Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 4.522
Filter
1.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 38(1): e00000521, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355974

ABSTRACT

A partir da reemergência da febre amarela em 2014/2015, o Brasil registrou nos anos sequentes sua maior epidemia de febre amarela das últimas décadas, atingindo principalmente a região sudeste. A febre amarela, doença viral hemorrágica, é causada por um flavivírus, transmitido por mosquitos silvestres (Haemagogus; Sabethes). Na ocorrência do ciclo urbano, erradicado no Brasil desde 1942, a transmissão se dá pelo Aedes aegypti. Primatas não humanos são os principais hospedeiros do vírus e constituem "sentinelas" na vigilância da febre amarela. Este artigo descreve as ações de controle e prevenção desencadeadas durante a epidemia de febre amarela no Estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil, e a implementação da vacinação por meio de um estudo ecológico com abordagem espacial. O estudo evidenciou a falha na detecção de epizootias em primatas não humanos pelos serviços de vigilância do Espírito Santo, sendo simultânea à detecção em humanos. Apresentou a evolução das ações de vacinação, com alcance de 85% de cobertura vacinal geral para o estado em seis meses, sendo heterogênea entre os municípios (de 59% a 122%). Destaca-se que 55% dos municípios com ações de imunização em tempo oportuno, considerando o intervalo adotado para este estudo, não apresentaram casos em humanos. A intensificação das ações de vigilância, interlocução entre as áreas e equipes multidisciplinares na condução da epidemia otimizou a detecção e o diagnóstico dos casos em humanos e viabilizou o controle da epidemia. Foi possível reconhecer avanços, apontar algumas medidas tardias e lacunas na vigilância que necessitam melhorias.


Following the reemergence of yellow fever in 2014/2015, Brazil recorded its largest yellow fever epidemic in recent decades, mainly affecting the country's Southeast region. Yellow fever is a hemorrhagic viral disease caused by a flavivirus transmitted by sylvatic mosquitos (Haemagogus; Sabethes). In the urban cycle, eradicated in Brazil since 1942, the virus is transmitted by Aedes aegypti. Nonhuman primates are the principal hosts of the virus and constitute "sentinels" in yellow fever surveillance. This article describes the control and prevention activities launched during the yellow fever epidemic in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil, and the implementation of vaccination, through an ecological study with a spatial approach. The study revealed the lack of detection of epizootics in nonhuman primates by surveillance services in Espírito Santo, with simultaneous detection in humans. The study presented the evolution of vaccination activities, reaching 85% overall coverage for the state in six months, varying widely, from 59% to 122%, between municipalities (counties). Importantly, 55% of the municipalities with timely immunization, considering the interval adopted for this study, did not present human cases. The intensification of surveillance activities, communication between areas, and multidisciplinary teams in managing the epidemic optimized the detection and diagnosis of human cases and allowed control of the epidemic. The study identifies progress and points to some late measures and gaps in surveillance that require improvements.


A partir del resurgimiento de la fiebre amarilla en 2014/2015, Brasil registró los años siguientes su mayor epidemia de fiebre amarilla de las últimas décadas, alcanzando principalmente la región sudeste. La fiebre amarilla, enfermedad viral hemorrágica, es causada por un flavivirus, transmitido por mosquitos silvestres (Haemagogus; Sabethes). Respecto a la ocurrencia del ciclo urbano, erradicado en Brasil desde 1942, la transmisión se produce por el Aedes aegypti. Primates no humanos son los principales huéspedes del virus, y constituyen "centinelas" en la vigilancia de la fiebre amarilla. Este artículo describe las acciones de control y prevención desencadenadas durante la epidemia de fiebre amarilla en el Estado de Espírito Santo, Brasil, y la implementación de la vacunación mediante un estudio ecológico con abordaje espacial. El estudio evidenció el fallo en la detección de epizootias en primates no humanos por los servicios de vigilancia de Espírito Santo, siendo simultánea a la detección en humanos. Presentó la evolución de las acciones de vacunación, con alcance de un 85% de cobertura en la vacunación general para el estado en seis meses, siendo heterogénea entre los municipios (de 59% a 122%). Se destaca que un 55% de los municipios con acciones de inmunización en tiempo oportuno, considerando el intervalo adoptado para este estudio, no presentaron casos humanos. La intensificación de las acciones de vigilancia, interlocución entre las áreas y equipos multidisciplinarios en la gestión de la epidemia optimizó la detección y diagnóstico de los casos humanos y viabilizó el control de la epidemia. Fue posible reconocer avances, apuntar algunas medidas tardías y lagunas en la vigilancia que necesitan mejorías.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Yellow Fever/prevention & control , Yellow Fever/veterinary , Yellow Fever/epidemiology , Aedes , Epidemics , Brazil/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922537

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Some epidemic diseases such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have caused many physical, psychological, and social challenges, despite the existence of treatment strategies. Many people are looking for complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) to prevent such diseases. The present study was performed to determine how some types of CAM were being used during the COVID-19 epidemic in Iran.@*METHODS@#The present study had a cross-sectional descriptive correlational design. All Iranian residents above 17 years old were eligible to participate in the study. A total of 782 participants completed a demographic information questionnaire, a questionnaire about their use of CAMs and a questionnaire about their satisfaction with the CAMs they used. Web-based sampling was conducted from 20 April 2020 to 20 August 2020.@*RESULTS@#Of the participants, 84% used at least one type of CAM during the COVID-19 outbreak. The most used CAMs were dietary supplements (61.3%), prayer (57.9%), and herbal medicines (48.8%). The majority of the participants (50%-66%) have used CAMs to prevent the transmission of COVID-19 or to reduce anxiety caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. CAM use was associated with sex, having children, place of residence, COVID-19 status, and source of gathering information about CAM (P < 0.05). All 32 participants who had been infected with COVID-19 used at least one type of CAM for treatment or alleviation of the disease symptoms.@*CONCLUSION@#During the COVID-19 outbreak, some types of CAM, particularly nutritional supplements, medicinal herbs, and prayer, were commonly used to prevent COVID-19 and reduce pandemic-related anxiety.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , COVID-19 , Child , Complementary Therapies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Iran , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(5): 817-836, oct. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351056

ABSTRACT

Resumen El síndrome de Guillain-Barré (SGB) es una enfermedad inmunológica del nervio periférico y las raíces nerviosas, poco frecuente, potencialmente mortal y que suele desencadenarse por infecciones. La incidencia del SGB puede aumentar durante el brote de enfermedades infecciosas, tal como se observó en las epidemias del virus Zika en la Polinesia Francesa en 2013 y en América Latina en 2015. El diagnóstico y el manejo clínico del SGB pueden ser complicados ya que su presentación y el curso de la enfermedad son heterogéneos, y actualmente no se cuenta con guías clínicas internacionales. Para respaldar a los médicos, especialmente en el contexto de un brote de una enfermedad infecciosa, hemos desarrollado una guía clínica aplicable en todo el mundo para el diagnóstico y el tratamiento del SGB. La guía se basa en literatura actualizada y el consenso de expertos, y tiene una estructura de diez pasos para facilitar su uso en la práctica clínica. Inicialmente, brindamos una introducción a los criterios de diagnóstico, variantes clínicas y diagnósticos diferenciales del SGB. Los diez pasos luego abordan el reconocimiento y el diagnóstico temprano del SGB, la admisión a la unidad de cuidados intensivos, indicación y selección de tratamiento, seguimiento y tratamiento de la progresión de la enfermedad, predicción del curso clínico, resultados y tratamiento de complicaciones y secuelas.


Abstract Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a rare, but potentially fatal, immune-mediated disease of the peripheral nerves and nerve roots that is usually triggered by infections. The incidence of GBS can therefore increase during outbreaks of infectious diseases, as was seen during the Zika virus epidemics in 2013 in French Polynesia and in 2015 in Latin America. Diagnosis and management of GBS can be complicated as its clinical presentation and disease course are heterogeneous, and no international clinical guidelines are currently available. To support clinicians, especially in the context of an outbreak, we have developed a globally applicable guideline for the diagnosis and management of GBS. The guideline is based on current literature and expert consensus, and has a ten-step structure to facilitate its use in clinical practice. We first provide an introduction to the diag nostic criteria, clinical variants and differential diagnoses of GBS. The ten steps then cover early recognition and diagnosis of GBS, admission to the intensive care unit, treatment indication and selection, monitoring and treatment of disease progression, prediction of clinical course and outcome, and management of complications and sequelae.


Subject(s)
Humans , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/therapy , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis , Zika Virus Infection/therapy , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Incidence , Disease Outbreaks , Zika Virus
4.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(supl.1): 100-112, mayo 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285452

ABSTRACT

Abstract | Introduction: Malaria is a vector-borne disease widely distributed in the Amazon region and the coastal area of northern Ecuador. Its epidemiology involves related factors such as human settlements, vector reproduction sites, mobility, productive activity, and the response capacity of health systems, among others. Objective: To describe malaria transmission by Plasmodium vivax in a non-endemic area of Ecuador by analyzing the epidemiological and entomological factors involved. Materials and methods: We conducted the epidemiological study of the cases reported in the Salinas canton and the characterization of vector breeding sites through captures of larvae and adult mosquitoes by human capture of resting mosquitoes. Results: We detected 21 cases of malaria with local transmission related to the presence of initial cases in Venezuelan migrant patients and identified Anopheles albimanus as the predominant vector in natural breeding sites such as estuaries, wells, and water channels. Conclusions: We detected an outbreak of malaria triggered by imported cases from Venezuela. Climatic, social, environmental, and ecological conditions have favored the development of the vector maintaining the transmission cycle. Strategies to control imported malaria should be multiple including early case detection and control of productive breeding sites to avoid local transmission.


Resumen | Introducción. La malaria o paludismo es una enfermedad transmitida por vectores, ampliamente distribuida en la región amazónica y en la zona costera del norte del Ecuador. Su epidemiología involucra factores relacionados, como asentamientos humanos, sitios de reproducción del vector, movilidad, actividad productiva y capacidad de respuesta de los sistemas de salud, entre otros.Objetivo. Describir la transmisión de malaria por Plasmodium vivax en un área no endémica de Ecuador, mediante el análisis de los factores epidemiológicos y entomológicos involucrados. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo el estudio epidemiológico de los casos reportados en el cantón de Salinas y la caracterización de criaderos del vector con capturas de larvas y adultos mediante la captura de mosquitos en reposo. Resultados. Se detectaron 21 casos de malaria con transmisión local relacionados con la presencia de casos iniciales importados de Venezuela. Se identificó Anopheles albimanuscomo el vector predominante en criaderos naturales como estuarios, pozos y canales de agua. Conclusiones. Se detectó un brote de malaria desencadenado por casos importados de Venezuela. Las condiciones climáticas, sociales, ambientales y ecológicas han favorecido el desarrollo del vector, manteniendo el ciclo de transmisión. Las estrategias para controlar la malaria importada deben ser multifacéticas, e incluir la detección temprana de casos y el control de criaderos productivos para evitar la transmisión local.


Subject(s)
Malaria/epidemiology , Plasmodium vivax , Transients and Migrants , Disease Outbreaks
5.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 20(2): e3133, mar.-abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251804

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El dengue es la enfermedad metaxénica con mayor velocidad de propagación en el mundo, siendo un problema creciente de salud pública de países de áreas tropicales. En países endémicos se evidencian bajos niveles de conocimientos de dengue; por ello en Lambayeque, región endémica con brotes importantes en los últimos años, es necesario determinar el nivel de conocimientos sobre dengue. Objetivo: Valorar el nivel de conocimientos sobre el dengue, signos de alarma y prevención en pobladores. Material y Métodos: Estudio cuantitativo, descriptivo transversal. Diseño no experimental. El estudio se realizó en 618 pobladores de un distrito de Chiclayo en 2018, seleccionados mediante muestreo probabilístico aleatorio por conglomerados multietápico. Se utilizó un instrumento que evalúa los conocimientos globales comprendidos por conocimientos generales, signos de alarma, y prevención. Se utilizó la prueba Chi-cuadrado para asociar nivel de conocimientos con características sociodemográficas. Resultados: El nivel de conocimientos sobre el dengue fue bajo en 76,2 por ciento de pobladores. El nivel de conocimientos generales, resultó nivel intermedio en 57,4 por ciento; 45 por ciento desconoce la transmisión de la enfermedad, y 34 por ciento no reconoce al agente etiológico; de las manifestaciones clínicas, la más relacionada con el dengue fue la fiebre, seguido de cefalea y dolor osteomuscular. El 74,9 por ciento presentó un nivel bajo conocimientos sobre signos de alarma. El nivel de conocimientos de prevención fue intermedio y bajo en 93 por ciento. Conclusiones: El nivel de conocimientos de dengue en pobladores de un distrito de reciente brote es bajo(AU)


Introduction: Dengue is the fastest-spreading metaxenic disease in the world and a growing public health problem in tropical countries. Low levels of knowledge of dengue are evidenced in endemic countries; for this reason, it is necessary to determine the level of knowledge in relation to this disease in Lambayeque since it is an endemic region with important outbreaks in recent years. Objective: To assess the level of knowledge of dengue, warning signs and prevention in residents of a district with a recent outbreak. Material and Methods: A quantitative, descriptive cross-sectional study with non-experimental design was carried out in 618 residents of a district of Chiclayo in 2018. The participants were selected by random probability sampling through multistage conglomerate sampling. An instrument was used to assess global knowledge understood by general knowledge, warning signs, and prevention. The Chi-square test was used to associate the level of knowledge with sociodemographic characteristics. Results: The results show that 76.2 percent of residents had a low level of knowledge of dengue and 57.4 percent of them had an intermediate level of general knowledge; also 45 percent did not know about the transmission of the disease and 34 percent did not recognize the etiologic agent. Fever was the most common clinical manifestation related to dengue, followed by headaches and musculoskeletal pain. In addition, 74.9 percent of people presented a low level of knowledge of warning signs and 93 percent had intermediate and low levels of knowledge of prevention measures. Conclusions: There is a low level of knowledge of dengue in residents of a district with evidence of a recent outbreak(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Disease Outbreaks , Musculoskeletal Pain , Headache , Peru , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dengue/epidemiology
6.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(1): 41-51, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249057

ABSTRACT

Resumen | Introducción. Salmonella entérica subsp. entérica serovar Give se encuentra en mamíferos rumiantes, cerdos, aves y ambientes acuáticos, pero rara vez en humanos. En Colombia este serotipo ocupó el decimoprimer lugar en frecuencia en la vigilancia por laboratorio de la enfermedad diarreica aguda entre el 2000 y el 2013. Objetivo. Caracterizar el fenotipo y el genotipo de S. Give en aislamientos relacionados con un brote de enfermedad transmitida por alimentos en el departamento de Vichada en la quinta semana epidemiológica del 2015. Materiales y métodos. Se buscó Salmonella spp. en 37 muestras de materia fecal con el método de estudio del Instituto Nacional de Salud. La muestra de sardinas enlatadas fue procesada según la norma ISO6579:2002 Cor.1:2004. Se determinó el serotipo en los aislamientos confirmados mediante serología o PCR en tiempo real, y se hicieron pruebas de sensibilidad a antimicrobianos y electroforesis en gel de campo pulsado con las enzimas Xbal y BlnI. Resultados. Todos los aislamientos de origen humano (11) y el aislamiento del alimento (1), se identificaron como S. Give y este último presentó resistencia a la tetraciclina. El análisis por PFGE-XbaI agrupó bajo el patrón COIN15JEXX01.0005 diez aislamientos de origen humano y a los restantes bajo el COIN15JEXX01.0006, con un 96,3 % de similitud. Los resultados de todos los aislamientos se confirmaron con la enzima BlnI; cuatro de ellos (tres humanos y el del alimento) se agruparon bajo el patrón COIN15JEXA26.002, con un porcentaje de similitud del 95,65 %. Conclusión. El estudio confirmó que las sardinas enlatadas se relacionaron con la transmisión de S. Give en el brote, que es el tercero ocasionado por este serotipo en Colombia.


Abstract | Introduction: Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Give is found in ruminants, pigs, poultry, and aquatic environments, but rarely in humans. In Colombia, this serotype was ranked 11th. in the laboratory surveillance of acute diarrheal disease between 2000 and 2013. Objective: To characterize phenotypic and genotypic isolates of Salmonella related to an outbreak of foodborne Illness in the department Vichada in the fifth epidemiological week of 2015. Materials and methods: Following the Instituto Nacional de Salud method, we tested 37 fecal samples for Salmonella spp. while the sample of canned sardines was processed according to the ISO 6579:2002 Cor.1:2004 standard. The isolates were confirmed by serology and/or real-time PCR, antimicrobial susceptibility tests, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with the XbaI and BlnI enzymes. Results: All human isolates (11) and that from food (1) were identified as S. Give. The food isolate exhibited tetracycline resistance. PFGE analysis with XbaI grouped ten isolates from samples of human origin in pattern COIN15JEXX01.0005 and the remaining isolates in COIN15JEXX01.0006 with 96.3% similarity. All isolates were confirmed with the BlnI enzyme, and four (three human isolates and the one from food) were matched to the pattern COIN15JEXA26.002 with 95.65% similarity. Conclusion: Our study confirmed that canned sardines were related to the transmission of S. Give in the outbreak, which is the third one caused by this serotype in Colombia.


Subject(s)
Salmonella , Foodborne Diseases , Disease Outbreaks , Colombia , Epidemiological Monitoring
7.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 28(1): 255-281, mar. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154318

ABSTRACT

Resumen Las "enfermedades infecciosas emergentes y reemergentes" constituyen una creciente amenaza para la hegemonía de la biomedicina, al suscitar no pocos interrogantes sobre la idoneidad de su discurso y prácticas para afrontar el desafío global que representan. Se analiza el proceso de construcción de esta nueva categoría nosológica, y se examinan ejemplos destacados del impacto de las enfermedades (re)emergentes en la salud pública, la seguridad alimentaria y el desarrollo humano a escala global. Se refiere a prácticas irresponsables de sectores de la industria farmacéutica y agropecuaria, determinantes en su desencadenamiento y diseminación; y a algunos fallos cruciales de enfoque y manejo de los tiempos en las políticas de salud global en relación al VIH/sida con desastrosas consecuencias para el África subsahariana.


Abstract "Emerging and reemerging infectious diseases" pose a growing threat to the hegemony of biomedicine, raising questions about whether its discourse and practices can handle the global challenge they represent. The construction of this new nosological category is analyzed in this article, which examines some notable examples of the impact of (re)emerging diseases on public health, food security and human development on a global scale. It discusses irresponsible practices by sectors of the pharmaceutical and agricultural industries which led to the emergence and spread of these diseases; and points to some crucial failures of approach and time management in global health policies on HIV/AIDS, with disastrous consequences for sub-Saharan Africa.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Global Health , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/history , Public Health , Disease Outbreaks
9.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 37(supl.1): e1473, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1351992

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La idea de exclusión competitiva es indiscutible cuando se trata de animales y bacterias que intentan ocupar el mismo nicho ecológico, pero su aplicación a la coinfección viral no es tan sencilla de interpretar. La interferencia viral es un fenómeno en el que un virus suprime competitivamente la replicación de otros virus coinfectantes y es el resultado más común de las coinfecciones virales. Objetivo: Comprender mejor el comportamiento de las infecciones respiratorias concomitantes en escenarios de brotes comunitarios y de forma individual en entornos hospitalarios e individuos con comorbilidades. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda de información en las bases de datos MEDLINE / PubMed, SciELO y LILACS. También se consideraron artículos publicados en el repositorio de preimpresión medRxiv y los informes de los Centros para el Control y Prevención de enfermedades de los Estados Unidos de América. Mediante el gestor de referencias Mendeley, se eliminaron los duplicados y aquellos que no se ajustaban al objetivo del estudio, seleccionando 48 artículos para la revisión. Análisis y síntesis de la in formación: En la literatura científica se encontró evidencia que sustenta la exclusión competitiva viral entre virus relacionados que comparten células susceptibles y permisivas. Conclusión: La exclusión competitiva impide que dos virus que comparten rutas de transmisión similares y el mismo órgano diana, infecten no sólo al mismo tiempo, sino que también se propaguen con éxito. Por lo tanto, la sindemia producida por virus que comparten estas características podría ser un evento improbable(AU)


Introduction: The idea of competitive exclusion is undisputed when it comes to animals and bacteria trying to occupy the same ecological niche, but its application to viral coinfection is not so simple to interpret. Viral interference is a phenomenon in which one virus competitively suppresses the replication of other co-infecting viruses and is the most common outcome of viral co-infections. Objective: To better understand the behavior of concomitant respiratory infections in community outbreak settings and individually in hospital settings and individuals with comorbidities. Methods: A search for information was performed in the MEDLINE / PubMed, SciELO and LILACS databases. Articles published in the preprint repository medRxiv and reports from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were also considered. Using the Mendeley reference manager, duplicates and those that did not fit the study objective were eliminated, selecting 48 articles for the review. Analysis and synthesis of information: Evidence supporting viral competitive exclusion between related viruses sharing susceptible and permissive cells was found in the scientific literature. Conclusion: Competitive exclusion prevents two viruses that share similar transmission routes and the same target organ from infecting not only at the same time, but also from spreading successfully. Therefore, syndemia produced by viruses sharing these characteristics could be an unlikely event(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Viral Interference , Disease Outbreaks , Coinfection , COVID-19/virology , Respiratory Tract Infections , Concurrent Symptoms , Competitive Behavior/drug effects
10.
Rev. cienc. salud (Bogota) ; 19(Especial de pandemias): 1-18, 2021. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1367478

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la pandemia de covid-19 ha suscitado un nuevo interés en la historia de la salud. Tanto en Chile como en otras partes del mundo, la búsqueda de respuestas en torno a cómo las sociedades pasadas han enfrentado la llegada de alguna epidemia ha hecho recordar que el contagio forma parte de nuestra historia y la estrecha relación que existe entre enfermedad y Estado. Desarrollo: se estudia la dimensión pública de la salud en Santiago de Chile entre los años 1810 y 1842, indagando, principalmente, en las respuestas que el Estado y sus instituciones entregaron en materia sanitaria frente a la aparición de brotes epidémicos. Se revisan las epidemias generadas por escarlatina, viruela y erisipela, dado que fueron las enfermedades que desencadenaron una respuesta de carácter institucional. Conclusión: la aparición de dichos brotes epidémicos se tradujo en que el Estado, a través de instituciones como el Protomedicato, la Junta de Sanidad, la Junta de Beneficencia o la Junta de Vacuna, articuló una respuesta sanitaria que se centró en mejorar las condiciones de higiene de la ciudad. A su vez, dio cuenta de dimensión pública de la enfermedad y de la capacidad que el Estado tuvo de poner en marcha medidas concretas que permitieran frenar los estragos de las epidemias


Introduction: The covid-19 pandemic has generated a new interest in the history of health. In Chile and other parts of the world, search for answers regarding societies that have dealt with epidemics reminds us that contagions have been a part of our history and that there is a close relationship between disease and the State. Development: We studied the public dimension of health in Santiago de Chile between 1810 and 1842, mainly considering the responses of the State and its institutions toward epidemic out-breaks. In addition, we reviewed the scarlet fever, smallpox, and erysipelas epidemics, as these were the diseases that triggered an institutional response. Conclusion: The appearance of these epidemic out-breaks signified that the State, through institutions such as the Protomedicato, Junta de Sanidad, Junta de Beneficencia, or Junta de Vacuna, articulated a sanitary response that focused on improving the hygienic conditions of the city. At the same time, epidemic outbreaks also showed the public dimension of a dis-ease and the State's capacity to implement specific measures to cope with the ravages of epidemics


Introdução: a pandemia que vivemos de covid-19 despertou um novo interesse na história da saúde. Tanto no Chile como em outras partes do mundo, a busca por respostas sobre como as sociedades do passado enfrentaram a chegada de uma epidemia nos lembrou que o contágio faz parte da nossa história e da estreita relação que existe entre a doença e o Estado. Desenvolvimento: estuda-se a dimensão pública da saúde em Santiago do Chile entre os anos 1810 e 1842, investigando principalmente as respostas que o Estado e suas instituições deram em matéria de saúde ante o aparecimento de surtos epidêmicos. Revisamos as epidemias geradas pela escarlatina, varíola e erisipela, por serem as doenças que desen-cadearam uma resposta institucional. Conclusão: o surgimento desses surtos epidêmicos fez com que o Estado, por meio de instituições como o Protomedicato, o Conselho de Saúde, o Conselho de Caridade ou o Conselho de Vacinas, articulasse uma resposta sanitária centrada na melhoria das condições de higiene da cidade. Ao mesmo tempo, deu conta da dimensão pública da doença e da capacidade de que dispõe o Estado para implementar medidas concretas que permitiram conter a devastação das epidemias


Subject(s)
Humans , Disease Outbreaks , Unified Health System , Chile , Hygiene , Epidemics , COVID-19 , History
11.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 19: eAO5969, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286304

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To assess Google Trends accuracy for epidemiological surveillance of dengue and yellow fever, and to compare the incidence of these diseases with the popularity of its terms in the state of São Paulo. Methods Retrospective cohort. Google Trends survey results were compared to the actual incidence of diseases, obtained from Centro de Vigilância Epidemiológica "Prof. Alexandre Vranjac", in São Paulo, Brazil, in periods between 2017 and 2019. The correlation was calculated by Pearson's coefficient and cross-correlation function. The accuracy was analyzed by sensitivity and specificity values. Results There was a statistically significant correlation between the variables studied for both diseases, Pearson coefficient of 0.91 for dengue and 0.86 for yellow fever. Correlation with up to 4 weeks of anticipation for time series was identified. Sensitivity was 87% and 90%, and specificity 69% and 78% for dengue and yellow fever, respectively. Conclusion The incidence of dengue and yellow fever in the State of São Paulo showed a strong correlation with the popularity of its terms measured by Google Trends in weekly periods. Google Trends tool provided early warning, with high sensitivity, for the detection of outbreaks of these diseases.


RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar a acurácia do Google Trends para vigilância epidemiológica de dengue e febre amarela e comparar a incidência dessas doenças com a popularidade de seus termos no estado de São Paulo. Métodos Coorte retrospectiva. Os resultados da pesquisa Google Trends foram comparados com a incidência real de doenças, obtida do Centro de Vigilância Epidemiológica "Prof. Alexandre Vranjac", do estado de São Paulo, nos períodos entre 2017 e 2019. A correlação foi calculada pelo coeficiente de Pearson e pela função de correlação cruzada. A acurácia foi analisada por valores de sensibilidade e especificidade. Resultados Houve correlação estatisticamente significante entre as variáveis estudadas para ambas as doenças, com coeficiente de Pearson de 0,91 para dengue e 0,86 para febre amarela. Foi identificada correlação com até 4 semanas de antecipação para séries temporais. A sensibilidade foi de 87% e 90% e a especificidade de 69% e 78% para dengue e febre amarela, respectivamente. Conclusão A incidência de dengue e febre amarela no estado de São Paulo apresentou forte correlação com a popularidade de seus termos medidos pelo Google Trends em períodos semanais. A ferramenta Google Trends forneceu alerta precoce, com alta sensibilidade, para a detecção de surtos dessas doenças.


Subject(s)
Humans , Yellow Fever/epidemiology , Dengue/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Retrospective Studies , Search Engine
12.
Rev. argent. salud publica ; 13(Suplemento COVID-19): 1-4, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, ARGMSAL | ID: biblio-1151748

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Durante la pandemia de enfermedad por el nuevo coronavirus (COVID-19) los adultos mayores residentes en instituciones semicerradas y su personal de salud constituyen una subpoblación vulnerable con riesgo elevado de hospitalización y muerte. OBJETIVO: Describir el abordaje epidemiológico efectuado en un establecimiento de estancia prolongada para adultos mayores bajo vigilancia activa, en el aglomerado urbano Mar del Plata-Batán, en diciembre de 2020. MÉTODOS: La estrategia de abordaje combinó la indicación de aislamiento de los casos sospechosos, la realización de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa en tiempo real (RT-PCR) y la detección de anticuerpos del tipo inmunoglobulina G (IgG). RESULTADOS: Se detectaron 4 casos de infección por el nuevo coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) por RT-PCR en miembros del personal de salud; solo 1 tenía antecedente de detección por RT-PCR durante el brote inicial ocurrido 95 días antes; los resultados en los residentes fueron negativos. Se encontraron 40 casos con anticuerpos de tipo IgG (63,5%); 12 de ellos (30%) no tenían antecedente de detección mediante RT-PCR en ninguno de los brotes. DISCUSIÓN: Los hallazgos indican que el hecho de haber atravesado un primer episodio de brote en el establecimiento confirió inmunidad a personas que no habían tenido manifestaciones clínicas de la enfermedad, lo cual, probablemente, contribuyó a evitar la propagación del segundo brote entre los residentes


Subject(s)
Argentina , Disease Outbreaks , Coronavirus Infections , Betacoronavirus , Health Services for the Aged
14.
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, CONASS, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1255156

ABSTRACT

The gold standard for the laboratory diagnosis of COVID-19 is the reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay, which searches for SARS­CoV-2 target genes in nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal (NP/OP) samples, and its performance depends on the quantity and quality of the RNA input. This study compared the performance and cost-effectiveness of three different kits/reagents for RNA extraction used in COVID-19 diagnosis in Sao Paulo, Brazil. A total of 300 NP/OP samples belonging to suspected cases of COVID-19 stored in a biorepository were randomly selected, and RNA was extracted using (i) automated extraction (Loccus, Extracta Kit FAST), (ii) manual extraction (BioGene Kit, Bioclin, Quibasa), and (iii) quick extraction methods (Lucigen, Quick DNA Extract Kit). Next, the samples were tested using RT-qPCR for SARS-CoV-2 with the Allplex 2019-nCoV modified assay and the Charité-Berlin protocol. All assays/kits were used according to the manufacturer's instructions. For the Allplex kit, the sensitivity in detecting SARS-CoV-2 with previously extracted RNA by different procedures was 100.0% for Loccus, 100.0% for BioGene and 91.9% for Quick. Using the Charité-Berlin protocol, the sensitivities were 81.4% for Loccus, 81.2% for BioGene and 60.7% for Quick. The least sensitive target gene and the gene most affected by RNA extraction procedures was the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene (Charité-Berlin protocol). No false-positive SARS-CoV-2 results were detected using RNA obtained from any of the different protocols. In conclusion, Loccus and BioGene RNA extractions were efficient for RT-qPCR assays, and although the BioGene procedure is less expensive, Loccus is the best choice because it allows the rapid handling of hundreds or thousands of samples, a desirable feature during pandemics. Although less sensitive, the Quick extraction is useful during outbreaks coupled with the Allplex amplification kit for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis (κ = 0.925).


Subject(s)
Disease Outbreaks , Costs and Cost Analysis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Indicators and Reagents
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922736

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the impact of middle- and long-distance running on mental health of students in a college in Guangzhou during the COVID-19 outbreak.@*METHODS@#We collected data using online questionnaires from the college students selected via snowball sampling. After exclusion of invalid questionnaires and matching the data of running exercise with physical test scores of the participants, 1022 questionnaires were deemed valid for analysis. Of the 1022 students, 869 completed at least a 60-km running distance each semester as required and 153 students did not complete the task. The mental health status of the students was evaluated using PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C), Zung Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) and Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS). The scale scores were compared between the students who completed the running task and those who did not, and the factors affecting anxiety and depression were analyzed using univariate analysis and binary logistic regression.@*RESULTS@#The students who completed the running task had significantly higher physical test scores than those who did not complete the task (@*CONCLUSION@#Regular middleand long-distance running exercise may enhance the physical health to indirectly promote the mental health of the college students during COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , COVID-19 , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922718

ABSTRACT

An epidemiological investigation was carried out on a local cluster of outbreak caused by imported cases of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in rural areas of Chengdu in December 2020, to find out the source of infection and the chain of transmission. According to


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks , Epidemics , Humans , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922395

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate vitamin D nutritional status in children after outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), as well as the effect of strict epidemic prevention and control measures for the COVID-19 epidemic on vitamin D nutritional status in children.@*METHODS@#A total of 7 460 children who underwent routine physical examinations from February to August, 2020 and had normal results were retrospectively enrolled as the observation group, and 10 102 children who underwent routine physical examinations from February to August, 2019 (no epidemic of COVID-19) and had normal results were enrolled as the control group. The serum level of 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] was compared between the two groups. The children in the observation and control groups who underwent physical examinations in March and April were selected as the epidemic prevention subgroup (@*RESULTS@#The observation group had a lower serum level of 25(OH)D than the control group in March and April (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Strict prevention and control measures for the COVID-19 epidemic may lead to a significant reduction in vitamin D level in children, especially school-aged and adolescent children. It is recommended to timely monitor vitamin D level in children, take vitamin D supplements, and increase the time of outdoor sunshine as far as possible under the premise of adherence to epidemic prevention regulations.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Nutritional Status , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology
19.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2799-2809, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921220

ABSTRACT

In the past 37 years, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) has undergone various major transmission routes in China, with the world most complex co-circulating HIV-1 subtypes, even the prevalence is still low. In response to the first epidemic outbreak of HIV in injecting drug users and the second one by illegal commercial blood collection, China issued the Anti-Drug Law and launched the Blood Donation Act and nationwide nucleic acid testing, which has avoided 98,232 to 211,200 estimated infections and almost ended the blood product-related infection. China has been providing free antiretroviral therapy (ART) since 2003, which covered >80% of the identified patients and achieved a viral suppression rate of 91%. To bend the curve of increasing the disease burden of HIV and finally end the epidemic, China should consider constraining HIV spread through sexual transmission, narrowing the gaps in identifying HIV cases, and the long-term effectiveness and safety of ART in the future.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Prevalence
20.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 237-240, 2021. tab
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153345

ABSTRACT

Dengue is a viral disease which is serious health concern from last few decades and the infection transmitted through mosquito bite into human. This study was conducted to carry out prevalence of dengue fever in District Swabi. A total of 196 blood sample were collected from patients with age ranges (0-80 years) having dengue fever on the basis of physical symptoms from Bacha Khan Medical Complex Swabi during August to October 2017. Serological test were performed for detection of IgM, IgG and NS1 (Non structural protein antigen of virus) against dengue. Out of total 196 confirmed dengue cases the most prone gender was male 123(62%) while 73(38%) were female. Among the age groups; 21-30 years group 62 (31.6%) was found the most predominated age group. The higly affected areas in district Swabi were Topi (40.8%) followed by Main Swabi (27%), Maneri (8.2%), Marghuz (6%), Shawa Ada (5.1%), Shah Mansoor (5.1%), Gohati (4.1%), and Chota Lahore (3.6%). Therefore, the health department should take actions by educating the public about basic cleanliness of the environment. The community should be encouraged to participate in the control of such vector based diseases/infections.


A dengue é uma doença viral que é um sério problema de saúde das últimas décadas e a infecção transmitida através da picada de mosquito em humanos. Este estudo foi realizado para realizar a prevalência da dengue no distrito de Swabi. Foram coletadas 196 amostras de sangue de pacientes com faixa etária (0 a 80 anos) com dengue com base nos sintomas físicos do Complexo Médico Bacha Khan de Swabi, no período de agosto a outubro de 2017. Foram realizados testes sorológicos para detecção de IgM, IgG e NS1 (antígeno proteico não estrutural do vírus) contra a dengue. Do total de 196 casos confirmados de dengue, o sexo mais propenso foi o masculino 123 (62%), enquanto 73 (38%) eram do sexo feminino. Entre as faixas etárias; A faixa etária de 21 a 30 anos 62 (31,6%) foi a faixa etária mais predominante. As áreas altamente afetadas no distrito de Swabi foram Topi (40,8%), seguidas por Main Swabi (27%), Maneri (8,2%), Marghuz (6%), Shawa Ada (5,1%), Shah Mansoor (5,1%), Gohati (4,1%) e Chota Lahore (3,6%). Portanto, o departamento de saúde deve tomar ações educando o público sobre a limpeza básica do meio ambiente. A comunidade deve ser incentivada a participar do controle de tais doenças / infecções baseadas em vetores.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Dengue/epidemiology , Dengue Virus , Pakistan/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Studies , Disease Outbreaks
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL