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J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(6): 642-656, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056660


ABSTRACT Objective: This narrative review aimed to provide practitioners a synthesis of the current knowledge on the role of a low Fermentable Oligosaccharides Disaccharides Monosaccharides and Polyols diet in reducing symptoms associated with functional abdominal pain disorders in children. This review is focused on the pathophysiology, efficacy and criticism of low Fermentable Oligosaccharides Disaccharides Monosaccharides and Polyols diet in children. Sources: Cochrane Database, Pubmed and Embase were searched using specific terms for Fermentable Oligosaccharides Disaccharides Monosaccharides and Polyols diet interventions and functional abdominal pain disorders. Summary of the findings: In children, only one Randomized Control Trial and one open-label study reported positive results of low Fermentable Oligosaccharides Disaccharides Monosaccharides and Polyols diet; one Randomized Control Trial showed exacerbation of symptoms with fructans in children with Irritable Bowel Syndrome; no effect was found for the lactose-free diet whilst fructose-restricted diets were effective in 5/6 studies. Conclusions: In children there are few trials evaluating low Fermentable Oligosaccharides Disaccharides Monosaccharides and Polyols in functional abdominal pain disorders, with encouraging data on the therapeutic efficacy particularly of fructose-restricted diet. Additional efforts are still needed to fill this research gap and clarify the most efficient way for tailoring dietary restrictions based on the patient's tolerance and/or identification of potential biomarkers of low Fermentable Oligosaccharides Disaccharides Monosaccharides and Polyols efficacy, to maintain nutritional adequacy and to simplify the adherence to diet by labeling Fermentable Oligosaccharides Disaccharides Monosaccharides and Polyols content in commercial products.

RESUMO Objetivo: Nos últimos anos, foram feitos esforços consideráveis para esclarecer o papel da dieta com baixo teor de oligossacarídeos fermentáveis, dissacarídeos, monossacarídeos e polióis (FODMAPs) para o tratamento de distúrbios gastrintestinais funcionais (DGIFs). Esta revisão narrativa teve como objetivo fornecer aos profissionais uma síntese do conhecimento atual sobre o papel de uma dieta com baixo teor de FODMAPs (BFM) na redução dos sintomas associados a distúrbios funcionais de dor abdominal (DFDA) em crianças. Esta revisão está focada na fisiopatologia, eficácia e crítica da dieta BFM em crianças. Fontes: O banco de dados Cochrane, Pubmed e Embase foram pesquisados com o uso dos termos específicos para intervenções na dieta FODMAP e DFDA. Resumo dos achados: Em crianças, apenas um estudo controlado randomizado e um estudo aberto relataram resultados positivos da dieta BFM; um estudo controlado randomizado mostrou exacerbação dos sintomas com frutanos em crianças com síndrome do intestino irritável; nenhum efeito foi encontrado para a dieta livre de lactose, enquanto dietas com restrição de frutose foram eficazes em 5/6 estudos. Conclusões: Existem poucos estudos que avaliam BFM em DFDA em crianças, com dados encorajadores sobre a eficácia terapêutica, particularmente de dietas com restrição de frutose. Esforços adicionais ainda são necessários para preencher essa lacuna de pesquisa e esclarecer a maneira mais eficiente de adaptar as restrições dietéticas com base na tolerância do paciente e/ou identificação de biomarcadores potenciais de eficácia da BFM, para manter a adequação nutricional e simplificar a adesão à dieta, ao incluir informações sobre conteúdo de FODMAPs em rótulos de produtos comerciais.

Humans , Abdominal Pain/diet therapy , Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted , Oligosaccharides/metabolism , Oligosaccharides/therapeutic use , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Diet , Disaccharides/metabolism , Disaccharides/therapeutic use , Monosaccharides/metabolism , Monosaccharides/therapeutic use
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-124682


Hepatic encephalopathy is a major neuropsychiatric complication of cirrhosis. Hepatic encephalopathy can occur in patients with fulminant liver disease without evidence of portosystemic shunting. The syndromes are distinct in acute liver failure and cirrhosis. The pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy probably is multifactorial, although the predominant causative agent appears to be ammonia. Prevention and treatment of hepatic encephalopathy in cirrhotic patients continues to rely on ammonia lowering strategies which include assessment of dietary protein intake and the use of lactulose, neomycin, sodium benzoate and L-ornithine-aspartate. This review provides recent information on the classification of hepatic encephalopathy, current theories for pathophysiological basis and evaluates the available therapies.

Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Disaccharides/therapeutic use , Hepatic Encephalopathy/diagnosis , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Transplantation , Prognosis