vez: Catachlorops halteratus Kröber, 1931, Leucotabanus janinae Fairchild, 1970 e Leucotabanus pauculus Fairchild, 1951.


Tabanids were collected at a height of 40 meters on a metallic tower, at Estação Experimental de Silvicultura Tropical, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Samples were collected monthly from January to December of 2004, during three nights of lunar transition third quarter moon/ new moon from 06 p.m. to 06 a.m. Horse flies were captured on a vertical sheet illuminated by a 250-watts mixed mercury vapor light and 20-watts black-light (BLB) lamps. 216 specimens were collected, of which 135 were males and 81 were females belonging to 29 species. Males of three species with unknown males are described for the first time, namely: Catachlorops halteratus Kröber, 1931, Leucotabanus janinae Fairchild, 1970 and Leucotabanus pauculus Fairchild, 1951.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Luminescence , Diptera/anatomy & histology , Diptera/physiology , Amazonian Ecosystem , Rainforest
19.
Braz. j. biol ; 70(3): 671-676, Aug. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-555281

ABSTRACT

We present the first records on pollination biology of Jacquemontia montana (Moric.) Meisn. (Convolvulaceae), a widespread climber in the Chapada Diamantina. Our objectives were to (1) characterise flower morphology and biology of J. montana; (2) sample flower visitors and (3) make inferences about potential pollinators, based on foraging behaviour. Observations and sampling were performed on two patches from 8:00 AM to 3:30 PM, May 15th to 16th, 2007. The corolla is bowl shaped, pentamerous, gamopetalous, actinomorphic, and yellow, with a mean diameter of 22.43 ± 1.81 mm, the depth being variable during flower phases. Stigma receptivity lasted from 8:00 AM-3:30 PM and pollen viability from 9:00 AM-3:30 PM Pollen. showed great decline in number but not in viability during anthesis. Nectarivorous (Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera) and herbivorous (Orthoptera) insects were found on the flowers. Both male and female bees (Dialictus spp., Robertson 1902) were the most frequent flower visitor. The bees' behaviour, and time spent on flowers, varied according to the resource gathered (i.e., pollen or nectar). The Dialictus species are likely to be the main pollinator of J. montana, considering the frequency, contact with reproductive parts, and carrying only J. montana pollen spread over the ventral part of the thorax, abdomen and legs. Although not quantified, nectar may still be available in the afternoon, considering the behaviour of bees on flowers during this time. Pollen:ovule ration that was1.200:4, suggests facultative xenogamy.


Apresentamos os primeiros registros sobre a biologia da polinização de Jacquemontia montana (Moric.) Meisn. (Convolvulaceae), uma trepadeira com ampla distribuição na Chapada Diamantina, Bahia. Os objetivos deste estudo foram: (1) caracterizar a morfologia e biologia floral; (2) amostrar os visitantes; e (3) inferir os possíveis polinizadores, baseando-se no comportamento de forrageio. Observações e amostragens foram conduzidas em duas manchas das 8:00 às 15:30 horas, nos dias 15 e 16 de maio de 2007. A corola é amarela, tem forma de disco, pentâmera, gamopétala, actinomorfa. A corola exposta tem largura média de 22,43 ± 1,81 mm. A receptividade estigmática ocorre das 8:00 às 15:30 horas e a viabilidade polínica das 9:00 às 15:30 horas, se sobrepondo fortemente. O pólen, porém, apresentou forte declínio em número, devido à retirada pelos visitantes, mas não em viabilidade durante a antese. Insetos nectarívoros (Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera) e herbívoros (Orthoptera) visitaram as flores. Hymenoptera incluiu representantes das famílias Formicidae (formigas) e Halictidae (Dialictus spp.). Machos e fêmeas de Dialictus spp. foram os visitantes mais frequentes. O comportamento e duração das visitas dessas abelhas variaram conforme o recurso coletado (i.e., pólen ou néctar). As espécies de Dialictus foram os polinizadores potenciais de J. montana, considerando sua frequência, contato com órgãos reprodutivos, e pelo fato de carregar apenas pólen de J. montana na superfície ventral do tórax, abdome e pernas. Embora não tenha sido quantificado, o néctar deve estar disponível até o final da tarde, considerando o comportamento das abelhas nas flores nesse período. A relação pólen:óvulo, no valor de 1.200:4, sugere a ocorrência de xenogamia facultativa.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Convolvulaceae/physiology , Flowers/physiology , Pollination/physiology , Brazil , Coleoptera/physiology , Diptera/physiology , Hymenoptera/physiology , Orthoptera/physiology , Pollen/physiology , Reproduction/physiology
20.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 105(2): 191-198, Mar. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-544625

ABSTRACT

Brazilian studies involving entomological succession patterns in carcasses have been used to describe the necrophagous entomofauna of a determined municipality or region with forensic objectives. Following the same objectives, an ecological study with 10 calyptrate dipterans was carried out during the winter of 2007 and the summer of 2008 in the metropolitan region of the municipality of Rio de Janeiro. The aim of this study was to describe several aspects of the phenology of these species in three neighbouring areas. Carcasses of three domestic pigs (Sus scrofa L.) were used in each season as models for forensic and legal medicine investigations in the region. Temperature, relative humidity and rainfall were measured daily and their relations with population abundance of the colonising species and the decomposition stages were analysed. Ten fly species were recorded to be colonising the carcasses, five of which belonged to the Calliphoridae family, three to the Muscidae, one to the Fanniidae and one to the Sarcophagidae family. Data show preferences of these species for climatic season and decomposition stage, as well as for the studied area and suggest that short distances can significantly influence the abundance of some species.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diptera/classification , Postmortem Changes , Brazil , Diptera/physiology , Ecology , Population Density , Population Dynamics , Seasons , Sus scrofa , Urban Population
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