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1.
Rev. bras. educ. méd ; 45(2): e097, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279836

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Introduction: Mental disorders are accountable for the segregation of patients in many diverse cultures and historical moments worldwide. The evolution of neuroscience, technologies and advances in the psychosocial sphere have not been enough to change this paradigm. Many people still fear having social relations with someone with a psychiatric disorder, despite scientific progress and efforts to reduce prejudice in recent decades. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the training in mental health during the undergraduate course offered to residents in Internal Medicine and analyze the feelings, perceptions, and stigmas of these physicians regarding the care offered to patients with mental disorders. Method: This study has a qualitative, quantitative approach and descriptive, cross-sectional design. Thirty-two residents in Internal Medicine participated and, for comparison, the questionnaires were also answered by 8 residents in Psychiatry. Two instruments were applied: one for the characterization of the participants' sociodemographic profile and the attribution questionnaire (AQ-26B). Qualitative data were obtained through a focus group with 14 residents and the content analysis was used for categorization. The most frequent categories were illustrated with Pareto charts. Results: The results demonstrated that residents in internal medicine showed higher indexes of stigma regarding aspects such as fear and intolerance. It was also possible to infer gaps related to training in mental health, low perception of care responsibility, in addition to the difficulty in legitimizing complaints and showing negative feelings. Conclusion: One can conclude the need for educational interventions that promote the decrease of the stigma and the search for training regarding comprehensive and empathic care for patients with mental disorders.


Resumo: Introdução: Os transtornos mentais são responsáveis pela segregação de pacientes em diversas culturas e momentos históricos globalmente. A evolução das neurociências, tecnologias e avanços na esfera psicossocial não têm sido suficientes para mudar este paradigma. Muitas pessoas ainda temem ter relações sociais com alguém com transtorno psiquiátrico, apesar dos avanços científicos e dos esforços para reduzir o preconceito nas últimas décadas. Objetivo: Este estudo teve como objetivos avaliar a formação em saúde mental na graduação oferecida a médicos residentes de clínica médica e analisar os sentimentos, as percepções e os estigmas deles ante a assistência a pacientes com transtornos mentais. Método: Trata-se de um estudo com abordagens qualitativas e quantitativas, de natureza descritiva e transversal. Participaram 32 residentes de clínica médica, e, para comparação, os questionários foram respondidos por oito residentes de psiquiatria. Aplicaram-se dois instrumentos: um para a caracterização do perfil sociodemográfico dos participantes e o questionário de atribuição (AQ-26B). Os dados qualitativos foram obtidos por meio de grupo focal com 14 residentes, e empregou-se a análise de conteúdo para categorização. As categorias de maior frequência foram ilustradas com diagramas de Pareto. Resultado: Como os residentes de clínica demonstraram maiores índices de estigma em aspectos como medo e intolerância, intuiu-se que há lacunas na formação em saúde mental, baixa percepção de responsabilidade do cuidado, além de dificuldade em legitimar as queixas e exibir sentimentos negativos. Conclusão: Concluiu-se pela necessidade de intervenções educacionais que fomentem a diminuição do estigma e a busca de capacitação para o cuidado integral e empático de pessoas com transtornos mentais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mental Health/education , Social Stigma , Internship and Residency , Mental Disorders , Socioeconomic Factors , Students, Medical/psychology , Medical Care Statistics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Focus Groups , Discrimination, Psychological , Education, Medical/methods
2.
Rev. colomb. psiquiatr ; 49(3): 216-219, jul.-set. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1149831

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Don Quijote de la Mancha, el pintoresco personaje creado por Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra en su obra inmortal El Ingenioso Hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha, presenta varias condiciones neuropsiquiátricas que incluyen tremor, trastornos del sueño, síntomas neuropsiquiátricos, síncope, trastornos de la percepción y traumatismo craneoencefálico. A lo largo de la obra, se presentan episodios en los que se hacen evidentes los diferentes trastornos mencionados. El artículo hace un recuento de ellos a través de la novela y un análisis a la luz de los conocimientos actuales sobre dichas condiciones.


ABSTRACT Don Quixote of La Mancha, the picturesque character created by Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra in his immortal book The Ingenious Nobleman Sir Quixote of La Mancha, presents several neuropsychiatric conditions, including tremor, sleep disturbances, neuropsychiatric symptoms, syncope, perception disorders and traumatic brain injury. Throughout the masterpiece, there are episodes where the aforementioned disorders are evident. This paper makes a list of them and analyses them in the light of the current knowledge of those conditions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Perceptual Disorders , Neuropsychiatry , Sleep , Sleep Wake Disorders , Syncope , Discrimination, Psychological
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787141

ABSTRACT

Neuroinflammation is an important process underlying a wide variety of neurodegenerative diseases. Carvacrol (CAR) is a phenolic monoterpene commonly used as a food additive due to its antibacterial properties, but it has also been shown to exhibit strong antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. Here, we sought to investigate the effects of CAR on inflammation in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, as well as the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. In our study, lipopolysaccharide was injected into the lateral ventricle of rats to induce memory impairment and neuroinflammation. Daily administration of CAR (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) for 21 days improved recognition, discrimination, and memory impairments relative to untreated controls. CAR administration significantly attenuated expression of several inflammatory factors in the brain, including interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and cyclooxygenase-2. In addition, CAR significantly increased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA, and decreased expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mRNA. Taken together, these results show that CAR can improve memory impairment caused by neuroinflammation. This cognitive enhancement is due to the anti-inflammatory effects of CAR medicated by its regulation of BDNF and TLR4. Thus, CAR has significant potential as an inhibitor of memory degeneration in neurodegenerative diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Cytokines , Discrimination, Psychological , Food Additives , Hippocampus , Inflammation , Lateral Ventricles , Lipopolysaccharides , Memory , Necrosis , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neuroprotective Agents , Phenol , Prefrontal Cortex , Rats , RNA, Messenger , Toll-Like Receptor 4
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762474

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The ability of urinary biomarkers to complement established clinical risk prediction models for postoperative adverse kidney events is unclear. We assessed the effect of urinary biomarkers linked to suspected pathogenesis of cardiac surgery-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) on the performance of the Cleveland Score, a risk assessment model for postoperative adverse kidney events. METHODS: This pilot study included 100 patients who underwent open-heart surgery. We determined improvements to the Cleveland Score when adding urinary biomarkers measured using clinical laboratory platforms (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [NGAL], interleukin-6) and those in the preclinical stage (hepcidin-25, midkine, alpha-1 microglobulin), all sampled immediately post-surgery. The primary endpoint was major adverse kidney events (MAKE), and the secondary endpoint was AKI. We performed ROC curve analysis, assessed baseline model performance (odds ratios [OR], 95% CI), and carried out statistical reclassification analyses to assess model improvement. RESULTS: NGAL (OR [95% CI] per 20 concentration-units wherever applicable): (1.07 [1.01–1.14]), Interleukin-6 (1.51 [1.01–2.26]), midkine (1.01 [1.00–1.02]), 1-hepcidin-25 (1.08 [1.00–1.17]), and NGAL/hepcidin-ratio (2.91 [1.30–6.49]) were independent predictors of MAKE and AKI (1.38 [1.03–1.85], 1.08 [1.01–1.15], 1.01 [1.00–1.02], 1.09 [1.01–1.18], and 3.45 [1.54–7.72]). Category-free net reclassification improvement identified interleukin-6 as a model-improving biomarker for MAKE and NGAL for AKI. However, only NGAL/hepcidin-25 improved model performance for event- and event-free patients for MAKE and AKI. CONCLUSIONS: NGAL and interleukin-6 measured immediately post cardiac surgery may complement the Cleveland Score. The combination of biomarkers with hepcidin-25 may further improve diagnostic discrimination.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Biomarkers , Complement System Proteins , Discrimination, Psychological , Hepcidins , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Kidney , Lipocalins , Pilot Projects , Risk Assessment , ROC Curve , Thoracic Surgery
5.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 154-160, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-782196

ABSTRACT

0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) was 0.922 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.89–0.95]. In external validation, the discrimination was good, with an AUC value of 0.833 (95% CI 0.70–0.92) for this model. Nomogram calibration plots indicated good agreement between the predicted and observed outcomes, exhibiting close approximation between the predicted and observed probability.CONCLUSION: We constructed a scoring model for predicting massive transfusion during cesarean section in women with placenta previa. This model may help in determining the need to prepare an appropriate amount of blood products and the optimal timing of blood transfusion.


Subject(s)
Area Under Curve , Blood Transfusion , Calibration , Cesarean Section , Cohort Studies , Discrimination, Psychological , Early Intervention, Educational , Erythrocytes , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Maternal Age , Nomograms , Placenta Previa , Placenta , Placentation , Postpartum Hemorrhage , Pregnancy , ROC Curve , Ultrasonography
6.
Acta colomb. psicol ; 22(1): 52-60, ene.-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-989075

ABSTRACT

Resumen Seis grupos de estudiantes de preparatoria se expusieron a una tarea de igualación de la muestra de segundo orden y a pruebas de generalización con estímulos familiares y no familiares, así como con una nueva relación de igualación. Para dos grupos, las respuestas de igualación correctas e incorrectas produjeron la retroalimentación correspondiente de acuerdo con un programa continuo y uno intermitente, respectivamente. Las respuestas correctas produjeron retroalimentación y las respuestas incorrectas produjeron pantallas en blanco y viceversa para otros dos grupos, respectivamente. Dos grupos adicionales estuvieron expuestos a combinaciones similares de retroalimentación y pantallas en blanco, pero se instruyó a los participantes sobre el "significado" de las pantallas antes del entrenamiento. Se observó igualación de la muestra generalizada extra-relacional con estímulos familiares o no familiares solo después de las condiciones de entrenamiento en las que se programó retroalimentación intermitente Correcto-Incorrecto, así como cuando las respuestas de igualación incorrectas produjeron pantallas en blanco y las respuestas correctas produjeron la retroalimentación correspondiente. Las instrucciones sobre el significado de las pantallas en blanco produjeron ejecuciones generalizadas ligeramente superiores a las observadas después de la retroalimentación continua Correcto-Incorrecto, las cuales a su vez fueron similares a las ejecuciones observadas después de la condición Correcto-Pantalla en blanco, sin instrucción. Los resultados confirman una tendencia inicial a tratar las pantallas en blanco como retroalimentación para respuestas correctas y sugieren un proceso común de "desligamiento" entre la retroalimentación intermitente y la retroalimentación Incorrecto-Pantalla en blanco.


Resumo Seis grupos de estudantes de vestibular foram expostos a uma tarefa de igualação da amostra de segunda ordem e a testes de generalização com estímulos familiares e não familiares, bem como a uma nova relação de igualação. Para dois grupos, as respostas de igualação corretas e incorretas produziram a retroalimentação correspondente de acordo com um programa contínuo e um intermitente, respectivamente, em que as respostas corretas produziram retroalimentação e as incorretas, ecrãs brancos - e vice-versa para outros dois grupos. Dois grupos adicionais estiveram expostos a combinações semelhantes de retroalimentação e ecrãs brancos, mas foi instruído aos participantes o "significado" das telas antes do treinamento. Foi observada igualação da amostra generalizada extrarrelacional com estímulos familiares e não familiares somente depois das condições de treinamento nas quais foi programada a retroalimentação intermitente Correto-incorreto, bem como quando as respostas de igualação incorretas produziram ecrãs brancos, e quando as respostas corretas produziram a retroalimentação correspondente. As instruções sobre o significado dos ecrãs brancos produziram execuções generalizadas levemente superiores às observadas após a retroalimentação contínua Correto-incorreto, as quais, por sua vez, foram similares às execuções observadas depois da condição Correto-ecrã branco, sem instrução. Os resultados confirmam uma tendência inicial a tratar os ecrãs brancos como retroalimentação para respostas corretas e sugerem um processo comum de "desligamento" entre a retroalimentação intermitente e a retroalimentação Incorreto-ecrã branco.


Abstract Six groups of high-school students were exposed to a second-order matching-to-sample task and generalization tests trials using familiar and unfamiliar stimuli as well as a new matching relation. For two groups correct and incorrect matching responses produced the corresponding feedback according to continuous and intermittent schedules, respectively. Correct responses produced feedback and incorrect responses produced blanks and vice versa for other two groups, respectively. Two additional groups were exposed to similar feedback-blanks combinations but participants were instructed about the "meaning" of blanks before training. Extra-relational generalized matching-to-sample performance with either familiar or unfamiliar stimuli was observed after training conditions in which intermittent right-wrong feedback was scheduled, as well as when incorrect matching responses produced blanks and correct responses produced the corresponding feedback. Instructions about the meaning of blanks produced generalized performances slightly higher to those observed after continuous right-wrong feedback, which in turn were similar to performances observed after the uninstructed right-blank feedback combination condition. Results confirm an initial tendency to treat blanks as if they mean right and suggest a common "detachment" processes between intermittent feedback and the wrong-blanks feedback combination.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Discrimination, Psychological , Program for Incentives and Benefits , Family Relations
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786364

ABSTRACT

Acute pyelonephritis (APN) should be detected and treated as soon as possible to reduce the risk of the development of acquired renal scarring. However, in the medical field, urine culture results are not available or considered when the prompt discrimination of APN is necessary and empirical treatment is started. Furthermore, urine culture cannot discriminate APN among children with febrile urinary tract infection (UTI) (pyelitis, lower UTI with other fever focus). Therefore, the usefulness of urine culture for diagnostic purposes is small and the sampling procedure is invasive. Congenital hypoplastic kidney is the most common cause of chronic kidney injury in children. Thus, it is desirable that a main target be detected as early as possible when imaging studies are performed in children with APN. However, if APN does not recur, no medical or surgical treatment or imaging studies would be needed because the acquired renal scar would not progress further. Therefore, the long-term prognosis of APN in young children, particularly infants, depends on the number of recurrent APN, not other febrile UTI. New methods that enable prompt, practical, and comfortable APN diagnosis in children are needed as alternatives to urinary catheterization for urine culture sampling.


Subject(s)
Child , Cicatrix , Diagnosis , Discrimination, Psychological , Fever , Humans , Infant , Kidney , Methods , Prognosis , Pyelitis , Pyelonephritis , Urinary Catheterization , Urinary Catheters , Urinary Tract Infections
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786010

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to explore public opinion on workplace bullying in the nursing field, by analyzing the keywords and topics of online news comments.METHODS: This was a text-mining study that collected, processed, and analyzed text data. A total of 89,951 comments on 650 online news articles, reported between January 1, 2013 and July 31, 2018, were collected via web crawling. The collected unstructured text data were preprocessed and keyword analysis and topic modeling were performed using R programming.RESULTS: The 10 most important keywords were “work” (37121.7), “hospital” (25286.0), “patients” (24600.8), “woman” (24015.6), “physician” (20840.6), “trouble” (18539.4), “time” (17896.3), “money” (16379.9), “new nurses” (14056.8), and “salary” (13084.1). The 22,572 preprocessed key words were categorized into four topics: “poor working environment”, “culture among women”, “unfair oppression”, and “society-level solutions”.CONCLUSION: Public interest in workplace bullying among nurses has continued to increase. The public agreed that negative work environment and nursing shortage could cause workplace bullying. They also considered nurse bullying as a problem that should be resolved at a societal level. It is necessary to conduct further research through gender discrimination perspectives on nurse workplace bullying and the social value of nursing work.


Subject(s)
Bullying , Data Mining , Discrimination, Psychological , Nursing , Public Opinion , Sexism
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785898

ABSTRACT

The infection with Candida spp. for oral cavity is being increasingly reported. However, its variations have not yet been specifically described in periodontitis. The present study was conducted to use an uniplex 26S rRNA-based amplicons to detect and discriminate Candida using only one pair of ribosomal primers. A total of 50 patients with chronic periodontitis was involved in the study. Pure Candida colonies were isolated from 23 patients and genomic DNA was extracted, and PCR was conducted. Direct DNA sequencing followed by comprehensive phylogenetic analyses were performed to confirm the identity of Candida colonies. Results indicated that the ration of Candida-infected patients was 46%, with a high prevalence of C. albicans, followed by remarkably lower ratios of C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata, C. kefyr, and C. dubliniensis respectively. Phylogenetic analyses indicated obvious discrimination amongst the analyzed Candida species as each observed species occupied a distinctive phylogenetic position. The current results reported a simple, efficient, and low-cost detection of five species of Candida without the need for other costly techniques of molecular screening. The current findings may help dentists to easily take a snapshot of the patterns of Candida infection in periodontitis cases to assess the nature and grade of infection.


Subject(s)
Candida , Chronic Periodontitis , Dentists , Discrimination, Psychological , DNA , Genes, rRNA , Humans , Mass Screening , Mouth , Periodontitis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , RNA, Ribosomal , Sequence Analysis, DNA
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785706

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent evidences indicate that early rapid renal function decline is closely associated with the development and progression of diabetic kidney disease. We have investigated the association between carotid atherosclerosis and rapid renal function decline in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and preserved renal function.METHODS: In a prospective, multicenter cohort, a total of 967 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and preserved renal function were followed for 6 years with serial estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) measurements. Common carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and presence of carotid plaque were assessed at baseline. Rapid renal function decline was defined as an eGFR decline >3.3% per year.RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 6 years, 158 participants (16.3%) developed rapid renal function decline. While there was no difference in CIMT, the presence of carotid plaque in rapid decliners was significantly higher than in non-decliners (23.2% vs. 12.2%, P<0.001). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, presence of carotid plaque was an independent predictor of rapid renal function decline (odds ratio, 2.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.48 to 3.68; P<0.0001) after adjustment for established risk factors. The model including the carotid plaque had better performance for discrimination of rapid renal function decline than the model without carotid plaque (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.772 vs. 0.744, P=0.016).CONCLUSION: Close monitoring of renal function and early intensive management may be beneficial in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and carotid plaques.


Subject(s)
Carotid Artery Diseases , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Carotid Stenosis , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Nephropathies , Discrimination, Psychological , Follow-Up Studies , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Logistic Models , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , ROC Curve
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785596

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Despite increased survival in patients with cardiac arrest, it remains difficult to determine patient prognosis at the early stage. This study evaluated the prognosis of cardiac arrest patients using brain injury, inflammation, cardiovascular ischemic events, and coagulation/fibrinolysis markers collected 24, 48, and 72 hours after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC).METHODS: From January 2011 to December 2016, we retrospectively observed patients who underwent therapeutic hypothermia. Blood samples were collected immediately and 24, 48, and 72 hours after ROSC. Neuron-specific enolase (NSE), S100-B protein, procalcitonin, troponin I, creatine kinase-MB, pro-brain natriuretic protein, D-dimer, fibrin degradation product, antithrombin-III, fibrinogen, and lactate levels were measured. Prognosis was evaluated using Glasgow-Pittsburgh cerebral performance categories and the predictive accuracy of each marker was evaluated. The secondary outcome was whether the presence of multiple markers improved prediction accuracy.RESULTS: A total of 102 patients were included in the study: 39 with good neurologic outcomes and 63 with poor neurologic outcomes. The mean NSE level of good outcomes measured 72 hours after ROSC was 18.50 ng/mL. The area under the curve calculated on receiver operating characteristic analysis was 0.92, which showed the best predictive power among all markers included in the study analysis. The relative integrated discrimination improvement and category-free net reclassification improvement models showed no improvement in prognostic value when combined with all other markers and NSE (72 hours).CONCLUSION: Although biomarker combinations did not improve prognostic accuracy, NSE (72 hours) showed the best predictive power for neurological prognosis in patients who received therapeutic hypothermia.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Brain Injuries , Creatine , Discrimination, Psychological , Fibrin , Fibrinogen , Heart Arrest , Humans , Hypothermia, Induced , Inflammation , Lactic Acid , Phosphopyruvate Hydratase , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Troponin I
12.
Asian Nursing Research ; : 249-256, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785469

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to validate the psychometric properties of the CRAFFT (Car, Relax, Alone, Forget, Family/Friends, Trouble) by using item response theory (IRT) and further examine gender differences in item-level responses.METHODS: This study used the 13(th) (2017) Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey data conducted by the Korean Centers for Disease and Prevention and analyzed data of 8,568 students who reported drinking alcohol in the previous 30 days. IRT assumptions including unidimensionality, local independence, and monotonicity were tested. A one-factor two-parameter IRT model was fitted for item parameterization (M₂ = 76.92, 20 df, p < .001, root mean square error of approximation = 0.02). Graphics for item characteristic curves and item and test information curves were provided. Differential item functioning (DIF) analysis was evaluated to measure item equivalence between boys and girls.RESULTS: Unidimensionality and local independence were satisfied, and the dominant factor eigenvalue and variance were 2.48 and 41.3% in boys and 2.08 and 34.7% in girls, respectively, and residual correlations in paired items were less than .2. The discrimination parameters were estimated as 1.32–3.59 for boys and 1.30–3.64 for girls. The severity parameters estimated verity as −0.23 to 1.67 for boys and −0.32 to 2.17 for girls. DIF was detected for four of six items, “Car,” “Relax,” “Forget,” and “Family/friends.” However, its impact on the total score was negligible.CONCLUSION: The CRAFFT is a valid and reliable screening tool to identify alcohol use problems for both boys and girls, exhibiting good discrimination, good coverage of severity, and negligible DIF.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Alcohols , Discrimination, Psychological , Drinking , Female , Humans , Korea , Mass Screening , Psychometrics , Risk-Taking
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788178

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to propose a common scope of practice (SOP) for 13 specialties of Advanced Practice Nurses (APNs) in Korea.METHODS: The first draft of a common SOP was extracted from domestic and international laws with a literature review by 17 experts from the Korean Association of Advanced Practice Nurses (KAAPN). Then, the common SOP was finalized after comparing the activities of APNs in clinical settings.RESULTS: A total of 70 duties were identified and six categories were suggested for the common SOP. The SOP proposed by the KAAPN featured the following: 1) identification of and discrimination between health problems; 2) prescription and implementation of diagnostic tests; 3) treatment of injuries and diseases while implementing measures to prevent exacerbation; 4) prescription of medicinal products in line with 1) to 3); 5) referral and consultation; and 6) education and counseling. It was then confirmed that the proposed six categories in the common SOP reflected all the duties performed by APNs in clinical practice, including all 40 activities.CONCLUSION: The results of this study can be used as evidence for the legalization of a common SOP for APNs. Given the increasing multidisciplinary team approach adopted in Korean hospitals, it may be desirable to establish a broader SOP to reflect the diverse duties of APNs.


Subject(s)
Counseling , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Discrimination, Psychological , Education , International Law , Korea , Prescriptions , Professional Practice , Referral and Consultation
16.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 48-55, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719688

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to elucidate which echocardiographic criteria at three time points, for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) response, are accurate in discriminating the hierarchical clinical composite end point (HCCEP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 120 patients (age, 66.1±12.6 years; men, 54.2%) who underwent CRT implantation for heart failure (HF). Echocardiography was performed before and at 3, 6, and 12 months after CRT implantation. The 1-year HCCEP included all-cause mortality, hospitalization for HF, and New York Heart Association functional class for 12 months. CRT response criteria were decrease in left ventricular (LV) end-systolic volume (LVESV) >15%, decrease in LV end-diastolic volume >15%, absolute increase in LV ejection fraction (LVEF) ≥5%, relative increase in LVEF ≥15%, and decrease in mitral regurgitation ≥1 grade. Temporal changes in CRT response rates, accuracy of CRT response criteria at each time and cutoff value for the discrimination of improvement in HCCEP, and agreements with improvement in HCCEP were analyzed. RESULTS: HCCEP improvement rates were 65.8% in total group. In nonischemic group, CRT response rates according to all echocardiographic criteria significantly increased with time. In ischemic group, CRT response rate did not significantly change with time. In total group, ΔLVESV at 6 months (ΔLVESV6) had the most significant accuracy for the discrimination of HCCEP (area under the curve=0.781). The optimal cutoff value of ΔLVESV6 was 13.5% (sensitivity=0.719, specificity=0.719). ΔLVESV6 had fair agreement with HCCEP (κ=0.391, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: ΔLVESV6 is the most useful echocardiographic CRT response criterion for the prediction of 1-year HCCEP.


Subject(s)
Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy , Discrimination, Psychological , Echocardiography , Heart , Heart Failure , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Mitral Valve Insufficiency , Mortality , Stroke Volume
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719521

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Despite improved quality of intensive care, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) significantly contributes to mortality in critically ill children. As pre-existing definitions of ARDS were adult-oriented standards, the Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Consensus Conference (PALICC) group released a new definition of pediatric ARDS. In this study, we aimed to assess the performance of PALICC definition for ARDS risk stratification. METHODS: Total 332 patients who admitted to the intensive care unit at Severance Hospital from January 2009 to December 2016 and diagnosed as having ARDS by either the PALICC definition or the Berlin definition were retrospectively analyzed. Patient characteristics and mortality rates were compared between the individual severity groups according to both definitions. RESULTS: The overall mortality rate was 36.1%. The mortality rate increased across the severity classes according to both definitions (26% in mild, 37% in moderate and 68% in severe by the PALICC definition [P<0.001]; 20% in mild, 32% in moderate and 64% in severe by the Berlin definition [P<0.001]). The mortality risk increased only for severe ARDS in both definitions (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval]: 2.279 [1.414–3.672], P=0.001 by the PALICC definition; 2.674 [1.518–4.712], P=0.001 by the Berlin definition). There was no significant difference in mortality discrimination between the 2 definitions (difference in integrated area under the curve: 0.017 [−0.018 to 0.049]). CONCLUSION: The PALICC definition demonstrated similar discrimination power on PARDS' severity and mortality as the Berlin definition.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , Berlin , Child , Consensus , Critical Care , Critical Illness , Discrimination, Psychological , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Retrospective Studies
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719490

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to develop a serodiagnostic test for differentiation infected from vaccinated animal (DIVA) strategy accompanying the marker vaccine lacking an immunodominant epitope (IDE) of nucleoprotein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Recombinant epitope-repeat protein (rERP) gene encoding eight repeats of the IDE sequence (ETQFLDLMRAVANSMR) by tetra-glycine linker was synthesized. Recombinant baculovirus carrying the rERP gene was generated to express the rERP in insect cells. Specificity and sensitivity of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) employing the rERP was evaluated. RESULTS: The rERP with molecular weight of 20 kDa was successfully expressed by the recombinant baculovirus in an insect-baculovirus system. The rERP was antigenically functional as demonstrated by Western blotting. An indirect ELISA employing the rERP was developed and its specificity and sensitivity was determined. The ELISA test allowed discrimination of NDV infected sera from epitope deletion virus vaccinated sera. CONCLUSION: The preliminary results represent rERP ELISA as a promising DIVA diagnostic tool.


Subject(s)
Animals , Baculoviridae , Blotting, Western , Discrimination, Psychological , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Insecta , Molecular Weight , Newcastle disease virus , Newcastle Disease , Nucleoproteins , Sensitivity and Specificity
19.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 275-283, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760560

ABSTRACT

In this study, we described the new developed method to simultaneously discriminate two herbal drugs of Artemisiae Argyi Folium and Artemisiae Iwayomogii Herba using eight marker compounds (1 – 8) on an HPLC-PDA system. The developed method was applied to quantify the major components of two herbal drugs. The pattern analysis successfully discriminated and evaluated different components between Artemisiae Argyi Folium and Artemisiae Iwayomogii Herba. Results were used for classification of different species from collected samples.


Subject(s)
Artemisia , Classification , Discrimination, Psychological , Methods
20.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1409-1421, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760254

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To develop a diagnostic model for superficial soft tissue lesions to differentiate epidermal cyst (EC) from other lesions based on ultrasound (US) features. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included 205 patients who had undergone US examinations for superficial soft tissue lesions and subsequent surgical excision. The study population was divided into the derivation set (n = 112) and validation set (n = 93) according to the imaging date. The following US features were analyzed to determine those that could discriminate EC from other lesions: more-than-half-depth involvement of the dermal layer, “submarine sign” (focal projection of the hypoechoic portion to the epidermis), posterior acoustic enhancement, posterior wall enhancement, morphology, shape, echogenicity, vascularity, and perilesional fat change. Using multivariable logistic regression, a diagnostic model was constructed and visualized as a nomogram. The performance of the diagnostic model was assessed by calculating the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic curve and calibration plot in both the derivation and validation sets. RESULTS: More-than-half-depth involvement of the dermal layer (odds ratio [OR] = 3.35; p = 0.051), “submarine sign” (OR = 12.2; p < 0.001), and morphology (OR = 5.44; p = 0.002) were features that outweighed the others when diagnosing EC. The diagnostic model based on these features showed good discrimination ability in both the derivation set (AUC = 0.888, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.825–0.950) and validation set (AUC = 0.902, 95% CI = 0.832–0.972). CONCLUSION: More-than-half-depth of involvement of the dermal layer, “submarine sign,” and morphology are relatively better US features than the others for diagnosing EC.


Subject(s)
Acoustics , Calibration , Discrimination, Psychological , Epidermal Cyst , Humans , Logistic Models , Nomograms , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Ultrasonography
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