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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250936, 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345557

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Glutamine, as a dipeptide or a free amino acid form, on the progression of burn injuries in rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were burned with a comb metal plate heated in boiling water (98 °C) for three minutes, creating four rectangular full-thickness burn areas separated by three unburned interspaces (zone of stasis) in both dorsum sides. The animals were randomized into three groups (n=10): saline solution (G1-Control) and treated groups that orally received Glutamine as dipeptide (G2-Dip) or free amino acid (G3-FreeAA). Two and seven days after burn injury, lesions were photographed for unburned interspaces necrosis evolution assessment. Seven days after injury, glutathione seric was measured and histopathological analysis was performed. By photographs, there was a significant reduction in necrosis progression in G3-Free-AA between days two and seven. Histopathological analysis at day 7 showed a significantly higher stasis zone without necrosis and a higher number of fibroblasts in G2-Dip and G3-FreeAA compared with G1-Control. Also, glutathione serum dosage was higher in G2-Dip. The plasmatic glutathione levels were higher in the G2-Dip than the G1-Control, and there was a trend to higher levels in G3-FreeAA. The reduction in histological lesions, greater production of fibroblasts, and greater amounts of glutathione may have benefited the evolution of burn necrosis, which showed greater preservation of interspaces.


Resumo Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar o efeito da Glutamina, como um dipeptídeo ou forma de aminoácido livre, na progressão de queimaduras em ratos. Trinta ratos Wistar machos foram queimados com um pente de metal aquecido em água fervente (98 °C) por três minutos, criando quatro áreas retangulares queimadas separadas por três interesespaços não queimados (zona de estase) em ambos os lados do dorso. Os animais foram randomizados em três grupos (n = 10): solução salina (G1-Controle) e grupos tratados que receberam glutamina via oral como dipeptídeo (G2-Dip) ou aminoácido livre (G3-FreeAA). Dois e sete dias após a queimadura, as lesões foram fotografadas para avaliação da evolução da necrose entre os espaços não queimados. Sete dias após a lesão, foi dosada a glutationa sérica e realizada análise histopatológica. Pelas fotografias, houve uma redução significativa na progressão da necrose no G3-Free-AA entre os dias dois e sete. A análise histopatológica no dia 7 mostrou uma zona de estase significativamente maior sem necrose e número mais elevado de fibroblastos em G2-Dip e G3-FreeAA em comparação com G1-Controle. Os níveis plasmáticos de glutationa foram maiores no G2-Dip em relação ao G1-Controle, e houve tendência a níveis mais elevados no G3-FreeAA. A redução das lesões histológicas, maior produção de fibroblastos, maior quantidade de glutationa podem ter beneficiado a evolução da necrose da queimadura, que mostrou maior preservação dos interespaços.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Burns/drug therapy , Glutamine , Rats, Wistar , Dipeptides , Disease Models, Animal , Amino Acids
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252575, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355869

ABSTRACT

Abstract Increased anxiety and depressive symptoms have reported to be its association with long term illness. Because of having unwanted effects of newly available drugs, patients administering anxiolytic drugs usually discontinue the treatment before they are completely recovered. Therefore, there is a serious need to develop new anxiolytic drugs. The anxiolytic effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Agaricus blazei in animal models was assessed. 24 male mice (Mus musculus genus) were included in the study. Four groups were prepared and each group contained six animals. The groups were vehicle control, positive control (diazepam 1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) as well as two treatment groups receiving Agaricus blazei hydro-alcoholic extract at a dose of 136.50 mg/kg and 273.0 mg/kg orally. The Marble burying test, Nestlet shredding test and Light and Dark box test used to assess anxiolytic activity. Mice administered with diazepam 1.0 mg/kg, i.p. while hydro-alcoholic extract of AbM (136.50 and 273.0 mg/kg, respectively) was administered via oral route which exhibited marked reduction in number of marbles-burying as compared to vehicle control group. Mice administered with diazepam 1.0 mg/kg, i.p. and Oral administration of hydro-alcoholic extract of AbM (136.50 and 273.0 mg/kg, respectively) exhibited significant decrease in nestlet shredding in comparison to vehicle control group. The oral administration of hydro-alcoholic extract at a dose of 136.5mg/kg and 273mg/kg showed elevation in time spent in light box and was comparable to standard treated group while time spent by mice following oral administration of hydro-alcoholic extract of Agaricus blazei at a dose of 273.0 mg/kg also showed elevation and was found to be more near to standard treated group (diazepam 1 mg/kg, i.p.).


Resumo O aumento da ansiedade e dos sintomas depressivos têm relatado sua associação com doenças de longa duração. Por causa dos efeitos indesejáveis dos novos medicamentos disponíveis, os pacientes que administram medicamentos ansiolíticos geralmente interrompem o tratamento antes de estarem completamente recuperados. Portanto, há uma necessidade séria de desenvolver novos medicamentos ansiolíticos. Foi avaliado o efeito ansiolítico do extrato hidroalcoólico de Agaricus blazei em modelos animais. Vinte e quatro camundongos machos (gênero Mus musculus) foram incluídos no estudo. Quatro grupos foram preparados, e cada grupo continha seis animais. Os grupos foram controle de veículo, controle positivo (diazepam 1,0 mg/kg, i.p.), bem como dois grupos de tratamento recebendo extrato hidroalcoólico de Agaricus blazei na dose de 136,50 mg/kg e 273,0 mg/kg por via oral. O teste de enterrar Marble, o teste de retalhamento Nestlet e o teste de caixa clara e escura são usados ​​para avaliar a atividade ansiolítica. Camundongos foram administrados com diazepam 1,0 mg/kg, i.p., enquanto o extrato hidroalcoólico de AbM (136,50 e 273,0 mg/kg, respectivamente) foi administrado por via oral, que exibiu redução acentuada no número de mármores enterrados em comparação com o grupo de controle de veículo. Camundongos administrados com diazepam 1,0 mg/kg, i.p. e a administração oral de extrato hidroalcoólico de AbM (136,50 e 273,0 mg/kg, respectivamente) exibiu diminuição significativa na trituração de ninhos em comparação ao grupo de controle de veículo. A administração oral de extrato hidroalcoólico na dose de 136,5mg/kg e 273mg/kg mostrou elevação no tempo gasto na caixa de luz e foi comparável ao grupo tratado padrão, enquanto o tempo gasto por camundongos após a administração oral de extrato hidroalcoólico de Agaricus blazei na dose de 273,0 mg/kg também mostrou elevação e foi mais próximo do grupo tratado padrão (diazepam 1 mg/kg, ip).


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Agaricus , Exploratory Behavior , Disease Models, Animal
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253616, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355880

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study evaluated the effect of the volatile oil of Alpinia zerumbet (VOAz) on caveolin-1 gene expression and muscular fibrosis. The rats were immobilized to induce fibrosis of the gastrocnemius muscle, and they were treated with VOAz. Collagen quality was assessed by histology and the expression of the caveolin-1 (CAV-1) gene was evaluated using qPCR. Histomorphological analysis indicated a significant reduction in the perimeter, width, and intensity of collagen in the treated groups, thus showing that the oil was effective in regulating the quality of collagen at the three concentrations. The results of expression levels suggested a decrease in the lesioned group and in two treatment groups (0.0115 µg/g and 0.009 µg/g). However, with the lowest concentration (0.0065 µg/g), no significant difference was observed, with levels similar to those found in healthy tissue. Therefore, the results showed that VOAz has the potential to be a non-invasive and low-cost alternative to aid in the treatment of muscular fibrosis.


Resumo Este estudo avaliou o efeito do óleo volátil de Alpinia zerumbet (OVAz) na expressão do gene da caveolina-1 e na fibrose muscular. Os ratos foram imobilizados para induzir a fibrose do músculo gastrocnêmio, e foram tratados com OVAz. A qualidade do colágeno foi avaliada com histologia e à expressão do gene caveolina-1 (CAV-1) foi avaliada usando qPCR. A análise histomorfológica indicou uma redução significativa no perímetro, largura e intensidade do colágeno nos grupos tratados. Os resultados dos níveis de expressão sugeriram diminuição nos grupos de lesão e em dois grupos de tratamento (0,0115 µg/g e 0,009 µg/g). No entanto, com a menor concentração (0,0065 µg/g), não foi observada diferença significativa, apresentando níveis semelhantes aos encontrados em tecido saudável. O uso do OVAz foi eficaz para reverter as alterações do colágeno causadas pela fibrose, e sua menor concentração apresentou uma possível tendência de aumento na expressão do CAV-1. Portanto, os resultados mostraram que o OVAz tem potencial para ser uma alternativa não invasiva e de baixo custo para auxiliar no tratamento da fibrose muscular.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Collagen/metabolism , Alpinia/chemistry , Caveolin 1/metabolism , Muscles/drug effects , Fibrosis , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Brazil , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Muscles/pathology
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(3): 808-816, jun. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385645

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most common complication of diabetes. Several studies have been done in a trial to protect against this problem at the ultrastructure level. This study investigates the protective effect of oral administration of Acacia senegal (AS) against the development of DN. Sixty male albino rats were randomly divided into six groups: control, Acacia senegal control, Diabetic untreated, diabetic insulin-treated, Diabetic AS treated, and Diabetic insulin and AS combined treated groups. Plasma glucose, HbA1c, serum Albumin, creatinine, urine creatinine was measured using specific kits. Determinations of creatinine clearance and blood pressure were done. The renal tissues of both kidneys were prepared to investigate under both light (LM) and electron microscope (EM). Ultrastructure examination of renal rats tissue of diabetic untreated rats showed the destruction of the glomerular basement membrane and endothelial cells together with hemorrhage in glomerular capsules (Bowman's capsules). On the other side, both LM and EM revealed improving the endothelial cells and the other glomerular capsules structures, especially with the combined treated group, which confirmed the improvement of the biochemical investigation in the study. In conclusion, from the present study, using the oral AS together with SC insulin could be protected against the development of DN.


RESUMEN: La nefropatía diabética (ND) es la complicación más común de la diabetes. Se han realizado varios estudios de ensayo para abordar esta dificultad a nivel de ultraestructura. Este estudio investiga el efecto protector de la administración oral de Acacia senegal (AS) contra el desarrollo de la ND. Se dividieron sesenta ratas albinas machos aleatoriamente en seis grupos: control, control de Acacia senegal, diabéticos no tratados, diabéticos tratados con insulina, diabéticos tratados con AS y grupos tratados con compuesto de insulina diabética + AS. Se midieron utilizando kits específicos, glucosa plasmática, HbA1c, albúmina sérica, creatinina en sangre y en orina. Se registraron la creatinina y la presión arterial. Los tejidos renales de ambos riñones se prepararon para investigar tanto con microscopio óptico (MO) como electrónico (ME). El examen de la ultraestructura del tejido renal de ratas diabéticas no tratadas mostró la destrucción de la membrana basal glomerular y las células endoteliales junto con hemorragia en las cápsulas glomerulares (cápsulas de Bowman). Por otro lado, tanto MO como ME revelaron una mejora de las células endoteliales y las estructuras capsulares glomerulares, en el grupo tratado con el compuesto, lo que confirmó la mejora de la investigación bioquímica. En conclusión, el uso de AS oral en combinación con insulina podría proteger contra el desarrollo de ND.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Diabetic Nephropathies/prevention & control , Acacia , Gum Arabic/administration & dosage , Kidney/drug effects , Microscopy, Electron , Biomarkers , Administration, Oral , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Disease Models, Animal , Kidney/ultrastructure
5.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(3): 832-838, jun. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385655

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: El objetivo del presente estudio fue establecer la influencia de diferentes materiales en el proceso de regeneración ósea de alveolos post exodoncia de ratas hembra adultas ovariectomizadas (OVX). Para ello, se utilizaron 40 ratas sprague dawley, divididas en grupo experimental (OVX) (n=20) y grupo control (Sin ovariectomía) (n=20). Todas las ratas del grupo experimental fueron sometidas a ovariectomía bilateral para simular un estado de osteoporosis inducida por déficit de estrógeno. Posterior a 12 semanas post OVX, las ratas de ambos grupos fueron divididas en 4 subgrupos, en los cuales fue extraído el primer molar superior derecho de cada rata. Posteriormente, las terapias realizadas en los alveolos post-exodoncia fueron: A: (N=5) Alveolo no rellenado para ser utilizado como control negativo. B: (N=5) Aplicación de injerto bifásico (HA+BTCP). C: (N=5) Aplicación de PRF. D: Aplicación de una combinación de injerto bifásico + PRF. Luego de tres semanas se realizó la eutanasia de los animales y obtención de las muestras para los análisis respectivos. Todos los animales sobrevivieron al final del estudio sin ninguna complicación postoperatoria. Los resultados cuantitativos del área ósea interradicular del segundo molar superior, mostraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre grupo control y grupo OVX. Mientras que no se observaron diferencias en la descripción histológica ni en el análisis cuantitativo de fibras colágenas tipo I y III. Es posible concluir que el modelo de osteoporosis inducida por déficit de estrógeno modificaría también la microarquitectura ósea de la Maxila. No obstante, nuevos estudios son necesarios para continuar con el estudio de biomateriales para regeneración ósea en modelos de osteoporosis inducida.


SUMMARY: The aim of the present study was to establish the influence of different materials on the process of bone regeneration in post-extraction sockets of ovariectomized (OVX) adult female rats. For this, 40 Sprague Dawley rats were used, divided into an experimental group (OVX) (n=20) and a control group (without ovariectomy) (n=20). All rats in the experimental group underwent bilateral ovariectomy to simulate a state of estrogen deficiency osteoporosis. After 12 weeks post OVX, rats from both groups were divided into 4 subgroups, in which the upper right first molar of each rat was extracted. Subsequently, the therapies performed in the post-extraction sockets were A: (N=5) Unfilled alveolus to be used as a negative control. B: (N=5) Biphasic graft application (HA+BTCP). C: (N=5) PRF application. D: Application of a combination of biphasic graft + PRF. After three weeks, the animals were euthanized, and the samples were obtained for the respective analyses. All animals survived to the end of the study without any postoperative complications. The quantitative results of the interradicular bone area of ??the upper second molar showed significant differences between the control group and the OVX group. While no differences were observed in the histological description or in the quantitative analysis of collagen fibers type I and III. It is possible to conclude that the model of osteoporosis induced by estrogen deficiency would modify the bone microarchitecture of the Maxilla. However, new studies are necessary to continue with the study of biomaterials for bone regeneration in models of induced osteoporosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Osteoporosis/therapy , Bone Regeneration , Ovariectomy , Bone Transplantation , Tooth Extraction , Biocompatible Materials , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Disease Models, Animal
6.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(3): 697-705, jun. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385688

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: An association between certain food additives and chronic diseases is reported. Current study determined whether administering toxic doses of the food additive monosodium glutamate (MSG) into rats can induce aortopathy in association with the oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers upregulation and whether the effects of MSG overdose can be inhibited by vitamin E. MSG at a dose of (4 mg/kg; orally) that exceeds the average human daily consumption by 1000x was administered daily for 7 days to the rats in the model group. Whereas, rats treated with vitamin E were divided into two groups and given daily doses of MSG plus 100 mg/ kg vitamin E or MSG plus 300 mg/kg vitamin E. On the eighth day, all rats were culled. Using light and electron microscopy examinations, a profound aortic injury in the model group was observed demonstrated by damaged endothelial layer, degenerated smooth muscle cells (SMC) with vacuoles and condensed nuclei, vacuolated cytoplasm, disrupted plasma membrane, interrupted internal elastic lamina, clumped chromatin, and damaged actin and myosin filaments. Vitamin E significantly protected aorta tissue and cells as well as inhibited MSG-induced tissue malondialdehyde (MDA), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). The highest used vitamin E dosage was more effective. Additionally, a significant correlation was observed between the aortic injury degree and tissue MDA, TNF-α, IL-6, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels (p=0.001). Vitamin E effectively protects against aortopathy induced by toxic doses of MSG in rats and inhibits oxidative stress and inflammation.


RESUMEN: Se reporta una asociación entre ciertos aditivos alimentarios y enfermedades crónicas. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar si la administración de dosis tóxicas del aditivo alimentario glutamato monosódico (MSG) en ratas puede inducir aortopatía en asociación con el estrés oxidativo y la regulación positiva de los biomarcadores inflamatorios y si el efecto de una sobredosis de MSG se puede inhibir con vitamina E. Se administró MSG diariamente durante 7 días una dosis de (4 g/kg; por vía oral) que excede el consumo diario humano promedio, en 1000x a las ratas del grupo modelo. Mientras que las ratas tratadas con vitamina E se dividieron en dos grupos y se administraron dosis diarias de MSG más 100 mg/kg de vitamina E o MSG más 300 mg/kg de vitamina E. Todas las ratas fueron sacrificadas en el octavo día. Usando exámenes de microscopía óptica y electrónica, se observó una lesión aórtica profunda en el grupo modelo demostrada por una capa endotelial dañada, células musculares lisas degeneradas (SMC) con vacuolas y núcleos condensados, citoplasma vacuolado, membrana plasmática rota, lámina elástica interna interrumpida, cromatina agrupada y filamentos de actina y miosina dañados. La vitamina E protegió significativamente el tejido y las células de la aorta, además de inhibir el malondialdehído tisular (MDA) inducido por MSG, la interleucina-6 (IL-6) y el factor de necrosis tumoral alfa (TNF-α). La dosis más alta de vitamina E utilizada fue más efectiva. Además, se observó una correlación significativa entre el grado de lesión aórtica y los niveles tisulares de MDA, TNF-α, IL-6 y superóxido dismutasa (SOD) (p=0,001). La vitamina E efectivamente protege contra la aortopatía inducida por dosis tóxicas de MSG en ratas e inhibe el estrés oxidativo y la inflamación.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Aorta/drug effects , Aortic Diseases/chemically induced , Sodium Glutamate/toxicity , Vitamin E/pharmacology , Aorta/pathology , Sodium Glutamate/administration & dosage , Vitamin E/administration & dosage , Microscopy, Electron , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Malondialdehyde/antagonists & inhibitors
7.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(2): 161-171, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364975

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: There are divergences in the literature regarding the experimental model (Wistar-WIS or Wistar Kyoto-WKY) to be used as a Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR) control. The characterization of these models in terms of cardiovascular parameters provides researchers with important tools at the time of selection and application in scientific research. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of WIS and WKY as a Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR) control by assessing the long-term behavior of blood pressure and cardiac structure and function in these strains. Methods: To this end, WIS, WKY, and SHR underwent longitudinal experiments. Blood pressure and body mass were measured every two weeks from the 8th to the 72nd. Echocardiographic analysis was performed in all groups with 16, 48, and 72 weeks of life. After having applied the normality test, the Two-Way ANOVA of repeated measures followed by the Tukey post hoc test was used. A significance level of 5% was established. Results: The WIS group showed higher body mass (p<0.05), while the WKY and SHR presented higher body mass variation over time (p<0.05). SHR exhibited increased values of systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure when compared to WKY and WIS, whereas the WKY generally showed higher values than WIS (p<0.05). Regarding the cardiac function, SHR showed reduced values, while the WKY presented an early decrease when compared to WIS with aging (p<0.05). Conclusion: WIS is a more suitable normotensive control for SHR than WKY in experiments to test blood pressure and cardiac structure and function.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Arterial Pressure/physiology , Heart/anatomy & histology , Heart/physiology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Rats, Inbred SHR , Rats, Inbred WKY , Body Weight , Echocardiography , Longitudinal Studies , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal
8.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(5): 1294-1299, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405302

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) of the small intestine causes serious abdominal pathologies including tissue dysfunction and organ failure. L-carnitine (L-C), a powerful antioxidant, may help lessen the severity of these pathological effects since it plays a key role in energy metabolism. In this work we aimed to study the effects of L-C on the isolated ileal and duodenal contractility and histological changes in intestinal ischemia and reperfusion injury. Twenty eight Wistar rats were divided into four groups. The first group is the control group. Second group, I/R group, had rats submitted to 45-minutes of intestinal ischemia and to 45-minutes reperfusion. The third group, I/R+ L-C group, rats were treated with L-C 5 minutes before reperfusion and than submitted to ischemia. The fourth group, included rats that were treated with L-C without ischemia or reperfusion. Intestinal ischemia was conducted by obstructing superior mesentery arteries by silk loop. The ileal and duodenal segments were isolated and suspended in tissue bath. Contractile responses were induced by acetylcholine (Ach) and relaxation was achieved with phenylephrine. At the same time the terminal ileal and duodenal segments were examined for histological changes. Ach-induced contraction responses were higher in the I/R+L-C group, the L-C group, and the control group compared to the I/R group, in both ileal and duodenal segments. On the other hand, the phenylephrine-induced relaxations were higher in the I/R+L-C and L-C groups, especially in duodenal segments. In I/R group intestinal morphology was observed to be severely damaged whereas in I/R+L-C group the damage was noticeably lower possibly due to protective properties of L-C. I/R injury caused severe cellular damage response within the muscularis resulting in decreased gastrointestinal motility. Treatment with the L-C has significantly affected the gastrointestinal contractility. Also L-C treatment reduced the damage in intestinal morphology that occurs after IR injury.


RESUMEN: La isquemia-reperfusión (I/R) del intestino delgado provoca graves patologías abdominales que incluyen disfunción tisular y falla orgánica. La L-carnitina (L-C), un poderoso antioxidante, puede ayudar a disminuir la gravedad de estos efectos patológicos, ya que desempeña un papel clave en el metabolismo energético. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar los efectos de L-C sobre la contractilidad ileal y duodenal aislada y los cambios histológicos en la lesión por isquemia y reperfusión intestinal. Se dividieron 28 ratas Wistar en cuatro grupos. El primer grupo fue el control. El segundo grupo, grupo I/R, de ratas sometidas durante 45 minutos de isquemia intestinal y a 45 minutos de reperfusión. El tercer grupo, grupo I/R+ L-C, las ratas se trataron con L-C, 5 minutos antes de la reperfusión y luego se sometieron a isquemia. El cuarto grupo, las ratas fueron tratadas con L-C sin isquemia ni reperfusión. La isquemia intestinal se realizó obstruyendo la arteria mesentérica superior con un asa de seda. Los segmentos ileal y duodenal se aislaron y suspendieron en un baño de tejido. Las respuestas contráctiles fueron inducidas por acetilcolina (Ach) y la relajación se logró con fenilefrina. Al mismo tiempo, se examinaron cambios histológicos de los segmentos del íleon terminal y del duodeno. Las respuestas de contracción inducidas por Ach fueron mayores en el grupo I/R+L-C, el grupo L-C y el grupo control en comparación con el grupo I/R, tanto en el segmento ileal como en el duodenal. Por otra parte, las relajaciones inducidas por fenilefrina fueron mayores en los grupos I/R+L-C y L-C, especialmente en los segmentos duodenales. En el grupo I/R se observó que la morfología intestinal estaba dañada significativamente, mientras que en el grupo I/R+L-C el daño fue notablemente menor, posiblemente debido a las propiedades protectoras de L-C. La lesión por I/R causó una respuesta de daño celular severo dentro de la capa muscular que resultó en una disminución de la motilidad gastrointestinal. El tratamiento con L-C afectó significativamente la contractilidad gastrointestinal. Por otra parte, el tratamiento L-C redujo el daño en la morfología intestinal que ocurre después de la lesión por IR.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Carnitine/administration & dosage , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Gastrointestinal Motility/drug effects , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Carnitine/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Intestines/pathology , Antioxidants/pharmacology
9.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e190511, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394058

ABSTRACT

Abstract Exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by Klebsiella oxytoca are of environmental, pharmaceutical, and medicinal interest. However, studies about the anti-inflammatory activity of EPS produced by this microorganism still remain limited. The aim of this study was to produce, characterize, and evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of EPS from K. oxytoca in a pleurisy model. Colorimetric analysis revealed that precipitated crude exopolysaccharides (KEPSC) and deproteinated exopolysaccharides (KEPS) present high levels of total carbohydrates (65.57% and 62.82%, respectively). Analyses of uronic acid (7.90% in KEPSC and 6.21% in KEPS) and pyruvic acid (3.01% in KEPSC and 1.68% in KEPS) confirm that the EPS are acidic. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses demonstrated that the EPS consisted of rhamnose (29.83%), glucose (11.21%), galactose (52.45%), and mannose (6.50%). The treatment of an experimental pleurisy model in rats through subcutaneous administration of 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of KEPS decreased both the volume of inflammatory exudate and the number of leukocytes recruited to the pleural cavity. The present data showed that EPS production by K. oxytoca using the method described is easy to perform and results in a good yield. In addition, we show that KEPS exhibit anti-inflammatory activity when administered subcutaneously in rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Pleurisy/drug therapy , Polysaccharides, Bacterial/therapeutic use , Klebsiella oxytoca/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Polysaccharides, Bacterial/isolation & purification , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/isolation & purification
10.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e191142, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394056

ABSTRACT

A series of N-(benzoylphenyl)-carboxamide derivatives (2a, 2b, 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a and 6b) was prepared with good yields by reacting the corresponding carbonyl chlorides with aminobenzophenones at room temperature. This was followed by evaluating the hypotriglyceridemic and hypocholesterolemic effects of 3b, 5a and 5b. Triton WR-1339 (300 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally administered to overnight-fasted rats to induce hyperlipidemia. Rats were divided into six groups: control, hyperlipidemic, hyperlipidemic plus compounds 3b, 5a and 5b and hyperlipidemic plus bezafibrate. Results showed that after 18 h of treatment at a dose of 15 mg/kg body weight of each of the test compounds, the elevated plasma levels of triglycerides (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) were significantly lowered by compounds 5b and 3b (p < 0.001) and by 5a (p < 0.0001), compared to the hyperlipidemic control group. Compounds 3b and 5a significantly increased levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) by 58 and 71%, respectively. In addition, compounds 3b and 5a caused significant reduction (p < 0.0001) of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels compared to the control group. These results suggest a promising potential for compounds 3b, 5a and 5b as lipid-lowering agents, which may contribute to reducing the risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Pyridines/pharmacology , Hyperlipidemias/chemically induced , Lipids/blood , Hypolipidemic Agents/pharmacology , Polyethylene Glycols , Pyridines/chemical synthesis , Triglycerides/blood , Cholesterol/blood , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Lipoproteins, HDL/drug effects , Lipoproteins, LDL/drug effects , Hypolipidemic Agents/chemical synthesis
11.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(4): 874-879, 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405255

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Diabetes and hypertension account for the majority of chronic kidney injury cases that can lead to renal failure. The link between the leukocytes common antigen (CD45) and diabetic kidney disease (DKD) with and without metformin incorporation in an animal model has not been investigated before. Therefore, we sought to assess the extent of leukocytes infiltration into kidney tissues 10 weeks following the induction of diabetes in rats treated with metformin. In addition, we monitored blood and urine parameters associated with diabetes. The model group of rats received streptozotocin (STZ; 50 mg/kg) injection after being fed for 14 days on a high-fat diet (HFD) and continuously fed a HFD until they were culled, at week 12. The protective group was treated in the same way except that these animals were put from day 1 on metformin (200 mg/kg) until being culled, on week 12. Kidneys were immunostained with CD45 as a marker of leukocytes infiltration and examined by light microscopy. Urine samples were tested for urine albumin and collected blood was analyzed for sugar, urea, creatinine, and oxidative stress and antioxidants biomarkers. Kidney injury secondary to diabetes was developed as demonstrated by (i) increased blood glucose, urea, and malondialdehyde (MDA) as a marker of lipid peroxidation; and (ii) kidney tissue damage and marked increase in kidney tissues expressing CD45 positive cells. The above markers were inhibited (p0.0006) by metformin. Also, a significant correlation was observed between CD45 score and glycemia, urea, MDA, and the antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD). Thus, our data demonstrate an association between the infiltration of CD45+ inflammatory cells into kidney tissues and biomarkers of kidney damage in a rat model of DKD, which was effectively protected by metformin.


RESUMEN: La diabetes y la hipertensión representan la mayoría de los casos de lesión renal crónica que pueden provocar insuficiencia renal. El vínculo entre el antígeno común de los leucocitos (CD45) y la enfermedad renal diabética (DKD) con y sin incorporación de metformina en un modelo animal no se había anteriormente investigado. El objetivo fue evaluar el grado de infiltración de leucocitos en los tejidos renales 10 semanas después de la inducción de diabetes en ratas tratadas con metformina. Además, monitoreamos los parámetros de sangre y orina asociados con la diabetes. El grupo modelo de ratas recibió una inyección de estreptozotocina (STZ; 50 mg/kg) después de ser alimentadas durante 14 días con una dieta alta en grasas (HFD) y continuamente alimentadas con un HFD hasta que fueron sacrificadas, en la semana 12. El grupo protector fue tratado de la misma manera excepto que estos animales fueron recibieron desde el día 1 metformina (200 mg/kg) hasta ser sacrificados, en la semana 12. Los riñones fueron inmunoteñidos con CD45 como marcador de infiltración de leucocitos y examinados por microscopía óptica. Las muestras de orina se analizaron en busca de albúmina y la sangre recolectada se analizó en busca de glucosa, urea, creatinina y biomarcadores de estrés oxidativo y antioxidantes. La lesión renal secundaria a la diabetes se desarrolló como lo demuestra (i) el aumento de la glucosa en sangre, la urea y el malondialdehído (MDA) como marcador de la peroxidación lipídica; y (ii) daño del tejido renal y marcado aumento en los tejidos renales que expresan células positivas para CD45. Los marcadores anteriores fueron inhibidos (p≤0.0006) por metformina. Además, se observó una correlación significativa entre la puntuación de CD45 y la glucemia, la urea, la MDA y la superóxido dismutasa antioxidante (SOD). Por lo tanto, nuestros datos demuestran una asociación entre la infiltración de células inflamatorias CD45+ en los tejidos renales y biomarcadores de daño renal en un modelo de rata con DKD, que fue protegido de manera efectiva por metformina.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Diabetes Mellitus , Acute Kidney Injury/prevention & control , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Metformin/administration & dosage , Biomarkers , Leukocyte Common Antigens , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Inflammation , Kidney/drug effects , Metformin/therapeutic use
12.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(4): 1035-1042, 2022. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405240

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Peripheral nerve damage (PNI) can cause demyelination, axonal degeneration and loss of motor and sensory function. Melatonin with its antioxidative effect, has been reported to reduce scar formation in nerve injury, take a role in repair process by suppressing fibroblast proliferation in the damaged area. It was aimed to investigate the effect of melatonin in the repair of peripheral nerve damage and the relationship between S100 proteins and angiogenic regulation. Wistar albino rats were divided into 3 groups. In the Defect group, 6 mm tibial bone defect using a motorized drill was created and kept immobile for 28 days. In Defect + graft group, tibial bone defect with allograft treatment was applied and kept immobile for 28 days. In Defect + graft + Melatonin group, melatonin was administered to defect + allograft group. All rats were sacrified by decapitation, skin and tibia bone were removed then fixed with 10 % neutral buffered formalin and embedded in paraffin, sections were examined under light microscopy. In the Defect+Graft group, enlargement and occlusion of the vessels with degeneration of the epineural sheath, thickening of the endoneural sheath and mild hyperplasia of schwannocytus (Schwann cells) were remarkable. In the Defect+Graft+Melatonin group, the epineural sheath was tight and regular, the axonal structures were prominent in the endoneural area. Mild S100 expression was observed in Defect+Graft group in fibers of the endoneural region with a prominent expression in schwannocytus. In Defect+Graft+Melatonin group (10mg/kg), S100 expression was moderate in areas where schwannocytus proliferated and nerve-connective tissue sheaths were reconstructed. VEGF expression was moderate in endoneural, perineural and epineural connective tissue sheaths in the Defect+Graft+Melatonin group, with negative expression in blood vessel endothelial cells, but with a positive expression in schwannocytus. We conclude that with the application of melatonin; oxidative stress decreases, schwannocytus proliferation increases, having positive influence on nerve repair with the regulation of S100 signaling and angiogenetic structuring.


RESUMEN: El daño a los nervios periféricos puede causar desmielinización, degeneración axonal y pérdida de la función motora y sensorial. Se ha informado que la melatonina, con su efecto antioxidante, reduce la formación de cicatrices en lesiones nerviosas y desempeña un papel en el proceso de reparación al suprimir la proliferación de fibroblastos en el área dañada. El objetivo de este trabajo fue investigar el efecto de la melatonina en la reparación del daño de los nervios periféricos y la relación entre las proteínas S100 y la regulación angiogénica. Ratas albinas Wistar se dividieron en 3 grupos. En el grupo Defecto, se creó un defecto óseo tibial de 6 mm con un taladro motorizado y se mantuvo inmóvil durante 28 días. En el grupo Defecto + injerto, se aplicó tratamiento de defecto óseo tibial con aloinjerto y se mantuvo inmóvil durante 28 días. En el grupo Defecto + injerto + Melatonina, se administró melatonina al grupo defecto + aloinjerto. Todas las ratas fueron sacrificadas por decapitación, se extrajo la piel y el hueso de la tibia y luego se fijaron con formalina tamponada neutra al 10 % y se incluyeron en parafina, las secciones se examinaron bajo microscopía óptica. En el grupo Defecto+Injerto, fueron notables el agrandamiento y la oclusión de los vasos con degeneración de la vaina epineural, engrosamiento de la vaina endoneural e hiperplasia leve de los schwannocitos (neurolemnocitos). En el grupo Defecto+Injerto+Melatonina, la vaina epineural era estrecha y regular, las estructuras axonales eran prominentes en el área endoneural. Se observó expresión leve de S100 en el grupo Defecto+Injerto en fibras de la región endoneural con una expresión prominente en los schwannocitos. En el grupo Defecto+Injerto+Melatonina, la expresión de S100 fue moderada en áreas donde proliferaron los schwannocitos y se reconstruyeron las vainas de tejido conectivo nervioso. La expresión de VEGF fue moderada en vainas de tejido conectivo endoneural, perineural y epineural en el grupo Defecto+Injerto+Melatonina, con expresión negativa en células endoteliales de vasos sanguíneos, pero con expresión positiva en schwannocitos. Concluimos que con la aplicación de melatonina; disminuye el estrés oxidativo, aumenta la proliferación de schwannocitos, influyendo positivamente en la reparación nerviosa con la regulación de la señalización S100 y la estructuración angiogenética.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Tibia/pathology , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/drug therapy , Melatonin/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Peripheral Nerves/drug effects , Tibia/innervation , S100 Proteins , Rats, Wistar , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Disease Models, Animal , Fibroblasts
13.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1358110

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los ensayos de hipotermia sistémica en murinos son costosos, debido a la complejidad de los sistemas. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar si el modelo de hipotermia sistémica exógena utilizado en nuestro laboratorio para la hipotermia ocular es útil para reducir significativamente la temperatura de la médula espinal en ratas adultas. Materiales y métodos: Se utilizaron 36 ratas Sprague-Dawley albinas macho de 60 días, distribuidas en dos grupos: grupo normotermia a 24 °C (n = 18) y grupo hipotermia (n = 18) en cámara fría a 8 °C durante 180 minutos. Resultados: La temperatura rectal promedio fue de 37,71 ± 0,572 °C en el grupo normotermia y 34,03 ± 0,250 °C en el grupo hipotermia (p <0,0001). La temperatura medular promedio fue de 38,8 ± 0,468 °C en el grupo normotermia y de 36,4 ± 0,290 °C en el grupo hipotermia (p <0,0001). Conclusiones: El uso de hipotermia sistémica en ratas de laboratorio parece ser un método prometedor para evaluar los mecanismos fisiológicos y patológicos que se desencadenan en la médula espinal. La exposición al frío en cámara genera hipotermia medular significativa en ratas adultas. Los resultados sugieren que podría ser un modelo adecuado de hipotermia medular de bajo costo. Nivel de Evidencia: III


Given the complexity of hypothermal trial systems in murines, they are expensive. Our objective was to evaluate if the exogenous hypothermal model used in our laboratory for ocular hypothermia was useful for a significant reduction in medullar spine temperature in adult murines. Materials and methods: 36 60-day-old adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. They were separated into two groups: a normal temperature group at 24 °C (n=18) and a hypothermia group in a cold chamber at 8 °C for 180 minutes (n=18). Results: The mean rectal temperature was 37.71 °C ± 0.572 in the normothermia group and 34.03°C ± 0.250 in the hypothermia group (p <0.0001). The mean medullar temperature was 38.8 ± 0.468 °C in the normothermia group and 36.4 ± 0.290 °C in the hypothermia group (p <0.0001). Conclusion: Using systematic hypothermia in lab rats seems to be promising to evaluate physiologic and pathological mechanisms triggered in the medullar spine. Exposure to cold in the external chamber produces significant medullar hypothermia in adult rats. Results suggest this might be an adequate and inexpensive medullar hypothermal model. Level of Evidence: III


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Spinal Cord , Disease Models, Animal , Hypothermia
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936350

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the therapeutic effect of Epothilone D on traumatic optic neuropathy (TON) in rats.@*METHODS@#Forty-two SD rats were randomized to receive intraperitoneal injection of 1.0 mg/kg Epothilone D or DMSO (control) every 3 days until day 28, and rat models of TON were established on the second day after the first administration. On days 3, 7, and 28, examination of flash visual evoked potentials (FVEP), immunofluorescence staining and Western blotting were performed to examine the visual pathway features, number of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), GAP43 expression level in damaged axons, and changes of Tau and pTau-396/404 in the retina and optic nerve.@*RESULTS@#In Epothilone D treatment group, RGC loss rate was significantly decreased by 19.12% (P=0.032) on day 3 and by 22.67% (P=0.042) on day 28 as compared with the rats in the control group, but FVEP examination failed to show physiological improvement in the visual pathway on day 28 in terms of the relative latency of N2 wave (P=0.236) and relative amplitude attenuation of P2-N2 wave (P=0.441). The total Tau content in the retina of the treatment group was significantly increased compared with that in the control group on day 3 (P < 0.001), showing a consistent change with ptau-396/404 level. In the optic nerve axons, the total Tau level in the treatment group was significantly lower than that in the control group on day 7 (P=0.002), but the changes of the total Tau and pTau-396/404 level did not show an obvious correlation. Epothilone D induced persistent expression of GAP43 in the damaged axons, detectable even on day 28 of the experiment.@*CONCLUSION@#Epothilone D treatment can protect against TON in rats by promoting the survival of injured RGCs, enhancing Tau content in the surviving RGCs, reducing Tau accumulation in injured axons, and stimulating sustained regeneration of axons.


Subject(s)
Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Epothilones , Evoked Potentials, Visual , Nerve Regeneration/physiology , Optic Nerve Injuries/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Retinal Ganglion Cells/physiology
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936290

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the mechanism of valproic acid (VPA) -induced impairment of the dendritic spines and synapses in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) for causing core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in mice.@*METHODS@#Female C57 mice were subjected to injections of saline or VPA on gestational days 10 and 12, and the male offspring mice in the two groups were used as the normal control group and ASD model group (n=10), respectively. Another 20 male mice with fetal exposure to VPA were randomized into two groups for stereotactic injection of DMSO or Wortmannin into the PFC (n=10). Open field test, juvenile play test and 3-chamber test were used to evaluate autistic behaviors of the mice. The density of dendrite spines in the PFC was observed with Golgi staining. Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining were used to detect the expressions of p-PI3K, PI3K, p-AKT, AKT, p-mTOR, mTOR and the synaptic proteins PSD95, p-Syn, and Syn in the PFC of the mice.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the normal control mice, the mice with fetal exposure to VPA exhibited obvious autism-like behaviors with significantly decreased density of total, mushroom and stubby dendritic spines (P < 0.05) and increased filopodia dendritic spines (P < 0.05) in the PFC. The VPA-exposed mice also showed significantly increased expressions of p-PI3K/PI3K, p-AKT/AKT, and p-mTOR/mTOR (P < 0.01) and lowered expressions of PSD95 and p-Syn/Syn in the PFC (P < 0.05 or 0.001). Wortmannin injection into the PFC obviously improved the ASD-like phenotype and dendritic spine development, down-regulated PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and up-regulated the synaptic proteins in VPA-exposed mice.@*CONCLUSION@#In male mice with fetal exposure to VPA, excessive activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and decreased expressions of the synaptic proteins PSD95 and p-Syn cause dendritic spine damage and synaptic development disturbance in the PFC, which eventually leads to ASD-like phenotype.


Subject(s)
Animals , Autism Spectrum Disorder/chemically induced , Autistic Disorder/chemically induced , Dendritic Spines , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Male , Mice , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Prefrontal Cortex , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Valproic Acid/adverse effects
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936232

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effects of dopamine on olfactory function and inflammatory injury of olfactory bulb in mice with allergic rhinitis (AR). Methods: AR mouse model was established by using ovalbumin (OVA), and the mice were divided into two groups: olfactory dysfunction (OD) group and without OD group through buried food pellet test (BFPT). The OD mice were randomly divided into 2 groups, and OVA combined with dopamine (3, 6, 9 and 12 days, respectively) or OVA combined with an equal amount of PBS (the same treatment time) was administered nasally. The olfactory function of mice was evaluated by BFPT. The number of eosinophils and goblet cells in the nasal mucosa were detected by HE and PAS staining. Western blotting, immunohistochemistry or immunofluorescence were used to detect the expression of olfactory marker protein (OMP) in olfactory epithelium, the important rate-limiting enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) of dopamine, and the marker proteins glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and CD11b of glial cell in the olfactory bulb. TUNEL staining was used to detect the damage of the olfactory bulb. SPSS 26.0 software was used for statistical analysis. Results: AR mice with OD had AR pathological characteristics. Compared with AR mice without OD, the expression of OMP in olfactory epithelium of AR mice with OD was reduced (F=26.09, P<0.05), the expression of GFAP and CD11b in the olfactory bulb was increased (F value was 38.95 and 71.71, respectively, both P<0.05), and the expression of TH in the olfactory bulb was decreased (F=77.00, P<0.05). Nasal administration of dopamine could shorten the time of food globule detection in mice to a certain extent, down-regulate the expression of GFAP and CD11b in the olfactory bulb (F value was 6.55 and 46.11, respectively, both P<0.05), and reduce the number of apoptotic cells in the olfactory bulb (F=25.64, P<0.05). But dopamine had no significant effect on the number of eosinophils and goblet cells in nasal mucosa (F value was 36.26 and 19.38, respectively, both P>0.05), and had no significant effect on the expression of OMP in the olfactory epithelium (F=55.27, P>0.05). Conclusion: Dopamine can improve olfactory function in mice with AR to a certain extent, possibly because of inhibiting the activation of glial cells in olfactory bulb and reducing the apoptotic injury of olfactory bulb cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Dopamine , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Nasal Mucosa/metabolism , Olfactory Bulb/pathology , Ovalbumin , Rhinitis, Allergic/metabolism
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936231

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the relationship between NLRP3-mediated pyroptosis and olfactory dysfunction (OD) in allergic rhinitis (AR), and to evaluate the therapeutic potential of CY-09, a selective NLRP3 inhibitor for OD. Methods: An AR mouse model was established with ovalbumin, and the olfactory function of AR mice was detected by the buried food pellet test. Mice with OD were intraperitoneally injected with CY-09 or saline. The activation of microglia and astrocytes in olfactory bulb was detected by immunohistochemistry. The expression level of pyroptosis associated protein was detected by Western blot. The level of pyroptosis associated proinflammatory factor mRNA was determined by real-time PCR. SPSS 24.0 software was used for statistical analysis. Results: After the test, ovalbumin successfully established AR mice model, in which 52.5% (21/40) of them showed OD. The number of activated microglia and astroglia in olfactory bulb tissue in OD group were more than those in non-OD group (all P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the expression of NLRP3, caspase-1 and gasdermin D (GSDMD) was significantly increased in the olfactory bulb of the OD group (all P<0.05). CY-09 could significantly reduce the level of NLRP3, caspase-1, GSDMD, IL-1β and IL-18 expression, and inhibite the activation of microglia and astrocytes in the olfactory bulb tissues (all P<0.05). Conclusion: NLRP3-mediated pyroptosis is closely related to the OD associated with AR. CY-09 could improve the olfactory function in AR mice, which may be related to blocking the NLRP3-mediated pyroptosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Caspases/therapeutic use , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Inflammasomes/therapeutic use , Mice , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Ovalbumin , Pyroptosis , Rhinitis, Allergic/drug therapy , Smell
18.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 181-199, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922672

ABSTRACT

The glymphatic system plays a pivotal role in maintaining cerebral homeostasis. Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, arising from small vessel disease or carotid stenosis, results in cerebrometabolic disturbances ultimately manifesting in white matter injury and cognitive dysfunction. However, whether the glymphatic system serves as a potential therapeutic target for white matter injury and cognitive decline during hypoperfusion remains unknown. Here, we established a mouse model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion via bilateral common carotid artery stenosis. We found that the hypoperfusion model was associated with significant white matter injury and initial cognitive impairment in conjunction with impaired glymphatic system function. The glymphatic dysfunction was associated with altered cerebral perfusion and loss of aquaporin 4 polarization. Treatment of digoxin rescued changes in glymphatic transport, white matter structure, and cognitive function. Suppression of glymphatic functions by treatment with the AQP4 inhibitor TGN-020 abolished this protective effect of digoxin from hypoperfusion injury. Our research yields new insight into the relationship between hemodynamics, glymphatic transport, white matter injury, and cognitive changes after chronic cerebral hypoperfusion.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain Ischemia , Carotid Stenosis/drug therapy , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Digoxin , Disease Models, Animal , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , White Matter
19.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 203-219, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929177

ABSTRACT

Many people affected by fragile X syndrome (FXS) and autism spectrum disorders have sensory processing deficits, such as hypersensitivity to auditory, tactile, and visual stimuli. Like FXS in humans, loss of Fmr1 in rodents also cause sensory, behavioral, and cognitive deficits. However, the neural mechanisms underlying sensory impairment, especially vision impairment, remain unclear. It remains elusive whether the visual processing deficits originate from corrupted inputs, impaired perception in the primary sensory cortex, or altered integration in the higher cortex, and there is no effective treatment. In this study, we used a genetic knockout mouse model (Fmr1KO), in vivo imaging, and behavioral measurements to show that the loss of Fmr1 impaired signal processing in the primary visual cortex (V1). Specifically, Fmr1KO mice showed enhanced responses to low-intensity stimuli but normal responses to high-intensity stimuli. This abnormality was accompanied by enhancements in local network connectivity in V1 microcircuits and increased dendritic complexity of V1 neurons. These effects were ameliorated by the acute application of GABAA receptor activators, which enhanced the activity of inhibitory neurons, or by reintroducing Fmr1 gene expression in knockout V1 neurons in both juvenile and young-adult mice. Overall, V1 plays an important role in the visual abnormalities of Fmr1KO mice and it could be possible to rescue the sensory disturbances in developed FXS and autism patients.


Subject(s)
Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein/metabolism , Fragile X Syndrome/metabolism , Humans , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Neurons/metabolism
20.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 290-302, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929083

ABSTRACT

Deficits in the clearance of amyloid β protein (Aβ) by the peripheral system play a critical role in the pathogenesis of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). Impaired uptake of Aβ by dysfunctional monocytes is deemed to be one of the major mechanisms underlying deficient peripheral Aβ clearance in AD. In the current study, flow cytometry and biochemical and behavioral techniques were applied to investigate the effects of polysaccharide krestin (PSK) on AD-related pathology in vitro and in vivo. We found that PSK, widely used in therapy for various cancers, has the potential to enhance Aβ uptake and intracellular processing by human monocytes in vitro. After administration of PSK by intraperitoneal injection, APP/PS1 mice performed better in behavioral tests, along with reduced Aβ deposition, neuroinflammation, neuronal loss, and tau hyperphosphorylation. These results suggest that PSK holds promise as a preventive agent for AD by strengthening the Aβ clearance by blood monocytes and alleviating AD-like pathology.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease/pathology , Amyloid beta-Peptides/metabolism , Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor/metabolism , Animals , Cognition , Disease Models, Animal , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Monocytes/pathology , Polysaccharides/therapeutic use , Proteoglycans
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