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1.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 68(2): 202-205, Feb. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365344

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to emphasize the importance of legal and bioethical knowledge in maintaining medical confidentiality, especially in situations when there is a diagnosis of HIV infection. METHODS: A literature review of studies published in the Scientific Electronic Library Online and National Library of Medicine databases was performed. Sixteen studies available in full, online, and free, published between 2010 and 2020, were selected. RESULTS: The studies highlighted that, despite the ethical duty to breach confidentiality for the protection of third parties, many doctors are reluctant to reveal this secret due to the power of stigmatization and social discrimination related to the diagnosis of HIV infection, which affects integrity, counseling, and capability to treat patients. CONCLUSION: HIV diagnosis implies bioethical and legal questions. Respect for medical confidentiality is a matter to be discussed, as there is a need to protect the privacy of the patient, at the same time the responsibility to preserve the health of others.


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Disclosure , Confidentiality
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927869

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the rate and correlates of receiving human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) serostatus disclosure from their most recent male sexual partners among men who have sex with men(MSM) aged 50 and above. Methods With a geosocial networking application,we recruited participants through online convenience sampling to collect the demographic variables,behavioral information,receiving HIV serostatus disclosure,etc.Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to interpret the associated factors of receiving HIV serostatus disclosure. Results Overall,38.4%(398/1037) of participants received HIV serostatus disclosure from their most recent male sexual partners.The multivariable analysis demonstrated that the following populations were less likely to receive HIV serostatus disclosure from their most recent male sexual partners:participants with junior high school degree or below(OR=0.660,95%CI=0.473-0.922, P=0.015) compared to those with senior high school degree or above;participants unemployed(OR=0.537,95%CI=0.322-0.896, P=0.017) and employed(OR=0.663,95%CI=0.466-0.944, P=0.022) compared to those retired;participants without knowledge about HIV or acquired immune deficiency syndrome(AIDS) compared to those with knowledge about HIV/AIDS(OR=0.636,95%CI=0.466-0.868, P=0.004);participants having ≥2 male sexual partners in the last year(OR=0.433,95%CI=0.320-0.586, P<0.001) compared to those having none or one male sexual partner;participants never been tested for HIV(OR=0.544,95%CI=0.403-0.734, P<0.001) compared to those ever been tested for HIV;participants ever been diagnosed to have sexually transmitted infection(STI)(OR=0.472,95%CI=0.349-0.637, P<0.001) compared to those never diagnosed to have STI;and participants with higher level of HIV stigma(OR=0.742,95%CI=0.604-0.912, P=0.005). Conclusions Our findings indicated that the MSM aged 50 and above had low possibility of receiving HIV serostatus disclosure from the most recent male sexual partners.Education,employment status,number of sexual partners,HIV/AIDS-related knowledge,HIV testing behaviors,STI infection history,and HIV stigma contributed to this result.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Disclosure , Female , HIV , HIV Infections , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Sexual Behavior , Sexual Partners , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/diagnosis
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 1132-1132, Oct.-Dec. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153433
4.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 14(4): 333-339, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142841

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT. Dementia is a life-threatening and stigmatizing condition, with devastating impacts on the patient's personal identity and caregivers. There are many barriers to an effective diagnosis disclosure of dementia, including fear of causing distress, uncertainty of diagnosis, caregivers' objection and lack of training in communication skills in undergraduate medical schools. Although some studies have been published on how to help physicians deliver an Alzheimer's disease diagnosis, no specific protocol has been published yet. The SPIKES protocol is a didactic approach designed to deliver bad news related to cancer, but it has been used globally and in a variety of clinical settings, including the teaching of communication skills to medical students and residents. It is known, however, that the cognitive impairment of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias may limit the understanding of the diagnosis' complexity; hence, a few adaptations of this model were made after reviewing the current literature on dementia diagnosis disclosure. The suggested SPIKES-D protocol seems to encompass current guidelines about the communication of the diagnosis of dementia, keeping its didactic approach on breaking bad news and helping fulfill the gaps in this topic.


RESUMO. A demência é uma condição incurável e estigmatizada, com impacto devastador na identidade pessoal do paciente e seus cuidadores. Existem muitas barreiras para uma adequada comunicação do diagnóstico às pessoas com demência, incluindo medo de causar estresse psicológico, incerteza do diagnóstico, objeção dos cuidadores e falta de treinamento em habilidades de comunicação nas escolas de medicina. Embora alguns artigos sobre como auxiliar a equipe médica a comunicar um diagnóstico de demência tenham sido publicados, nenhum protocolo específico foi publicado até o presente momento. O protocolo SPIKES é uma abordagem didática desenvolvida para auxiliar a comunicação de más notícias relacionadas ao câncer, mas tem sido utilizado em todo o mundo e nos mais diversos contextos clínicos, inclusive no ensino de habilidades de comunicação para estudantes e residentes de medicina. Entretanto, é sabido que o declínio cognitivo inerente à doença de Alzheimer e outras demências pode limitar a compreensão da complexidade do diagnóstico, tendo sido realizadas, portanto, algumas adaptações nesse protocolo após revisão da literatura acerca da comunicação do diagnóstico das demências. O protocolo SPIKES-D aqui sugerido parece englobar as diretrizes atuais sobre a comunicação do diagnóstico de demências, preservando seu caráter didático na comunicação de más notícias e auxiliando no preenchimento das lacunas neste tópico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Communication , Disclosure , Dementia , Diagnosis , Alzheimer Disease
6.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(8): 1139-1145, Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136338

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE To analyze the scientific evidence on the disclosure of the diagnostic of adolescents infected by HIV/AIDS in the South American context. DATABASE Systematic literature review using the PubMed, Cinahal, Embase, Cochrane, BVS, and Global Health databases and the descriptors: adolescent and HIV and family and Argentina or Bolivia or Brasil or Chile or Colombia or Ecuador or French Guiana or Paraguay or Peru or Uruguay or Venezuela. DATA SYNTHESIS Brasil was the country highlighted. It was verified that parents have a direct and indirect influence over the adolescents' life, especially regarding behaviors and health care. Dialog among family members can reduce adolescents' vulnerability to HIV and encourage diagnostic disclosure. CONCLUSION It is necessary to amplify research involving adolescents with HIV/AIDS and their parents/caregivers and family members to improve care and reduce the cases of the disease. It is suggested that policies of prevention and treatment should involve families, caregivers, partners, and the community.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar as evidências científicas acerca da revelação diagnóstica de adolescentes infectados pelo HIV/aids no contexto sul-americano. FONTES DE DADOS Revisão sistemática da literatura nas bases de dados PubMed, Cinahal, Embase, Cochrane, BVS e Global Health, utilizando os descritores adolescent and HIV and family and Argentina or Bolivia or Brasil or Chile or Colombia or Equador or French Guiana or Paraguay or Peru or Uruguay or Venezuela. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS O Brasil foi o país de destaque. Verificou-se que os pais exercem influência direta e indireta sobre a vida dos adolescentes, especialmente com relação aos comportamentos e cuidados de saúde. O diálogo entre os membros da família pode reduzir a vulnerabilidade dos adolescentes ao HIV e encorajar a revelação do diagnóstico. CONCLUSÃO É necessário ampliar a pesquisa envolvendo adolescentes, pais/cuidadores, famílias com HIV/aids para melhorar os cuidados e reduzir os casos da doença. Sugere-se que as políticas de prevenção e tratamento envolvam famílias, cuidadores, parceiros e comunidades.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , HIV Infections , Disclosure , Peru , Argentina , Venezuela , Brazil , Chile , HIV
9.
Niger. j. paediatr ; 47(4): 305­311-2020. tab
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1267474

ABSTRACT

Background: HIV infected children survive to adolescence because of anti retroviral therapy, however, only a small proportion know their diagnosis.Disclosure is critical to long-term disease management, yet little is known about if, how, and when disclosure takes place and the barriers associated with it, and its impact on children in resource limited settings. Objective: This study set out to determine the process of and barriers to HIV disclosure in children as well as the immediate impact of this on children and their caregivers. Methods: A cross-sectional study was done June-July 2016 using a structured questionnaire, convenience sampling and quantitative methods at the infectious disease clinics of National Hospital Abuja. A sample of 164 caregivers of HIV positive children aged 5 to 16 years receiving antiretroviral therapy for at least one year were enrolled. Results: Prevalence of full disclosure was 24.5%, partial 22.7% with overall prevalence of 47.2%. Main barrier to disclosure was child's age and fear of informing others. The impact of disclosure on caregivers was relief in 45.5% but emotional and difficult for others. Immediate reactions by children were sadness; tearfulness and worry in 28.6%, some showed no reaction while others even expressed relief. On a longer term, disclosure had several effects. Main predictors of disclosure on regression were the child's age and caregiver's opinion on disclosure. Conclusion: The prevalence of full disclosure is low and several barriers affect disclosure. Caregiver's and HCWs need empowerment and support with culturally appropriate skills and platforms to deal with the barriers, process and impact of disclosure


Subject(s)
Child , Communication Barriers , Disclosure , HIV Serosorting , Health Impact Assessment , Nigeria
10.
Pers. bioet ; 23(2): 224-244, jul.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1115067

ABSTRACT

Resumen Las voluntades anticipadas en salud tienen como finalidad que la persona manifieste de manera anticipada su voluntad sobre los cuidados y el tratamiento de su salud, lo cual le permite expresar personalmente y de forma previa sus preferencias. Esta revisión de la literatura tiene por objetivo describir el concepto y la estructura de las voluntades anticipadas, así como los aspectos éticos involucrados durante el cuidado del paciente. Con las palabras clave "Advanced Health Care Directive" AND "Ethical Implication" y sus símiles en español (voluntades anticipadas, implicaciones éticas), se revisaron cinco bases de datos: ProQuest, Philosophy (JSTOR), PubMed, Web of Science y SciELO; las publicaciones se agruparon entre los años 2010 y 2018. Se obtuvieron 31 artículos de los cuales se realizó una lectura crítica. Los resultados de esta revisión fueron agrupados en las siguientes categorías: concepto, estructura, situaciones clínicas donde se aplican las voluntades anticipadas, fortalezas y limitaciones; así como los aspectos éticos involucrados. Actualmente, son más comunes las vivencias relacionadas con las situaciones al final de la vida, donde la persona pierde su capacidad de decidir y no puede manifestar sus deseos, por lo que es imposible conocer su voluntad. Gran parte de los profesionales de la salud no tienen capacitación adecuada sobre el desarrollo y la aplicación de las voluntades anticipadas, escenario que se convierte en una oportunidad para la investigación y profundización sobre el tema. Las voluntades anticipadas son una herramienta que proporciona al equipo de salud información fidedigna de los valores y deseos del paciente, por lo que es importante capacitar a estos profesionales para brindar una atención respetuosa y de calidad.


Abstract Advance healthcare directives are intended for the individual to personally express their will and preferences about healthcare and treatment ahead of time. This literature review aims to describe the concept and structure of advance directives and the ethical aspects involved in patient care. Using the keywords "Advance Healthcare Directive" AND "Ethical Implication" and its Spanish equivalents (voluntades anticipadas, implicaciones éticas), five databases were accessed: ProQuest, Philosophy (JSTOR), PubMed, Web of Science and Scielo. Publications were narrowed down to the 2010-2018 period. Thirty-one articles were obtained and read critically. Results of this review were grouped into the following categories: concept, structure, clinical situations in which advance directives apply, strengths and limitations, as well as the ethical aspects involved. End of life-related experiences in which a person loses their ability to make decisions and cannot express their wishes, so it is impossible to know their will, are more common nowadays. Most health workers are not appropriately trained in the preparation and application of advance directives, which becomes an opportunity to research and delve deeper into the subject. Advance directives are a tool that gives health workers reliable information on a patient's values and wishes, so it is vital to train them to provide respectful quality care.


Resumo As diretivas antecipadas de vontade na saúde têm como finalidade que o paciente manifeste, de maneira antecipada, sua vontade e preferências sobre os cuidados e o tratamento de sua saúde. Esta revisão da literatura tem como objetivo descrever o conceito e a estrutura das diretivas antecipadas de vontade, bem como os aspectos éticos envolvidos durante o cuidado do paciente. Com as palavras-chave "advanced health care directive" AND "ethical implication" e seus equivalentes em espanhol ("voluntades anticipadas", "implicaciones éticas"), foram revisadas cinco bases de dados: ProQuest, Philosophy (JSTOR), PubMed, Web of Science e SciELO; as publicações são de 2010 a 2018. Foram obtidos 31 artigos, dos quais foi realizada uma leitura crítica. Os resultados desta revisão foram agrupados nas seguintes categorias: conceito, estrutura, situações clínicas em que são aplicadas as diretivas antecipadas de vontade, fortalezas, limitações, bem como aspectos éticos envolvidos. Atualmente, são mais comuns as vivências relacionadas com as situações no final da vida, em que a pessoa perde sua capacidade de decidir e não pode manifestar seus desejos, portanto é impossível conhecer sua vontade. Grande parte dos profissionais da saúde não tem capacitação adequada sobre o desenvolvimento e a aplicação das diretivas antecipadas de vontade, o que se torna uma oportunidade para pesquisar e aprofundar sobre o tema. As diretivas antecipadas de vontade são uma ferramenta que proporciona, à equipe de saúde, informação fidedigna dos valores e desejos do paciente, por isso é importante capacitar os profissionais para oferecer uma atenção respeitosa e de qualidade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Advance Directives , Living Wills , Disclosure , Decision Making , Clinical Decision-Making
11.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(11): 4313-4324, nov. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039526

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar as preferências de pessoas idosas, residentes na comunidade, pela divulgação de informações relativas ao tempo de vida limitado, sintomas e problemas, e opções disponíveis para cuidados numa situação de doença grave, com menos de um ano de vida; e identificar os fatores associados com a preferência pela informação sobre prognóstico de vida limitado. Foi aplicado a versão brasileira do questionário sobre Preferências e Prioridades para os Cuidados de Fim de Vida (PRISMA), por meio de entrevista face-a-face, a 400 pessoas idosas, residentes na cidade de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Os principais resultados indicam que: 74.0% preferem ser informados sobre o tempo de vida limitado, 89.3% sobre os sintomas e problemas e 96.3% acerca das opções de cuidados. Os fatores associados à preferência pela informação sobre prognóstico de vida limitado foram: gênero (mulheres: OR=0.446, 95% IC:0.269-0.738) e local menos preferido de morte (casa de um familiar ou amigo: OR=2.423, 95% IC:1.130-5.198). Esses resultados mostram que a maioria das pessoas idosas deseja ser informada numa situação de doença avançada, com menos de um ano de vida. Os profissionais de saúde precisam estar preparados para antecipar notícias sobre o prognóstico de vida limitado e a doença.


Abstract This study aimed to determine the preferences of community-dwelling older people about information disclosure regarding poor prognosis, the likely symptoms and problems, and the care options available in a situation of serious illness with less than a year to live; and to identify factors associated with a preference for information disclosure regarding poor prognosis. The Brazilian version of the Preferences and Priorities for End of Life Care (PRISMA) questionnaire was administered face-to-face to 400 older people, living in the city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The main results indicated that 74.0% preferred to be informed that they had limited time left, 89.3% wished to be informed about symptoms and problems, and 96.3% about available care options. The factors associated with preferences for information about poor prognosis were: gender (women: OR = 0.446, 95% CI: 0.269-0.738) and choosing the least preferred place to die (home of a relative or friend: OR = 2.423, 95% CI: 1.130-5.198. These results show that most older people want to be informed in an advanced illness situation with less than a year to live. Health care professionals need to be prepared to anticipate news about poor prognosis and the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Terminal Care/psychology , Attitude to Death , Disclosure/statistics & numerical data , Patient Preference/statistics & numerical data , Prognosis , Brazil , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Independent Living , Middle Aged
12.
Rev. cuba. salud pública ; 45(1)ene.-mar. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-991125

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Conocer que la madre es el eje primordial de protección y afecto en el vínculo familiar es relevante, así como la importancia que juega ella y el padre en el vínculo afectivo con el niño en la recuperación, protección y apoyo postraumático de un abuso sexual. Objetivo: Describir los procesos y significados de la experiencia vivida por los padres o cuidadores primarios frente al descubrimiento del abuso sexual de sus hijos. Método: Estudio descriptivo, de corte transversal, con abordaje metodológico cualitativo y cuantitativo del discurso del sujeto colectivo. Se realizó una entrevista a 60 padres o cuidadores primarios no perpetradores del abuso los municipios de Cajicá y Tabio de Bogotá-Colombia. El procesamiento y análisis cuantitativo fue realizado con el software Qualiquantisoft. Resultados: El discurso de mayor prevalencia por los entrevistados fue la relación entre padres o cuidador e hijo (45,7 por ciento, n = 43), fomentar la confianza, el diálogo, escuchar a los niños, dedicar mayor tiempo y cuidado a los hijos. El papel que juega la red de apoyo en la protección y justicia fue señalado como importante por el 29 por ciento (n = 32) de los sujetos que participaron en la investigación. Conclusiones: Las niñas son con mayor frecuencia víctimas de abuso sexual. Por lo general, se trataba de familias monoparentales, con necesidad de dejar a su hijo bajo el cuidado de un pariente, amigo o vecino. Cuando el abuso se perpetra por individuos con fuertes lazos afectivos, es mayor el impacto en la salud emocional, cognitiva y comportamental del niño. La credibilidad, los comportamientos y las medidas de protección que los padres o cuidadores primarios asumen, son directrices esenciales para el proceso de la revelación del abuso sexual y un medio que favorece la elaboración positiva de la experiencia traumática en el niño(AU)


Objective: This research analyzes how parents or primary caregivers describe the processes and meanings of lived experience toward the discovery of sexual abuse of their children. Method: descriptive, cross-sectional study with methodological approach the Collective Subject Discourse-DSC. Individual interview with 60 parents or caregivers that were not perpetrators was conducted, in the municipalities of Cajica and Tabio de Bogotá- Colombia. The empirical data were analyzed using the Collective Subject Discourse (DCS), based on the Theory of Social Representations, which makes possible the emergence of social representations by constructing collective discourses. The data were Qualitative processed and analyzed in the Qualiquantisoft software, which is associated with the DSC method. Results: The most significant discourse identify by interviewed was the relationship between parents, primary caregivers and child (45,74 percent, n=43), they emphasize in improving the role as parents, through trustfulness, the dialogue, listen out, taking care of the children and spending more time with them; they also considered important the support role of the protection and justice network (29 percent, n=32). Conclusions: The credibility, the behaviors and the protection measures that the parents or primary caregivers assume, are essential guidelines for the process of disclosure of the sexual abuse and provides an environment that enables a positive development of the traumatic experience in the child. It is important to emphasize the role played by the professionals involved in these cases, because comprehensive care to reduce the long-term consequences depends on their attitude, support and management(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Child Abuse, Sexual/psychology , Disclosure , Incidental Findings , Father-Child Relations , Brazil , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
13.
Asian Nursing Research ; : 200-208, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762894

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine nurses' perceptions of the disclosure of patient safety incidents (DPSI), which is known to be effective in reducing medical litigation and improving the credibility of medical professionals. METHODS: Three focus group discussions were conducted with 20 nurses using semistructured guidelines. Transcribed content including a record of the progress of the focus group discussions and researchers' notes were analyzed using directed content analysis. RESULTS: Most participants thought that DPSI is necessary because of its effectiveness and for ethical justification. However, participants held varied opinions regarding the primary responsibility of DPSI. Participants agreed on the necessity of explaining the incident and expressing sympathy, apologizing, and promising appropriate compensation that are chief components of DPSI. However, they were concerned that it implies a definitive medical error. A closed organizational culture, fear of deteriorating relationships with patients, and concerns about additional work burdens were suggested as barriers to DPSI. However, the establishment of DPSI guidelines and improving the hospital organization culture were raised as facilitators of DPSI. CONCLUSION: Most nurse participants acknowledged the need for DPSI. To promote DPSI, it is necessary to develop guidelines for DPSI and provide the appropriate training. Improving the hospital organization culture is also critical to facilitate DPSI.


Subject(s)
Compensation and Redress , Disclosure , Focus Groups , Humans , Jurisprudence , Korea , Medical Errors , Organizational Culture , Patient Rights , Patient Safety
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763725

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the social outcomes of the Environmental Health Studies of National Industrial Complex (EHSNIC), which have been conducted by the National Institute of Environmental Research (NIER) in eight National Industrial Complex Areas (NICAs) since 2003. Eighteen sessions of focus-group interviews with 85 people were conducted from October 2016 to January 2017. Interviewees were stakeholders from eight NICAs and included resident representatives, environmental nongovernment organizations, local government officials, and environmental health and safety officers from companies. Interview results were divided into six categories: EHSNIC awareness, EHSNIC outcomes, EHSNIC limitations, EHSNIC continuation, EHSNIC improvement directions, and EHSNIC results use. They were then further indexed into 23 divisions. EHSNIC awareness varied across stakeholders. A major EHSNIC outcome is that a continued result database was established, which was used as a reference for environmental improvements. EHSNIC limitations included no proper healthcare actions taken during the EHSNIC study period, a lack of EHSNIC results disclosure, a failure to reflect local specificity, and a lack of validity in the results. Regarding EHSNIC continuation, all stakeholders said EHSNIC should be conducted continuously. EHSNIC improvement directions included conducting studies tailored to each NICA, identifying correlations between pollutant exposure and disease, increasing the sample size, and performing repeated studies. Regarding EHSNIC results use, respondents wanted to use the results as a reference to relocate residents, ensure distance between NICAs and residential areas, provide healthcare support, develop local government policies, and implement firms’ environmental controls. Since EHSNIC aims to identify the health effects of NICAs on residents and take appropriate actions, it should be continued in the future. Even during the study period, it is important to take steps to preventively protect residents’ health. EHSNIC also needs to reflect each NICA’s characteristics and conduct reliable research based on stakeholder participation and communication.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , Disclosure , Environmental Health , Local Government , Qualitative Research , Sample Size , Sensitivity and Specificity , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759897

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study investigated the attitudes of Korean medical students about patient safety to determine which perspectives required increased focus in terms of educational development. METHODS: Attitudes were assessed using the Patient Safety Questionnaire, a tool designed to measure attitudes toward patient safety among medical students. Questionnaires were distributed to 580 clinical year students across four medical schools in December 2018. RESULTS: A total of 300 returned questionnaires were used in the final analysis. More than half of all respondents agreed (i.e., gave more than 4 out of 7 points) with most items and thoroughly considered the concept of patient safety. However, many students misperceived several items (e.g., professional incompetence as a cause of errors, disclosure responsibility, the importance of patient safety in the curriculum, and situational awareness). CONCLUSION: Attitudes toward patient safety are highly important due to their substantial impacts on behavioral decisions in the clinical setting. As such, patient safety education should be designed to place greater emphasis on proper attitude. This study's findings should be useful for medical instructors who wish to determine the appropriate areas of curricular focus.


Subject(s)
Curriculum , Disclosure , Education , Education, Medical , Humans , Patient Safety , Schools, Medical , Students, Medical , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785965

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This purpose of this study was to identify both good teaching and desirable teaching behaviors perceived by nursing students.METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive design was used. A convenience sample of 324 nursing students was selected and they completed self-reported questionnaires from November 1 to December 30, 2015.RESULTS: Among 4 perspectives of good teaching (traditional, systemic, interaction, and constructionism), the traditional perspective was perceived as the highest form of good teaching, while the systemic perspective was perceived as the lowest. Meanwhile, disclosure and clarity were perceived as the highest desirable teaching behaviors. Regardless of students' perspective of good teaching, all 4 perspectives of good teaching were positively related with clarity, enthusiasm, interaction, organization, and disclosure as desirable teaching behaviors independently.CONCLUSIONS: Nursing students perceived that the highest perspective of good teaching was the traditional perspective. Meanwhile, they perceived that clarity, enthusiasm, interaction, organization, and disclosure were desirable teaching behaviors regardless of their perspective of good teaching. Further study will be needed to perceive nursing faculty's awareness of good teaching and desirable teaching behaviors to identify the difference of awareness between nursing students and faculty.


Subject(s)
Disclosure , Education, Nursing , Humans , Nursing , Students, Nursing
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785735

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the social outcomes of the Environmental Health Studies of National Industrial Complex (EHSNIC), which have been conducted by the National Institute of Environmental Research (NIER) in eight National Industrial Complex Areas (NICAs) since 2003. Eighteen sessions of focus-group interviews with 85 people were conducted from October 2016 to January 2017. Interviewees were stakeholders from eight NICAs and included resident representatives, environmental nongovernment organizations, local government officials, and environmental health and safety officers from companies. Interview results were divided into six categories: EHSNIC awareness, EHSNIC outcomes, EHSNIC limitations, EHSNIC continuation, EHSNIC improvement directions, and EHSNIC results use. They were then further indexed into 23 divisions. EHSNIC awareness varied across stakeholders. A major EHSNIC outcome is that a continued result database was established, which was used as a reference for environmental improvements. EHSNIC limitations included no proper healthcare actions taken during the EHSNIC study period, a lack of EHSNIC results disclosure, a failure to reflect local specificity, and a lack of validity in the results. Regarding EHSNIC continuation, all stakeholders said EHSNIC should be conducted continuously. EHSNIC improvement directions included conducting studies tailored to each NICA, identifying correlations between pollutant exposure and disease, increasing the sample size, and performing repeated studies. Regarding EHSNIC results use, respondents wanted to use the results as a reference to relocate residents, ensure distance between NICAs and residential areas, provide healthcare support, develop local government policies, and implement firms’ environmental controls. Since EHSNIC aims to identify the health effects of NICAs on residents and take appropriate actions, it should be continued in the future. Even during the study period, it is important to take steps to preventively protect residents’ health. EHSNIC also needs to reflect each NICA’s characteristics and conduct reliable research based on stakeholder participation and communication.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , Disclosure , Environmental Health , Local Government , Qualitative Research , Sample Size , Sensitivity and Specificity , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760448

ABSTRACT

Patient safety and medical errors have emerged as global concerns and error disclosure has been established as standards of practice in many countries. Disclosure of medical errors to patients and their families is an important part of patient-centred medical care and is essential to maintaining trust. However, physicians still hesitate to disclose errors to patients despite their belief that errors should be disclosed. Multiple barriers such as fear of medical lawsuits and punishment, fear of damaging their professional reputation, and diminished patient trust inhibit error disclosure. These barriers as well as lack of training or education programs addressing error disclosure contribute to a low estimated disclosure rate in real situations. Nowadays, the importance of patient safety education including error disclosure is emphasized and related research is increasing. In this paper, we will discuss the background of medical error disclosure and studies on education programs related to error disclosure. In this regard, we will examine the content and methods currently being taught, discuss the effects or outcomes of such education programs and obstacles or difficulties in implementing them. Finally, the direction of future error disclosure education, support systems, and education strategies will also be covered.


Subject(s)
Disclosure , Education , Education, Medical , Humans , Medical Errors , Patient Safety , Punishment , Truth Disclosure
19.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1258820

ABSTRACT

Background: Disclosure of HIV serostatus is essential for the care and eradication of HIV infection. The World Health Organization recommends disclosure to school-age children and younger children but this practice is commonly hindered by stigmatization and other presumed psychosocial effects of the disease. Objective: To identify limitations to the disclosure of serostatus in HIV-infected children, outcomes of disclosure as well as compare the outcomes of disclosure by either parents/caregiver only with the involvement of health care personnel. Methods: A questionnaire-based study of primary caregivers of children aged 6 years to 18 years with HIV infection who were enrolled at two government-owned tertiary institutions in Lagos State, Nigeria. The healthcare personnel directly involved in the care of these children also participated in the study. Results: A total of 190 primary caregivers participated in the study. In all, 29 health care personnel completely filled the questionnaires. Disclosure (partial and full) was recorded among 31.0%. Older children and children with single parents were more likely to know their HIV status. Similar positive and negative impacts of disclosure were observed irrespective of the individuals involved in the processes. In all, 62.1% of healthcare personnel have had training on disclosure. Conclusion: Disclosure rate in HIV-infected children was low. There is a need for more training of health personnel and education of caregivers on the benefits of disclosure as well as the introduction of effective measures to tackle the barriers to disclosure


Subject(s)
Clinical Competence , Disclosure , HIV Infections , HIV Seropositivity , Health Personnel , Nigeria
20.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 146(4): 518-522, abr. 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-961423

ABSTRACT

When prescribing a treatment, the physician should give truthful information about the likely benefits and the potential adverse effects, allowing the patient to make an autonomous decision about whether to take the treatment. However, the mere expectation of adverse effects may precipitate the corresponding symptoms. This is called "nocebo effect", which in contrast to the placebo effect, can lead to harm to the patient due to psychological factors. Nocebo effects are common and clinically significant, although often unnoticed. This situation generates conflicts in medical ethics guiding principles, namely the moral obligation to disclose all possible effects of the prescribed drug as opposed to the duty of avoiding the harm of side effects that are likely to occur in a case. In other words, the physician faces a dilemma between the due respect for autonomy and the duty of non-maleficence. This article reflects about this conflict, by exploring the limits of the principle of autonomy and how to balance it with the principle of non-maleficence. We suggest an interpretation of the principle of autonomy from a patient-centered perspective, suggesting that it is ethically sound to give a prudential, partial disclosure of information to the patient, for the sake of avoiding potential nocebo effects. The article concludes with some cautionary considerations to be considered about this decision.


Subject(s)
Humans , Disclosure/ethics , Ethical Analysis , Ethics, Medical , Nocebo Effect , Personal Autonomy , Moral Obligations , Decision Making/ethics
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