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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927322


In China, the incidence rate of Hepatitis A has decreased from 56/100 000 in 1991 to 1.05/100 000 in 2020. The number of Hepatitis A outbreaks in China has decreased significantly, however, it has also happened in the last 5 years, and the risk still remains. In order to strengthen the technical guidance for the investigation and control of Hepatitis A outbreak, the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC) organized experts in related fields to compile this guideline. The main contents included outbreak definition, outbreak detecting and reporting, outbreak investigation and response, making conclusion and communication. This guideline is intended for use by staff at public health administrative departments, medical and health institutions, centers for disease control and prevention, health supervision agencies at different levels, and other relevant institutions, units and individuals. China CDC will update this guideline periodically based on the progress in this field and feedbacks during the implementation of this guideline.

China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Hepatitis A/epidemiology , Humans , Public Health , United States
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 38(1): e00000521, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355974


A partir da reemergência da febre amarela em 2014/2015, o Brasil registrou nos anos sequentes sua maior epidemia de febre amarela das últimas décadas, atingindo principalmente a região sudeste. A febre amarela, doença viral hemorrágica, é causada por um flavivírus, transmitido por mosquitos silvestres (Haemagogus; Sabethes). Na ocorrência do ciclo urbano, erradicado no Brasil desde 1942, a transmissão se dá pelo Aedes aegypti. Primatas não humanos são os principais hospedeiros do vírus e constituem "sentinelas" na vigilância da febre amarela. Este artigo descreve as ações de controle e prevenção desencadeadas durante a epidemia de febre amarela no Estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil, e a implementação da vacinação por meio de um estudo ecológico com abordagem espacial. O estudo evidenciou a falha na detecção de epizootias em primatas não humanos pelos serviços de vigilância do Espírito Santo, sendo simultânea à detecção em humanos. Apresentou a evolução das ações de vacinação, com alcance de 85% de cobertura vacinal geral para o estado em seis meses, sendo heterogênea entre os municípios (de 59% a 122%). Destaca-se que 55% dos municípios com ações de imunização em tempo oportuno, considerando o intervalo adotado para este estudo, não apresentaram casos em humanos. A intensificação das ações de vigilância, interlocução entre as áreas e equipes multidisciplinares na condução da epidemia otimizou a detecção e o diagnóstico dos casos em humanos e viabilizou o controle da epidemia. Foi possível reconhecer avanços, apontar algumas medidas tardias e lacunas na vigilância que necessitam melhorias.

Following the reemergence of yellow fever in 2014/2015, Brazil recorded its largest yellow fever epidemic in recent decades, mainly affecting the country's Southeast region. Yellow fever is a hemorrhagic viral disease caused by a flavivirus transmitted by sylvatic mosquitos (Haemagogus; Sabethes). In the urban cycle, eradicated in Brazil since 1942, the virus is transmitted by Aedes aegypti. Nonhuman primates are the principal hosts of the virus and constitute "sentinels" in yellow fever surveillance. This article describes the control and prevention activities launched during the yellow fever epidemic in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil, and the implementation of vaccination, through an ecological study with a spatial approach. The study revealed the lack of detection of epizootics in nonhuman primates by surveillance services in Espírito Santo, with simultaneous detection in humans. The study presented the evolution of vaccination activities, reaching 85% overall coverage for the state in six months, varying widely, from 59% to 122%, between municipalities (counties). Importantly, 55% of the municipalities with timely immunization, considering the interval adopted for this study, did not present human cases. The intensification of surveillance activities, communication between areas, and multidisciplinary teams in managing the epidemic optimized the detection and diagnosis of human cases and allowed control of the epidemic. The study identifies progress and points to some late measures and gaps in surveillance that require improvements.

A partir del resurgimiento de la fiebre amarilla en 2014/2015, Brasil registró los años siguientes su mayor epidemia de fiebre amarilla de las últimas décadas, alcanzando principalmente la región sudeste. La fiebre amarilla, enfermedad viral hemorrágica, es causada por un flavivirus, transmitido por mosquitos silvestres (Haemagogus; Sabethes). Respecto a la ocurrencia del ciclo urbano, erradicado en Brasil desde 1942, la transmisión se produce por el Aedes aegypti. Primates no humanos son los principales huéspedes del virus, y constituyen "centinelas" en la vigilancia de la fiebre amarilla. Este artículo describe las acciones de control y prevención desencadenadas durante la epidemia de fiebre amarilla en el Estado de Espírito Santo, Brasil, y la implementación de la vacunación mediante un estudio ecológico con abordaje espacial. El estudio evidenció el fallo en la detección de epizootias en primates no humanos por los servicios de vigilancia de Espírito Santo, siendo simultánea a la detección en humanos. Presentó la evolución de las acciones de vacunación, con alcance de un 85% de cobertura en la vacunación general para el estado en seis meses, siendo heterogénea entre los municipios (de 59% a 122%). Se destaca que un 55% de los municipios con acciones de inmunización en tiempo oportuno, considerando el intervalo adoptado para este estudio, no presentaron casos humanos. La intensificación de las acciones de vigilancia, interlocución entre las áreas y equipos multidisciplinarios en la gestión de la epidemia optimizó la detección y diagnóstico de los casos humanos y viabilizó el control de la epidemia. Fue posible reconocer avances, apuntar algunas medidas tardías y lagunas en la vigilancia que necesitan mejorías.

Humans , Animals , Yellow Fever/prevention & control , Yellow Fever/veterinary , Yellow Fever/epidemiology , Aedes , Epidemics , Brazil/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887544


INTRODUCTION@#The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the world for more than a year, with multiple waves of infections resulting in morbidity, mortality and disruption to the economy and society. Response measures employed to control it have generally been effective but are unlikely to be sustainable over the long term.@*METHODS@#We examined the evidence for a vaccine-driven COVID-19 exit strategy including academic papers, governmental reports and epidemiological data, and discuss the shift from the current pandemic footing to an endemic approach similar to influenza and other respiratory infectious diseases.@*RESULTS@#A desired endemic state is characterised by a baseline prevalence of infections with a generally mild disease profile that can be sustainably managed by the healthcare system, together with the resumption of near normalcy in human activities. Such an endemic state is attainable for COVID-19 given the promising data around vaccine efficacy, although uncertainty remains around vaccine immunity escape in emergent variants of concern. Maintenance of non-pharmaceutical interventions remains crucial until high vaccination coverage is attained to avoid runaway outbreaks. It may also be worthwhile to de-escalate measures in phases, before standing down most measures for an endemic state. If a variant that substantially evades immunity emerges, it will need to be managed akin to a new disease threat, with pandemic preparedness and response plans.@*CONCLUSION@#An endemic state for COVID-19, characterised by sustainable disease control measures, is likely attainable through vaccination.

COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
Brasília; Brasil. Ministério da Saúde; 2021.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1373489


Este Manual é um instrumento que subsidia o treinamento em vigilância epidemiológica das doenças de transmissão hídrica e alimentar (VE-DTHA), direcionado para profissionais de saúde que atuam na investigação de surtos ou de casos de doenças de notificação compulsória relacionadas à transmissão hídrica e alimentar.

Humans , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Waterborne Diseases/epidemiology , Public Health Surveillance/methods , Foodborne Diseases/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Waterborne Diseases/prevention & control , Foodborne Diseases/prevention & control
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 39(4): e844, oct.-dic. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156458


En la esclerosis múltiple se pierde la tolerancia inmunológica a las vainas de mielina. Los virus pueden intervenir en su etiopatogenia. La actual pandemia de COVID-19 puede incrementar los casos y exacerbar los brotes de esclerosis múltiple(AU)

Multiple sclerosis causes the loss of immune tolerance to myelin sheaths. Viruses may be involved in its pathogenesis. The current COVID-19 pandemic may increase the number of cases and exacerbate the outbreaks of this disease(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Multiple Sclerosis/etiology , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control
Rev. cuba. inform. méd ; 12(2): e384, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1144458


En Epidemiología, han jugado un importante papel los Modelos Poblacionales que dividen a la población de estudio en subpoblaciones según los atributos que las distinguen, lo que permite representar la dinámica de contagio social de una determinada enfermedad, especialmente en momentos de brote epidémico. En el presente trabajo se explica cómo se representa la transmisión de enfermedades a través de modelos matemáticos definidos por ecuaciones diferenciales. En esta propuesta se formula un modelo matemático definido por ecuaciones diferenciales para representar la transmisión del SarsCov2 distinguiendo entre las poblaciones de infectados sintomáticos y asintomáticos de la CoVid19, con funciones que simulan las acciones gubernamentales e individuales ante la percepción de riesgo. También se presenta un análisis de los resultados obtenidos en Cuba(AU)

In Epidemiology, Population Models have played an important role, dividing the study population into subpopulations according to the attributes that distinguish them, allowing the dynamics of social contagion of a given disease to be represented, especially at times of epidemic outbreak. This work explains how the transmission of diseases is represented through mathematical models defined by differential equations. In this proposal, a mathematical model defined by differential equations is formulated to represent the transmission of SarsCov2, distinguishing between symptomatic and asymptomatic infected populations of CoVid19, with functions that simulate government and individual actions in the face of risk perception. An analysis of the results obtained in Cuba is also presented(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Risk Factors , Models, Statistical , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cuba
Rev. cuba. salud pública ; 46(3): e2549, jul.-set. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1144546


Hemos leído con sumo interés el trabajo de Peláez y Más1 publicado recientemente en su revista. A raíz de los datos expuestos en su contenido, quisiéramos, primeramente, puntualizar la importancia de tener en cuenta el marco legal de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), como lo es el Reglamento Sanitario Internacional (RSI).2 El RSI es un instrumento jurídico internacional de carácter vinculante para 194 países, entre ellos todos los Estados Miembros de la OMS. Tiene el objetivo de ayudar a la comunidad a prevenir y afrontar riesgos agudos de salud pública, susceptibles de atravesar fronteras y amenazar a poblaciones de todo el mundo. Actualmente el RSI vigente tiene el objetivo de ayudar...(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Epidemiological Monitoring , Communicable Diseases, Imported/diagnosis , Peru , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control
Rev. cuba. salud pública ; 46(3): e2573, jul.-set. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1144545


Con regocijo leí el artículo de los autores Otto Peláez y Pedro Más, publicado en el reciente número de la revista, titulado "Brotes, epidemias, eventos y otros términos epidemiológicos de uso cotidiano"1, que consideré muy oportuno para esclarecer conceptos y definiciones epidemiológicas en estos tiempos de pandemias y, particularmente, de la epidemia nacional de la COVID-19. Según la opinión de los propios autores, este artículo se elaboró por la necesidad especial de actualizar conceptos, relacionados con la vigilancia y el control epidemiológico, que están siendo utilizados por técnicos e instituciones oficiales y organismos internacionales de forma inexacta por su sinonimia.1) En ese sentido, lo califico como un documento básicamente didáctico, que deberá estimular algunos comentarios de los especialistas y los profesionales de las diferentes disciplinas que estudian los problemas de salud de...(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , International Health Regulations/standards , Epidemiological Monitoring
Rev. invest. clín ; 72(3): 138-143, May.-Jun. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251847


ABSTRACT Background: On January 23, 2020, China imposed a quarantine on the city of Wuhan to contain the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak. Regardless of this measure, the new infection has spread to several countries around the world. Objective: We developed a method to study the dissemination of this infection by airline routes and provide estimations of the time of arrival of the outbreak to different cities. Methods: Using the Kermack and McKendrick model complemented with diffusion on a graph composed of nodes and edges, we made an analysis of COVID-19 dispersion to other cities by air travel. Results: The estimation was accurate in that it was possible to predict in the middle of February 2020 the arrival of the first outbreak in Mexico, which eventually occurred between March 20 and 30. This estimation was robust with respect to small changes in epidemiological parameters at the other nodes. Conclusions: The estimation of the time of arrival of the outbreak from its epicenter, allows for a time period to implement and strengthen preventive measures aimed at the general population as well as to strengthen hospital infrastructure and training of human resources. In the present study, this estimation was accurate, as observed from the real data of the beginning of the outbreak in Mexico City up to April 6, 2020.

Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pandemics/prevention & control , Air Travel , Betacoronavirus , Travel-Related Illness , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Time Factors , China/epidemiology , Urban Health , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Geography, Medical , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Mexico/epidemiology , Models, Theoretical
J. bras. nefrol ; 42(2): 182-190, Apr.-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134820


ABSTRACT Introduction: Chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients are considered to be at high risk for infection. Here, we describe the clinical outcomes of chronic HD patients with influenza A (H1N1) infection and the strategies adopted to control an outbreak of influenza A in a dialysis unit. Methods: Among a total of 62 chronic HD patients, H1N1 infection was identified in 12 (19.4%). Of the 32 staff members, four (12.5%) were found to be infected with the H1N1 virus. Outcomes included symptoms at presentation, comorbidities, occurrence of hypoxemia, hospital admission, and clinical evaluation. Infection was confirmed by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Results: The 12 patients who had H1N1 infection did not differ significantly from the other 50 non-infected patients with respect to age, sex, dialysis vintage, dialysis modality, or proportion of comorbidities. Obesity was higher in the H1N1-infected group (41.5 vs. 4%, p<0.002). The most common symptoms were fever (92%), cough (92%), and rhinorrhea (83%). Early empirical antiviral treatment with oseltamivir was started in symptomatic patients and infection control measures, including the intensification of contact-reduction measures by the staff members, antiviral chemoprophylaxis to asymptomatic patients undergoing HD in the same shift of infected patients, and dismiss of staff members suspected of being infected, were implemented to control the spread of infection in the dialysis unit. Conclusion: The clinical course of infection with H1N1 in our patients was favorable. None of the patients developed severe disease and the strategies adopted to control the outbreak were successful.

RESUMO Introdução: Pacientes em hemodiálise (HD) crônica apresentam risco elevado para infecções. O presente estudo descreve os desfechos clínicos de pacientes em HD crônica com infecção pelo vírus influenza A (H1N1) e as estratégias adotadas para controlar um surto de influenza A numa unidade de diálise. Métodos: Doze (19,4%) de 62 pacientes em HD crônica e quatro (12,5%) de 32 funcionários desta unidade de diálise apresentaram infecção pelo vírus H1N1. Os desfechos incluíram sintomas à apresentação, comorbidades, ocorrência de hipoxemia, internação hospitalar e avaliação clínica. A presença de infecção foi confirmada por reação em cadeia da polimerase via transcriptase reversa (RT-PCR) em tempo real. Resultados: Os 12 pacientes com infecção por H1N1 não diferiram significativamente dos 50 pacientes sem infecção no tocante a idade, sexo, tempo em diálise, modalidade de diálise e percentual de comorbidades. O percentual de obesidade foi mais elevado no grupo com infecção por H1N1 (41,5% vs. 4%, p<0,002). Os sintomas mais comuns foram febre (92%), tosse (92%) e rinorreia (83%). Os pacientes foram submetidos a tratamento antiviral com oseltamivir e medidas de controle (intensificação das medidas de redução de contato pelos funcionários da clínica, quimioprofilaxia com antiviral para pacientes assintomáticos em HD na mesma sala dos pacientes com infecção e afastamento de funcionários da clínica com suspeita de infecção) para controlar a disseminação da infecção pela unidade de diálise. Conclusão: O curso clínico da infecção por H1N1 em nossos pacientes foi favorável. Nenhum evoluiu para doença grave e as estratégias adotadas foram efetivas no controle do surto.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Retrospective Studies , Renal Dialysis , Vaccination/methods , Treatment Outcome , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/virology , Oseltamivir/administration & dosage , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Rev. cuba. salud pública ; 46(2): e2358, abr.-jun. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126854


En la práctica habitual de la salud pública cubana son muchos los factores que se relacionan con el funcionamiento de la vigilancia y control de las enfermedades potencialmente epidémicas. Aunque esta práctica es parte del trabajo cotidiano de los médicos y enfermeras de la familia, no son los únicos profesionales que intervienen en ella. Es un trabajo multidisciplinario en el que participan epidemiólogos, higienistas, directivos, decisores políticos y administrativos y de manera general median todos los profesionales de la salud. Por lo que el presente artículo tiene la intención de describir algunos términos epidemiológicos de uso cotidiano en la salud pública. Esto responde a la necesidad especial de actualizar conceptos, relacionados con la vigilancia y el control epidemiológico, que están siendo utilizados por técnicos e instituciones oficiales y organismos internacionales de forma inexacta por su sinonimia(AU)

The common practice of Cuban public health includes many factors related to the operation of surveillance and control of potentially epidemic diseases. Although this practice is part of the daily work of family physicians and nurses, they are not the only professionals involved in it. This is a multidisciplinary work carried out with the involvement of epidemiologists, hygienists, managers, political and administrative decision-makers, and, in general, with the participation of all health professionals. Therefore, this article is aimed at describing some epidemiological terms of daily usage in public health. This focus responds to the special need to update concepts related to epidemiological surveillance and control, which, due to their synonymy, are being used, inaccurately, by official institutions and technical practitioners, as well as by international organizations(AU)

Communicable Disease Control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Epidemiological Monitoring
Rev. pediatr. electrón ; 17(1): 1-6, abr 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099831


La parotiditis es un infección viral producida por el virus parotídeo. Clínicamente se caracteriza por aumento de volumen de la glándula parótida generalmente bilateral. La estrategia que ha mostrado ser más eficaz para la prevención de esta infección ha sido la implementación de la vacuna tres vírica en los programas de inmunización. En países con población altamente inmunizada como Chile, se logró una importante disminución de la incidencia de esta enfermedad. Sin embargo, a pesar de la efectividad de la vacuna se siguen reportando brotes en todo el mundo, evidenciándose un cambio epidemiológico, trasladándose la edad de presentación clínica desde la niñez y adolescencia hacia los adultos jóvenes. Este aumento en el número de casos ha sido estudiado, determinando que el efecto protector inmunitario de la vacuna decaería con el transcurso del tiempo, contribuyendo a la propagación de los brotes. Con respecto a posibles estrategias para el manejo de los brotes la aplicación de una dosis adicional de la vacunas tres vírica en población expuesta sería una medida que mejoraría el control de los brotes.

Mumps is a viral infection caused by mumps virus. Clinically, it is characterized by increased parotid volume. The most effective strategy for preventing this infection, has been the implementation of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine in the national immunization program. Among countries with a highly immunized population, like Chile, there has been an important reduction in the incidence of this disease. Nevertheless, despite the effectivity of the MMR, there are reports of outbreaks worldwide, with an epidemiological change, from clinical presentation in childhood, to adolescents and adults. This outbreaks have been studied, and it has been determined that they are due to the waning of vaccine-derived immunity. Regarding strategies for the management of new outbreaks, the administration of an additional dose of MMR, would be an alternative.

Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Parotitis/epidemiology , Mumps Vaccine/therapeutic use , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Immunization Programs , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/administration & dosage , Mumps virus
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; abr. 14, 2020. 5 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1096678


Las prácticas de prevención y control de infecciones necesitan implementarse para garantizar la seguridad de los trabajadores de salud y pacientes en establecimientos de salud, es fundamental prevenir la contaminación cruzada y contener la propagación del COVID 19. • Al día de esta publicación, están recomendadas las siguientes precauciones para el cuidado del paciente con sospecha o confirmación de COVID-19‡: o Para cualquier caso sospechoso o confirmado de COVID-19: precauciones estándares + contacto + precauciones en la transmisión por gotitas o Para cualquier caso sospechoso o confirmado de COVID-19 y procedimientos generadores de aerosoles: precauciones estándares + contacto + transmisión aérea (aerosoles o núcleo de gotitas) • Los resultados de la aplicación de esta herramienta de evaluación, en conjunto con otras herramientas§, proveerán una visión general sobre el cumplimiento de las actividades de prevención y control de infecciones asociadas a la atención médica en un establecimiento de salud, sin realizar juicios sobre el riesgo individual de los pacientes, o en casos particulares. Por su naturaleza, esta herramienta es sólo un diagnóstico externo de apoyo a profesionales de PCI y gerentes para evaluar las brechas y tomar medidas correctivas.

Infection prevention and control practices need to be implemented to guarantee the safety of healthcare workers and patients in healthcare settings, it is fundamental to prevent cross contamination and containment of spread of COVID 19. As of the day of this publication, the following precautions are recommended for the care of patients with suspected or confirmed cases of COVID-19: - For any suspected or confirmed cases of COVID-19: standard + contact + droplet precautions. -For any suspected or confirmed cases of COVID-19 and Aerosol Generated Procedure: standard + contact + airborne precautions. - The results of the application of this evaluation tool, in addition to other tools, will provide an overview regarding compliance with the activities of prevention and control of infections associated with provision of care in acute healthcare services in a health setting, without making judgments about the individual risk of patients, nor on particular cases. By its nature, this tool is only an external diagnostic to support IPC professionals and managers to assess the gaps and take corrective measures. To provide a tool for assessment of infection prevention and control practices in isolation areas in acute healthcare settings in the context of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19). These recommendations are preliminary and subject to review as new evidence becomes available.

Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Emergency Medical Services/organization & administration , Pandemics/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus
CoDAS ; 32(4): e20200222, 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133508


RESUMO Objetivo descrever a evolução funcional da deglutição em pacientes com COVID-19 submetidos à intervenção fonoaudiológica na Unidade de Tratamento Intensivo (UTI). Método participaram do estudo 77 pacientes (ambos os gêneros; idade média 53.4±15.9; escore na Escala de Coma de Glasgow ≥14; e condição respiratória estável). A escala funcional utilizada para a avaliação da deglutição foi a American Speech-Language-Hearing Association National Outcome Measurement System (ASHA NOMS). Resultados os resultados indicam que houve recuperação significativa nos padrões funcionais da deglutição na comparação pré e pós-intervenção fonoaudiológica. Conclusão 83% dos pacientes necessitam de até 3 intervenções para a recuperação dos padrões seguros de deglutição.

ABSTRACT Purpose to describe de functional development of swallowing in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients with COVID-19, who were submitted to a swallowing intervention. Methods participants of the study were 77 patients (both gender, mean age 53.4±15.9; score on the Glasgow Coma Scale ≥14 and stable respiratory condition). The functional scale of swallowing used for assessment was the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association National Outcome Measurement System (ASHA NOMS). Results the results indicate that there was a significant recovery of the functional swallowing patterns when comparing the measurements pre and post swallowing intervention. Conclusion 83% of the patients needed up to 3 swallowing interventions to recover a safe swallowing pattern.

Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Deglutition/physiology , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral , United States/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Middle Aged
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1127250


ABSTRACT In February 2020, a Chinese cargo ship docked at the Port of Santos with reports of crew members with a feverish and respiratory condition. A team was gathered to verify the existence of suspected cases of COVID-19 inside the vessel and define its clearance. All 25 crew members were interviewed, and no suspected cases were found. The vessel was then cleared for port activities. The investigation resulted from the implementation of the contingency plan to face a public health emergency of international importance and several surveillance entities cooperated.

RESUMO Em fevereiro de 2020, um navio de carga vindo da China atracou no Porto de Santos com relato de tripulantes com quadro febril e respiratório. Uma equipe foi mobilizada para verificar a existência de casos suspeitos de COVID-19 dentro da embarcação e definir a liberação da embarcação no porto. Todos os 25 tripulantes foram entrevistados e não foram encontrados casos suspeitos. Então a embarcação foi liberada para atividades no porto. A investigação resultou da aplicação do plano de contingência diante de uma emergência de saúde pública de importância internacional e houve a colaboração de diversas entidades de vigilância.

Humans , Male , Adult , Young Adult , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Ships , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Brazil , China/ethnology , COVID-19 , Indonesia/ethnology , Middle Aged
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200199, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136861


Abstract INTRODUCTION: In March 2020, the rapid increase in COVID-19 cases overburdened the Italian health system, with the country becoming the pandemic's epicenter. METHODS: We present a narrative review based on manuscripts, official documents, and newspaper articles regarding COVID-19 in Italy. RESULTS: Characteristics of the epidemic, possible causes for its worsening, and the measures adopted across Italian regions are presented. CONCLUSIONS: In the early stages of an epidemic, effective decision-making is essential to contain the number of cases. Medical support for patients and social isolation measures are the most appropriate strategies currently available to reduce the spread and lethality of COVID-19.

Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Quarantine/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , Health Planning , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Italy/epidemiology
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 36(4): e00054020, 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1100943


En marzo de 2020, el virus SARS-CoV-2 procedente de China ha llegado a España y desde el 14 de marzo se ha declarado el estado de alarma en todo el Estado español, llevando al confinamiento a toda la población. La presente investigación se contextualiza en la Comunidad Autónoma Vasca (situada al norte de España). Se han analizado los niveles de estrés, ansiedad y depresión a la llegada del virus y se han estudiado los niveles de sintomatología psicológica según edad, cronicidad y confinamiento. Se ha recogido una muestra de 976 personas y la medición de las variables ansiedad, estrés y depresión se ha hecho mediante la escala DASS (Escala de Depresión, Ansiedad y Estrés). Los resultados demuestran que, aunque los niveles de sintomatología han sido bajos en general al principio de la alarma, la población más joven y con enfermedades crónicas ha referido sintomatología más alta que el resto de población. También se ha detectado un mayor nivel de sintomatología a partir del confinamiento, donde las personas tienen prohibido salir de sus casas. Se prevé que la sintomatología aumentará según vaya transcurriendo el confinamiento. Se defienden intervenciones psicológicas de prevención y tratamiento para bajar el impacto psicológico que pueda crear esta pandemia.

Em março de 2020, o vírus SARS-CoV-2, procedente da China, chegou à Espanha e desde 14 de março está declarado estado de emergência em todo o país, forçando toda a população ao confinamento. O presente estudo foi conduzido no País Basco (norte da Espanha). Foram analisados os níveis de estresse, ansiedade e depressão desde a introdução do vírus e os níveis de sintomas psicológicos segundo idade, comorbidades e confinamento. A amostra foi composta de 976 indivíduos e a medição das variáveis ansiedade, estresse e depressão foi realizada a partir do intrumento DASS (Escala de Depressão, Ansiedade e Estresse). Os resultados mostram que, ainda que os níveis de sintomas tenham sido baixos no início do confinamento, os indivíduos mais jovens e com comorbidades referiram mais sintomas que o restante da população. Também se detectou maior nível de sintomas desde o confinamento, quando a população foi proibida de sair de suas casas. Se prevê aumento dos sintomas conforme o confimaneto continuar. Intervenções psicológicas de prevenção e tratamento são necessárias para diminuir o impacto psicológico causado pela pandemia.

The SARS-CoV-2 virus reached Spain in March 2020, and a nationwide state of alert was declared on March 14th, leading to the confinement of the entire population. The current study was conducted in the Basque Autonomous Community in northern Spain. The authors analyzed stress, anxiety, and depression with the arrival of the virus and the levels of symptoms according to age, comorbidity, and confinement. Levels of anxiety, stress, and depression were measured in a sample of 976 adults, using the DASS scale (Depression Anxiety, and Stress Scale). Although levels of symptoms were generally low at the start of the alert, younger individuals with chronic diseases reported more symptoms than the rest of the population. The study also detected higher levels of symptoms after the stay-at-home order was issued. Such symptoms are predicted to increase as the confinement continues. The authors propose psychological interventions for prevention and treatment in order to mitigate the pandemic's psychological impacts.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Quarantine/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Anxiety/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Spain/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/prevention & control , Comorbidity , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Age Factors , Sex Distribution , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Age Distribution , Depression/diagnosis , Pandemics/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Middle Aged