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1.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(7): 570-577, July 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347252

ABSTRACT

Abstract Sacral colpopexy is one of the standard procedures to treat apical pelvic organ prolapse. In most cases, a synthetic mesh is used to facilitate the colposuspension. Spondylodiscitis is a rare but potentially serious complication that must be promptly diagnosed and treated, despite the lack of consensus in the management of this complication.We report one case of spondylodiscitis after a laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy and sacral colpopexy treated conservatively. We also present a literature review regarding this rare complication. A conservative approach without mesh removal may be possible in selected patients (stable, with no vaginal lesions, mesh exposure or severe neurologic compromise). Hemocultures and culture of imageguided biopsies should be performed to direct antibiotic therapy. Conservative versus surgical treatment should be regularly weighted depending on clinical and analytical progression. A multidisciplinary team is of paramount importance in the follow-up of these patients.


Resumo A colpopexia sacral é um dos procedimentos padrão para tratar o prolapso de órgãos pélvicos apical. Na maioria dos casos, uma tela sintética é usada para facilitar a colposuspensão. A espondilodiscite é uma complicação rara, mas potencialmente grave, que deve ser prontamente diagnosticada e tratada, apesar da falta de consenso no manejo dessa complicação. Relatamos um caso de espondilodiscite após histerectomia supracervical laparoscópica e colpopexia sacral tratada conservadoramente. Também apresentamos uma revisão da literatura sobre essa complicação rara. Uma abordagem conservadora sem remoção da tela pode ser possível em pacientes selecionadas (estáveis, sem lesões vaginais, exposição da tela ou comprometimento neurológico grave). Hemoculturas e cultura de biópsias guiadas por imagem devemser realizadas para direcionar a antibioticoterapia. O tratamento conservador versus o cirúrgico deve ser avaliado regularmente, dependendo da progressão clínica e analítica. Uma equipe multidisciplinar é de suma importância no acompanhamento desses pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Discitis/etiology , Uterine Prolapse/surgery , Laparoscopy , Gynecologic Surgical Procedures , Surgical Mesh/adverse effects , Pelvic Organ Prolapse/surgery , Conservative Treatment
2.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 56(3): 390-393, May-June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288675

ABSTRACT

Abstract Spondylodiscitis is an uncommon but serious complication after spine surgeries, and its main etiologic agent is Staphylococcus aureus. Fungal infections are rare and mostly caused by Candida albicans. We report the clinical case of a 69-year-old male patient who underwent a L2-S1 arthrodesis for degenerative scoliosis correction. He presented an infection 2.5 months after the procedure, a spondylodiscitis at L5-S1 levels, caused by Candida parapsilosis. The treatment consisted of surgical material removal, tricortical iliac graft placement in an anterior approach (L5-S1), lumbopelvic fixation (from T10 to the pelvis) in a posterior approach, and drug treatment with anidulafungin and fluconazole. This last medication was administered for 12 months, with good clinical outcomes.


Resumo As espondilodiscites são complicações infrequentes, porém graves em pós-operatórios de cirurgias da coluna vertebral, tendo como principal agente etiológico o Staphylococcus aureus. As infecções fúngicas são raras, sendo a Candida albicans a principal representante desse grupo. Relatamos o caso clínico de um paciente do sexo masculino, 69 anos, operado com artrodese de L2 a S1 para correção de escoliose degenerativa. O paciente apresentou quadro clínico infeccioso 2 meses e meio após o procedimento, relacionado à espondilodiscite L5-S1, causada por Candida parapsilosis. O tratamento consistiu na remoção do material cirúrgico, colocação de enxerto tricortical de ilíaco pela via anterior (L5-S1) e fixação lombopélvica (de T10 à pelve) pela via posterior, além de iniciar o tratamento medicamentoso com anidulafungina e fluconazol, mantendo essa última medicação por 12 meses, com boa evolução clínica.


Subject(s)
Staphylococcus aureus , Discitis , Fluconazole , Candida parapsilosis , Anidulafungin , Mycoses
5.
Coluna/Columna ; 19(4): 282-286, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133595

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with pyogenic spondylodiscitis treated in a Brazilian hospital. Methods This is a retrospective study of patients diagnosed with nonspecific spondylodiscitis. Patients of both sexes, above 18 years of age with a minimum follow-up time of 6 months were included. Epidemiological, laboratory, and clinical data were analyzed. Results Nine patients were included. The mean age was 64 years, with seven men (77.7%) and two women (22.2%). All patients evaluated had back pain. The most affected location was the lumbar spine (44.4%). Only three patients (33.3%) had fever and five (55%) had constitutional symptoms. The mean duration of symptoms before diagnosis was 2.5 (± 1.5) weeks. Only four patients (44.4%) had positive cultures. As for neurological status, five patients (55.5%) presented neurological change. At the end of treatment, two patients improved one level in the Frankel score and two patients improved two levels. The main indication for surgery was neurological deficit (55.5%). Two of the patients evaluated died as a result of an infectious condition. Conclusions Less than half of the patients with pyogenic spondylodiscitis had fever or constitutional symptoms. Back pain was present in all cases. In less than half of the patients it was possible to isolate the responsible microorganism. Most patients underwent surgical treatment, although not all improved from the neurological deficit. Level of evidence II; Retrospective study.


RESUMO Objetivo Descrever as características epidemiológicas e clínicas de pacientes com espondilodiscite piogênica tratados em um hospital brasileiro. Métodos Trata-se de estudo retrospectivo de pacientes com diagnóstico de espondilodiscite inespecífica. Foram incluídos pacientes de ambos os sexos, acima de 18 anos, com tempo de seguimento mínimo de seis meses. Foram analisados dados epidemiológicos, laboratoriais e clínicos. Resultados Nove pacientes foram incluídos. A média de idade foi de 64 anos, sendo sete homens (77,7%) e duas mulheres (22,2%). Todos os pacientes avaliados tinham dorsalgia. O local mais acometido foi a coluna lombar (44,4%). Apenas três pacientes (33,3%) apresentaram febre e cinco (55%), sintomas constitucionais. O tempo médio de sintomas antes do diagnóstico foi de 2,5 (± 1,5) semanas. Apenas quatro pacientes (44,4%) tiveram culturas positivas. Cinco pacientes (55,5%) apresentaram alteração neurológica. Ao término do tratamento, dois pacientes melhoraram um nível no escore de Frankel, dois pacientes melhoraram dois níveis. A principal indicação para cirurgia foi déficit neurológico (55,5%). Dois pacientes avaliados foram a óbito em decorrência do quadro infeccioso. Conclusões Menos da metade dos pacientes com espondilodiscite piogênica tiveram febre ou sintomas constitucionais. A dorsalgia estava presente em todos os casos. Em menos da metade dos pacientes foi possível isolar o microrganismo responsável. A maioria dos pacientes foi submetida a tratamento cirúrgico, embora nem todos tiveram melhora do déficit neurológico. Nível de evidência II; Estudo Retrospectivo.


RESUMEN Objetivo Describir las características epidemiológicas y clínicas de pacientes con espondilodiscitis piógena tratados en un hospital brasileño. Métodos Se trata de un estudio retrospectivo de pacientes con diagnóstico de espondilodiscitis inespecífica. Fueron incluidos pacientes de ambos sexos, mayores de 18 años, con tiempo de seguimiento mínimo de seis meses. Fueron analizados datos epidemiológicos, de laboratorio y clínicos. Resultados Se incluyeron nueve pacientes. El promedio de edad fue de 64 años, siendo siete hombres (77,7%) y dos mujeres (22,2%). Todos los pacientes evaluados tenían dolor de espalda. El local más acometido fue la columna lumbar (44,4%). Sólo tres pacientes (33,3%) presentaron fiebre y cinco (55%) síntomas constitucionales. El tiempo promedio de síntomas antes del diagnóstico fue de 2,5 (± 1,5) semanas. Sólo cuatro pacientes (44,4%) tuvieron cultivos positivos. Cinco pacientes (55,5%) presentaron alteración neurológica. Al término del tratamiento, dos pacientes mejoraron un nivel en la escala de Frankel, dos pacientes mejoraron dos niveles. La principal indicación para cirugía fue el déficit neurológico (55,5%). Dos pacientes evaluados fueron a óbito como consecuencia del cuadro infeccioso. Conclusiones Menos de la mitad de los pacientes con espondilodiscitis piógena tuvieron fiebre o síntomas constitucionales. El dolor de espalda estuvo presente en todos los casos. En menos de la mitad de los pacientes fue posible aislar el microorganismo responsable. La mayoría de los pacientes fue sometida a tratamiento quirúrgico, aunque no todos tuvieron mejora del déficit neurológico. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudio retrospectivo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Spinal Diseases , Discitis , Intervertebral Disc
6.
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 31(5/6): 448-455, sept.-dic. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224138

ABSTRACT

Las infecciones espinales son cuadros clínicos poco frecuentes, que exigen un alto índice de sospecha. La prevalencia de infecciones piógenas de la columna ha ido en aumento, en parte debido al envejecimiento de la población y a un mayor número de pacientes inmunocomprometidos. El estudio imagenológico se puede iniciar con radiografías simples, pero la resonancia magnética es el examen imagenológico de elección, ya que puede dar resultados positivos de forma precoz, entregando información más detallada del compromiso vertebral y tejidos blandos adyacentes. Aunque la clínica y los hallazgos imagenológicos nos pueden orientar, es importante intentar un diagnóstico microbiológico tomando cultivos y muestras para identificar al agente causal antes de iniciar los antibióticos; aunque es óptimo un tratamiento agente-específico, hasta un 25% de los casos queda sin diagnóstico del agente. El tratamiento es inicialmente médico, con antibióticos e inmovilización, pero se debe considerar la cirugía en casos de compromiso neurológico, deformidad progresiva, inestabilidad, sepsis no controlada o dolor intratable. El manejo quirúrgico actual consiste en el aseo y estabilización precoz de los segmentos vertebrales comprometidos. Descartar una endocarditis concomitante y el examen neurológico seriado son parte del manejo de estos pacientes.


Spinal infections are unusual conditions requiring a high index of suspicion for clinical diagnosis. There has been a global increase in the number of pyogenic spinal infections due to an aging population and a higher proportion of immunocompromised patients. The imaging study should start with plain radiographs, but magnetic resonance imaging (mri) is the gold standard for diagnosis. Mri can detect bone and disc changes earlier than other methods, and it provides detailed information on bone and adjacent soft tissues. Blood cultures and local samples for culture and pathology should be obtained, trying to identify the pathogen. According to the result, the most appropriate drug must be selected depending on susceptibility and penetration into spinal tissues. Treatment should start with antibiotics and immobilization; surgery should be considered in cases with neurological impairment, progressive deformity, spine instability, sepsis, or non-controlled pain. Current surgical treatment includes debridement and early stabilization. Practitioners should rule out endocarditis and perform a serial neurological examination managing these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Spinal Diseases/diagnosis , Spinal Diseases/microbiology , Spinal Diseases/therapy , Prognosis , Spinal Diseases/physiopathology , Spine/microbiology , Spondylitis/diagnosis , Spondylitis/therapy , Discitis/diagnosis , Discitis/therapy , Epidural Abscess/diagnosis , Epidural Abscess/therapy
7.
Coluna/Columna ; 19(2): 123-126, Apr.-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133565

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To correlate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings with the microbiological and anatomopathological diagnosis of spinal infection. Methods A retrospective, cohort review of online medical records (laboratory, anatomopathology and diagnostic imaging sector) of patients diagnosed with spondylodiscitis, who underwent a full spine MR scan between January 2014 and July 2018 at the Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology of the Universidade Federal de São Paulo. Results Staphylococcus aureus was the most commonly found etiological agent (57%). Blood culture was positive in 76% of cases and 82% of the patients who underwent biopsy had a spondylodiscitis diagnosis. Pain was the most prevalent clinical symptom and the lumbosacral spine was the most frequent site of infection. T1 hyposignal, T2/STIR hypersignal, and terminal plate destruction were verified in almost all MR scans. Conclusions No direct correlation was found between MR findings and any specific etiological agent. Blood culture and biopsy are important diagnostic tools that should be used for accurate diagnosis of the infectious agent . Level of evidence IV; Diagnostic Study.


RESUMO Objetivo Correlacionar os achados de ressonância magnética (RNM) com o diagnóstico microbiológico e anatomopatológico de infecção na coluna vertebral. Métodos Estudo de coorte retrospectivo de revisão de prontuários online (laboratório, anatomopatológico e setor de diagnóstico por imagem) de pacientes com diagnóstico de espondilodiscite, submetidos ao exame de RNM da coluna vertebral e acompanhados pelo Departamento de Ortopedia e Traumatologia da Universidade Federal de São Paulo, entre janeiro de 2014 e julho de 2018. Resultados O agente etiológico mais comum encontrado foi o S. aureus (57%). A hemocultura mostrou-se positiva em 76% dos casos e 82% dos pacientes submetidos à biópsia apresentaram diagnóstico de espondilodiscite. A dor foi o achado clínico mais prevalente e a coluna lombossacra foi o sítio mais frequente de infecção. No exame de RNM, a presença de hipossinal em T1, hipersinal em T2/STIR e destruição das placas terminais foram identificados em quase todos os casos. Conclusões Não houve correlação direta dos achados na RNM com um agente etiológico específico na espondilodiscite. A hemocultura e a biópsia são ferramentas diagnósticas importantes que devem ser utilizadas para o diagnóstico preciso do agente infeccioso. Nível de evidência IV; Estudo diagnóstico.


RESUMEN Objetivo Correlacionar los hallazgos de resonancia magnética (RNM) con el diagnóstico microbiológico y anatomopatológico de infección de la columna vertebral. Métodos Un estudio de cohorte retrospectivo de revisión de prontuarios en línea (laboratorio, anatomopatológico y sector de diagnóstico por imagen) de pacientes con diagnóstico de espondilodiscitis, sometidos al examen de RNM de la columna vertebral y acompañados por el Departamento de Ortopedia y Traumatología de la Universidad Federal de São Paulo, entre enero de 2014 y julio de 2018. Resultados El agente etiológico más común encontrado fue el S. aureus (57%). El hemocultivo se mostró positivo en 76% de los casos y 82% de los pacientes sometidos a biopsia presentaron diagnóstico de espondilodiscitis. El dolor fue el hallazgo clínico más prevalente y la columna lumbosacra fue el sitio más frecuente de infección. En el examen de RNM, la presencia de hiposeñal en T1, hiperseñal en T2/STIR y destrucción de las placas terminales fueron identificadas en casi todos los casos. Conclusiones No hubo correlación directa de los hallazgos de la RNM con un agente etiológico específico en la espondilodiscitis. El hemocultivo y la biopsia son herramientas diagnósticas importantes, que deben ser utilizadas para el diagnóstico preciso del agente infeccioso. Nivel de evidencia IV; Estudio Diagnóstico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Discitis , Spine , Biopsy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Blood Culture
8.
Coluna/Columna ; 18(4): 327-329, Oct.-Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055988

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: The main causative agent of spinal infections is Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, followed by saprophytes of the skin. The most affected segment is the lumbar, followed by the thoracic. Objective: Case report. Results: A previously healthy 40-year-old man with posterior cervical pain and myelopathy was referred to our spine service for vertebral destruction syndrome in C3-C4 and altered carbohydrate metabolism. Microdiscectomy and abscess drainage were performed and a biopsy was taken for definitive diagnosis. Multiresistant Serratia Marcescens was isolated in the culture. Both the myelopathy and carbohydrate intolerance were resolved as the infection was resolved. Conclusion: The significance of this case lies in the infective presentation of the S. Marcescens in an immunocompetent person, since it is mainly an opportunistic microorganism, and in the atypical location. The most commonly isolated pathogen is Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, followed by Staphylococcus aureus. Identification of the causative agent is essential to the initiation of antibiotic therapy. Therefore, microbiological isolation plays a fundamental role in the treatment, recovery and quality of life of the patient. Level of evidence V; Case report.


RESUMO Introdução: O principal agente causador das infecções da coluna vertebral é o Mycobacterium tuberculosis, seguido pelos saprófitos da pele. O segmento mais afetado é o lombar, seguido pelo torácico. Objetivo: Relato de caso. Resultados: Um homem, anteriormente saudável, de 40 anos, com dor cervical posterior e mielopatia como principal sintomatologia, foi encaminhado ao nosso serviço de coluna vertebral com síndrome de destruição vertebral em C3-C4 e alteração do metabolismo de carboidratos. A microdiscectomia e a drenagem de abscessos foram realizadas e uma biópsia foi feita para diagnóstico definitivo. A Serratia marcescens multirresistente foi isolada na cultura. Tanto a mielopatia como a intolerância a carboidratos foram resolvidas, uma vez que a infecção foi tratada. Conclusão: A importância desse caso reside na apresentação infecciosa da S. marcescens em uma pessoa imunocompetente, uma vez que esse é principalmente um microrganismo oportunista e por sua localização atípica. O patógeno mais comumente isolado é o Mycobacterium tuberculosis, seguido pelo Staphylococcus aureus. A identificação do agente causador é essencial para início da terapia com antibióticos. Portanto, o isolamento microbiológico desempenha um papel fundamental no tratamento, recuperação e qualidade de vida do paciente. Nível de evidência: V; Relato de caso.


RESUMEN Introducción: El principal agente causal de las infecciones de columna es la Mycobacterium Tuberculosis seguido de los saprófitos de la piel y el principal segmento afectado es el lumbar, seguido del torácico. Objetivo: Reporte de caso. Resultados: Presentamos un masculino de 40 años previamente sano, referido al servicio de columna por síndrome de destrucción vertebral C3-C4, con dolor cervical posterior y mielopatía como principal sintomatología, y alteración del metabolismo de carbohidratos. Se realizó microdiscectomía y drenaje de absceso con toma de biopsia para diagnóstico definitivo. En el cultivo se aisló Serratia Marcescens, multirresistente. La mielopatía y la intolerancia a los carbohidratos se resolvieron una vez resuelta la infección. Conclusión: La importancia de este caso radica en la presentación infectante de la S. Marcescens en una persona inmunocompetente ya que esta es principalmente un microorganismo oportunista y por su localización atípica. El patógeno más comúnmente aislado es Mycobacterium Tuberculosis seguido de Staphylococcus aureus. La identificación del agente causal es fundamental para iniciar la terapéutica antibiótica. Por lo tanto, el aislamiento microbiológico tiene un papel fundamental en el tratamiento, la recuperación y calidad de vida del paciente. Nivel de evidencia V; Reporte de caso.


Subject(s)
Humans , Serratia marcescens , Spinal Cord Diseases , Discitis
9.
Coluna/Columna ; 18(2): 154-157, June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011945

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: Spondylodiscitis is a rare, late diagnosis disease. In view of the morbidity and mortality associated to the delayed diagnosis and increase of the cases in the last years, this study was carried out in order to evaluate the operated cases and improve the management of these patients.. Methods: Retrospective longitudinal study involving 1440 patients submitted to a surgical procedure in the thoracolumbar spine from January 2015 to March 2017, including 49 cases operated by spondylodiscitis. Results: Results: Severe complications requiring ICU admission (pulmonary or urinary tract sepsis and DVT) were observed in 7 (8.5%) individuals, whose mean hospital stay was 35 days (10-170 days) [p=0.006]. Conclusions: Conclusion: A correlation between the number of days hospitalized and the increase in the rate of complications was found. Early surgery by the anterior approach and posterior fixation after 2 weeks is the treatment of choice, with low morbidity and short period of hospitalization. Level of Evidence III; Retrospective Study.


RESUMO Objetivos: A espondilodiscite é uma rara doença, de diagnóstico tardio. Em vista da morbimortalidade associada ao atraso diagnóstico e aumento dos casos nos últimos anos, realizou-se este estudo a fim de avaliar os casos operados e aprimorar o manejo destes pacientes. Métodos: Estudo longitudinal retrospectivo, envolvendo 1440 pacientes submetidos a procedimento cirúrgico na coluna toracolombar de Janeiro de 2015 a Março de 2017, com inclusão de 49 casos operados por espondilodiscite. Resultados: As complicações graves com necessidade de UTI (sepse com foco pulmonar ou de vias urinárias e TVP) foram observadas em 7 (8.5%) indivíduos, cuja permanência hospitalar média foi de 35 dias (10-170 dias). [p=0.006]. Conclusão: Houve correlação entre a quantidade de dias internados e o aumento na taxa de complicações. A cirurgia precoce pela abordagem anterior e fixação posterior após duas semanas é o tratamento de escolha, com baixa morbidade e curto período de internamento. Nível de Evidência III; Estudo Retrospectivo.


RESUMEN Objetivos: La espondilodiscitis es una rara enfermedad, de diagnóstico tardío. En vista de la morbimortalidad asociada al retraso diagnóstico y el aumento de los casos en los últimos años, se realizó este estudio a fin de evaluar los casos operados y mejorar el manejo de estos pacientes. Métodos: Estudio longitudinal retrospectivo, involucrando a 1440 pacientes sometidos a procedimiento quirúrgico en la columna toracolumbar de enero de 2015 a marzo de 2017, con la inclusión de 49 casos operados por espondilodiscitis. Resultados: Las complicaciones graves con necesidad de UTI (sepsia con foco pulmonar o de vías urinarias y TVP) fueron observadas en 7 (8,5%) individuos, cuya permanencia hospitalaria media fue de 35 días (10-170 días) (p = 0,006). Conclusiones: Hubo correlación entre la cantidad de días internados y el aumento en la tasa de complicaciones. La cirugía precoz por el abordaje anterior y fijación posterior después de 2 semanas es el tratamiento de elección, con baja morbilidad y corto período de internamiento. Nivel de Evidencia III; Estudio Retrospectivo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Spine , Discitis , Infections
10.
Coluna/Columna ; 18(2): 138-143, June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011951

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Spondylodiscitis is still a frequent pathology among neurosurgical services, and its correct treatment involves infectious, neurological and orthopedic goals. The authors describe the protocol and report the diagnostic and therapeutic results after its implementation. Methods: A prospective prognostic study (Level I) including patients with primary spondylodiscitis treated in the Neurosurgical Service of Cristo Redentor Hospital from January 2014 to March 2018. Demographic, spine, infectious and treatment-related variables were analyzed. The numerical variables are presented as mean and standard deviation or median and interquartile range (according to their parametricity), and are compared by the student's t-Test or Mann-Whitney U Test, respectively. Results: Thirty seven patients were included. The sexes were evenly distributed, with predominantly Caucasians, and a mean age of 56.89 ±15.33. Hypertension and type 2 diabetes were the most frequent comorbidities. Vertebral lumbar level was the most involved segment. Pathogens were identified in 34 cases (91%), with Staphylococcus aureus being the most prevalent, followed by Koch Bacilli. Inflammatory markers are higher in pyogenic infections at hospital admission, but lower at hospital discharge when compared to tuberculous discitis (p<0.01). Mean hospital stay was higher in the pyogenic group. Conclusion: The protocol described has a high diagnostic level of the pathogen, with cure of infection and satisfactory neurologic outcome in all cases. Level of Evidence I, Diagnostic Studies - Investigating a Diagnostic Test.


RESUMO Objetivo: Espondilodiscite é uma patologia frequente nas enfermarias neurocirúrgicas, cujo tratamento adequado envolve questões infecciosas, neurológicas e ortopédicas. Os autores descrevem um protocolo reportando resultados diagnósticos e terapêuticos após sua implementação. Método: Estudo prognóstico prospectivo (Nível I) incluindo pacientes com espondilodiscite primária tratados de janeiro 2014 a março de 2018. Variáveis relacionadas a dados demográficos, vertebrais, infecciosos e terapêuticos foram analisados. Variáveis numéricas serão apresentadas como média e desvio padrão ou mediana e intervalo interquartil (conforme sua parametricidade) e analisadas com Teste T-Student ou Teste Mann-Whittney, respectivamente. Resultados: 37 pacientes foram incluídos, cuja média de idade foi 56.89 ±15.33. Hipertensão arterial e Diabetes foram as comorbidades mais prevalentes. O segmento lombar foi o mais acometido. Houve identificação do patógeno em 34 casos (91%), sendo o Staphylococcus aureus o mais frequente, seguido pelo Bacilo de Koch. Os marcadores inflamatórios foram maiores no grupo de discite piogênica no momento da admissão hospitalar, mas com valores inferiores aos da discite tuberculosa na alta hospitalar (p<0.01). A média de internação hospitalar foi maior no grupo piogênico. Conclusão: O protocolo descrito tem elevada taxa de identificação do patógeno com critérios de cura infecciosa e desfecho neurológico satisfatório em todos os casos descritos. Nível de Evidência I, Estudos diagnósticos - Investigação de um exame para diagnóstico.


RESUMEN Objetivo: La espondilodiscitis sigue siendo una patología frecuente en los servicios de neurocirugía y su tratamiento correcto incluye objetivos infecciosos, neurológicos y ortopédicos. Los autores describen un protocolo e informan los resultados diagnósticos y terapéuticos después de su implementación. Métodos: Estudio pronóstico prospectivo (Nivel I) que incluyó pacientes con espondilodiscitis primaria tratados en el Servicio de Neurocirugía del Hospital Cristo Redentor desde enero de 2014 hasta marzo de 2018. Se analizaron variables demográficas, vertebrales, infecciosas y relacionadas con el tratamiento. Las variables numéricas se presentan como promedio y la desviación estándar o mediana y rango intercuartil (según su parametricidad) y se comparan mediante la prueba t de Student o la prueba U de Mann-Whitney, respectivamente. Resultados: Se incluyeron 37 pacientes. Los sexos se distribuyeron uniformemente, con predominancia de caucásicos y una edad promedio de 56,89 ± 15,33. La hipertensión y la diabetes tipo 2 fueron las comorbilidades más frecuentes. El nivel lumbar fue el segmento más afectado. Se identificaron patógenos en 34 casos (91%), siendo el Staphylococcus aureus el más frecuente, seguido por el bacilo de Koch. Los marcadores inflamatorios fueron más en las infecciones piógenas en el hospital, pero más bajos en el alta hospitalaria en comparación con la discitis tuberculosa (p < 0,01). La estancia hospitalaria promedio fue mayor en el grupo piógeno. Conclusiones: El protocolo descrito tiene un alto nivel de diagnósticos del patógeno, con curación de la infección y resultados neurológicos satisfactorios en todos los casos. Nivel de Evidencia I, Estudios de diagnósticos - Investigación de un examen para diagnóstico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Spine , Discitis , Infections , Neurosurgery
11.
Acta ortop. mex ; 33(3): 141-145, may.-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248651

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Objetivo: Determinar la asociación entre las características clínicas y estudios de laboratorio con el tipo de microorganismo aislado en hemocultivos de pacientes con espondilodiscitis piógena. Material y métodos: Es un estudio transversal analítico, se revisaron expedientes clínicos de pacientes con espondilodiscitis piógena desde Enero de 2013 hasta Enero de 2017. Se realizó análisis descriptivo univariado usando frecuencias y porcentajes para variables cualitativas, medidas de tendencia central y dispersión para las cuantitativas. Análisis bivariado mediante prueba de χ2 o test exacto de Fisher. Análisis de variables cuantitativas mediante t Student o U de Mann-Whitney. Se usó coeficiente de correlación de Spearman. Considerando significancia estadística p < 0.05. Resultados: Se obtuvo una muestra de 34 pacientes, 20 (58%) fueron mujeres, mediana (Me) de edad 60 años (52-66). Se aisló en hemocultivos, bacterias Gram positivas 11 (32.4%) y Gram negativas 23 (67.6%). El microorganismo aislado más frecuente fue Escherichia coli 12 (35.3%). Los pacientes con espondilodiscitis por Gram negativas presentaron dolor leve y velocidad de sedimentación globular (VSG) Me 26 mm/hra P (18-36), los pacientes con espondilodiscitis por Gram positivas presentaron dolor severo y VSG Me 38 mm/h P (34-40) (p = 0.000 y 0.028, respectivamente). La VSG y dolor en el grupo de pacientes con espondilodiscitis por bacterias Gram negativas tuvo un coeficiente de correlación de Spearman moderado 0.418, (p = 0.047); en el grupo de Gram positivas, un coeficiente de correlación de Spearman bajo 0.228, (p = 0.507). Conclusión: Existe una asociación clínica y estadística de manera significativa entre los tipos de microorganismo aislado en hemocultivo, la intensidad del dolor valorado en escala visual análoga (EVA) y los niveles de VSG.


Abstract: Objective: Determine the association between clinical characteristics and laboratory studies with the type of isolated microorganism in blood cultures of patients with Pyogenic Spondylodiscitis. Material and methods: It is a cross-analytical study, clinical records of patients with Pyogenic Spondylodiscitis were reviewed from January 2013 to January 2017. Univariate descriptive analysis was performed using frequencies and percentages for qualitative variables, central trend measures and dispersion for quantitative ones. Bivariate analysis by testing of χ2 or Fisher's exact test. Analysis of quantitative variables using T Student or Mann-Whitney U. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used. Considering statistical significance p < 0.05. Results: A sample of 34 patients was obtained, 20 (58%) were women, median (Me) of age 60 years (52-66). Was isolated into blood cultures, Gram-positive bacteria 11 (32.4%) gram negatives 23 (67.6%). The microorganism most common isolate was Escherichia coli 12 (35.3%). Patients with Gram-negative spondylodiscitis had mild pain and globular sedimentation rate (VSG) Me 26 mm/hra P (18-36), patients with Gram-positive spondylodyscitis had severe pain and VSG Me 38 mm/h P (34-40) (p= 0.000 and 0.028, respectively). VSG and pain in the group of patients with gram-negative bacteria spondylodiscitis had a moderate Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.418, (p = 0.047); in the Gram positives group, a low correlation coefficient of Spearman 0.228, (p = 0.507). Conclusion: There is a clinical and statistical association significant between types of isolated microorganism in blood culture, pain intensity valued on analog visual scale (EVA) and VSG levels.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pain , Discitis/complications , Discitis/etiology , Discitis/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
12.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 608-614, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762967

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. PURPOSE: To describe our experience in the management and outcomes of vertebral column osteomyelitis (VCO), particularly focusing on the risk factors of early and late mortality. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: Previous reports suggest a global increase in spinal column infections highlighting significant morbidity and mortality. To date, there have been no reports from our local population, and no previous report has assessed the potential relationship of frailty with mortality in a cohort of patients with VCO. METHODS: We reviewed 76 consecutive patients with VCO between 2009 and 2016 in Waikato Hospital, New Zealand. Demographic, clinical, microbiological, and treatment data were collected. Comorbidities were noted to calculate the modified Frailty Index (mFI). Mortality at 30 days and 1 year was recorded. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify the predictors of mortality. RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 64.1 years, with 77.6% being male. Most patients presented with axial back pain (71.1%), with the lumbar spine most commonly affected (46%). A mean of 2.1 vertebral bodies was involved. Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus was the most common organism of infection (35.5%), and 15.8% of patients exhibited polymicrobial infection. Twenty patients (26.3%) underwent surgical intervention, which was more likely in patients with concomitant spinal epidural abscess (odds ratio [OR], 4.88) or spondylodiscitis (OR, 3.81). Mortality rate was 5.2% at 30 days and 22.3% at 1 year. The presence of frailty (OR, 13.62) and chronic renal failure (OR, 13.40) elevated the 30-day mortality risk only in univariate analysis. An increase in age (OR, 1.07) and the number of vertebral levels (OR, 2.30) elevated the 1-year mortality risk in both univariate and multivariate analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Although the mFI correlated with 30-day mortality in univariate analysis, it was not a significant predictor in multivariate analysis. An increase in age and the number of levels involved elevated the 1-year mortality risk.


Subject(s)
Adult , Back Pain , Cohort Studies , Coinfection , Comorbidity , Discitis , Epidural Abscess , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Male , Mortality , Multivariate Analysis , New Zealand , Osteomyelitis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Spine , Staphylococcus aureus
13.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 621-629, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762965

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: Prospective clinical study. PURPOSE: We evaluated the challenges faced during diagnosis and management of patients with subacute pyogenic discitis and discussed various clues in clinical history, radiologic and hematologic parameters of these patients that helped in establishing their diagnosis. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: Present literature available shows that in patients with subacute spondylodiscitis and infection with less virulent organisms, the clinical picture often is confusing and the initial radiologic and hematologic studies do not contribute much toward establishing the diagnosis. METHODS: Demographic pattern, predisposing factors, clinical presentation, comorbidities, microbiology, treatment, neurologic recovery, and complications of 11 patients were prospectively reviewed regarding their contribution toward the conformation of diagnosis of subacute pyogenic discitis. RESULTS: Mean age at presentation was 46.0 years with average preoperative Oswestry Disability Index and Visual Analog Scale scores of 83.4 and 7.18, respectively. Mean follow-up duration was 12.0 months. The most common site of infection was the lumbar spine, followed by the thoracic spine (n=1). Infective organisms were isolated in only 45% of cases. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common causative organism isolated. CONCLUSIONS: Diagnosing subacute spondylodiscitis in a patient presenting with subacute low backache poses a diagnostic challenge. Clinical and radiologic picture are deceiving, and bacteriologic results often are negative, further complicating the picture. A detailed medical history along with clinical, radiologic, and biochemical parameters prevents missing the diagnosis. Serial serum C-reactive protein and alkaline phosphatases were more reliable blood parameters in cases of subacute presentation.


Subject(s)
Alkaline Phosphatase , C-Reactive Protein , Causality , Clinical Study , Comorbidity , Diagnosis , Discitis , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Low Back Pain , Lumbar Vertebrae , Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases , Prospective Studies , Spine , Staphylococcal Infections , Staphylococcus aureus , Tertiary Care Centers , Tertiary Healthcare , Visual Analog Scale
14.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 265-271, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762926

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. PURPOSE: To report the prevalence of patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR) tubercular spondylodiscitis and their outcomes. Additionally, to assess the role of Xpert MTB/RIF assay in early detection of MDR tuberculosis. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: MDR tuberculosis is increasing globally. The World Health Organization (WHO) has strongly recommended Xpert MTB/RIF assay for early detection of tuberculosis. METHODS: From 2006 to 2015, a retrospective study was conducted on patients treated for MDR tuberculosis of the spine. Only patients whose diagnosis was confirmed using either culture and/or the Xpert MTB/RIF assay were included. Diagnostic method, treatment regimen, time taken to initiate second-line antituberculosis treatment (ATT), drug-related complications, and cost of medications were analyzed. All patients with MDR were treated according to the WHO recommendations for 2 years. The outcome parameters analyzed included clinical, biochemical, and radiological criteria to assess healing status. RESULTS: From 2006 to 2015, a total of 730 patients were treated for tubercular spondylodiscitis. Of those, 36 had MDR tubercular spondylitis (prevalence, 4.9%), and three had extremely drug resistant tubercular spondylitis (prevalence, 0.4%). In this study, 30 patients, with a mean age of 29 years and a mean post-treatment follow-up of 24 months, were enrolled. The majority (77%) had secondary MDR, 17 (56%) underwent surgery, and 26 (87%) completed treatment for 2 years and were healed. Drug-related complications (33%) included ototoxicity, hypothyroidism, and hyperpigmentation of the skin. The average time taken for initiation of second line ATT for MDR patients with Xpert MTB/RIF assay as the diagnostic tool was 18 days, when compared to patients for whom the assay was not available which was 243 days. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of MDR tubercular spondylodiscitis was 4.9%. In total, 87% of patients were healed with adequate treatment. The sensitivity and specificity of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay to detect MDR was 100% and 92.3%, respectively.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Discitis , Early Diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hyperpigmentation , Hypothyroidism , Methods , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Skin , Spine , Spondylitis , Tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , World Health Organization
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-770027

ABSTRACT

Candida vertebral osteomyelitis (CVO) is a rare disease that is a complication of intravenous drug use, but recently it has been recognized as mostly an opportunistic infection. Because CVO appears to mimic pyogenic spondylodiscitis in terms of the clinical and radiologic presentations, it is often neglected in a usual clinical setting. The clinical, radiological, and biological characteristics of CVO are often used to make a differential diagnosis with vertebral osteomyelitis from other etiologies. Once an initial proper diagnosis was performed, the treatment relies on the prompt initiation of appropriate pharmacotherapy and serial monitoring of the clinical progress. This paper report late-onset CVO in two young patients who underwent a heart transplant surgery and had postoperative systemic candidiasis. These two cases are a good reminder of the potential of CVO in immunosuppressive patients treated with anti-fungal agents. This paper presents these two cases with a review of the relevant literature.


Subject(s)
Candida , Candidiasis , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Discitis , Drug Therapy , Heart Transplantation , Heart , Humans , Opportunistic Infections , Osteomyelitis , Population Characteristics , Rare Diseases
16.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 116(6): 785-788, dic. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-973699

ABSTRACT

La espondilodiscitis infecciosa es una infección poco frecuente en niños, con mayor incidencia en menores de 6 años. Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 8 años, que se internó por dolor lumbar de 2 meses de evolución, afebril. La radiografía, tomografía e imagen por resonancia magnética nuclear fueron compatibles con espondilodiscitis a nivel de L4-L5. Luego de 10 días de antibioticoterapia empírica con clindamicina, con regular respuesta, se realizó punción ósea y se aisló Kingella kingae. Existe un aumento en la incidencia de infecciones osteoarticulares por Kingella kingae en lactantes y niños pequeños. La reemergencia en los últimos años se justifica por la optimización en las técnicas de cultivo, el uso de sistemas automatizados y de técnicas moleculares de diagnóstico. Kingella kingae es un patógeno que ha adquirido importancia en los últimos años en las infecciones osteoarticulares.


Infectious Spondylodiscitis is a rare infection in children. It is more frequent in patients under 6 years of age. We report the case of an 8-year-old patient with lumbar pain for 2 months, without fever. Xrays, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging all three showed spondylodiscitis L4-L5. After a 10-day antibiotic treatment with clindamycin with regular response, a bone puncture was performed isolating Kingella kingae (Kk). Ostearticular infections caused by Kk have increased among infants and children. Due to improvement in culture techniques, the usage of automatic systems and assessment molecular techniques, these infections re-emerged in the past few years. Kk is a pathogen that has lately become significant in osteoarticular infections.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Discitis/diagnosis , Neisseriaceae Infections/diagnosis , Kingella kingae/isolation & purification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Clindamycin/administration & dosage , Discitis/microbiology , Discitis/drug therapy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Neisseriaceae Infections/microbiology , Neisseriaceae Infections/drug therapy
17.
Rev. patol. trop ; 47(4): 247-253, dez. 2018. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-996645

ABSTRACT

The extrapulmonary forms of tuberculosis are responsible for about 20% of cases. Scrofuloderma is the cutaneous manifestation secondary to infection in some subcutaneous foci. A 33-year-old patient was admitted to the Clinical Hospital with exudative skin lesions on the back and thorax, initiated 10 months previously, associated with daily fever, and constipation. Spine resonance showed a paravertebral pseudotumoral lesion with T4 and T9 invasion, including vertebral canal and sub-ligament extension. The lesions presented fistulas for paravertebral muscles, lung and skin. Polimerase chain reaction (PCR) proved positive for Mycobacterium tubeculosis in the thorax wound secretion, caracterizing tuberculous spondilodiscitis with scrofuloderma. Treatment was initiated with rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide and ethambutol with important clinical improvement after the first week. The febrile peaks came to an end and there was improvement in the pattern of the cutaneous lesions. The susceptibility test showed resistance to isoniazid


Subject(s)
Humans , Thoracic Injuries , Tuberculosis, Cutaneous , Discitis , Mycobacterium tuberculosis
18.
MedUNAB ; 21(1): 138-146, 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-994804

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La mielopatía compresiva es ocasionada por diversidad de condiciones. Los abscesos espinales se cuentan como una de sus causas de menor incidencia, con 0.2 a 2 casos por cada 10,000 ingresos hospitalarios, según estadísticas reportadas por el Hospital General de Massachusetts. El Mycobacterium tuberculosis es el segundo patógeno más frecuentemente implicado, con 25% de los casos. Objetivo.Presentar un caso de tuberculosis espinal en edad pediátrica, que es infrecuente pero de relevancia epidemiológica. Presentación del caso. Paciente femenina de siete años de edad, procedente de área endémica amazónica, con sintomatología de compresión de médula espinal. Su historia clínica, nexos epidemiológicos y hallazgos paraclínicos y quirúrgicos llevaron al diagnóstico de tuberculosis espinal. Recibió manejo descompresivo y terapia farmacológica con tetraconjugado, con evolución favorable al momento de su egreso. Conclusiones.La tuberculosis espinal, entidad infecciosa de baja frecuencia, requiere un alto índice de sospecha y un tratamiento oportuno. Las imágenes de resonancia magnética espinal orientan el diagnóstico, confirmándose mediante el aislamiento microbiológico del bacilo. Países como Colombia, con alta endemicidad para el Mycobacterium tuberculosis y con gran proporción de su población en riesgo, deben vigilar de manera constante la tuberculosis y tener presente esta entidad dentro de los diagnósticos diferenciales a descartar. [Leguizamón-Castillo DC, Espinosa-García E, Vélez-Pachón CV, Cediel-Echeverry M. Mielopatía compresiva por Mycobacterium tuberculosis en una niña de origen indígena: un caso clínico de zona endémica amazónica. MedUNAB. 2018;21(1):138-146.doi: 10.29375/01237047.2700].


Introduction. Compressive Myelophaty is caused by multiple factors. Spinal abscesses are one of the causes with lowest occurrence rates. According to statistics provided by Massachusetts' General Hospital, these abscesses represent from 0.2 to 2 cases in 10,000 hospital admissions. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the second pathogen associated with this disease, as it was found in 25% of related cases. Objective. To present a spinal tuberculosis case at a pediatric age, which is an infrequent medical situation but that has epidemiologic relevance. Case Presentation. A 7 year old female patient coming from the Amazonian endemic zone with symptoms of spinal cord compression. Her medical history, epidemiological links and paraclinical and surgical findings lead to a spinal tuberculosis diagnosis. She received decompression procedures and first-line anti-tuberculous drug treatment (RIPE). At the moment of hospital discharging, the patient showed positive response and evolution to these treatments. Conclusions. Spinal tuberculosis is a low-frequency infectious entity, that requires high level of suspicion and prompt treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine guides towards the final diagnosis, that it is confirmed by microbiological isolation of the bacillus. Countries like Colombia, that is a high-endemic zone for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and that has a high percentage of population at risk, must keep a detailed surveillance of tuberculosis and must keep in mind this disease when constructing and ruling out differential diagnoses. [Leguizamón-Castillo DC, Espinosa-García E, Vélez-Pachón CV, Cediel-Echeverry M. Compressive Myelopathy caused by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis in an indigenous background child: A clinical case located within the Amazonian endemic zone. MedUNAB. 2018;21(1):138-146.doi: 10.29375/01237047.2700].


Introdução. A mielopatia compressiva é causada por uma variedade de condições. Abcessos na medula espinhal são contados como uma das causas de menor incidência, com 0.2 a 2 casos em cada 10,000 admissões hospitalares, segundo estatísticas relatadas pelo Hospital Geral de Massachusetts. O Mycobacterium tuberculosis é o segundo patógeno mais frequentemente envolvido, em 25% dos casos. Objetivo. Apresentar um caso de tuberculose espinhal em idade pediátrica que é infrequente, mas de relevância epidemiológica. Apresentação de caso. Uma paciente de sete anos de idade, da área endêmica da Amazônia, com sintomatologia de compressão medular. Sua história clínica, ligações epidemiológicas e achados paraclínicos e cirúrgicos levaram ao diagnóstico de tuberculose espinhal. A paciente recebeu tratamento descompressivo e terapia medicamentosa com tetra conjugado e teve evolução favorável no momento da alta. Conclusões.A tuberculose espinhal, infecção de baixa frequência, requer um alto índice de suspeita e tratamento oportuno. As imagens da ressonância magnética espinhal orientam o diagnóstico, confirmado por meio do isolamento microbiológico do bacilo. Países como Colômbia, com alta endemicidade para o Mycobacterium tuberculosis e com uma grande proporção de população em risco, devem monitorar constantemente a tuberculose e manter essa entidade em mente nos diagnósticos diferenciais a serem descartados. [Leguizamón-Castillo DC, Espinosa-García E, Vélez-Pachón CV, Cediel-Echeverry M. Mielopatia compressiva por Mycobacterium tuberculosis em uma menina indígena: um caso clínico da área amazônica endêmica. MedUNAB. 2018;21(1):138-146.doi: 10.29375/01237047.2700].


Subject(s)
Spinal Cord Compression , Spondylitis , Therapeutics , Tuberculosis, Spinal , Discitis , Diagnosis
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765596

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: Case report OBJECTIVES: We report a case of surgically proven tophaceous gout of the lumbar spine at the L5-S1 level in a 43-year-old man that mimicked infectious spondylodiscitis and epidural abscess on magnetic resonance (MR) images. SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW: Some patients have chronic back pain with an epidural mass. Among the many causes of epidural masses, tophaceous gout of the lumbar spine is very rare. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 43-year-old man presented with fever and chronic back pain with radiating pain. In an MR image of L4-5, an abnormal subcutaneous mass was found in the posterior epidural space. The subcutaneous mass was isointense on T1-weighted images compared with the intervertebral disc, and focally and strongly hyperintense and heterogeneous on T2-weighted images. After the intravenous administration of gadolinium contrast, the mass was fairly homogenous, with a low signal intensity and without enhancement. With the diagnosis of infective spondylitis with epidural abscess, we performed a decompressive mass resection. RESULTS: The pathologic examination revealed multinuclear giant cells and amorphous crystalline fibrous tissue. The lesion was diagnosed as tophaceous gout. CONCLUSIONS: This case underscores the importance of considering tophaceous gout in the differential diagnosis of an epidural mass in a patient with chronic back pain.


Subject(s)
Administration, Intravenous , Adult , Back Pain , Crystallins , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Discitis , Epidural Abscess , Epidural Space , Fever , Gadolinium , Giant Cells , Gout , Humans , Intervertebral Disc , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Spine , Spondylitis
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