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1.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 36(4): e00054020, 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1100943

ABSTRACT

En marzo de 2020, el virus SARS-CoV-2 procedente de China ha llegado a España y desde el 14 de marzo se ha declarado el estado de alarma en todo el Estado español, llevando al confinamiento a toda la población. La presente investigación se contextualiza en la Comunidad Autónoma Vasca (situada al norte de España). Se han analizado los niveles de estrés, ansiedad y depresión a la llegada del virus y se han estudiado los niveles de sintomatología psicológica según edad, cronicidad y confinamiento. Se ha recogido una muestra de 976 personas y la medición de las variables ansiedad, estrés y depresión se ha hecho mediante la escala DASS (Escala de Depresión, Ansiedad y Estrés). Los resultados demuestran que, aunque los niveles de sintomatología han sido bajos en general al principio de la alarma, la población más joven y con enfermedades crónicas ha referido sintomatología más alta que el resto de población. También se ha detectado un mayor nivel de sintomatología a partir del confinamiento, donde las personas tienen prohibido salir de sus casas. Se prevé que la sintomatología aumentará según vaya transcurriendo el confinamiento. Se defienden intervenciones psicológicas de prevención y tratamiento para bajar el impacto psicológico que pueda crear esta pandemia.


Em março de 2020, o vírus SARS-CoV-2, procedente da China, chegou à Espanha e desde 14 de março está declarado estado de emergência em todo o país, forçando toda a população ao confinamento. O presente estudo foi conduzido no País Basco (norte da Espanha). Foram analisados os níveis de estresse, ansiedade e depressão desde a introdução do vírus e os níveis de sintomas psicológicos segundo idade, comorbidades e confinamento. A amostra foi composta de 976 indivíduos e a medição das variáveis ansiedade, estresse e depressão foi realizada a partir do intrumento DASS (Escala de Depressão, Ansiedade e Estresse). Os resultados mostram que, ainda que os níveis de sintomas tenham sido baixos no início do confinamento, os indivíduos mais jovens e com comorbidades referiram mais sintomas que o restante da população. Também se detectou maior nível de sintomas desde o confinamento, quando a população foi proibida de sair de suas casas. Se prevê aumento dos sintomas conforme o confimaneto continuar. Intervenções psicológicas de prevenção e tratamento são necessárias para diminuir o impacto psicológico causado pela pandemia.


The SARS-CoV-2 virus reached Spain in March 2020, and a nationwide state of alert was declared on March 14th, leading to the confinement of the entire population. The current study was conducted in the Basque Autonomous Community in northern Spain. The authors analyzed stress, anxiety, and depression with the arrival of the virus and the levels of symptoms according to age, comorbidity, and confinement. Levels of anxiety, stress, and depression were measured in a sample of 976 adults, using the DASS scale (Depression Anxiety, and Stress Scale). Although levels of symptoms were generally low at the start of the alert, younger individuals with chronic diseases reported more symptoms than the rest of the population. The study also detected higher levels of symptoms after the stay-at-home order was issued. Such symptoms are predicted to increase as the confinement continues. The authors propose psychological interventions for prevention and treatment in order to mitigate the pandemic's psychological impacts.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Quarantine/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Anxiety/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Spain/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/prevention & control , Comorbidity , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Age Factors , Sex Distribution , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Age Distribution , Depression/diagnosis , Pandemics/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Middle Aged
3.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 44: e78, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1127124

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective. This review describes the geographic and temporal distribution of, detection methods for, and other epidemiological features of published leptospirosis outbreaks, with the aim of informing efforts to standardize outbreak-reporting practices. Methods. We conducted a systematic review of leptospirosis outbreaks reported in the scientific literature and ProMED during 1970-2012. Predefined criteria were used to identify and classify outbreaks and a standard form was used to extract information. Results. During 1970-2012, we identified 318 outbreaks (average: 7 outbreaks/year; range: 1-19). Most outbreaks were reported in the Latin America and the Caribbean region (36%), followed by Southern Asia (13%), and North America (11%). Most outbreaks were located in tropical and subtropical ecoregions (55%). Quality classification showed that there was clear description of laboratory-confirmed cases in 40% of outbreaks. Among those, the average outbreak size was 82 cases overall (range: 2-2 259) but reached 253 cases in tropical/subtropical ecoregions. Common risk factors included outdoor work activities (25%), exposure to floodwaters (23%), and recreational exposure to water (22%). Epidemiologic investigation was conducted in 80% of outbreaks, mainly as case interviews. Case fatality was 5% overall (range: 0%-60%). Conclusions. Outbreak reporting increased over the study period with outbreaks covering tropical and non-tropical regions. Outbreaks varied by size, setting, and risk factors; however, data reviewed often had limited information regarding diagnosis and epidemiology. Guidelines are recommended to develop standardized procedures for diagnostic and epidemiological investigations during an outbreak and for reporting.(AU)


RESUMEN Objetivo. Describir la distribución geográfica y temporal, los métodos de detección y otras características epidemiológicas de los brotes de leptospirosis publicados con el fin de fundamentar los esfuerzos tendientes a estandarizar las prácticas empleadas en la notificación de brotes. Métodos. Se llevó a cabo una revisión sistemática de los brotes de leptospirosis notificados en la bibliografía científica y en ProMED entre 1970 y 2012. Se utilizaron criterios predefinidos para identificar y clasificar los brotes y se empleó un formulario estándar para extraer la información. Resultados. Entre 1970 y 2012 se identificaron 318 brotes (promedio: 7 brotes/año; rango: 1-19), la mayoría de ellos en América Latina y el Caribe (36%), región seguida por Asia meridional (13%) y América del Norte (11%). La mayoría de los brotes se localizaron en ecorregiones tropicales y subtropicales (55%). La clasificación cualitativa reveló que en el 40% de los brotes había una clara descripción de los casos confirmados por laboratorio. Entre ellos, el tamaño promedio del brote fue de 82 casos (rango: 2-2259 casos) pero alcanzó los 253 casos en ecorregiones tropicales o subtropicales. Entre los factores de riesgo frecuentes figuraban las actividades laborales al aire libre (25%), la exposición a agua proveniente de inundaciones (23%) y la exposición a agua con fines recreativos (22%). En el 80% de los brotes se realizaron investigaciones epidemiológicas, principalmente entrevistas de casos. La mortalidad específica de los casos fue del 5% (rango: 0%-60%). Conclusiones. La notificación de brotes aumentó durante el período de estudio, y los brotes abarcaron regiones tropicales y no tropicales. Los brotes fueron diferentes en cuanto a su tamaño, el entorno y los factores de riesgo; sin embargo, los datos examinados con frecuencia incluían una información limitada respecto del diagnóstico y la epidemiología. Se recomiendan directrices para elaborar procedimientos estandarizados para las investigaciones diagnósticas y epidemiológicas durante un brote y para su notificación.(AU)


Subject(s)
Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Public Health Surveillance/methods , Leptospirosis/epidemiology , Zoonoses , Leptospira
5.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 6(2): 158-170, jul dic 2019. ^c27 cmilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095879

ABSTRACT

This study analyses time series of dengue occurrence in the southern region of Guatemala. Temporal patterns of epidemic outbreaks in the department of Escuintla were investigated using the official reports from 2001 to 2013. In order to identify underlying associations with climate behavior, the epidemiological data were compared with historical reports available for temperature, rainfall and humidity. Preliminary results reveal that waves of dengue outbreaks exhibit a periodic pattern modulated by climatic conditions. A hierarchical cluster analysis allowed to indirectly estimate the degree of association of each climatic variable with dengue occurrences, showing the dominance of rainfall in dengue outbreaks patterns in three different localities. A further prospective analysis was performed to check whether epidemic trends driven by rainfall are hold in the subsequent years. Results presented here give support to predictive models for dengue incidence driven by climate.


Este estudio analiza series de tiempo de incidencia de dengue en la región sur de Guatemala. Los patrones temporales de los brotes epidémicos observados en el departamento de Escuintla se investigaron utilizando los informes oficiales de 2001 a 2013. Con el fin de identificar posibles asociaciones subyacentes con el comportamiento climático, los datos epidemiológicos se compararon con los informes históricos disponibles para temperatura, lluvia y humedad. Los resultados preliminares revelan que las olas de brotes de dengue exhiben un patrón periódico modulado por las condiciones climáticas. Un análisis de conglomerados jerárquicos permitió estimar indirectamente el grado de asociación de cada variable climática con las incidencias del dengue, mostrando el papel dominante de la lluvia en los patrones de brotes de dengue en tres localidades diferentes. Se realizó un análisis prospectivo adicional para verificar si las tendencias epidémicas causadas por las precipitaciones se mantienen en los años subsiguientes. Los resultados presentados aquí dan soporte a los modelos predictivos epidemiológicos con forzamiento estacional.


Subject(s)
Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Dengue/epidemiology , Cluster Analysis , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Climate , Aedes , Guatemala/epidemiology
8.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(3): 793-804, mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-989622

ABSTRACT

Resumen El objetivo es revisar la literatura científica sobre los problemas de salud derivados de la exposición laboral a Legionella spp. Revisión sistemática de la literatura científica recogida en las bases de datos MEDLINE (Pubmed), ISI-Web of Science (Institute for Scientific Information), Cochrane Library Plus, Literatura Latinoamericana de Información en Ciencias de la Salud (LILACS) y SCOPUS, hasta febrero 2015. Los descriptores utilizados fueron: "Legionnaires' Disease" "Legionellosis" "Occupational Exposure" "Occupational Diseases". Se obtuvieron 222 referencias, que tras aplicar los criterios de inclusión y exclusión, se seleccionaron 13 artículos a texto completo. De ellos 9 artículos describen la aparición de neumonía, 4 Fiebre de Pontiac, 1 legionelosis o presunta legionelosis y 3 muerte. El principal agente causal en los profesionales expuestos fue Legionella pneumophila serogrupo 1. La infección por legionela está ligada a las profesiones donde existe nebulización por agua, principalmente en los trabajadores sometidos a largas exposiciones o incluso a la re-exposición. Los brotes se producen de forma estacional, sobre todo en los meses más cálidos.


Abstract The scope of this paper is to review the available scientific literature about the effects on health of occupational exposure to Legionella spp. A systematic review of the scientific literature retrieved from the MEDLINE (via PubMed), ISI-Web of Science (Institute for Scientific Information), Cochrane Library, LILCAS and SCOPUS databases through February 2015 was conducted. The key words used were ««Legionnaires' Disease¼ «Legionellosis¼ «Occupational Exposure¼ «Occupational Diseases¼. Two hundred and twenty-two references were retrieved of which, after applying inclusion/exclusion criteria, 13 complete articles were selected. Of these, 9 describe pneumonia, 4 list Pontiac Fever, 1 reveals legionellosis and 3 result in death. The main causative agent of disease in workers exposed was Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1. Legionella spp infection is closely related to professions where there is nebulization with water, mainly among workers subjected to long exposure or even re-exposure. Outbreaks occurs seasonally, especially in the hottest months.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Legionellosis/epidemiology , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Water Microbiology , Legionella/isolation & purification , Legionnaires' Disease/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Legionella pneumophila/isolation & purification , Occupational Diseases/microbiology
9.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(1): 16-25, feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003652

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: El dengue, de amplia distribución mundial, ha resurgido en Argentina tras más de 70 años de ausencia, con un comportamiento endémico en las provincias norteñas del país; durante el año 2016 se experimentó una diseminación epidémica a la Provincia de Buenos Aires. Objetivos: Caracterizar el brote de fiebre de dengue ocurrido en la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina, durante el período de inicio y expansión del mismo entre enero y mayo del año 2016. Métodos: El Sistema Nacional de Vigilancia de la Salud proveyó los datos semanales, utilizándose, además, ArcGis para la localización espacial. Se empleó test de Knox para establecer relaciones de coordenadas temporo-espaciales y se diseñó la curva epidemiológica calculando el coeficiente de difusión. Resultados: El riesgo relativo y razones de tasas para casos confirmados y la razón infección fue caracterizada por un aumento rápido en su propagación, con conglomerados definidos acompañado de la modificación sostenida entre las razones de tasas de casos infectados provenientes de zonas endémicas y aquellos autóctonos. Hacia la semana 17, el brote cae teniendo los valores más bajos de difusión. Discusión: La información evaluada mediante diferentes sistemas de información y análisis permitió identificar debilidades de los mismos, así como visualizar "zonas calientes" de circulación del virus para determinar acciones tendientes a concentrar los esfuerzos de control de potenciales criaderos de estados inmaduros del mosquito en épocas invernales.


Background: Dengue fever, widely distributed throughout the world, has reemerged in Argentina after more than 70 years of absence, with an endemic behaviour in the northern provinces of the country. During the year 2016 an epidemic spread to the Province of Buenos Aires was experienced. Objective: To characterize the outbreak of dengue fever occurred in the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, during the period of beginning and expansion between January and May of the year 2016. Methods: The National Health Surveillance system provided weekly data, also using ArcGis for spatial localization. Knox test was used to establish spatial-temporal coordinates and the epidemiological curve was designed calculating the diffusion coefficient. Results: The relative risk and rates confirmed the epidemiological outbreak characterized by a rapid increase in propagation, with defined conglomerates. Towards week 17 the outbreak falls having the lowest diffusion values. Discussion: The information evaluated through different systems of information and analysis allowed to identify weaknesses of the same ones as well as to visualize "hot spots" of circulation of the virus in order to determine actions aimed at concentrating the efforts of control of potential breeding grounds for immature mosquitoes in winter times.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Dengue/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Time Factors , Incidence , Risk Factors , Population Density , Spatio-Temporal Analysis , Geography
10.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 53: 89, jan. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1043328

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Describe the clinical and epidemiological profile of confirmed cases of yellow fever whose patients were hospitalized in a general hospital for infectious diseases in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from March 11, 2017 to June 15, 2018, during a recent outbreak and factors associated with death. METHODS This is a retrospective observational study with analysis of secondary databases of local epidemiological surveillance system, and complementary data collection from epidemiological investigation records and clinical records. Study variables included demographic, epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory data. A descriptive statistical analysis and a bivariate and multivariate analysis by logistic regression were performed to analyze factors associated with death. RESULTS Fifty-two patients diagnosed with yellow fever were hospitalized, 86.5% male patients, median age 49.5 years, 40.4% rural workers. The most frequent signs and symptoms were fever (90.4%), jaundice (86.5%), nausea and/or vomiting (69.2%), changes in renal excretion (53.8%), bleeding (50%), and abdominal pain (48.1%), with comorbidity in 38.5% of all cases. The lethality rate was 40.4%. Factors significantly associated with a higher chance of death in the bivariate analysis were: bleeding, changes in renal excretion, and maximum values of direct bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), urea, and creatinine. In the multivariate analysis by logistic regression, only changes in renal excretion and ALT remained significant predictors of higher chance of death. A threshold effect was also observed for AST. The cutoff points identified as high risk for death were ALT > 4,000 U/L and AST > 6,000 U/L. CONCLUSIONS This study contributed to the knowledge on the profile of confirmed cases of high severity yellow fever. The main factors associated with death were changes in renal excretion and elevated serum transaminases, especially ALT. High lethality emphasizes the need for early diagnosis and treatment, and the importance of increasing vaccination coverage.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Descrever o perfil clínico-epidemiológico dos casos confirmados de febre amarela internados em hospital geral de referência para doenças infecciosas no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, de 11 de março de 2017 a 15 de junho de 2018, durante recente surto e fatores associados ao óbito. MÉTODOS Estudo observacional retrospectivo, com análise de bases de dados secundários da vigilância epidemiológica local e coleta complementar de dados nas fichas de investigação epidemiológica e prontuários clínicos. As variáveis analisadas incluíram dados demográficos, epidemiológicos, clínicos e laboratoriais. Foi conduzida análise estatística descritiva bivariada e múltipla por regressão logística para estudo de fatores associados ao óbito. RESULTADOS Foram internados 52 casos confirmados, 86,5% deles homens, com mediana de idade de 49,5 anos e 40,4% trabalhadores rurais. Os sinais e sintomas mais frequentes foram: febre (90,4%), icterícia (86,5%), náuseas e/ou vômitos (69,2%), alterações de excreção renal (53,8%), hemorragias (50%) e dor abdominal (48,1%), com comorbidade em 38,5% dos casos. A letalidade foi de 40,4%. Os fatores associados significativamente à maior chance de óbito na análise bivariada foram: hemorragia, alterações de excreção renal e valores máximos de bilirrubina direta, aspartato aminotransferase (AST), alanina aminotransferase (ALT), ureia e creatinina. Na análise múltipla por regressão logística, apenas alterações de excreção renal e ALT permaneceram como preditores significativos de maior chance de óbito. Observou-se ainda efeito limítrofe para AST. Os pontos de corte identificados como de alto risco para óbito foram ALT > 4.000 U/L e AST > 6.000 U/L. CONCLUSÕES O estudo contribuiu para o conhecimento do perfil de casos confirmados de febre amarela com gravidade alta. Os principais fatores associados ao óbito foram a alteração da excreção renal e a elevação sérica de transaminases, sobretudo a ALT. A letalidade elevada reforça a necessidade de diagnóstico e tratamento precoces, e a importância do incremento da cobertura vacinal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Yellow Fever/mortality , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Hospital Mortality , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Reference Values , Time Factors , Urea/blood , Yellow Fever/blood , Bilirubin/blood , Brazil/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Creatinine/blood , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Middle Aged
11.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e180597, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040620

ABSTRACT

A localized Chikungunya virus (CHIKV; East/Central/South African genotype) outbreak (50 cases, 70% laboratory-confirmed; attack rate: 5.3 confirmed cases/100 people) occurred in a Salvador, Brazil neighborhood, between Apr-Jun/2017. Highly clustered cases in space and time, mostly along a single street, highlight an increased risk of CHIKV transmission among pockets of susceptible populations. This finding underscores the need for ongoing local level surveillance for arboviral outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Chikungunya virus/genetics , Chikungunya virus/immunology , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Chikungunya Fever/epidemiology , Phylogeny , Seasons , Brazil/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Chikungunya Fever/diagnosis , Chikungunya Fever/virology , Genotype , Middle Aged
13.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 22(3): 317-329, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975585

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction A majority of otolaryngologists have not had direct experience with many vaccine-preventable diseases since the creation of national vaccination programs. Despite the elimination of endemic transmission of some of these diseases in the United States, outbreaks can occur anywhere and still pose a threat to public health around the world. Recent outbreaks and changing trends in exemption rates indicate that it is important for physicians to maintain a working knowledge of how these diseases present and of the recommended treatment guidelines. Objectives This review will evaluate the current state of vaccination rates, vaccine exemption rates and disease incidence in the United States and in the world. It will also examine the clinical presentation and treatment recommendations of these diseases. Data Synthesis United States estimated vaccination rates, vaccine exemption rates and vaccine-preventable disease incidences were obtained from data compiled by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. World vaccination rates and disease incidences were obtained from the World Health Organization databases, which compile official figures reported by member states. A PubMed literature review provided information on the current state of vaccination exemptions and outbreaks in the United States. Conclusion Vaccination and vaccine exemption rates continue to put the United States and many areas of the world at risk for outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases. Clinical guidelines should be reviewed in the event of a local outbreak.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Otolaryngologists/education , Asia , Rubella/prevention & control , Rubella/epidemiology , United States , Americas , Vaccines , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Incidence , Africa , Diphtheria/prevention & control , Diphtheria/epidemiology , Europe , Disease Eradication/statistics & numerical data , Haemophilus Infections/prevention & control , Measles/prevention & control , Measles/epidemiology , Mumps/prevention & control , Mumps/epidemiology
14.
Buenos Aires; GCBA. Gerencia Operativa de Epidemiología; 20 jul. 2018. a) f: 16 l:20 p. tab.(Boletín Epidemiológico Semanal: Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, 3, 100).
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, InstitutionalDB, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1116468

ABSTRACT

Este informe refleja la primera etapa del análisis del evento epidemiológico en curso. Describe las acciones realizadas y los resultados preliminares obtenidos en el estudio de brote de tuberculosis ocurrido en una escuela técnica del AP Tornú en el período Febrero-Marzo de 2018: acciones desarrolladas y los resultados preliminares encontrados. Se estudiaron contactos institucionales y familiares de cada uno de los casos. Dentro de los contactos institucionales se incluyeron 5 divisiones, docentes y preceptores, de acuerdo a los listados provistos por la Dirección de la Escuela.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , School Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/pathology , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , Tuberculosis/therapy , Tuberculosis/transmission , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Catchment Area, Health/statistics & numerical data , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, Municipal/statistics & numerical data
15.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(12): e180392, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-976235

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES The emergence of 16S rRNA methyltranferases (16 RMTAses) has jeopardised the clinical use of aminoglycosides. RmtB is one of the most frequently reported in Gram-negatives worldwide. In this study, we aimed to estimate the frequency of 16S RMTAses encoding genes in Enterobacteriaceae isolated in a three-month period from a tertiary Brazilian hospital. METHODS All Gram-negatives classified as resistant to amikacin, gentamicin, and tobramycin by agar screening were selected for analysis. The presence of 16SRMTases encoding genes was verified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Antimicrobial susceptible profile was determined by broth microdilution. The genetic relationship among these isolates was accessed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Selected RmtB-producing isolates were characterised by whole genome sequencing (WGS) analysis. RESULTS Twenty-two of 1,052 (2.1%) Enterobacteriaceae were detected as producers of RmtB-1 [Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 21) and Proteus mirabilis (n = 1)]. blaKPC-2 was identified among 20 RmtB-1-producing K. pneumoniae isolates that exhibited an identical PFGE and MLST (ST258) patterns. Two K. pneumoniae isolates, the A64216 (not harboring bla KPC-2), A64477 (harboring bla KPC-2) and one P. mirabilis isolate (A64421) were selected for WGS. rmtB-1 and bla KPC-2 genes were carried by distinct plasmids. While a plasmid belonging to the IncFIIk group harbored rmtB-1 in K. pneumoniae, this gene was carried by a non-typable plasmid in P. mirabilis. In the three analysed plasmids, rmtB-1 was inserted on a transposon, downstream a Tn2. CONCLUSION Our findings suggested that the rmtB-1 was harbored by plasmids distinct from those previously reported in Bolivia and China. It suggests that multiple mobilization events might have occurred in South America.


Subject(s)
Humans , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Enterobacteriaceae , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Genes, rRNA/genetics , Aminoglycosides/therapeutic use
16.
Buenos Aires; GCBA. Gerencia Operativa de Epidemiología; 13 ene. 2017. a) f: 39 l:45 p. tab.(Boletín Epidemiológico Semanal: Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, 2, 21).
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, InstitutionalDB, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1104391

ABSTRACT

Presentación de dos casos notificados el 24 de diciembre de 2016 a la Gerencia Operativa de Epidemiología de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires por la Dirección de Epidemiología Nacional, sospechosos de botulismo alimentario en integrantes de una familia, e internados en efectores públicos y privados de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires. Se describen el cuadro clínico y el tratamiento recibido, la evolución de los pacientes, la patología de la enfermedad, y acciones de vigilancia epidemiológica: definición de casos sospechosos, de casos notificados, y notificación de la enfermedad. Incluye datos de instituciones de referencia en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, para atención de esta patología


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Aged , Botulinum Toxins/adverse effects , Botulinum Toxins/toxicity , Botulism/pathology , Botulism/prevention & control , Botulism/therapy , Botulism/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Disease Notification , Epidemiological Monitoring , Foodborne Diseases/prevention & control , Foodborne Diseases/epidemiology
17.
Weekly Epidemiological Monitor. 2017; 10 (05): 1
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-187406

ABSTRACT

The influenza situation in the countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region [EMR] remain stable and between moderate to low levels of activities have been observed in most of the countries


Subject(s)
Humans , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Influenza B virus , Seasonal Affective Disorder
18.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 41: e134, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1043204

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT During the 2014 Ebola outbreak, information spread via multiple platforms, including social networks and Internet search engines. This report analyzes Twitter tweets, Facebook posts, and Google trends, as well as several other Internet resources, from March - November 2014. Understanding the types of discussions, social behaviors, feelings expressed, and information shared during the Ebola outbreak can help health organizations improve communication interventions and avert misinformation and panic during health emergencies. In all, 6 422 170 tweets, 83 Facebook posts, and Google search trends were integrated with 63 chronological Ebola-related events. Events that prompted a surge in tweets using #ebola were related to new cases of infection or the entry of the disease into a new geographic area. Most tweets were re-tweets of information provided by news agencies and official health organizations. Events related to new infections and deaths seemed to correlate with an increase of words that express fear. Google results concurred with Twitter and Facebook. Data from social media activity can be used to form hypotheses about how the public responds to and behaves during public health events, prompting health organizations to adopt new strategies for communications interventions. Furthermore, a spike in activity around a topic can be used as a surveillance technique to signal to health authorities that an outbreak may be underway. It is also recommended that news agencies, which engage with the public most often, consider content review by health experts as part of their health communications process.(AU)


RESUMEN Durante el brote de ébola del 2014, se difundió información por medio de varias plataformas, entre ellas las redes sociales y los motores de búsqueda de Internet. En este informe se analizan los tuits en Twitter, los mensajes publicados en Facebook y las tendencias de búsqueda en Google, así como varios recursos más en Internet, en el período comprendido entre marzo y noviembre del 2014. La comprensión de los tipos de conversaciones, el comportamiento social, los sentimientos expresados y la información transmitida durante el brote de ébola puede ayudar a las organizaciones de salud a mejorar sus intervenciones en materia de comunicación y evitar la información incorrecta y el pánico que se pueden propagar durante las emergencias de salud. En total, se integraron 6 422 170 tuits, 83 mensajes de Facebook y las tendencias de búsqueda en Google con 63 eventos cronológicos relacionados con ébola. Los eventos que dieron lugar a un incremento de los tuits con la etiqueta #ebola estaban relacionados con nuevos casos de infección o la entrada de la enfermedad en una nueva zona geográfica. La mayor parte de los tuits eran reenvíos de información suministrada por las agencias de noticias y las organizaciones de salud oficiales. Los eventos relacionados con nuevas infecciones y defunciones parecían guardar correlación con un aumento del uso de palabras que expresaban temor. Los resultados de Google coincidían con Twitter y Facebook. Se pueden emplear datos provenientes de la actividad de las redes sociales para formar hipótesis sobre el modo en que el público responde a los eventos de salud pública y en que se comporta durante ellos, e incitar a las organizaciones de salud a que adopten nuevas estrategias para las intervenciones en materia de comunicación. Además, se pueden usar los aumentos de la actividad en torno a un tema como técnica de vigilancia para señalar a las autoridades de salud que es posible que haya un brote. Se recomienda también que las agencias de noticias, que interactúan con el público con más frecuencia, consideren la posibilidad de contar con expertos en salud para examinar los contenidos en el marco de su proceso de comunicación para la salud.(AU)


RESUMO No transcurso do surto de Ebola de 2014, a informação se espalhou por diversas plataformas como as redes sociais e os mecanismos de busca da internet. Este artigo examina as mensagens no Twitter, postagens no Facebook e tendências no Google e outras mídias digitais no período de março a novembro de 2014. Entender as formas de discussões, comportamentos sociais, sentimentos expressos e informações partilhadas no decorrer do surto de Ebola pode contribuir para melhorar as intervenções em comunicação por parte das organizações de saúde e evitar a desinformação e o pânico em situações de emergência em saúde. Ao todo, 6.422.170 mensagens no Twitter, 83 postagens no Facebook e tendências de busca no Google foram correlacionadas a 63 eventos cronológicos relativos ao surto de Ebola. Os eventos que suscitaram um aumento no número de mensagens no Twitter com o hashtag #ebola foram a ocorrência de novos casos de infecção ou o surgimento da doença em outras áreas geográficas. Grande parte da atividade no Twitter consistiu no reenvio de mensagens com informações fornecidas pelas agências de notícias e organizações oficiais de saúde. Os eventos relacionados a novas infecções e mortes aparentemente se correlacionaram ao uso de um maior número de palavras que expressam temor. Os resultados do Google coincidiram com os do Twitter e Facebook. A análise da atividade nas mídias sociais permite formular hipóteses sobre a reação e o comportamento do público em situações de risco em saúde pública, motivando o uso de novas estratégias de comunicação por parte das organizações de saúde. Um pico de atividade em torno de um assunto pode ser um recurso de vigilância usado pelas autoridades sanitárias para sinalizar a possível ocorrência de um surto. Também se recomenda às agências de notícias, por estarem em contato constante com o público, integrar a análise do conteúdo por especialistas em saúde ao processo de comunicação de assuntos em saúde.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology , Internet/trends , Social Communication in Emergencies , Health Communication , Social Media/trends
20.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 74(11): 937-943, Nov. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-827989

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The epidemics of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) infections have been considered the most important epidemiological occurrences in the Americas. The clinical picture of CHIKV infection is characterized by high fever, exanthema, myalgia, headaches, and arthralgia. Besides the typical clinical picture of CHIKV, atypical manifestations of neurological complications have been reported: meningo-encephalitis, meningoencephalo-myeloradiculitis, myeloradiculitis, myelitis, myeloneuropathy, Guillain-Barré syndrome and others. The diagnosis is based on clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory criteria. The most common symptoms of ZIKV infection are skin rash (mostly maculopapular), fever, arthralgia, myalgia, headache, and conjunctivitis. Some epidemics that have recently occurred in French Polynesia and Brazil, reported the most severe conditions, with involvement of the nervous system (Guillain-Barré syndrome, transverse myelitis, microcephaly and meningitis). The treatment for ZIKV and CHIKV infections are symptomatic and the management for neurological complications depends on the type of affliction. Intravenous immunoglobulin, plasmapheresis, and corticosteroid pulse therapy are options.


RESUMO As epidemias provocadas pelo vírus Chikungunya (CHIK) e Zika vírus (ZIKV) têm sido consideradas as ocorrências epidemiológicas mais importantes da América. O quadro clínico da infecção por CHIK caracteriza-se por febre alta, exantema, mialgia, cefaléia e artralgia. Além do quadro clínico típico, manifestações atípicas como complicações neurológicas foram relatadas: meningo-encefalite, mielorradiculopatia, mielorradiculite, mielite, mieloneuropatia, síndrome de Guillain-Barre (GBS), entre outras. O diagnóstico é baseado em critérios clínicos, epidemiológicos e laboratoriais. Em relação aos sinais e sintomas da infecção pelo ZIKV, erupção cutânea (principalmente maculopapular), febre, artralgia, mialgia, cefaléia e conjuntivite são os mais comuns. Algumas epidemias que ocorreram recentemente na Polinésia Francesa e Brasil relataram condições mais severas, com envolvimento do sistema nervoso (GBS, mielite transversa, microcefalia e meningite). O tratamento para ZIKV e CHIK é sintomático, e o manejo das complicações neurológicas dependerá do tipo da afecção. Imunoglobulina venosa, plasmaférese, e pulsoterapia com corticosteróides são opções.


Subject(s)
Humans , Global Health , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Chikungunya Fever/complications , Zika Virus Infection/complications , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Chikungunya Fever/physiopathology , Chikungunya Fever/epidemiology , Zika Virus Infection/physiopathology , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology
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