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Ethiop. j. health sci. (Online) ; 32(2): 229-234, 2022.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1366924


BACKGROUND: Acute ischemic stroke has been reported to occur in a significantly higher number of COVID-19 patients as compared to healthy controls with variable proposed pathophysiologic mechanisms. To our knowledge, sufficient data regarding this subject is lacking in Ethiopia and the African continent at large. In this case series, we report the clinical characteristics and management of 5 cases with COVID-19 infection and acute ischemic stroke to shed light on the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in resource-limited setups. METHODS: This is a case series including data collected from the medical records of 5 participants with confirmed RT-PCR positive COVID-19 infection and radiologically confirmed acute ischemic stroke, admitted at Eka Kotebe General Hospital Intensive Care Unit (ICU) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from June 10, 2020, to November 04, 2020. RESULTS: Cryptogenic stroke was documented in 4/5 participants included in this series with the most common vascular risk factors identified for stroke being hypertension and diabetes mellitus. The median time from onset of COVID-19 symptoms to the identification of stroke was 07 days. Two fifth of the participants in this series died during their ICU admission with the immediate cause of deaths reported to be related to the severe COVID-19 infection but not stroke. CONCLUSION: Cryptogenic stroke was documented in 4/5 patients in this series despite the presence of vascular risk factors for other stroke subtypes. The overall prevalence, subtypes, and outcomes of stroke in COVID-19 patients in Ethiopia and the African continent as a whole needs additional research to elucidate the local burden of the disease and define the predominant pathophysiologic mechanisms for stroke in COVID-19 in the region

Humans , Male , Female , Clinical Diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke , COVID-19 , Disease Management
Ann. afr. méd. (En ligne) ; 15(2): 4561-4576, 2022. figures, tables
Article in French | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1366401


La République démocratique du Congo (RDC), frappée par la pandémie de la COVID-19, a mis en place un plan de riposte national au regard du premier objectif de ce plan pendant la première année de crise. Cette étude a passé en revue les différentes composantes de la surveillance et certains piliers du système de santé, éléments critiques pour la compréhension des résultats de la riposte aujourd'hui et future. Un manque d'efficience a été observé dans les chaines internes de communication lié à une faible coordination des intervenants et de leurs interventions ; et des ressources financières insuffisantes. Malgré ces faiblesses la RDC a évité la catastrophe annoncée. Divers facteurs liés à l'environnement, à la structure d'âge de sa population, au niveau de circulation du virus au sein de cette population et d'autres à élucider dans les recherches futures pourraient contribuer à la compréhension de la situation actuelle et influencer la gestion future de gestion des épidémies. Il est évident qu'une meilleure coordination et mobilisation des ressources, ainsi qu'un système de santé résiliant, permettront une meilleure surveillance et une gestion moins stressante des crises sanitaires à venir.

The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), hit by the COVID-19 pandemic, has put in place a national response plan. We reviewed the organization of the response in light of the first objective of this plan during the first year of the crisis. This study reviewed the different components of surveillance and some pillars of the health system, which are critical to understanding the results of the response today and in the future. There was a lack of efficiency in internal communication chains due to poor coordination of stakeholders and their interventions; and insufficient financial resources. Despite these weaknesses, the DRC has avoided the announced disaster. Various factors related to the environment, the age structure of its population, the level of circulation of the virus within this population and others to be elucidated in future research could contribute to the understanding of the current situation and influence the future management of epidemics. It is clear that better coordination and resource mobilization, as well as a resilient health system, will allow for better surveillance and less stressful management of future health crises.

Humans , Male , Female , Primary Health Care , Public Health , Disease Management , Delivery of Health Care , COVID-19 , Pandemics
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1353239


Background: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs), including type-2 diabetes and hypertension, have been associated with increased morbidity and mortality rates because of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Maintaining quality care for these conditions is important but data on the impact of COVID-19 on NCD care in South Africa are sparse. Aim: This study aimed to assess the impact of COVID-19 on facility and community-based NCD care and management during the first COVID-19 wave. Setting: Two public health sector primary care sites in the Cape Town Metro, including a Community Orientated Primary Care (COPC) learning site. Methods: A rapid appraisal with convergent mixed-methods design, including semi-structured interviews with facility and community health workers (CHWs) (n = 20) and patients living with NCDs (n = 8), was used. Interviews were conducted in English and Afrikaans by qualified interviewers. Transcripts were analysed by thematic content analysis. Quantitative data of health facility attendance, chronic dispensing unit (CDU) prescriptions and routine diabetes control were sourced from the Provincial Health Data Centre and analysed descriptively. Results: Qualitative analysis revealed three themes: disruption (cancellation of services, fear of infection, stress and anxiety), service reorganisation (communication, home delivery of medication, CHW scope of work, risk stratification and change management) and outcomes (workload and morale, stigma, appreciation and impact on NCD control). There was a drop in primary care attendance and an increase in CDU prescriptions and uncontrolled diabetes. Conclusion: This study described the service disruption together with rapid reorganisation and change management at primary care level during the first COVID-19 wave. The changes were strengthened by the COPC foundation in one of the study sites. The impact of COVID-19 on primary-level NCD care and management requires more investigation.

Quality of Health Care , Delivery of Health Care , Noncommunicable Diseases , COVID-19 , Disease Management , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Hypertension
Niger. J. Dent. Res. (Online) ; 7(1): 35-44, 2022.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1354437


Objective: There was a lot of panic when the COVID-19 pandemic started because a lot was not known about it. However, as the disease unfolded, proven scientific universal precautions are recommended to curb its spread. Methods: This was a cross-sectional online survey of people living in Nigeria. Questionnaires were distributed to consenting participants using the SurveyMonkey and data was collected on sociodemographic knowledge of the aetiology and prevention of COVID-19. Analysis was done with the SPSS version 25. Results: Eighty-five participants with age ranging from 18 to 60 years took part in the study. The mean age was 37.35 ± 11.7years. Forty-seven (47%) had knowledge that COVID-19 infection is from a virus. 29.4% thought it is caused by biological weapons, 1.2% from 5G internet, 7.1% as government's ploy to embezzle money and 9.4% conspiracy theory from the world leaders to reduce world's population. All participants knew that hand washing is a preventive measure against the spread of COVID-19 and majority agreed to the use of sanitizers, social distancing and disinfection of surfaces. Only 30.6% agreed that wearing of facemasks will serve as a preventive measure. Over 90% of the participants agreed that dissemination of appropriate information, use of universal precautions, isolation and intensive treatment of those infected can help prevent the spread of COVID-19. 11.8% of participants knew that additional precautions are needed for aerosol generating procedures. Conclusion: The knowledge of COVID-19 aetiology is poor among the populace and the need to wear face masks as a preventive measure in curtailing the spread of COVID-19 needs to be emphasized.

Humans , Male , Female , Public Opinion , Knowledge , Personal Protective Equipment , COVID-19 , Public Health , Disease Management
Brasília; Fiocruz Brasília;Instituto de Saúde de São Paulo; 19 jul. 2021. 52 p.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, PIE | ID: biblio-1358553


Esta revisão rápida foi comissionada e subsidiada pelo Ministério da Saúde, no âmbito do projeto GEREB-010-FIO-20 e faz parte da Coleção "Rapid response for health promotion". Contexto: A covid-19 é uma doença infecciosa causada pelo novo coronavírus SARS-CoV-2. Inúmeras manifestações clínicas têm sido observadas após o período da doença aguda, sendo denominada condições pós-covid. O conhecimento dessas manifestações é importante para aprimorar a organização do cuidado dos pacientes. Esta revisão rápida tem a finalidade de apresentar as manifestações das condições pós-covd identificadas na literatura mundial. Pergunta: Quais são as manifestações clínicas persistentes, sequelas ou complicações da covid-19? Métodos: Foram feitas buscas em uma base eletrônica e dois repositórios da literatura, específicos para covid-19, em maio e junho de 2021, com o propósito de identificar revisões sistemáticas (RS) que apresentassem a prevalência de manifestações clínicas, sequelas ou sintomas de covid-19 longa. Apenas a seleção dos estudos foi feita em duplicidade. A avaliação da qualidade metodológica das revisões sistemáticas (RS) foi realizada por uma revisora e conferida por outra. Os resultados foram agrupados em síntese narrativa. Resultados: De 1.101 registros identificados, após processo de seleção e elegibilidade foram incluídas 12 RS com resultados de prevalência de manifestações clínicas e laboratoriais de condições pós-covid, em pessoas fora do ambiente hospitalar. Quanto à qualidade metodológica, uma RS foi considerada de confiança baixa e as demais de criticamente baixas. Foi identificada uma grande variedade de manifestações que foram agrupadas nas seguintes categorias: respiratórias, neurológicas, psicopatológicas, cardiovasculares, musculoesqueléticas, distúrbios do sono, gastrintestinais, órgãos dos sentidos, renais e geniturinárias, e outras manifestações. Considerações finais: Os estudos incluídos nas RS são bastante diversos com relação ao número de pacientes avaliados, o que torna difícil a comparação entre as prevalências relatadas. Além disso, a qualidade metodológica das RS requer atenção no momento de interpretar os resultados encontrados. De qualquer forma, os resultados são relevantes na medida em que informam as inúmeras possibilidades de agravos em diferentes sistemas do corpo de pessoas acometidas pela covid-19, que necessitaram ou não de internação hospitalar.

This rapid review was commissioned and subsidized by the Ministry of Health, within the scope of the GEREB-010-FIO-20 project and is part of the "Rapid response for health promotion" Collection. Background: Covid-19 is an infectious disease caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Numerous clinical manifestations have been observed after the period of acute illness, being called post-covid conditions. Knowledge of these manifestations is important to improve the organization of patient care. This rapid review aims to present the manifestations of post-covd conditions identified in the world literature. Question: What are the persistent clinical manifestations, sequelae or complications of covid-19? Methods: Searches were carried out in an electronic database and two literature repositories, specific to covid-19, in May and June 2021, with the purpose of identifying systematic reviews (SR) that presented the prevalence of clinical manifestations, sequelae or symptoms of long covid-19. Only the selection of studies was done in duplicate. The evaluation of the methodological quality of systematic reviews (SR) was performed by one reviewer and checked by another. The results were grouped in narrative synthesis. Results: From 1,101 records identified, after the selection and eligibility process, 12 RS were included with results of prevalence of clinical and laboratory manifestations of post-covid conditions, in people outside the hospital environment. As for the methodological quality, one SR was considered to be of low confidence and the others of critically low. A wide variety of manifestations were identified, which were grouped into the following categories: respiratory, neurological, psychopathological, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, sleep disorders, gastrointestinal, sense organs, renal and genitourinary, and other manifestations. Final considerations: The studies included in the SR are quite diverse in terms of the number of patients evaluated, which makes it difficult to compare the reported prevalences. In addition, the methodological quality of the SRs requires attention when interpreting the results found. In any case, the results are relevant insofar as they inform the numerous possibilities of injuries in different systems of the body of people affected by covid-19, who required hospitalization or not.

Humans , Adult , Disease Management , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis
Rev. Méd. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 59(4): 322-329, 01/07/2021. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359029


Introducción: en México 130 000 personas viven con enfermedad renal crónica (ERC). Las afecciones cardiacas son los problemas clínicos más frecuentes; 45% de las muertes de pacientes en terapia sustitutiva tienen un origen cardiaco. Objetivo: identificar la probabilidad de presentar falla cardiaca aguda (FCA) en pacientes con ERC en el Servicio de Urgencias Adultos de un hospital de segundo nivel. Material y métodos: estudio de casos (111) y controles (103). Los casos se definieron como pacientes con ERC ingresados a Urgencias por FCA comparados con controles, pacientes con ERC que ingresaron por otro diagnóstico diferente. Se realizó regresión logística binaria y se determinaron razones de momios (RM) e intervalos de confianza al 95% (IC 95%). Un valor de p ˂ 0.05 fue significativo. Resultados: la hipertensión arterial (RM 7.12, IC 95% 2.3-22.06, p = 0.01), el uso de 3 o más antihipertensivos (RM, 2.903, IC 95% 1.19-7.11, p = 0.02), empleo de inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina (IECA) (RM 4.25, IC 95% 1.78-10.09, p = 0.01), antagonistas de los receptores de angiotensina-II (ARA-II) (RM 2.41, IC 95% 1.19-4.89, p = 0.014), diuréticos (RM 42.87, IC 95% 9.02-203.63, p = 0.00), diálisis peritoneal (RM 2.48, IC 95% 1.25-4.81, p = 0.009) y hemodiálisis (RM 0.40, IC 95% 0.20-0.79, p = 0.009) tuvieron significación estadística. Conclusiones: los pacientes con ERC con hipertension arterial, empleo de IECA, ARA-II, diuréticos y en dialisis peritoneal, tuvieron mayor probabilidad de presentar falla cardiaca aguda, mientras que los pacientes que se encontraban en hemodiálisis tuvieron menor probabilidad.

Background: In Mexico 130,000 people live with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Heart conditions are the most frequent clinical problems; 45% of the deaths of patients in replacement therapy have a cardiac origin. Objective: To identify the probability of presenting acute heart failure (AHF) in patients with CKD in the Adult Emer- gency Department (AED) of a second-level hospital. Material and methods: Case-control study with 111 cases and 103 controls. Cases were defined as patients with CKD admitted to AED for AHF compared with controls: patients with CKD who were admitted for a different diagnosis. Binary logistic regression was performed and odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were determined. A value of p ˂ 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Arterial hypertension (OR 7.12, 95% CI 2.3-22.06, p = 0.01), the use of 3 or more antihypertensive drugs (OR 2.903, 95% CI 1.19-7.11, p = 0.02), the use of inhibitors of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors) (OR 4.25, 95% CI 1.78-10.09, p = 0.01), angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) (OR 2.41, 95% CI 1.19-4.89, p = 0.014), diuretics (OR 42.87, 95% CI 9.02-203.63, p = 0.00), peritoneal dialysis (OR 2.48, 95% CI 1.25-4.81, p = 0.009) and hemodialysis (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.20-0.79, p = 0.009) had statistical significance. Conclusions: CKD patients with arterial hypertension, use of ACE inhibitors, ARBs, diuretics and peritoneal dialysis were more likely to present AHF, while patients who were on hemodialysis were less likely to presenting it.

Humans , Disease Management , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Heart Failure , Case-Control Studies , Peritoneal Dialysis , Heart Disease Risk Factors
Online braz. j. nurs. (Online) ; 20: e20216534, 05 maio 2021. tab
Article in English, Spanish, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1284567


OBJETIVO: Identificar a prevalência dos fatores de risco modificáveis para doença crônica não transmissível de beneficiários hipertensos e diabéticos. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal, de 2019, com dados do prontuário eletrônico de 109 adultos, independentes para as atividades cotidianas, do gerenciamento clínico por telemonitoramento de operadora de plano de saúde, Paraná-PR. Realizou­se estatística descritiva, teste qui­quadrado e regressão logística binária bruta. RESULTADOS: Homens tiveram menor consumo inadequado de refrigerante (OR =0,37) e peso elevado como fator de risco (OR =3,57). Fatores de proteção dos adultos foram hipertensão arterial (OR =0,14) e boa prontidão para mudança comportamental (OR =0,21) e, dos idosos, hipertensão arterial concomitante ao diabetes mellitus (OR =0,16). Houve associação entre idade, hipertensão arterial (p =0,001; OR =0,14; IC =0,04-0,51) e boa prontidão para a mudança comportamental (p =0,023; OR =0,21; IC =0,06-0,76). CONCLUSÃO: Predominaram idosas com estilo de vida saudável, para as quais são recomendadas intervenções de prevenção secundária.

OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence of the modifiable risk factors for chronic non-communicable disease in hypertensive and diabetic beneficiaries. METHOD: A cross-sectional study, from 2019, with data from the electronic medical records of 109adults, independent for the daily activities, of clinical management through telemonitoring of a health plan operator, Paraná-PR. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test and unadjusted binary logistic regression were performed. RESULTS: Men had lower inadequate consumption ofsoft drinks (OR=0.37) and overweight as a risk factor (OR=3.57). Protective factors for adults were arterial hypertension (OR=0.14) and good readiness for behavioral change (OR=0.21) and, for older adults, arterial hypertension concomitant with diabetes mellitus(OR=0.16). There was an association between age, arterial hypertension (p=0.001; OR=0.14; CI=0.04-0.51) and good readiness for behavioral change(p=0.023; OR=0.21; CI=0.06-0.76). CONCLUSION: Aged women with a healthy lifestyle predominated, for whom secondary prevention interventions are recommended.

OBJETIVO: Identificar la prevalencia de factores de riesgo modificables de enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles en beneficiarios hipertensos y diabéticos. MÉTODO: Estudio transversal, de 2019, con datos de historias clínicas electrónicas de 109 adultos, con independencia para las actividades diarias, de seguimiento clínico por telemonitorización de un operador de plan de salud, Paraná-PR. Se realizó estadística descriptiva, prueba de chi-cuadrado y regresión logística binaria bruta. RESULTADOS: Los hombres presentaron menor consumo inadecuado de gaseosas (OR =0,37) y alto peso como factor de riesgo (OR =3,57). Los factores de protección para los adultos fueron hipertensión arterial (OR =0,14) y buena disposición para el cambio de comportamiento (OR =0,21), y para los adultos mayores, hipertensión arterial concomitante con diabetes mellitus (OR =0,16). Hubo una asociación entre edad, hipertensión (p =0,001; OR =0,14; IC =0,04-0,51) y buena disposición para el cambio de comportamiento (p =0,023; OR =0,21; IC =0,06-0,76). CONCLUSIÓN: Predominaron los adultos mayores del sexo femenino con estilo de vida saludable, para quienes se recomiendan intervenciones de prevención secundaria.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Risk Factors , Prepaid Health Plans , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Management , Supplemental Health , Telemonitoring , Life Style
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 20(2): e3261, mar.-abr. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251803


Introducción: Una muerte súbita en epilepsia (SUDEP) ocurre cada diez minutos en todo el mundo. El 30 por ciento de los pacientes epilépticos padecen de epilepsia fármaco resistente (EFR), no logran el control de sus crisis y esto aumenta el riesgo de SUDEP. Muchos aún desconocen los factores de riesgo SUDEP y cómo prevenirlos. Los tratamientos para evitarla aún son insuficientes. Las investigaciones enfermeras aportan resultados positivos en el manejo de la enfermedad. Objetivo: Revisar el estado sobre mortalidad, autogestión de epilepsia e investigaciones enfermeras para prevenir la SUDEP en adolescentes y adultos con EFR. Material y Métodos: Revisión sistemática y búsqueda bibliográfica en las bases de datos PubMed SciELO, SCOPUS, ElSEVIER, MEDES, Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS), INFOMED y Google académico. Los criterios de selección: trabajos de la última década en adolescentes y adultos publicados en Cuba y el mundo, enfatizando en las investigaciones enfermeras. Búsqueda de palabras claves en español e inglés, sin restricciones de idioma. Desarrollo: Entre los tratamientos para evitar la SUDEP, destacan los dispositivos de detección de crisis y programas de ayuda online, pero aún son necesarias nuevas opciones. En los factores de riesgo, destacan aquellos relacionados con el sueño. Otros factores de riesgo SUDEP pudieran ser modificables con programas educativos. A pesar de que aún se debaten las formas más adecuadas de ofrecer información sobre SUDEP, los programas educativos enfermeros han evidenciado mayor autogestión, conocimiento de la enfermedad y apego al tratamiento. Conclusiones: El enfermero es el potencial humano ideal, para implementar acciones de autocuidado en las personas con EFR, y empoderarlas con habilidades para el manejo de su enfermedad y prevención de SUDEP(AU)

Introduction: A sudden death in epilepsy (SUDEP) occurs every ten minutes worldwide. Also, 30 percent of epileptic patients who suffer from drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) fail to control their seizures, so the risk of SUDEP increases. Many epileptic patients are unaware of the risk factors for SUDEP and the ways to prevent it. Treatments to avoid SUDEP are still insufficient. Nursing research provide positive results in the management of the disease. Objective: To review the mortality status, self-management of epilepsy and nursing research to prevent SUDEP in adolescents and adults with DRE. Material and Methods: A systematic review and bibliographic search was carried out in the PubMed SciELO, SCOPUS, ELSEVIER, MEDES, Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), INFOMED and Google Scholar databases. Selection criteria included studies on nursing research conducted in adolescents and adults during the last decade that have been published in Cuba and other countries of the world. Keywords in Spanish and English without language restrictions were used to carry out the search. Development: Crisis detection devices and online help programs stand out among the treatments to avoid SUDEP, but new options are still necessary. Among the risk factors for SUDEP, those related to sleep are highlighted. Other risk factors for SUDEP could be modified with educational programs. Despite the most appropriate ways of offering information about SUDEP are still debated, nursing educational programs have shown greater self-management, knowledge of the disease, and adherence to treatment. Conclusions: The Nurse is the ideal human potential to implement self-care actions in people with EFR. These actions aim to learn new skills for managing their disease and preventing SUDEP(AU)

Humans , Self Care , Nursing Research , Knowledge , Disease Management , Epilepsy/mortality , Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy/prevention & control , Nurses , Risk Factors
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(1): 68-74, jan.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289049


RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar se as modificações na atenção médica em razão da aplicação dos protocolos para COVID-19 afetaram os desfechos clínicos de pacientes sem a doença durante a pandemia. Métodos: Este foi um estudo observacional de coorte retrospectiva conduzido em uma unidade de terapia intensiva clínica e cirúrgica com 38 leitos, localizada em hospital privado de alta complexidade na cidade de Buenos Aires, Argentina, e envolveu os pacientes com insuficiência respiratória admitidos à unidade de terapia intensiva no período compreendido entre março e abril de 2020 em comparação com o mesmo período no ano de 2019. Compararam-se as intervenções e os desfechos dos pacientes sem COVID-19 tratados durante a pandemia em 2020 e os pacientes admitidos em 2019. As principais variáveis avaliadas foram os cuidados respiratórios na unidade de terapia intensiva, o número de exames de tomografia computadorizada do tórax e lavados broncoalveolares, complicações na unidade de terapia intensiva e condições quando da alta hospitalar. Resultados: Observou-se, em 2020, uma redução significante do uso de cânula nasal de alto fluxo: 14 (42%), em 2019, em comparação com 1 (3%), em 2020. Além disso, em 2020, observou-se aumento significante no número de pacientes sob ventilação mecânica admitidos à unidade de terapia intensiva a partir do pronto-socorro, de 23 (69%) em comparação com 11 (31%) em 2019. Contudo, o número de pacientes com ventilação mecânica 5 dias após a admissão foi semelhante em ambos os anos: 24 (69%), em 2019, e 26 (79%) em 2020. Conclusão: Os protocolos para unidades de terapia intensiva com base em recomendações internacionais para a pandemia de COVID-19 modificaram o manejo de pacientes sem COVID-19. Observamos redução do uso da cânula nasal de alto fluxo e aumento no número de intubações traqueais no pronto-socorro. Entretanto, não se identificaram alterações na percentagem de pacientes intubados na unidade de terapia intensiva, número de dias sob ventilação mecânica ou número de dias na unidade de terapia intensiva.

Abstract Objective: To analyze whether changes in medical care due to the application of COVID-19 protocols affected clinical outcomes in patients without COVID-19 during the pandemic. Methods: This was a retrospective, observational cohort study carried out in a thirty-eight-bed surgical and medical intensive care unit of a high complexity private hospital. Patients with respiratory failure admitted to the intensive care unit during March and April 2020 and the same months in 2019 were selected. We compared interventions and outcomes of patients without COVID-19 during the pandemic with patients admitted in 2019. The main variables analyzed were intensive care unit respiratory management, number of chest tomography scans and bronchoalveolar lavages, intensive care unit complications, and status at hospital discharge. Results: In 2020, a significant reduction in the use of a high-flow nasal cannula was observed: 14 (42%) in 2019 compared to 1 (3%) in 2020. Additionally, in 2020, a significant increase was observed in the number of patients under mechanical ventilation admitted to the intensive care unit from the emergency department, 23 (69%) compared to 11 (31%) in 2019. Nevertheless, the number of patients with mechanical ventilation after 5 days of admission was similar in both years: 24 (69%) in 2019 and 26 (79%) in 2020. Conclusion: Intensive care unit protocols based on international recommendations for the COVID-19 pandemic have produced a change in non-COVID-19 patient management. We observed a reduction in the use of a high-flow nasal cannula and an increased number of tracheal intubations in the emergency department. However, no changes in the percentage of intubated patients in the intensive care unit, the number of mechanical ventilation days or the length of stay in intensive care unit.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Critical Illness/therapy , Disease Management , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Bronchoalveolar Lavage/statistics & numerical data , Health Care Surveys , Intensive Care Units , Intubation, Intratracheal/statistics & numerical data
Article in French | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1363608


Introduction : Dans sa politique de riposte contre la pandémie liée à l'infection au SARS-COV2, le Bénin a opté pour la construction d'Hôpitaux dédiés exclusivement à la prise en charge des COVID19. Pendant la première vague de la pandémie en Afrique, les systèmes de santé n'étaient pas encore bien outillés pour faire face à cette pandémie. Nous vous rapportons l'expérience des soins intensifs du Centre de traitement des épidémies (CTE) d'ALLADA. Objectifs : évaluer la prise en charges des cas graves de COVID19 à l'USI du CTE ALLADA. Matériels et méthode : Il s'est agi d'une étude prospective, descriptive et analytique, réalisée aux soins intensifs du centre de traitement des épidémies d'ALLADA, du 1er juin au 31 Août 2020. Résultats : Quatre-vingt-quatorze malades étaient éligibles pour notre étude. L'âge moyen des malades était de 58,41 ans, le sex-ratio 1,61. Les comorbidités les plus représentatives étaient l'hypertension artérielle (70,21%), le diabète (31,91%), l'obésité morbide (21,28%) et l'asthme (15,96%). Selon le score de gravité adopté au Bénin, trente-six malades (38,30%) étaient classés cas graves grade3 et ont bénéficié d'une ventilation mécanique. La VNI était la technique de ventilation la plus utilisée (75% des cas). Le plateau technique était limité et les ressources humaines qualifiées insuffisantes. Les associations chloroquine/azithromycine ou lopinavir/ritonavir/ribavirine étaient les traitements spécifiques utilisés. La mortalité était de 27,66%. Conclusion : Malgré les conditions de travail difficiles, notamment le plateau technique limité et les ressources humaines qualifiées insuffisantes, les résultats obtenus après traitement des cas graves de COVID19 à l'USI du CTE ALLADA étaient encourageants

Introduction: To respond to the pandemic linked to the SARS-COV-2 infection, Benin has opted for the construction of hospitals dedicated exclusively to the treatment of COVID-19. During the first wave of the pandemic in Africa, health systems were not yet well equipped to deal with this pandemic. We here report the Intensive CareUnit (ICU) experience of the Epidemic Treatment Center of ALLADA (ETCA). Purpose: To assess the management of serious cases of COVID-19 in the ICU of ETCA. Materials and method: This was a prospective, descriptive and analytical study, carried out in the ICU of ETCA, from June 1 to August 31, 2020. Results: Ninety-four patients were eligible for our study. The average age of the patients was 58.41 years with a sex ratio of 1.61. The most representative comorbidities were arterial hypertension (70.21%), diabetes (31.91%), morbid obesity (21.28%) and asthma (15.96%). According to the severity score adopted in Benin, thirty-six patients (38.30%) were classified as severe grade III cases and received mechanical ventilation. Non-Invasive Ventilation (NIV) was the most used ventilation technique (75% of cases). The technical platform was limited and the qualified human resources were insufficient. Chloroquine/azithromycin or lopinavir / ritonavir/ribavirine were the specific treatments used. Mortality was 27.66%. Conclusion: Despite the difficult working conditions, especially the limited technical platform and insufficient qualified human resources, the results obtained after treatment of serious cases of COVID-19 at the ICU of ETCA were encouraging

Humans , Male , Female , Disease Management , SARS Virus , Drug Therapy , COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units
Djouba; Rift Valley Institute; 2021. 44 p.
Non-conventional in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1358117


Across South Sudan, long before the global COVID-19 pandemic emerged, communities have created systems and structures to control the spread of epidemics and infectious diseases. South Sudanese people have extensive knowledge of infectious diseases and experience of organizing responses to epidemics during wars and other crises. Most people have experience of multiple epidemics within their households and neighbourhoods. Many informal healthcare providers have been involved directly in organized medical responses to past epidemic outbreaks: in several areas of the country people have been involved in contact tracing and infection management since the 1970s. This research report details community infectious disease management strategies developed within the realities of South Sudan's local healthcare systems. Because the South Sudan clinical healthcare sector is overstretched and only semi-functional, the majority of South Sudanese people mostly rely on non-clinical medical advice and support from a wide field of healthcare workers and caregivers, including small private clinics and unlicenced pharmaceutical sellers, traditional herbal and surgical experts, midwives and spiritual healers. South Sudanese community-led infectious disease management relies on symptomatic identification, the containment of potential infections through applying knowledge of infection vectors and pathologies, and creative treatment using a high level of botanical knowledge. There are multiple, locally-specific methods used by communities for interrupting infection transmission and managing epidemics. For airborne diseases or infections spread through contact, people often organize houses for self-isolation, mark out separate food and water access points for households, make homemade rehydration salts, carefully manage dirty linen, bed spaces and drinking water provision to avoid cross-contamination, and use urine, hot water and ashes for disinfecting. Different communities across the country use crossed posts, rope barriers, or ash markings across paths to warn people away from sick households in quarantine. Particular care is taken to avoid transmission to high-risk residents, especially pregnant and post-partum women and young children. Across research sites, people are already working on developing local safety measures and strategies to prevent the further spread of COVID-19 in South Sudan. This research documents these community infectious disease management strategies, based on sustained investigative research in the Yei, Juba, Wau, Malakal, Aweil West and Rubkona areas, both in-person and remotely via telephone, from August to November 2020.1 The health and wellbeing of the team and our interviewees was the prioritythroughout the project. Interviewees include midwives and traditional birth attendants, male and female nurses, herbal experts, traditional healers, pharmacists, chiefs and community elders, elderly women, and local public health workers, among many others. Recommendations for action include: 1. Collaborate with wider non-clinical health workers and caregivers, who are often first responders, including women, midwives, herbal experts and local pharmaceutical sellers. Include these workers in public health planning and clinical training. 2. Support communities with the broad epidemiological and logistical skills to prepare for COVID-19 and other epidemic outbreaks. Build sustained and detailed public health information systems to help local non-clinical and clinical workers plan locally appropriate infectious disease management strategies. More detailed and sustained information drives, in partnership with local first responders, will also build trust and counter misinformation and fatigue. 3. Localise epidemic response planning. Central planning is heavy handed and ineffective, overlooking critical local knowledge and community leadership that will make responses effective. Public health strategies should aim to build on measures people already take to try to protect themselves and their communities from multiple infectious diseases.

Humans , Male , Female , Public Health Practice , Communicable Disease Control , Disease Management , Delivery of Health Care , COVID-19
Article in French | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1353553


Introduction : Les candidoses systémiques sont des affections graves responsables d'une mortalité élevée. L'objectif de ce travail est de décrire l'épidémiologie des candidoses systémiques dans les services à haut risque au CHU et au CAC de BATNA. Patients et méthodes : Il s'agit d'une étude prospective descriptive durant une période de trois ans (1er janvier 2016 au 31 décembre 2018). Les patients inclus sont ceux ayant au moins un prélèvement profond positif á Candida spp. Résultats : Un total de 69 cas de candidoses systémiques correspondant à 75 isolats et concernant 63 patients a pu être analysé. L'incidence globale était de 2,62 cas pour 1000 admissions. Les principaux motifs d'hospitalisation étaient les hémopathies malignes et le choc septique. La présence d'une colonisation ( 2 sites), une antibiothérapie á large spectre, d'un cathéter intra vasculaire, une corticothérapie, une chimiothérapie, une neutropénie étaient les facteurs de risque les plus retrouvés. L'analyse des souches isolées a montré la prédominance des espèces non albicans. L'index de colonisation ≥ 0,5 a été significativement associé au risque de candidose systémique. L'utilisation des Azolés a été associée á un taux de mortalité le plus élevé (19%). Le taux de mortalité est significativement élevé 51%. Conclusion : Les facteurs de risque et un index de colonisation ≥ 0,5 dans les services á haut risque constituent un facteur prédictif de candidose systémique. La prise en charge thérapeutique doit être instaurée pour réduire le taux de mortalité et éviter les complications liées á ces infections.

Background: Systemic candidiasis are serious conditions responsible for high mortality. The objective of this work is to describe the epidemiology of systemic candidiasis in high-risk departments at the UHC and the ACC of BATNA. Patients and methods: This is a descriptive prospective study over a period of three years (January 1, 2016 to December 31, 2018). The patients included are those with at least one positive deep sample for Candida spp. Results: 69 cases of systemic candidiasis corresponding to 75 isolates and concerning 63 patients could be analyzed. The overall incidence was 2.62 cases per 1,000 admissions. The main reasons for hospitalization were hematologic malignancies and septic shock. The presence of colonization ( 2 sites), broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy, an intravascular catheter, corticosteroid therapy, chemotherapy, neutropenia were the most common risk factors. Analysis of the isolated strains showed the predominance of nonalbicans species. Colonization index ≥ 0.5 was significantly associated with the risk of systemic candidiasis. Azole's use was associated with the highest mortality rate (19%). The mortality rate is significantly high 51%. Conclusion. Risk factors and a colonization index ≥ 0.5 in high-risk wards are a predictor of systemic candidiasis. Therapeutic care must be instituted to reduce the mortality rate and avoid complications linked to these infections

Humans , Male , Female , Candida albicans , Disease Management , Invasive Fungal Infections , Azoles , Risk Factors , Academic Medical Centers
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1366932


Introduction: Rotavirus A (RVA) is a leading cause of acute infant gastroenteritis in Mozambique, responsible for approximately 13,000 annual infant deaths in peri-urban and other areas. Aim: the present review aimed summarize the most relevant and recent literature regarding RVA infection in Mozambique. Methods: the documents were obtained from electronic databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, Scinapse, Scilit, and Microsoft Academicto find the leading scientific publications related to Mozambique's RVA.Findings: The search allowed us to find 20 peer-reviewed journal articles, three official reports, eight abstracts from national conferences, one thesis, and other documents to supplement the information. Rotavirus frequency ranged between 24 to 42.4%, 34.8% attributable to Mozambique. Most data are hospital-based from Maputo, Sofala, Zambézia, and Nampula provinces. Nampula province shows the highest number of cases. Thus, there might be some bias on the geographical distribution of the virus. The prevalence is high in children less than one year. Regarding the control, the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) introduced a monovalent vaccine in September 2015 (Rotarix), which positively impacted the reduction of RVA cases. After vaccine introduction, a high diversity of RVA genotypes was observed, with the predominance ofG1P[8] and the emergence of G9P[4],G9P[6], G3P[4]. However, only the whole genome sequence can confirm if it is due to the natural genotypes fluctuation. RVA infection was detected in swine, and a recent analysis reported an RVA strain from children clustered with different animal strains.Conclusion: The scarceyethighly reliable research resourcesallowed scientists to detect RVA G1P[8] and other genotypes, potential animal reservoirs, and to find that RVA is more prevalent during the transition dry-rainy season, and thevirus becomes more frequent when children approach the 11thmonth, to then decline as they age.It is essential to develop studies providing a broad view of RVA reservoirs as part of the strategy to control its dissemination

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Rotavirus Infections , Disease Management , Diarrhea, Infantile , Gastroenteritis , Epidemiology , Rotavirus
Malawi med. j. (Online) ; 33(2): 108-113, 2021.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1284526


Introduction:Diabetes Mellitus (DM) has become a disease of public health importance in Nigeria. Early identification of DM risk is important in the reduction of this disease burden. This study assessed ten-year risk of developing type 2 DM among some medical doctors in Ondo State. Methods:This was a cross-sectional study that assessed ten-year risk of developing type 2 DM among some doctors using the Finland Diabetic Risk Score form. Known diabetics were excluded from the study. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), blood pressure and total DM risk score were determined for each participant.Results: One hundred and ninety-two doctors participated in the study with a male: female ratio of 1.3:1. Majority (92.2%) were below 55 years, 22 (11.5%) were obese, 32(16.7%) had central obesity, 46(24%) reported physical inactivity, 49(25.5%) had family history of DM, 141(73.4%) do not take fruits and vegetables regularly. Forty-three (22.4%) were found to have elevated blood pressure while 6(3.1%) had elevated blood glucose. Fifty-seven (29.7%) of the participants had increased ten-year DM risk. Significant predictors of increase DM risk were age ≥ 45 years (AOR:9.08; CI 3.13-26.33; p = <0.001 ) ; BMI ≥25kg/m2(AOR:11.41; CI:4.14-31.45; p = <0.001) ; family history of DM (AOR:9.93; CI:3.25-30.39; p = <0.001) ; abdominal obesity (AOR:6.66; CI:2.08-21.29; p= < 0.001); and infrequent dietary intake of fruits and vegetable(AOR:3.11;CI:1.03:9.37: p = 0.04) Conclusion:There was increased 10-year DM risk in about 30% of the participants. Lifestyle modification such as physical activity and regular consumption of fruits and vegetables should be encouraged among doctors

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Disease Management , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Quality of Life , Professional Review Organizations , Malawi
Alger. J. health sci. (Online. Oran) ; 3(3): 38-48, 2021. Tables, figures
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1292601


Introduction : Depuis le début de la pandémie du COVID-19, les pays ont été confrontés au défi de prendre en charge les malades de la pandémie et en même temps de préserver la continuité des soins pour les autres patients, l'objectif de notre étude est d'évaluer l'impact de la pandémie COVID-19 sur le profil de la morbi-mortalité hospitalière. Méthodes : étude rétrospective comparative sur deux périodes avril-septembre 2019 « période de comparaison ¼ et avril-septembre 2020 « période de la pandémie ¼ au CHU Hussein Dey -Alger, portant sur l'analyse de l'évolution de l'activé hospitalière en matière d'admissions et de mortalité hospitalière. Résultats : au total 12 742 admissions durant la période de référence et seulement 10 110 admissions durant la période de la pandémie (dont 553 admissions dans les unités COVID-19), soit une baisse de 25% des admissions non-COVID-19 (p<10-5), la mortalité hospitalière qui était de 4.04% est passée à 4.88% (p<0.04), le RR de décès était de 1.6 et 13.9 dans les unités COVID-19 et les soins intensifs respectivement. Conclusion : tous les systèmes de santé ont montré leurs limites à ce type de menace de portée internationale, il est nécessaire de prévoir des schémas organisationnels adaptés au contexte pour une riposte efficace par la mise en place d'un système d'alerte et d'intervention souple capable de s'adapter à des variations de situation.

Humans , Morbidity , Hospital Mortality , COVID-19 , Disease Management
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1292750


Introduction : Depuis mars 2020, les premiers cas de pneumonie causée par la maladie à coronavirus 2019 ont été signalés à Tizi-Ouzou. Les informations sur les caractéristiques cliniques et paracliniques des patients infectés nécessitant des soins intensifs sont limitées. L'objectif de ce travail est de décrire les caractéristiques des patients atteints de la maladie à coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) nécessitant une prise en charge dans une unité de soins intensifs au centre hospitalo-universitaire de Tizi-Ouzou. Matériels et méthodes : Il s'agit d'une étude descriptive rétrospective, relevant les données cliniques et paracliniques, la prise en charge et l'évolution des patients. Les données ont été obtenues par examen des dossiers médicaux des patients atteints de Covid-19 admis aux soins intensifs au centre hospitalo-universitaire de Tizi-Ouzou entre le 22 mars et le 15 octobre 2020. Résultats : 119 patients ont été inclus dans l'étude, l'âge moyen était de 64 (34-88) ans, dont 79 (66%) étaient des hommes. La présence d'une comorbidité concernait 77% des patients et parmi ces derniers 63% étaient diabétiques. Tous les patients ont été admis pour insuffisance respiratoire hypoxémique avec un rapport PaO2 / FIO2 moyen de 170 (122-230), dont 97 (81%) avaient bénéficié d'une ventilation mécanique avec intubation orotrachéale. L'insuffisance rénale concernait 47% de nos patients, dont 12% avaient nécessité des séances d'hémodialyses. Le taux de décès était de 78%. Conclusion : L'identification des facteurs de gravité en pratique clinique semble importante à la fois pour mieux sélectionner les patients avant leur admission en réanimation, mais également pour améliorer la qualité de leur prise en charge une fois admis en réanimation.

Disease Management , COVID-19 , Resuscitation , Algeria , Emergency Medical Services