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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-4, 2023. map, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468833

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper was recording the occurrence of the species Lumbriculus variegatus (Müller, 1774) (Oligochaeta, Lumbriculidae) in lotic systems of the State of São Paulo. Specimens were collected in Sapucaí River, located in Campos do Jordão State Park. The mapping of geographical distribution of this species is of interest to public health since L. variegatus may be an intermediate host of Dioctophyme renale (Goeze, 1782) (Nematoda, Dioctophymatidae), a parasite of recognized zoonotic potential. Distribution data serves as a basis for environmental monitoring and evaluation, being essential to map possible cases of the disease (Dioctophimosis) and provide information to health professionals.


O objetivo deste trabalho foi registrar a ocorrência de Lumbriculus variegatus (Müller, 1774) (Oligochaeta, Lumbriculidae) em um sistema lótico do Estado de São Paulo. Os espécimes foram coletados no rio Sapucaí, localizado no Parque Estadual de Campos do Jordão. O mapeamento da distribuição geográfica desta espécie é de interesse para saúde pública uma vez que L. variegatus pode ser um hospedeiro intermediário de Dioctophyme renale (Goeze, 1782) (Nematoda, Dioctophymatidae), parasito de reconhecido potencial zoonótico. Dados de distribuição servem de base para monitoramento e avaliação ambiental, sendo essenciais para mapear possíveis casos da doença (Dioctofimose) e fornecer informações para profissionais de saúde.


Subject(s)
Animals , Nematoda/parasitology , Oligochaeta/growth & development , Disease Reservoirs/parasitology , Zoonoses/prevention & control
2.
Rev. med. vet. zoot ; 69(2): 129-142, mayo-ago. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1395016

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Dientamoeba fragilis es un protozoário que parasita el intestino grueso del hombre y animales domésticos. Hasta el momento, aún no son claros aspectos de su ciclo de vida, como el rango de hospedadores, reservorios, mecanismo de infección, entre otros. Se postula que el cerdo es un hospedador natural para este protozoario y que, debido a su cercanía con el humano, podría facilitar una transmisión zoonótica. En Colombia no existen a la fecha estudios sobre la presencia de D. fragilis en hospedadores animales, incluidos los cerdos, y los datos sobre la prevalencia de otros protozoarios intestinales en estos animales son escasos. El objetivo fue determinar la frecuencia de protozoarios intestinales, incluyendo D. fragilis, en cerdos de una granja tecnificada de una zona rural de Medellín (región Andina de Colombia). Se recolectaron muestras de materia fecal de 70 cerdos en etapa de preceba, que fueron evaluadas mediante examen directo, tinción tricrómica y Ziehl-Neelsen modificado. Se realizaron análisis univariados con medidas de frecuencia relativa y tendencia central y análisis bivariados para la exploración de factores de riesgo. Se detectó la presencia de D. fragilis en un 13% de las muestras y de otros parásitos como Entamoeba spp. (66%), Blastocystis spp. (64%), Balantioides coli (36%), Cryptosporidium spp. (36%), Iodamoeba butschlii (17%), coccidias (4%) y Giardia spp. (1,4%). En este primer reporte de D. fragilis en cerdos en Colombia se observó la alta prevalencia de otros protozoarios patógenos, lo que corrobora el papel de los cerdos como importantes reservorios de infecciones humanas. Estudios sobre la presencia de este protozoario tanto en cerdos como en el personal encargado de su manejo contribuirían al conocimiento sobre su dinámica de transmisión.


ABSTRACT Dientamoeba fragilis is a protozoan that parasitizes the large intestine of humans and domestic animals. To date, some aspects regarding D. fragilis life cycle, including hosts, reservoirs, infection mechanism, among others, are not yet clear. Swine are considered natural hosts for this protozoan, therefore their close contact with humans promotes its zoonotic transmission. In Colombia there are no studies on the presence of D. fragilis in animal hosts, including pigs, and data about other intestinal protozoa are scarce. The objective was to determine the prevalence of intestinal protozoan, including D. fragilis, in pigs raised in a farm from a rural area of Medellin (Andean region of Colombia). Fecal samples from 70 pigs in prefattening stage were collected. Direct fecal smear examination, trichrome and modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain were used in the study. Univariate analysis (frequency distribution and central tendency measures) and bivariate analysis were used to explore risk factors. Dientamoeba fragilis was found in 13% of the evaluated fecal samples. Other parasites detected included: Entamoeba spp. (66%), Blastocystis spp. (64%), Balantioides coli (36%), Cryptosporidium spp. (36%), Iodamoeba butschlii (17%), coccidias (4%), and Giardia spp. (1,4%). This is the first report of D. fragilis in swine in Colombia, and the high prevalence of other pathogen protozoa was also observed, which corroborates the role of pigs as important reservoirs for human infections. Studies focused on the evaluation of both swine and swine-exposed farm workers should be done in order to know the dynamics of transmission of this parasite.


Subject(s)
Animals , Parasites , Protozoan Infections, Animal , Swine , Disease Reservoirs , Zoonoses , Risk Factors , Dientamoeba , Intestine, Large , Animals, Domestic , Water Reservoirs , Entamoeba , Infections
3.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(2): e20210209, 2022. tab, graf, ilus, mapas
Article in English | VETINDEX, LILACS | ID: biblio-1339658

ABSTRACT

Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) has a considerable economic impact on the pork industry worldwide for more than two decades. In 2016, a new circovirus, porcine circovirus 3 (PCV3), was described; since then, it has been reported to be associated with diseased or even in clinically healthy swine in several countries. Considering the importance of wild boars as reservoirs of swine pathogens and the extensive distribution of these animals in Rio Grande do Sul and throughout the national territory, we searched for PCV2 and PCV3 in twenty-six wild boars coupled with necropsy and histologic examination of the sampled animals. Using PCR, 182 tissue samples were analyzed, including the heart, kidneys, liver, lung, lymph nodes, spleen, and tonsils. PCV2 and PCV3 were detected in 57.7% (15/26) and 15.4% (4/26) of wild boars, respectively. Furthermore, co-infection with PCV2 and PCV3 was detected in one of these animals, with PCV2 or PCV3 DNA detection in multiple organs. Histological examination showed mild to moderate and multifocal lymphoplasmacytic interstitial nephritis distributed randomly throughout the renal cortex, apparently unrelated to PCV2 or PCV3 detection. The wild boar population in Brazil is extensive, indicating the presence of a larger number of swine pathogen hosts. In the present study, more than half of the wild boars harbored PCV2; and although less frequently, PCV3 was also detected. Therefore, free-living wild boars can serve as reservoirs of swine circoviruses in southern Brazil.


O circovírus suíno 2 (PCV2) tem causado impacto econômico na indústria suína em todo o mundo por mais de duas décadas. Em 2016, um novo circovírus foi descrito - circovírus suíno 3 (PCV3) - e desde então tem sido relatado em vários países associado a doenças ou mesmo suínos saudáveis. Diante da importância dos javalis como reservatórios de patógenos suínos, e da ampla distribuição desses animais no Rio Grande do Sul e em todo o território nacional, foi realizada pesquisa de PCV2 e PCV3 em vinte e seis javalis (10 fêmeas e 16 machos). Necropsia e exame histológico foram realizados. Utilizando PCR, foram analisadas 182 amostras de tecidos incluindo: coração, rins, fígado, pulmão, linfonodos, baço e tonsila. PCV2 e PCV3 foram detectados por PCR em 57,7% (15/26) e 15,4% (4/26) dos javalis, respectivamente. Um destes animais estava co-infectado por PCV2 e PCV3. O DNA do PCV2 ou PCV3 foi detectado em multiplos órgãos. No exame histológico foi observada nefrite intersticial linfoplasmocitária multifocal leve a moderada, distribuída aleatoriamente pelo córtex renal, aparentemente sem relação com a detecção de DNA viral. A população de javalis no Brasil é extensa, resultando em maior número de hospedeiros para patógenos de suínos. No presente estudo, mais da metade dos javalis capturados abrigavam PCV2 e, embora menos frequente, PCV3 também foi detectado. Os javalis de vida livre podem servir como reservatórios de circovírus suínos no sul do Brasil.


Subject(s)
Animals , Disease Reservoirs/veterinary , Circovirus/isolation & purification , Circoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Sus scrofa/virology , Brazil , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary
4.
Afr. J. Clin. Exp. Microbiol ; 23(3): 269-277, 2022.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1377799

ABSTRACT

Background: One of the main health problems in West Africa remains upsurge of emerging pathogens. Ebola virus disease outbreak occurred in 2014 in Liberia, Guinea and Sierra Leone, Monkeypox virus in Nigeria in 2017 and most recently Lassa virus in Nigeria, Togo and Benin in 2018. These pathogens have animal reservoirs as vectors for transmission. Proper investigation of the pathogens in their rodent vectors could help reduce and manage their emergence and spread. Methodology: This study was conducted with an approval from the Côte d'Ivoire Bioethics Community. Small mammal trappings were carried out in 9 sites within three zones namely, peri-urban, peri-rural and protected areas. Liver, lung and kidney tissues from trapped small mammals were sampled in accordance with the recommended conditions of biosafety and bioethics. The organs were transported in liquid nitrogen to the laboratory. Molecular tests were used to detect pathogens. Orthopoxviruses and Monkeypox virus were detected in the organs by PCR using consensus primers targeting the virus surface membrane haemagglutinin (HA) genes, while Leptospira species were detected by PCR using primers targeting the rrs and lfb1 genes. Results: Out of 4930 night-traps, 256 (5.19%) small mammals were trapped including Crocidura, Rattus, Lophuromys, Praomys, Mus and Mastomys. Leptospira species were detected in 6 genera from 7 study sites and the infected small mammals accounted for 13.3%. Leptospira sp was detected mainly in the rodent vector genera Rattus (32.3%), Lophuromys (29.0%), and Praomys (16.1%). Three species of Leptospira were detected and Leptospira interrogans was the most common frequent species (74.2%). Monkeypox virus was not detected from studied small mammals. Conclusion: The initial data from our investigation indicates the presence of Leptospira sp in rodent vectors, Rattus, Lophuromys and Praomys, which are the potential small mammalian reservoirs of this pathogen in Cote d'Ivoire.


Subject(s)
Rodent Diseases , Disease Reservoirs , Rodent Control , Ebolavirus , Lassa virus , Orthopoxvirus , Monkeypox virus
6.
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz (Online) ; 79: 1-10, 31 mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, CONASS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, SESSP-ACVSES, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-IALACERVO | ID: biblio-1293153

ABSTRACT

As esponjas de banho podem carrear contaminação, pois sua estrutura favorece a multiplicação microbiana. Desse modo, o objetivo deste trabalho foi verifica a eficiência de dois métodos de desinfecção para diminuir a quantidade de microrganismos de importância clínica nas esponjas de banho. Foram analisadas 30 esponjas de banho (15 vegetais e 15 sintéticas) que foram cortadas em três partes iguais. Uma delas serviu como controle. As demais partes foram submetidas à desinfecção por fervura durante cinco minutos e à imersão em hipoclorito de sódio 200 ppm. Os resultados demonstraram média de contaminação de bactérias heterotróficas de 4,1 LogUFC/mL e 4,7 LogUFC/mL, para as vegetais e sintéticas, respectivamente. A maioria (80%) das esponjas (10 sintéticas e 14 vegetais) apresentou contaminação por microrganismos de importância clínica. Os métodos de desinfecção reduziram as contagens de bactérias heterotróficas em 3,3 LogUFC/mL com fervura durante cinco minutos e 1,8 LogUFC/mL com desinfecção em hipoclorito de sódio 200 ppm. Conclui-se, portanto, que as esponjas de banho possuem contaminação microbiológica de importância clínica e que a fervura por cinco minutos é um método de fácil execução, baixo custo e capaz de controlar a quantidade de bactérias nas esponjas utilizadas para banho, reduzindo a disseminação de doenças. (AU)


Bath sponges can carry contamination, because their structure favors microbial multiplication. Thus, the objective of this work was to verify the efficiency of two disinfection methods to decrease the number of microorganisms of clinical importance in bath sponges. Thirty bath sponges (15 loofah and 15 synthetic) were analyzed and cut in three equal parts. One served as control. The other parts were boiled disinfected for five minutes and immersed in 200 ppm sodium hypochlorite. The results showed a mean contamination of heterotrophic bacteria of 4.1 LogUFC/mL and 4.7 LogUFC/mL, for plants and synthetic, respectively. The majority (80%) of the sponges (10 synthetic and 14 loofah) presented contamination by microorganisms of clinical importance. Disinfection methods reduced the counts of heterotrophic bacteria by 3.3 LogUFC/mL with boiling for five minutes and 1.8 LogUFC/mL with disinfection with 200 ppm sodium hypochlorite. It is concluded, therefore, that bath sponges present microbiological contamination of clinical importance and that boiling for five minutes is an easily executed low-cost method that is able to control the amount of bacteria in sponges used for bathing, reducing the risk of dissemination of disease. (AU)


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Disease Reservoirs , Disinfection , Luffa , Personal Hygiene Products , Noxae
7.
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; 79: e1787, 31 mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1489617

ABSTRACT

As esponjas de banho podem carrear contaminação, pois sua estrutura favorece a multiplicação microbiana. Desse modo, o objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a eficiência de dois métodos de desinfecção para diminuir a quantidade de microrganismos de importância clínica nas esponjas de banho. Foram analisadas 30 esponjas de banho (15 vegetais e 15 sintéticas) que foram cortadas em três partes iguais. Uma delas serviu como controle. As demais partes foram submetidas à desinfecção por fervura durante cinco minutos e à imersão em hipoclorito de sódio 200 ppm. Os resultados demonstraram média de contaminação de bactérias heterotróficas de 4,1 LogUFC/mL e 4,7 LogUFC/mL, para as vegetais e sintéticas, respectivamente. A maioria (80%) das esponjas (10 sintéticas e 14 vegetais) apresentou contaminação por microrganismos de importância clínica. Os métodos de desinfecção reduziram as contagens de bactérias heterotróficas em 3,3 LogUFC/mL com fervura durante cinco minutos e 1,8 LogUFC/mL com desinfecção em hipoclorito de sódio 200 ppm. Conclui-se, portanto, que as esponjas de banho possuem contaminação microbiológica de importância clínica e que a fervura por cinco minutos é um método de fácil execução, baixo custo e capaz de controlar a quantidade de bactérias nas esponjas utilizadas para banho, reduzindo a disseminação de doenças.


Bath sponges can carry contamination, because their structure favors microbial multiplication. Thus, the objective of this work was to verify the efficiency of two disinfection methods to decrease the number of microorganisms of clinical importance in bath sponges. Thirty bath sponges (15 loofah and 15 synthetic) were analyzed and cut in three equal parts. One served as control. The other parts were boiled disinfected for five minutes and immersed in 200 ppm sodium hypochlorite. The results showed a mean contamination of heterotrophic bacteria of 4.1 LogUFC/mL and 4.7 LogUFC/mL, for plants and synthetic, respectively. The majority (80%) of the sponges (10 synthetic and 14 loofah) presented contamination by microorganisms of clinical importance. Disinfection methods reduced the counts of heterotrophic bacteria by 3.3 LogUFC/mL with boiling for five minutes and 1.8 LogUFC/mL with disinfection with 200 ppm sodium hypochlorite. It is concluded, therefore, that bath sponges present microbiological contamination of clinical importance and that boiling for five minutes is an easily executed low-cost method that is able to control the amount of bacteria in sponges used for bathing, reducing the risk of dissemination of disease.


Subject(s)
Heterotrophic Bacteria , Disinfection/methods , Personal Hygiene Products , Sodium Hypochlorite , Disease Reservoirs , Disease Transmission, Infectious
8.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(2): 129-133, Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1098445

ABSTRACT

Enterococcus are recognized worldwide as significant nosocomial agents that have been continuously envolving to adapt to different niches and acquire resistance to several antibiotic classes. Vancomycin and gentamicin-resistant strains of E. faecalis and E. faecium have been associated with nosocomial human infections. Some epidemiological studies suggest the participation of pets as reservoirs of vancomycin and gentamicin-resistant Enterococcus strains. However, the role of companion birds as reservoirs of these strains has been poorly studied. In this study, 126 psittacine birds were evaluated and 26.9% carried Enterococcus spp., including the species E. faecalis, E. faecium, E. hirae, E. phoeniculicola, E. gallinarum and E. casseliflavus. The antibiotic resistance profile showed four high-level gentamicin-resistance (HLGR) strains. In addition, two strains presented intermediate levels of vancomycin resistance. Resistant strains were isolated from fecal and oropharynx samples of sick and clinically healthy birds, suggesting that psittacine birds may act as reservoirs of HLGR Enterococcus spp. However, sick birds appear to be more implicated in the enterococci transmission than healthy birds.(AU)


Enterococcus são reconhecidos mundialmente como significantes agentes nosocomiais, que têm continuamente se adaptado a diferentes nichos e adquirido resistência a várias classes de antibióticos. Cepas de E. faecalis e E. faecium vancomicina e gantamicina-resistentes têm sido associadas a infecções nosocomiais em humanos. Alguns estudos epidemiológicos sugerem a participação de aves como reservatórios de cepas de Enterococcus vancomicina e gentamicina-resistentes. Entretanto, a relação das aves de companhia como reservatórios destas cepas tem sido pouco estudada. Neste estudo, 126 psitacídeos foram avaliados, e 26,9% destes eram portadores de Enterococcus spp., incluindo as espécies E. faecalis, E. faecium, E. hirae, E. phoeniculicola, E. gallinarum e E. casseliflavus. O perfil de resistência antibiótica mostrou quatro cepas com alto nível de resistência a gentamicina (ANRG). Além de duas cepas com nível intermediário de resistência a vancomicina. As cepas resistentes foram isoladas de amostras fecais e de orofaringe de aves doentes e clinicamente saudáveis, sugerindo que psitacídeos podem estar atuando como reservatórios para Enterococcus spp. com ANRG. Contudo, Aves doentes parecem estar mais relacionadas à transmissão de enterococcus, do que aves saudáveis.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Parrots/microbiology , Disease Reservoirs/veterinary , Gentamicins , Vancomycin Resistance , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Pets/microbiology , Enterococcus/isolation & purification
9.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190511, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, ColecionaSUS, LILACS | ID: biblio-1136814

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The Amazon tropical rainforest has the most dense and diverse ecosystem worldwide. A few studies have addressed rodent-borne diseases as potential hazards to humans in this region. METHODS: A retrospective survey was conducted using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting mammarenavirus and orthohantavirus antibodies in 206 samples collected from rural settlers of the Brazilian Western Amazonian region. RESULTS: Six (2.91%) individuals in the age group of 16 to 36 years were found to possess antibodies against mammarenavirus. CONCLUSION: Evidence of previous exposure to mammarenavirus in the rural population points to its silent circulation in this region.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Arenaviridae/immunology , Rodentia/virology , Disease Reservoirs/veterinary , Orthohepadnavirus/immunology , Arenaviridae Infections/epidemiology , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/epidemiology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Arenaviridae/classification , Rodentia/classification , Rural Population , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Orthohepadnavirus/classification , Arenaviridae Infections/diagnosis , Arenaviridae Infections/transmission , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/diagnosis , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/transmission , Middle Aged
10.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190169, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057265

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Leishmania infantum was considered to be absent from Amapá until 2017 when canine infection was detected. However, there is a lack of knowledge about which reservoir species are involved in transmission in this region. METHODS: Between 2014 and 2016, 86 samples from wild mammals and 74 from domestic dogs were collected in Wajãpi Indigenous Territory and were tested for the presence of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of Leishmania. RESULTS: The DNA of Le. infantum was detected in two rodent samples, Dasyprocta sp. and Proechimys cuvieri. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first evidence characterizing a sylvatic transmission cycle of Le. infantum in the State of Amapá.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Rodentia/parasitology , Disease Reservoirs/veterinary , Leishmania infantum/genetics , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , DNA, Protozoan , Leishmania infantum/isolation & purification , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/transmission
11.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190486, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057302

ABSTRACT

Abstract This review focuses on reports of hepatitis E virus, hantavirus, rotavirus, coronavirus, and arenavirus in synanthropic rodents (Rattus rattus, Rattus norvegicus, and Mus musculus) within urban environments. Despite their potential impact on human health, relatively few studies have addressed the monitoring of these viruses in rodents. Comprehensive control and preventive activities should include actions such as the elimination or reduction of rat and mouse populations, sanitary education, reduction of shelters for the animals, and restriction of the access of rodents to residences, water, and food supplies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats/virology , Rotavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Hepatitis E/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Arenaviridae Infections/transmission , Hantavirus Infections/transmission , Mice/virology , Urban Population
12.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(2): e016919, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138076

ABSTRACT

Abstract Dogs have been implicated as main reservoirs for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in urban areas. Therefore, studies on this species provide important data for public health. Thus, the objective of the present study was to ascertain the seroprevalence of canine VL (CVL) and the associated factors in the Brejo Paraibano microregion, northeastern Brazil. A total of 409 dogs were sampled from the eight municipalities of the microregion: Alagoa Grande, Alagoa Nova, Areia, Bananeiras, Borborema, Matinhas, Pilões and Serraria. The diagnosis of CVL was made using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA S7®), through which the prevalence observed was 29.3%. By robust Poisson regression analysis two factors were associated with seroprevalence: illiterate/incomplete elementary owner's education level (prevalence ratio = 1.57; 95% CI = 1.05-2.34; p-value = 0.027) and tick infestation (prevalence ratio = 1.82; 95% CI = 1.27-2.61; p-value = 0.001). It is concluded that the seroprevalence of CVL in the Brejo Paraibano microregion is high. The factors associated with seroprevalence indicated the importance to develop socioeducational actions on the population, and the finding that tick infestation was associated with seroprevalence shows that there is a need for investigation regarding the role of ticks in the epidemiology of CVL.


Resumo Os cães são apontados como principais reservatórios da leishmaniose visceral (LV) em áreas urbanas. Portanto, estudos com essa espécie fornecem dados importantes para a saúde pública. Assim, o objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a soroprevalência da leishmaniose visceral canina (LVC) e os fatores associados na microrregião do Brejo Paraibano, Nordeste do Brasil. Foram amostrados 409 cães dos oito municípios da microrregião: Alagoa Grande, Alagoa Nova, Areia, Bananeiras, Borborema, Matinhas, Pilões e Serraria. O diagnóstico de LVC foi realizado com o ensaio imunoenzimático (kit ELISA S7®), no qual a prevalência observada foi de 29,3%. Pela análise de regressão de Poisson robusta, dois fatores foram associados à soroprevalência: proprietário analfabeto ou com ensino fundamental incompleto (razão de prevalência = 1,57; IC 95% = 1,05-2,34; p-valor = 0,027) e infestação de carrapatos (razão de prevalência = 1,82; IC 95% = 1,27-2,61; p-valor = 0,001). Conclui-se que a soroprevalência da LVC na microrregião Brejo Paraibano é alta. Os fatores associados à soroprevalência indicaram a importância do desenvolvimento de ações socioeducativas na população, e a associação da infestação de carrapatos com a soroprevalência mostra que há necessidade de investigação sobre o papel dos carrapatos na epidemiologia da LVC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Dogs , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Tick Infestations/veterinary , Brazil/epidemiology , Disease Reservoirs/parasitology , Disease Reservoirs/veterinary , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Dog Diseases/blood , Educational Status , Animal Distribution , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/blood , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary
14.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(4): 574-581, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057998

ABSTRACT

Abstract Leishmaniases are a group of diseases of zoonotic importance caused by over 20 species of protozoa of the genus Leishmania, in which domestic dogs are considered to be the main reservoir for the disease. However, the involvement of other vertebrates as reservoirs for these parasites has also been investigated. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to carry out a systematic review with meta-analysis on occurrences of leishmaniasis in equids. The case reports described animals with cutaneous symptoms of leishmaniasis (papules, nodules, ulcers or crusts) that regressed spontaneously, located mainly on the head and limbs, from which three species of protozoa were identified in the lesions: Leishmania braziliensis, Leishmania infantum and Leishmania siamensis. In turn, the meta-analysis showed a combined prevalence of 25%, although with high heterogeneity among the studies, which was attributed to the use of different methods for diagnosing the disease. Leishmaniasis in equids is a benign disease but it should be included in the differential diagnosis of cutaneous diseases among these species. Seroepidemiological studies are important in investigating and monitoring suspected exposure of these hosts to the parasite, especially in endemic areas. However, there is also a need to standardize diagnostic methods.


Resumo As leishmanioses são um grupo de doenças de importância zoonótica causadas por mais de 20 espécies de protozoários do gênero Leishmania, sendo o cão doméstico considerado o principal reservatório da doença. No entanto, diversas pesquisas têm investigado o envolvimento de outros vertebrados como reservatórios do parasita. Portanto, o objetivo do presente estudo foi realizar uma revisão sistemática com meta-análise da ocorrência de leishmaniose em equídeos. Os relatos de caso descreviam animais com sintomas cutâneos de leishmaniose (pápulas, nódulos, úlceras, crostas) que regrediam espontaneamente, localizadas principalmente na cabeça e membros, sendo identificadas três espécies do protozoário nas lesões: Leishmania braziliensis, Leishmania infantum e Leishmania siamensis. Por sua vez, a meta-análise evidenciou uma prevalência combinada de 25%, porém com alta heterogeneidade entre os estudos, atribuída às diferenças nos métodos utilizados no diagnóstico da doença. A leishmaniose em equídeos é uma doença benigna, porém deve ser incluída no diagnóstico diferencial de doenças cutâneas nessas espécies. Os estudos soroepidemiológicos são importantes para investigar e monitorar a suspeita de exposição desses hospedeiros ao parasita, principalmente em áreas endêmicas, porém há necessidade de padronização dos métodos de diagnóstico.


Subject(s)
Animals , Leishmaniasis/veterinary , Horse Diseases/parasitology , Horses/parasitology , Leishmania/isolation & purification , Disease Reservoirs , Leishmania/classification
16.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 39(supl.2): 32-43, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038826

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción. Trypanosoma cruzi es el agente causal de la tripanosomiasis americana, enfermedad endémica en México. Los roedores Mus musculus y Rattus rattus son reservorios del parásito, el cual invade las fibras cardiacas y desarrolla nidos parasitarios produciendo diversas lesiones. Los estudios histopatológicos en roedores naturalmente infectados son escasos. Objetivo. Describir los tipos y las frecuencias de las lesiones microscópicas en muestras de tejido cardiaco de M. musculus y R. rattus infectados con T. cruzi capturados en Mérida, México. Materiales y métodos. Los roedores se capturaron en los barrios suburbanos de Mérida. Se extrajo el tejido cardiaco y se procesó por la técnica de inclusión en parafina y tinción con hematoxilina y eosina. Su examen se hizo con un microscópico convencional y se determinaron todas las lesiones y su grado de afección. Resultados. Se trabajaron ocho muestras de tejido de M. musculus y siete de R. rattus. Se encontraron nidos parasitarios en siete del total de las muestras: en 3 de las 8 de M. musculus y en 4 de las 7 de R. rattus. Se observaron infiltrados inflamatorios en todas las muestras. Otras lesiones fueron la degeneración de las fibras cardiacas (8/15), la congestión de los vasos sanguíneos (6/15) y la necrosis (5/15). Discusión. Las lesiones observadas están descritas en los modelos animales experimentales y en los humanos con tripanosomiasis americana. Los infiltrados inflamatorios se han descrito como la lesión más significativa en los humanos y en los reservorios en la etapa crónica de la enfermedad. Conclusión. Las lesiones observadas están asociadas con la infección con T. cruzi, lo cual confirma que los roedores estudiados son reservorios de este parásito.


Abstract Introduction: Trypanosoma cruzi is the causal agent of the American trypanosomiasis, an endemic disease in México. The commensal rodents Mus musculus and Rattus rattus are reservoirs of this parasite, which invades cardiac fibers and develops parasite nests causing various lesions. Histopathological studies in naturally infected rodents are scarce. Objective: To describe the types and frequencies of microscopic lesions in cardiac tissue of M. musculus and R. rattus infected with T. cruzi captured in Mérida, México. Materials and methods: The rodents were captured in suburban environments of Mérida. Cardiac tissue was extracted and processed by the paraffin inclusion technique and hematoxylin and eosin stained. The observation was made with a conventional microscope and all the lesions, as well as their degree, were identified. Results: Eight tissue samples of M. musculus and seven of R. rattus were studied. Parasite nests were found in 7/15, specifically 3/8 in M. musculus and 4/7 in R. rattus. The inflammatory infiltrate was the most frequent lesion. Other lesions were: Degeneration of cardiac fibers (8/15), congestion of blood vessels (6/15), and necrosis (5/15). Discussion: The lesions we observed have been described in experimental animal models and in humans with American trypanosomiasis. The inflammatory infiltrate has been identified as the most significant lesion in humans and reservoirs in the chronic stage of the disease. Conclusion: The lesions we described are associated with T. cruzi infection, which confirms that the rodents studied are reservoirs of this parasite.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Rats/parasitology , Rodent Diseases/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification , Disease Reservoirs/parasitology , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/veterinary , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Heart/parasitology , Mice/parasitology , Rodent Diseases/epidemiology , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/parasitology , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/pathology , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/epidemiology , Chagas Disease/transmission , Suburban Health , Endemic Diseases/veterinary , Animals, Wild/parasitology , Mexico/epidemiology
17.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 39(2): 252-264, ene.-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011438

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The study of the interaction between the parasite, the vector and the mammalian hosts, including man, allows to understand the behavior of the leishmaniases. Objective: To determine the presence of Lutzomyia species and to detect the Leishmania infection in Didelphis marsupialis in an endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis. Materials and methods: Phlebotomine fauna and individuals of D. marsupialis were collected with CDC and Tomahawk™ traps, respectively. The species of Lutzomyia were identified using the Young and Duncan key (1994). Ear and tail biopsies and blood samples from D. marsupialis were taken to identify the Leishmania species by amplifying a fragment of the gene associated with the 70 kD heat shock protein. Results: Seven Lutzomyia species were identified: Lu. evansi, Lu. gomezi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. dubitans, Lu. cayennensis cayennensis, Lu. rangeliana and Lu. trinidadensis. The first three species have epidemiological importance in Colombia because of their implications in the transmission of the Leishmania parasite. Sixty-five tissue samples from 19 D. marsupialis individuals were negative for Leishmania spp. Conclusions: The presence of the Lutzomyia species that have been identified as vectors for Leishmania inside and around houses in the village of El Bledo, in El Carmen de Bolívar represents a risk of infection. Furthermore, the presence of Lu. panamensis is reported for first time in El Carmen de Bolívar in Colombia. Although the lack of detection of Leishmania spp. in D. marsupialis samples may suggest that D. marsupialis does not play an important role in the transmission cycle of Leishmania in this region, it is necessary to carry out further longitudinal studies to confirm this hypothesis.


Resumen Introducción. El estudio de la interacción entre el parásito, el vector y los huéspedes mamíferos, incluido el hombre, permite entender el comportamiento de la leishmaniasis. Objetivo. Determinar la presencia de especies del género Lutzomyia y detectar la infección por Leishmania spp. en Didelphis marsupialis en un área endémica de leishmaniasis visceral. Materiales y métodos. Se recolectaron flebotomíneos y D. marsupialis con trampas CDC y Tomahawk™, respectivamente. Las especies de Lutzomyia se identificaron usando la clave de Young y Duncan, 1994. Se tomaron biopsias de oreja, cola y muestras de sangre de D. marsupialis para diagnosticar Leishmania spp. mediante la amplificación de un fragmento del gen de la proteína de choque térmico de 70 kD. Resultados. Se identificaron siete especies de Lutzomyia: Lu. evansi, Lu. gomezi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. dubitans, Lu. cayennensis cayennensis, Lu. rangeliana y Lu. trinidadensis. Las tres primeras especies son reconocidas como vectores en el país por estar implicadas en la transmisión de Leishmania spp. En total, 65 muestras de tejidos de oreja, cola y de sangre provenientes de 19 D. marsupialis fueron negativas para Leishmania spp. en la PCR-HSP70. Conclusiones. La presencia de flebotomíneos con importancia epidemiológica en la zona evaluada representa un riesgo de transmisión. Asimismo, Lu. panamensis es reportada por primera vez en El Bledo (Carmen de Bolívar). La ausencia de Leishmania spp. en D. marsupialis podría sugerir que esta especie no tiene un papel importante en el ciclo de transmisión de Leishmania en la vereda El Bledo, por lo que es necesario profundizar en estudios longitudinales para corroborar esta hipótesis.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Animals , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Psychodidae , Disease Reservoirs/parasitology , Didelphis , Insect Vectors , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Psychodidae/parasitology , Rural Population , Species Specificity , Tail/parasitology , Blood/parasitology , Colombia/epidemiology , HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins/genetics , Endemic Diseases , Didelphis/parasitology , Ear, External/parasitology , Housing , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Leishmania/isolation & purification , Leishmania/classification , Leishmania/genetics , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/transmission
18.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 39(2): 278-290, ene.-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011440

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Knowledge of the geographical distribution of Leishmania species allows guiding the sampling to little-studied areas and implementing strategies to define risk zones and priority areas for control. Objective: Given that there is no publication that collects this information, the search, review, and compilation of the available scientific literature that has identified species in Colombia is presented in this paper. Materials and methods: A bibliographic search was performed in PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar, SciELO and LILACS with the terms "(Leishmania OR Leishmaniasis) AND species AND Colombia", without restrictions on publication year, language or infected organism; records of national scientific events and repositories of theses from Colombian universities were also included. Results: Eighty-six scientific documents published between 1985 and 2017 were found in which the species of Leishmania and their geographical origin were indicated. The species reported, in descending order of frequency, were: Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis, L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (V.) guyanensis, L. (Leishmania) infantum, L. (L.) amazonensis, L. (L.) mexicana, L. (V.) colombiensis, L. (V.) lainsoni and L. (V.) equatorensis; the last three were found with the same frequency. Leishmania species were reported from 29 departments. Conclusion: Information on the distribution of Leishmania species in Colombia is limited; therefore, it is necessary to gather existing data and propose studies that consolidate the distribution maps of Leishmania species in Colombia. This would allow the detection of areas where species have not been identified as well as the comparison of existing parasite and vector distributions.


Resumen Introducción. El conocimiento de la distribución geográfica de las especies de Leishmania permite orientar el muestreo hacia áreas poco estudiadas e implementar estrategias para detectar zonas de riesgo y áreas prioritarias de control. Objetivo. Dado que no existe una publicación que reúna esta información, se planteó la revisión y compilación de la literatura científica disponible de estudios de identificación de especies del país. Materiales y métodos. Se llevó a cabo una búsqueda bibliográfica en PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Google Académico, SciELO y Lilacs con los términos "(Leishmania OR Leishmaniasis) AND especie AND Colombia", así como en memorias de eventos científicos nacionales y repositorios de tesis y trabajos de grado de universidades del país. Resultados. Se encontraron 86 documentos científicos publicados entre 1985 y 2017, en los cuales se informaron la especie de Leishmania y el origen geográfico. Las especies circulantes reportadas, en su orden de frecuencia, fueron: Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis, L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (V.) guyanensis, L. (Leishmania) infantum, L. (L.) amazonensis, L. (L.) mexicana, L. (V.) colombiensis, L. (V.) lainsoni y L. (V.) equatorensis, las últimas tres, con igual frecuencia. Los reportes proceden de 29 departamentos. Conclusión. La información de la distribución de las especies de Leishmania en Colombia es limitada. Por lo tanto, se necesita reunir los datos existentes y plantear trabajos que permitan consolidar el mapa de distribución de las especies en el país, lo cual permitiría detectar las zonas sin información de las especies circulantes y establecer la concordancia entre su distribución y la de los vectores.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Leishmania , Parasitology/methods , Psychodidae/parasitology , Species Specificity , Disease Reservoirs/parasitology , Leishmaniasis/parasitology , Leishmaniasis/veterinary , Leishmaniasis/epidemiology , Colombia , Geography, Medical , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Leishmania/classification , Mammals/parasitology
19.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 39(2): 370-384, ene.-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011447

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción. Angiostrongylus cantonensis es un serio problema de salud pública y está ampliamente distribuido en el país. Cuando el parásito infecta a los caracoles terrestres Achatina, se enquista en su interior y puede infectar accidentalmente a las personas y otros mamíferos. Objetivo. Establecer la distribución geográfica de A. cantonensis en huéspedes intermediarios (Achatina fulica) y definitivos (Rattus spp.) en Ecuador entre el 2014 y el 2017. Materiales y métodos. Se recolectaron 2.908 ejemplares de A. fulica en 16 provincias utilizando el método de captura por unidad de esfuerzo durante 30 minutos. Se capturaron 211 ejemplares de las especies huéspedes, de los cuales 20 eran Rattus rattus y 191 R. norvegicus. Los ejemplares fueron transportados para su análisis al Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública e Investigación en Guayaquil. En los tejidos del caracol se identificaron y se contabilizaron larvas L3 que luego se inocularon en ratas de laboratorio para reproducir el ciclo de vida. En los roedores se disecaron los cerebros, los corazones, las arterias pulmonares y los pulmones, y se identificaron los parásitos por morfología taxonómica. Resultados. De los caracoles recolectados se encontraron 441 positivos para A. cantonensis (15,2 %) y un total de 6.166 larvas L3. En los ejemplaresRattus spp. capturados (211), 77 (36,5 %) estaban infectados con A. cantonensis, con un total de 220 parásitos (larvas L4-L5 y adultos). Conclusiones. Se constató la presencia de A. cantonensis en varias provincias, lo que confirma el carácter endémico de esta zoonosis en el territorio nacional. La presencia de Rattus spp., huésped definitivo del parásito, y de huéspedes intermediarios, indica el potencial zoonótico de esta infección parasitaria.


Abstract Introduction: Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a serious public health problem and is widely distributed in the country. When the parasite infects the snails, it becomes deeply embedded in their interior and accidentally, it can infect people and other mammals. Objective: To establish the geographical distribution of A. cantonensis intermediate hosts (Achatina fulica) and definitive hosts (Rattus spp.) in Ecuador from 2014 to 2017. Materials and methods: We collected 2,908 A. fulica specimens in 16 provinces using the capture method per unit of effort for 30 minutes. We captured 211 hosts of which 20 were Rattus rattus and 191 R. norvegicus. The specimens were transported to the Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública e Investigación in Guayaquil where the larvae L3 were identified and counted in the tissues of the snail, which were then inoculated in laboratory rats to reproduce the life cycle. In the rodents, the brains, hearts, lung arteries and lungs were dissected, and the parasites were identified by taxonomic morphology. Results: Of the snails harvested, 441 were positive for A. cantonensis (15.2%) and a total of 6,166 L3 larvae were found; 77 (36.5%) specimens of Rattus spp., were infected with A. cantonensis and a total of 220 parasites (L4-L5 larvae and adult worms) were collected. Conclusions: We confirmed the presence of A. cantonensis in several provinces, which ratifies the endemic nature of this zoonosis in the national territory. Rattus spp. specimens constitute the definitive hosts of the parasite, which together with the presence of intermediate hosts, indicates the zoonotic potential of this parasitic infection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats/parasitology , Rodent Diseases/epidemiology , Snails/parasitology , Disease Reservoirs/parasitology , Strongylida Infections/transmission , Angiostrongylus cantonensis/isolation & purification , Disease Vectors , Rodent Diseases/parasitology , Species Specificity , Zoonoses , Strongylida Infections/veterinary , Strongylida Infections/epidemiology , Angiostrongylus cantonensis/growth & development , Ecuador/epidemiology , Introduced Species , Geography, Medical , Larva , Life Cycle Stages , Animals, Wild/parasitology
20.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 39(supl.1): 108-116, mayo 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011459

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción. La leptospirosis es una infección bacteriana endémica en Colombia. Su curso clínico puede ser variable y, en ocasiones, fatal. Hay pocos estudios en el país sobre los casos graves de esta enfermedad. Objetivo. Describir las características demográficas y clínicas de los pacientes con diagnóstico de leptospirosis grave hospitalizados en salas generales o atendidos en la unidad de cuidados intensivos de un hospital de cuarto nivel. Materiales y métodos. Se llevó a cabo un estudio observacional descriptivo de los pacientes adultos y niños con diagnóstico serológico de leptospirosis entre el 2010 y el 2016. Resultados. Se analizaron las historias clínicas de 87 pacientes, 74 % de los cuales correspondía a hombres y, el 84 %, a mayores de 18 años. El 35 % tenía alguna comorbilidad y la hipertensión arterial sistémica (16 %) y la diabetes mellitus (9 %) fueron las más comunes. Los síntomas más frecuentes fueron: fiebre, náuseas, astenia, mialgias, artralgias y dolor abdominal. El 34 % requirió atención en la unidad de cuidados intensivos, con una mediana de estancia de 5 días. El 61 % requirió hospitalización en sala general, con una mediana de estancia de 6 días. Todos los casos recibieron tratamiento antibiótico con ceftriaxona o doxiciclina. La tasa de letalidad fue del 1,1 % (n=1). Conclusiones. La infección por Leptospira spp. tiene el riesgo de diagnosticarse de manera tardía por su presentación clínica inespecífica, lo que implica considerar un gran número de diagnósticos diferenciales. La atención temprana de los pacientes con cuadros graves de esta enfermedad en la unidad de cuidados intensivos, puede evitar una mayor incidencia de complicaciones y disminuir la mortalidad.


Abstract Introduction: Leptospirosis is an endemic bacterial infection in Colombia. Its clinical course can be variable and occasionally fatal. There are few studies in the country about severe cases of leptospirosis. Objectives: To describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with a diagnosis of leptospirosis, and their management in a high complexity hospital. Materials and methods: This was a descriptive retrospective study of patients with a serologic diagnosis of leptospirosis between 2010 and 2016. Results: We analyzed 87 patients, 74% of them were men, and 84% were older than 18 years; 35% had a comorbidity, the most common being arterial hypertension (16%) and diabetes mellitus (9%). The most frequent symptoms were fever, nausea, fatigue, myalgia, arthralgia, and abdominal pain. The majority of patients required hospitalization in general wards (61%), with a median stay of six days; 34% required management in the intensive care unit, with a median stay of five days. Mortality was 1.1% (n=1). All patients received treatment with either ceftriaxone or doxycycline. Conclusions: There is a risk of leptospira infections having a late diagnosis given their unspecific clinical presentation, which generates a high number of differential diagnoses. The early management in the intensive care unit could decrease the incidence of complications and the mortality of patients with leptospirosis.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Animals , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Young Adult , Leptospirosis/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Urban Population , Disease Reservoirs , Comorbidity , Retrospective Studies , Colombia/epidemiology , Endemic Diseases , Disease Management , Delayed Diagnosis , Symptom Assessment , Tertiary Care Centers , Leptospirosis/diagnosis , Occupational Diseases/diagnosis , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology
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