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1.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 44(1): 70-75, Jan.-Mar. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364888

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has been affecting the health and economic, as well as social, life of the entire globe since the end of 2019. The virus causes COVID-19, with a wide range of symptoms among the infected individuals, from asymptomatic infection to mortality. This, along with a high infection rate, prompted efforts to investigate the potential mechanisms of the different clinical manifestations caused by SARS-CoV-2 among the infected populations. Hypothesis One of the possible mechanisms that has been reported is the ABO blood system polymorphism. Indeed, one of the major proposed mechanisms is the presence of naturally occurring anti-A antibodies in individuals of groups O and B, which could be partially protective against SARS-CoV-2 virions. Objective and Method This article aimed to review the published data on the potential effect of the ABO blood group system on the susceptibility to COVID-19 and the disease progression and outcomes. Results The reviewed data suggest that individuals of blood group A are at a higher risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2 and may develop severe COVID-19 outcomes, whereas blood group O is considered protective against the infection, to some extent. However, some of the available studies seem to have been influenced by unaccounted confounders and biases. Conclusion Therefore, further appropriately controlled studies are warranted to fully investigate the possible association between the ABO blood groups and COVID-19 susceptibility and severity.


Subject(s)
ABO Blood-Group System , Disease Susceptibility , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 20(5): e3558, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1352086

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El acceso vascular en hemodiálisis es esencial para el enfermo renal por su repercusión en la calidad de vida. La fístula arteriovenosa, los catéteres para hemodiálisis o las prótesis vasculares, aunque han evolucionado gradualmente hacia el perfeccionamiento, son proclives a las infecciones debidas fundamentalmente a bacterias de la microbiota de la piel y mucosas. Objetivo: Caracterizar la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de las bacterias aisladas de pacientes con sepsis del acceso vascular en el servicio de hemodiálisis del Instituto de Nefrología. Material y Métodos: Estudio de corte transversal, en el período comprendido entre enero a diciembre de 2019. El universo estuvo constituido por 112 aislamientos obtenidos a partir de muestras de hemocultivos, secreciones y puntas de catéter de los pacientes con bacteriemias, sepsis o secreción en el sitio de inserción del catéter o acceso vascular. Resultados: El 72,3 por ciento de las muestras estudiadas fueron hemocultivos. Se obtuvo 38,3 % de aislamientos de Staphylococcus aureus, sensibles en su totalidad a la vancomicina. El 68,1 % de las cepas de Escherichia coli fueron productoras de betalactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE) con sensibilidad superior a 60 % a aminoglucósidos y carbapenémicos; similar patrón de sensibilidad mostraron las cepas de Pseudomonas, no obstante, el 100% fue resistente a las cefalosporinas. Conclusiones: No se reportó resistencia a la vancomicina en el estudio. Los aislamientos de los gérmenes gramnegativos mostraron elevada resistencia a las cefalosporinas y una buena sensibilidad a aminoglucósidos y carbapenémicos(AU)


Introduction: The vascular access in hemodialysis is essential for the renal patient both for its associated morbidity and mortality as well as for its impact on quality of life. Although arteriovenous fistula, hemodialysis catheters or vascular prostheses have gradually evolved toward improvement, they are prone to infections primarily due to bacteria on the skin and mucosal microbiota. Objective: To characterize the antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria isolated from patients with vascular access sepsis in the hemodialysis service of the Institute of Nephrology. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the period January-December 2019. The universe consisted of all 112 isolates obtained from blood culture samples, secretions and catheter tips from patients with bacteremia, sepsis or discharge at the site of catheter insertion or vascular access. Results: The results show that 72.3% of the samples studied were blood cultures. Also, 38.3 percent of Staphylococcus aureus isolates, which were totally sensitive to vancomycin, were obtained. On the other hand, 68.1% of Escherichia coli strains were extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) producers with sensitivity to aminoglycosides and carbapenems greater than 60%. Pseudomonas strains exhibited a similar pattern of sensitivity, however, 100% were resistant to cephalosporins. Conclusions: No resistance to vancomycin was reported in this study. Gram-negative isolates showed high resistance to cephalosporins and good sensitivity to aminoglycosides and carbapenems(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Quality of Life , Staphylococcus aureus , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Susceptibility/complications
3.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 73(2): e577, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347481

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las cepas de Escherichia coli productoras de β-lactamasas de espectro extendido son patógenos multirresistentes y una de las bacterias que más contribuyen con la resistencia antibiótica bacteriana en la clínica. Sin embargo, se aíslan cada vez con más frecuencia de ambientes naturales, tales como los ecosistemas acuáticos en los cuales se emplea como un indicador de contaminación fecal. Objetivo: Evaluar la susceptibilidad a los antibióticos y la producción de enzimas ß-lactamasas de espectro extendido de aislados de Escherichia coli procedentes de ecosistemas dulceacuícolas de La Habana. Métodos: Se analizaron 43 aislados de E. coli provenientes de los ríos Almendares, Quibú y Luyanó de La Habana. Se determinó la susceptibilidad a 18 antibióticos y la producción fenotípica de ß-lactamasas de espectro extendido según las normas del Instituto de Estándares para el Laboratorio Clínico. La detección molecular de las enzimas se realizó mediante reacción en cadena de la polimerasa. Se calculó el índice de multirresistencia a los antibióticos y los patrones de resistencia de cada aislado de E. coli- ß-lactamasas de espectro extendido. Resultados: El 65 por ciento de los aislados de E. coli fueron resistentes al menos a un antibiótico y el 35 por ciento fueron sensibles a todos los antibióticos. El fenotipo ß-lactamasas de espectro extendido fue detectado en siete aislados; de estos, cuatro fueron portadores del gen bla CTX-M-1 y tres presentaron bla TEM. El 37 por ciento de los aislados de E. coli mostraron valores de índices de multirresistencia a los antibióticos menores que 0,22; el 16 por ciento de 0,22; el 9,3 por ciento mayor que 0,5; y el 5 por ciento mayor que 0,7. Los aislados de E. coli-BLEE mostraron corresistencia a las familias de las tetraciclinas, quinolonas, aminoglucósidos y macrólidos. Conclusiones: La presencia de aislados ambientales multirresistentes de E. coli productores de ß-lactamasas de espectro extendido en ecosistemas dulceacuícolas de La Habana destaca la necesidad de implementar estrategias de control para prevenir la diseminación de estos aislados en los ambientes naturales(AU)


Introduction: Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli strains are multiresistant pathogens and one of the bacteria contributing most greatly to bacterial antibiotic resistance in clinical practice. However, they are increasingly isolated from natural environments, such as aquatic ecosystems, where they are used as fecal pollution indicators. Objective: Evaluate antibiotic susceptibility and extended-spectrum ß-lactamase enzyme production in Escherichia coli isolates from freshwater ecosystems in Havana. Methods: An analysis was conducted of 43 E. coli isolates from the rivers Almendares, Quibú and Luyanó in Havana. Determination was made of susceptibility to 18 antibiotics and phenotypic production of extended-spectrum ß-lactamases according to standards from the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Molecular detection of the enzymes was performed by polymerase chain reaction. Estimation was carried out of the antibiotic multiresistance index and the resistance patterns of each extended-spectrum E. coli ß-lactamase isolate. Results: Of the E. coli isolates studied, 65 percent were resistant to at least one antibiotic, whereas 35 percent were sensitive to all antibiotics. The extended-spectrum ß-lactamase phenotype was detected in seven isolates, of which four were carriers of the gene bla CTX-M-1 and three contained bla TEM. 37 percent of the E. coli isolates displayed antibiotic multiresistance index values below 0.22, 16 percent of 0.22, 9.3 percent above 0.5 and 5 percent above 0.7. ESBL E. coli isolates displayed co-resistance to the families tetracyclines, quinolones, aminoglycosides and macrolides. Conclusions: The presence of multiresistant extended-spectrum ß-lactamase-producing environmental E. coli isolates in Havana freshwater ecosystems highlights the need to implement control strategies aimed at preventing the spread of these isolates in natural environments(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Ecosystem , Disease Susceptibility , Environmental Pollution , Escherichia coli , Fresh Water , Reference Standards , Pollution Indicators
4.
Alerta (San Salvador) ; 4(3): 175-170, jul. 29, 2021. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1283003

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Los patrones de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de Salmonella enterica serotipo Typhi se han modificado globalmente durante las últimas tres décadas. Objetivo. Describir los patrones de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de las cepas de Salmonella enterica Typhi, aisladas en El Salvador de enero 2017 a junio 2020. Metodología. Evaluación secundaria de las bases de datos del Laboratorio Nacional de Salud Pública, de los aislamientos de Salmonella enterica Typhi con sus respectivos antibiogramas, de muestras de pacientes que adolecieron de fiebre tifoidea en El Salvador, de enero 2017 a junio 2020. Resultados. 1406 aislamientos de Salmonella enterica Typhi fueron reportados. El 100 % de los aislamientos analizados presentó susceptibilidad a la ceftriaxona y a la azitromicina. El 99,9 % de los aislamientos analizados presentó susceptibilidad a la ampicilina, al cloranfenicol, a la tetraciclina y al trimetoprim-sulfametoxazol. Para ciprofloxacina, se detectó susceptibilidad en el 8,5% de las cepas analizadas, susceptibilidad intermedia en el 91,5% y resistencia en el 0,08 %. Conclusión. Los hallazgos son compatibles con lo reportado a nivel mundial: el desarrollo rápido de susceptibilidad intermedia o resistencia a la ciprofloxacina, una vez esta es adoptada como el tratamiento de elección para la fiebre tifoidea. En El Salvador, los antibióticos antes considerados como de primera línea contra Salmonella enterica Typhi, deben ser reciclados


Introduction. The antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi have been modified globally for the past three decades. Target. Describe the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Salmonella enterica Typhi strains, isolated in El Salvador from January 2017 to June 2020. Methodology. Secondary assessment from the databases of the National Public Health Laboratory, of the isolates of Salmonella enterica Typhi with their respective antibiograms, of samples of patients who suffered from typhoid fever in El Salvador, from January 2017 to June 2020. Results. 1406 isolates of Salmonella enterica Typhi were reported. 100% of the isolations analyzed showed susceptibility to ceftriaxone and azithromycin. 99.9% of the isolates analyzed presented susceptibility to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. For ciprofloxacin, detected susceptibility in 8.5% of the strains analyzed, intermediate susceptibility in 91.5% and resistance in the 0.08%. Conclution. The findings are consistent with what has been reported worldwide: the rapid development of susceptibility intermediate or resistance to ciprofloxacin, once it is adopted as the treatment of choice for typhoid fever. In El Salvador, antibiotics previously considered first-line against Salmonella enterica Typhi, must be recycled


Subject(s)
Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Salmonella enterica , Laboratories , Public Health , Disease Susceptibility
5.
Rev. cuba. reumatol ; 23(1): e839, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280401

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La esclerosis sistémica es una enfermedad autoinmune del tejido conectivo donde ocurre inicialmente la vasculopatía y persiste durante toda la enfermedad. El índice de actividad revela un periodo crítico de la enfermedad. Objetivo: Evaluar la evolución clínica del índice de actividad de pacientes con esclerosis sistémica para determinar si el esquema terapéutico aplicado disminuye los síntomas de actividad sistémica. Métodos: Estudio cuasi experimental terapéutico de 31 pacientes atendidos en el Hospital Lucía Íñiguez Landín de Holguín que se dividieron en dos grupos según las etapas clínicas obtenidas del índice de desarrollo integral desde marzo del 2013 hasta marzo del 2016: el grupo A (etapas clínicas I y II) con 16 pacientes y el grupo B (etapas clínicas III y IV) con 15 pacientes. La evolución se evaluó según variables del instrumento al inicio, a los 6 y 12 meses de aplicado el esquema terapéutico. Se utilizó la prueba T o la prueba exacta de Fisher cuando los valores eran igual a 3 o menores. El cálculo de la media, análisis porcentual y la prueba de Wilcoxon se usaron para conocer la relación de variables en el tiempo. Resultados: El esquema terapéutico aplicado, previa validación, mejoró el índice de actividad de los pacientes de ambos grupos A y B (en etapas clínicas tempranas y tardías). Al evaluar el índice de actividad, en esta serie predominó la actividad moderada, tanto a los 6 como a los 12 meses durante el tratamiento médico. En ambos grupos la mejoría del índice de actividad fue significativa, tanto para la actividad moderada como para la intensa, más notable a partir de los 12 meses con p≤0,05 para el grupo A. Hubo baja susceptibilidad para la mejoría de los sistemas gastrointestinal y respiratorio, en el trascurso de la evaluación de este índice. Conclusiones: Se alcanzó mejoría en el índice de actividad de pacientes con esclerosis sistémica, con el esquema terapéutico aplicado, con estabilidad clínica y humoral desde las etapas iniciales de la enfermedad(AU)


Introduction: The systemic sclerosis is an autoimmune disease of the connective tissue where the vasculopathy happens initially and persist during all the disease. The immune component starts since the inflammatory process triggers off but he diminishes until you dwell on the evolutionary course and it is substituted for fibrosis, this ends pathogenic acquires great significance in the process. The index of activity reveals a critical period of the disease. Objective: Evaluating patients' clinical evolution of the index of activity with systemic sclerosis with the applied therapeutics. Methods: The study was quasi-experiences (or secondary prevention). In order to determine if the therapeutic applied scheme decreases symptomatology of its systemic activity. You started in March of the 2013 to March of the 2016, with duration of 24 months. They were 31 patients that split into two groups according to the clinical stages obtained of Comprehensive Development Index. In the group to (clinical stages I and II) 16 patients and in the group B (clinical stages III and IV) 15 patients. The evolution evaluated according to variables of the instrument of evaluation the start, to the six and 12 months itself of once the therapeutic scheme was applied. The T utilized the proof itself, or exact Fisher's proof when moral values were all the same or minor to three, the statistical significance determined in p≥ 0.05 itself. The calculation of the stocking, percentage analysis, and Wilcoxon's proof to know the relation of variables through the time. Results: The therapeutic applied scheme, previous validation, you improved the index of activity of the patients of both groups A and B that is in clinical premature and overdue stages. In the activity moderated for the group A statistical significance for system microvascular (0.023) and respiratory (0.025) to the six months, and to the 12 months' skin (0.023) and microvascular (0.006). For the intense activity significant improvement to the six months for muscleskelettic (0.005) and rheumatoid positive factor (0.008), to the 12 months' significant improvement for muscleskelettic (0.004); and examine of laboratory like erythrocyte sedimentation rate (0.008) circulating immune complexes (0.005), and rheumatoid factor (0.003). For the group B in the moderate activity significant improvement for respiratory system existed (0.014), and cardiovascular (0.020) that kept to the 12 months, added up its digestive system (0.008). Evident level improvement of skin (0.004), circulating immune complexes (0.008) and rheumatoid factor were caught up within the intense activity to the 12 months (0.014). Conclusions: Improvement in the index of activity of patients with systemic sclerosis, with the therapeutic scheme applied, with clinical stability and humoral from initial stages of the disease was caught up with(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Rheumatoid Factor , Scleroderma, Systemic/drug therapy , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Clinical Evolution , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Disease Susceptibility , Antigen-Antibody Complex , Secondary Prevention
6.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(2): 181-187, mar.-abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279099

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Se desconoce si existe una influencia del sistema sanguíneo ABO en susceptibilidad y gravedad de la enfermedad. Objetivo: Analizar si existe una asociación entre los antígenos del sistema ABO y la susceptibilidad y gravedad de la infección por SARS-CoV-2. Material y métodos: Se compararon las frecuencias de los antígenos del sistema ABO en 73 casos confirmados de infección por SARS-CoV-2 y 52 donadores clínicamente sanos. La gravedad de la infección se evaluó comparando la frecuencia de los antígenos por gravedad de la enfermedad y la mortalidad. Resultados: El riesgo de padecer infección por SARS-CoV-2 se incrementa en sujetos con antígeno A vs los no-A (OR=1.45; IC95 %:1.061-1.921). El fenotipo sanguíneo O disminuye el riesgo de padecer infección por SARS-CoV-2 (OR=0.686; IC95 %: 0.522-0.903). No se encontraron diferencias entre la gravedad de la enfermedad. En los pacientes graves, el riesgo de mortalidad se incrementó en sujetos con antígeno A vs los no-A (OR= 3.34; IC95 %: 1.417-8.159). Conclusión: El grupo sanguíneo A es un factor de riesgo para padecer infección por SARS-CoV-2, no así en la gravedad de la enfermedad, pero en los pacientes graves fue un factor de riesgo para la mortalidad.


Abstract Introduction: Whether there is an influence of the ABO blood system on susceptibility to the disease and its severity is unknown. Objective: To analyze if there is an association between the ABO blood system phenotypes and susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and its severity. Material and methods: The frequency of ABO antigens was compared in 73 confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection and 52 clinically healthy donors. The severity of the infection was evaluated by comparing the frequency of antigens by severity of the disease and mortality. Results: The risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection is increased in subjects with antigen A vs non-A subjects (OR=1.45; 95 %: 1.061-1.921). Blood phenotype O decreases the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection (OR= 0.686; 95 % CI: 0.522-0.903). No differences were found regarding disease severity. The mortality risk is increased in subjects antigen A vs non-A (OR= 3.34; 95% IC: 1.417-8.159). Conclusion: Blood group A is a risk factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection, but not for disease severity, although in critically ill patients it is a risk factor for mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Severity of Illness Index , ABO Blood-Group System/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , ABO Blood-Group System/adverse effects , Case-Control Studies , Confidence Intervals , Odds Ratio , Risk Factors , Critical Illness , Disease Susceptibility/immunology , Disease Susceptibility/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology
7.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 20(2): e3894, mar.-abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251800

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La carne de ave y otros tipos de carnes provenientes de animales infectados son importantes vehículos de salmonelosis. Objetivo: Determinar la susceptibilidad a los antimicrobianos y las serovariedades de Salmonella aisladas en carnes y productos cárnicos. Material y Métodos: Se analizaron 172 aislados en el período enero de 2012 a marzo de 2020 en el laboratorio de Microbiología del Instituto Nacional de Higiene Epidemiología y Microbiología de Cuba. El serotipaje se determinó según la norma ISO/TR 6579-3:2014. La susceptibilidad antimicrobiana se realizó mediante el método de difusión con discos (Bauer-Kirby) de acuerdo con la metodología descrita en la normativa del Instituto de Normas Clínicas y de Laboratorio. Resultados: Las serovariedades identificadas con mayor frecuencia fueron: S. Enteritidis, S. Agona, S. Derby, S. Infantis y S. London, 18 (43,9 %) serovariedades identificadas en las carnes frescas también se encontraron en las procesadas. Los porcentajes más altos de resistencia antimicrobiana se hallaron frente al ácido nalidíxico, la tetraciclina y la ampicilina.S. Enteritidis y S. Typhimurium expresaron resistencia a un mayor número de antibióticos. Conclusiones: Los resultados sugieren que las carnes frescas constituyen una fuente de diseminación de Salmonella, incluso aquellas portadoras de resistencia a los antimicrobianos(AU)


Poultry and other types of meat from infected animals are important vehicles of salmonellosis. Objective: To determine the susceptibility to antimicrobial agents and serovarieties of Salmonella isolated from meat and meat products. Material and Methods: A total of 159 isolates were analyzed at the Cuban National Institute of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Microbiology during the period between January 2012 and March 2020. Serotypes were determined according to ISO/TR 6579-3: 2014. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the Bauer-Kirby technique, according to the methodology described in the regulations of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Results: The most frequent serovarieties identified were S. Enteritidis, S. Agona, S. Derby, S. Infantis and S. London. Also, 18 (43, 9 %) of serovarieties identified in fresh meat were found in processed meat. The highest percentages were related to antimicrobial resistance to nalidixic acid, tetracycline and ampicillin. S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium serotypes showed resistance to a greater number of antibiotics. Conclusions: The results suggest that fresh meats are an important source of Salmonella contamination, including those that are carriers of antimicrobial-resistant pathogens(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Salmonella Infections , Stroke , Environmental Pollution , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Disease Susceptibility
8.
ABCS health sci ; 46: e021203, 09 fev. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147180

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The resistance of fungal species to drugs usually used in clinics is of great interest in the medical field. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate susceptibility and in vitro response of species of Trichophyton spp. to antifungal drugs of interest in clinical medicine. METHODS: 12 samples of clinical isolates from humans were used, nine of T. mentagrophytes and three of T. tonsurans. Susceptibility tests were performed according to the agar diffusion (AD) and broth microdilution (BM) methods. RESULTS: In the AD method, the species T. tonsurans presented a percentage of sensitivity of 33% in relation to amphotericin B and 66% to itraconazole, with 100% resistance to ketoconazole and fluconazole. T. mentagrophytes also showed 100% resistance to ketoconazole in this technique, with 11% sensitivity to ketoconazole, 22% to itraconazole and 22% of samples classified as sensitive dose dependent. In the MC method, the species T. tonsurans presented a sensitivity percentage of 66%, 55% and 33% in relation to ketoconazole, fluconazole and itraconazole, respectively. The T. mentagrophytes species presented sensitivity percentages of 11%, 11%, 33% and 55% for amphotericin B, itraconazole, ketoconazole and fluconazole, respectively. CONCLUSION: There was resistance in vitro of the species of T. mentagrophytes and T. tonsurans against the antifungal fluconazole and relative resistance against ketoconazole in the AD method. In BM, however, important percentages of sensitivity were observed for the two species analyzed in relation to the antifungals fluconazole and ketoconazole when compared to itraconazole and amphotericin B.


INTRODUÇÃO: A resistência de espécies fúngicas às drogas usualmente empregadas no meio clínico é motivo de grande interesse na área médica. OBJETIVO: Avaliar susceptibilidade e resposta in vitro de espécies de Trichophyton spp. a drogas antifúngicas de interesse em clínica médica. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizadas 12 amostras de isolados clínicos de humanos, sendo nove de T. mentagrophytes e três de T. tonsurans. Foram realizados testes de susceptibilidade segundo os métodos de difusão em ágar (DA) e microdiluição em caldo (MC). RESULTADOS: No método de DA, a espécie T. tonsurans apresentou percentual de sensibilidade de 33% em relação à anfotericina B e de 66% ao itraconazol, com 100% de resistência frente ao cetoconazol e ao fluconazol. A espécie T. mentagrophytes também apresentou 100% de resistência frente ao cetoconazol nesta técnica, com 11% de sensibilidade ao cetoconazol, 22% ao itraconazol e 22% das amostras classificadas como sensível dose dependente. No método de MC, a espécie T. tonsurans apresentou percentual de sensibilidade de 66%, 55% e 33% em relação ao cetoconazol, fluconazol e itraconazol, respectivamente. A espécie T. mentagrophytes apresentou percentuais de sensibilidade de 11%, 11%, 33% e 55% para anfotericina B, itraconazol, cetoconazol e fluconazol, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: Houve resistência in vitro das espécies do T. mentagrophytes e T. tonsurans frente ao antifúngico fluconazol e resistência relativa frente ao cetoconazol no método de DA. Na MC, no entanto, foram observados importantes percentuais de sensibilidade das duas espécies analisadas frente aos antifúngicos fluconazol e cetoconazol quando comparadas ao itraconazol e à anfotericina B.


Subject(s)
Trichophyton/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Disease Susceptibility/microbiology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Tinea/microbiology , Tinea/drug therapy , Colony Count, Microbial , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Amphotericin B/pharmacology , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Ketoconazole/pharmacology
9.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06821, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1250485

ABSTRACT

Fipronil was registered in Uruguay in 1997, and, since then, it has been used for the control of Haematobia irritans irritans and Rhipicephalus microplus. The susceptibility of H. irritants to this drug has not been evaluated. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to evaluate the resistance of H. irritans to fipronil. Additionally, a survey was carried out with the farmers to evaluate the use of fipronil for H. irritans control in the ranches where the flies came from. For the bioassays, 31 field populations of H. irritans were exposed to 10 concentrations of fipronil (3.2-16.0μg.cm2), and their LC50 values were calculated using probit analysis. A bioassay was performed with horn flies from the susceptible colony maintained at the USDA-ARS Knipling-Bushland U.S. Livestock Insects Research Laboratory for comparison and calculation of resistance ratios (RRs). All 31 field populations surveyed in the study were susceptible to fipronil, with resistance ratios ranging from <0.5 to 2.2. Four populations with RRs >1 did not differ significantly from the susceptible strain. A single population showed an RR >2.2. Overall, the survey shows that fipronil was mostly used for R. microplus control, and in only three ranches, which were free of R. microplus, was fipronil used for horn fly control. Seventeen farmers did not use fipronil at all in the last three years. It is concluded that, in Uruguay, field populations of horn flies remain susceptible to fipronil.(AU)


O fipronil foi registrado no Uruguai em 1997 e, desde então, tem sido utilizado no controle de Haematobia irritans irritans e Rhipicephalus microplus. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a susceptibilidade de populações de campo de H. irritans ao fipronil. Além disso, foi realizada uma pesquisa para avaliar a utilização de fipronil e as práticas de controle de H. irritans nas fazendas de onde provinham as moscas. Para os bioensaios, 31 populações de campo de H. irritans foram expostas a 10 concentrações de fipronil (3,2-16,0μg.cm2), e seus valores de CL50 foram calculados usando análise probit. Um bioensaio foi realizado com H. irritans da colônia suscetível mantida no USDA-ARS Knipling-Bushland U.S. Livestock Insects Research Laboratory para comparação e cálculo das razões de resistência (RRs). Todas as 31 populações de campo pesquisadas no estudo eram suscetíveis ao fipronil, com taxas de resistência variando de <0,5 à 2,2. Quatro populações com Rrs >1 não diferiram significativamente da cepa suscetível. Uma única população apresentou RR >2,2. No geral, o fipronil tinha sido usado principalmente para o controle de R. microplus, e em apenas três fazendas, que estavam livres de R. microplus, o fipronil era utilizado para o controle da H. irritans. Em 17 fazendas não tinha sido utilizado fipronil nos últimos três anos. Conclui-se que no Uruguai as populações de H. irritans no campo permanecem suscetíveis ao fipronil.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Biological Assay , Pest Control, Biological , Rhipicephalus/pathogenicity , Diptera , Livestock , Surveys and Questionnaires , Disease Susceptibility , Laboratories
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922598

ABSTRACT

As a stable genetic marker of human, blood group is expressed in a polymorphic system in the population. Blood group and pathogens mainly produce effects through the interaction between antigens and antibodies. On the one hand, they can promote pathogen colonization, invasion or evasion of host clearance mechanism, and on the other hand, they can make some hosts less susceptible to corresponding pathogens. By exploring the molecular mechanism between the blood group system and pathogenic microorganisms, it can provide a scientific basis for the treatment of human related diseases and the development of vaccines.


Subject(s)
Blood Group Antigens/genetics , Disease Susceptibility , Humans
11.
Rev. cienc. cuidad ; 18(1): 20-29, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1147582

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Interpretar las creencias de susceptibilidad percibida en-tre la condición de embarazo y las enfermedades bucodentales por mujeres gestantes de la ciudad de Montería, en el Departamento de Córdoba, Colombia. Materiales y métodos: Estudio cualitativo con enfoque microetnográfico, cuyos resultados se obtuvieron mediante la observación y las entrevistas a profundidad que fueron aplicadas a 19 gestantes adscritas a un hogar comunitario de la comuna cuatro de la ciudad de Montería, Córdoba, en 2019, quienes fueron selec-cionadas por conveniencia. La información se recolectó durante el I semestre del 2019 y se organizó a partir de la dimensión del Mo-delo de creencias en salud: susceptibilidad percibida. El análisis se realizó bajo los parámetros de la técnica de análisis de contenido. Resultados: La creencia de susceptibilidad que predominó entre las gestantes fue que en el periodo de embarazo las enfermedades bu-cales son normales y que su origen obedecía a la succión del calcio a la madre por parte del bebé para su crecimiento. Conclusión: Las creencias que poseen las gestantes actúan como barreras frente a la adopción de comportamientos saludables y de su permanencia en programas de promoción de la salud oral y prevención de las enfer-medades bucodentales.


Objective: To interpret the beliefs of perceived susceptibility between the condition of pregnancy and oral diseases by pregnant women in Monteria, Córdoba, Colombia. Material and method:Qualitative study with a micro-ethnographic approach. The results were gotten through obser-vation and in-depth interviews that were applied to 19 pregnant women of the commune four in Monteria, Córdoba in 2019, selected by convenience. The information was collected during the first semester of 2019, and it was organized based on the dimension of the Health Belief Model: perceived susceptibility; the analysis was performed under the parameters of the content analysis technique. Results:the prevailing belief among pregnant women was that oral diseases were cau-sed because the baby got all the calcium during pregnancy. Conclusion: The threats suffered by pregnant women act as barriers against the adoption of healthy behaviors, and their permanence in programs to promote oral health and prevent oral diseases.


Objetivo: Interpretar as crenças de susceptibilidade percebida durante a gravidez das doenças bucais e dentais por gestantes na cidade de Monteria, no estado de Córdoba, Colômbia Materiais e métodos: Estudo qualitativo com foco micro etnográfico, os resultados obtiveram-se mediante observação e as entrevistas a profundidade aplicadas em 19 mulheres grávidas de um lar comu-nitário da comuna quatro da cidade de Monteria, Córdoba em 2019. Organizou-se a partir da dimensão do modelo de crenças em saúde: susceptibilidade percebida. A análise realizou-se se-guindo os parâmetros da técnica de análise de conteúdo. Resultados: A crença de susceptibilidade que se observou durante a gravidez perante as doenças dentais e bucais são normais e que a sua origem obedeceu à sucção do cálcio da mãe para o neném em formação. Conclusão: As crenças que possuem as grávidas atuam como empecilhos frente a adoção de comportamentos saudáveis e de permanência em programas de promoção da saúde oral e das doenças bucais e dentais.


Subject(s)
Oral Medicine , Pregnant Women , Culture , Disease Susceptibility , Anthropology, Cultural
12.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(12): 947-954, Dec. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1155047

ABSTRACT

Mastitis is a multifactorial disease and considered one of the most critical problems in the dairy industry worldwide. The condition is characterized by reduced milk and several abnormalities in the mammary gland. This study aimed to report an outbreak of gangrenous mastitis caused by multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus haemolyticus in a Santa Inês sheep herd. Eighteen sheep were affected, and five of them with severe clinical pictures were examined. The clinical and pathological picture were variable and characterized by apathy, anorexia, emaciation, opaque and brittle hair, apparent and congested episcleral vessels, and hyperthermia. These ewes had enlarged, firm, and painful mammary glands. Macroscopically, these lesions consisted of severe gangrenous mastitis, and microscopically, the primary lesions consisted of necrosis, thrombosis, and fibrosis of the mammary parenchyma. Milk samples from one of the five severely affected ewes were collected and cultured under aerobic or microaerophilic incubation at 37°C for 24 hours on sheep blood agar. The obtained colonies were then submitted to MALDI-TOF for speciation. The colonies were also submitted to an antimicrobial susceptibility test, genotyping of virulence factors and resistance genes were also performed. The isolates showed antimicrobial multiresistance since they were resistant to seven out of 13 tested antibiotics. The isolates were also positive for two staphylococcal enterotoxigenic genes (sec and see) and fibronectin-binding protein B (fnbB).(AU)


A mastite é uma doença multifatorial e é considerada um dos problemas mais importantes na indústria de laticínios no mundo todo. A condição é caracterizada pela redução de leite e várias anormalidades na glândula mamária. O objetivo deste estudo foi relatar um surto de mastite gangrenosa causada por Staphylococcus haemolyticus multirresistente em um rebanho ovino Santa Inês. Dezoito ovelhas foram afetadas e cinco delas com quadro clínico severo foram examinadas. O quadro clínico-patológico era variável quanto a severidade e consistia em apatia, anorexia, magreza, pelos opacos e quebradiços e vasos episclerais aparentes e ingurgitados. As ovelhas apresentavam glândulas aumentadas, firmes e dolorosas. Macroscopicamente, as principais lesões consistiam em mastite gangrenosa e microscopicamente havia necrose do parênquima glandular, trombose e fibrose. Amostras de leite de uma das cinco ovelhas severamente afetadas foram coletadas e cultivadas sob incubação aeróbica ou microaerofílica a 37°C por 24 horas em ágar sangue de ovelha. As colônias obtidas foram então submetidas ao MALDI-TOF para especiação. Além disso, as colônias foram submetidas a um teste de suscetibilidade antimicrobiana e foi realizada a genotipagem de fatores de virulência e genes de resistência. Os isolados apresentaram multirresistência antimicrobiana por serem resistentes a sete dos 13 antibióticos testados. Os isolados também foram positivos para dois genes enterotoxigênicos estafilocócicos (sec e see) e proteína B de ligação à fibronectina (fnbB).(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Wounds and Injuries , Sheep/microbiology , Staphylococcus haemolyticus/pathogenicity , Mastitis/pathology , Disease Susceptibility
13.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 7(3): 325-332, 26 de noviembre 2020. ^c27 cmilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA, DIGIUSAC | ID: biblio-1130006

ABSTRACT

La pandemia de COVID-19, causada por el virus SARS-CoV-2, ha infectado ya a más de 25 millones de personas, ocasionando más de 850,000 muertos y causando serios problemas en hospitales y sistemas de salud en todo el mundo. Una de las mayores dificultades que presenta la infección por SARS-CoV-2 es su gran variación en presentación clínica, que puede ir desde casos asintomáticos hasta síndromes de distrés respiratorio agudo, fallo múltiple de órganos y muerte. De aquí la importancia del estudio de factores demográficos, clínicos y genéticos que permitan la identificación de personas con mayor riesgo de adquirir la infección y sufrir manifestaciones graves de la enfermedad. Un número creciente de reportes en la literatura han sugerido que el grupo sanguíneo ABO está relacionado con el riesgo a COVID-19, coincidiendo en que personas con sangre del grupo A muestran el mayor riesgo, mientras que personas con sangre del grupo O el menor. Los objetivos de esta revisión son presentar un resumen de la evidencia existente en la literatura científica reciente y discutir estas observaciones en el contexto del conocimiento sobre la asociación de los grupos sanguíneos a varias infecciones y otras enfermedades, así como de los mecanismos potenciales involucrados. Finalmente, las implicaciones de la relación entre el grupo sanguíneo y susceptibilidad a COVID-19 son también discutidas con relación a la población guatemalteca.


The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, has already infected more than 25 million people, resulting in more than 850,000 deaths and causing serious problems in hospitals and health systems worldwide. One of the biggest problems posed by the SARS-CoV-2 infection is its great variation in clinical presentation, which can range from asymptomatic cases to syndromes of acute respiratory distress, multiple organ failure, and death. Hence the importance of studying demographic, clinical and genetic factors that allow the identification of people at increased risk of suffering serious manifestations. A growing number of reports in the literature have suggested that the ABO blood group is related to the risk of COVID-19, demonstrating that people with type A blood have the highest risk, while people with type O blood the lowest. The objective of this review is to present a summary of the existing evidence in the recent scientific literature and to discuss these observations in the context of the knowledge of the association of blood groups to various infections and other diseases, as well as the potential mechanisms involved. Finally, the implications of the relationship between the blood groups and COVID-19 susceptibility are also discussed in relationship to the Guatemalan population.


Subject(s)
Humans , ABO Blood-Group System/genetics , SARS Virus , Disease Susceptibility/complications , Risk , Coronavirus Infections , Guatemala
15.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 35(3): 351-361, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138793

ABSTRACT

Resumen Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) es un bacilo gramnegativo microaerófilo, capaz de colonizar la mucosa gástrica. Este microorganismo infecta a más de la mitad de la población mundial, por lo que se ha convertido en la infección bacteriana más común. La prevalencia de la infección y de las enfermedades asociadas a ella es alta, sobre todo en países en vías de desarrollo. El tratamiento recomendado para la erradicación es la triple terapia; sin embargo, su eficacia ha disminuido por el desconocimiento del patrón de susceptibilidad bacteriano por parte del personal médico y dada la aparición de cepas resistentes. La resistencia en H. pylori se asocia con la capacidad de adaptación de la bacteria a ambientes hostiles y al uso de los antibióticos. En Colombia, existen reportes acerca de que H. pylori presenta resistencia a amoxicilina, metronidazol, claritromicina, furazolidona, levofloxacina y tetraciclina. Los estudios del patrón de susceptibilidad determinaron que la frecuencia de resistencia de H. pylori es variable y demuestran la falta de datos en la mayoría del territorio del país. Sobre la base de lo anterior, el objetivo de esta revisión es describir los porcentajes de resistencia de H. pylori a los antibióticos amoxicilina, metronidazol, claritromicina, furazolidona, levofloxacina y tetraciclina, usados en el tratamiento de la infección en los estudios realizados en Colombia.


Abstract Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a microaerophilic gram-negative bacillus that colonizes the gastric mucosa. It infects more than half the world's population, making it the most common bacterial infection. The prevalence of infection and associated diseases is high in developing countries. The recommended treatment for its eradication is triple therapy; however, its efficacy has decreased due to the lack of knowledge of the bacterial susceptibility pattern among the medical staff and the emergence of resistant strains. H. pylori susceptibility is associated with the bacteria's ability to adapt to hostile environments and the use of antibiotics. In Colombia, it has been reported that H. pylori is resistant to amoxicillin, metronidazole, clarithromycin, furazolidone, levofloxacin, and tetracycline. Studies on the susceptibility pattern have determined that the frequency of H. pylori susceptibility is variable and demonstrate the lack of data in most of the Colombian territory. With this in mind, the objective of this review is to describe the percentage of resistance to amoxicillin, metronidazole, clarithromycin, furazolidone, levofloxacin and tetracycline, which are used for the treatment of H. pylori infection, according to studies conducted in Colombia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tetracycline , Efficacy , Helicobacter pylori , Clarithromycin , Levofloxacin , Furazolidone , Amoxicillin , Metronidazole , Prevalence , Disease Susceptibility , Disease Eradication
16.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 49(3): e793, jul.-set. 2020. tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1144472

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los primeros informes de China sugirieron que la coinfección con otros patógenos en la COVID-19 era anómala, las últimas evidencias han demostrado que pueden aparecer otras infecciones, sobre todo en pacientes graves. Objetivo: Describir las infecciones bacterianas asociadas a la COVID-19, en pacientes de una unidad de cuidados intensivos. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo en el período comprendido de marzo 24 a mayo 24 del año 2020, en la unidad de cuidados intensivos del Hospital Militar "Comandante Manuel Fajardo Rivero". La población de estudio estuvo constituida por 13 pacientes de 49 a 91 años, quienes permanecieron hospitalizados en esa sala, con diagnóstico confirmado, por la prueba de reacción en cadena de la transcriptasa inversa - polimerasa en tiempo real, para el SARS-CoV-2. Las variables de estudio fueron: edad, sexo, confección, antecedentes patológicos personales, estado al egreso, microorganismos aislados y susceptibilidad antimicrobiana. Resultados: El 61,5 por ciento de los pacientes fueron del sexo femenino, la edad media fue de 78,8 años, el 61,5 por ciento falleció y entre estos, el 44,4 por ciento presentó coinfección. El 66,7 por ciento y el 55,6 por ciento de los que padecían hipertensión arterial y cardiopatía isquémica respectivamente, desarrollaron una coinfección. La Escherichia coli fue el microorganismo que se aisló con mayor frecuencia. Conclusiones: En la serie estudiada predominaron las féminas, la mortalidad fue alta, se evidenció un porcentaje elevado de confección bacteriana y de comorbilidades. Más de la mitad de los pacientes falleció. Fueron las bacterias gramnegativas los microorganismos que más se aislaron. Los niveles de resistencia a los antimicrobianos fueron elevados(AU)


Introduction: The first reports from China suggested that coinfection with other pathogens in COVID-19 was abnormal, the latest evidence has shown that other infections may appear, especially in severe patients. Objective: To describe the bacterial infections associated with COVID-19, in patients in an intensive care unit. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out in the period from March 24 to May 24, 2020, in the intensive care unit of the Military Hospital "Comandante Manuel Fajardo Rivero". The study population consisted of 13 patients from 49 to 91 years, those who remained hospitalized in that room, with a confirmed diagnosis, by the real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction test for SARS-CoV-2. The study variables were: age, sex, clothing, personal pathological history, status at discharge, isolated microorganisms and antimicrobial susceptibility. Results: 61.5 percent of the patients were female, the mean age was 78.8 years, 61.5 percent died, and among these, 44.4 percent had coinfection. 66.7 percent and 55.6 percent of those with high blood pressure and ischemic heart disease, respectively, developed a coinfection. Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated microorganism. Conclusions: Females predominated in the series studied, mortality was high, a high percentage of bacterial preparation and comorbidities was evident. More than half of the patients died. Gram-negative bacteria were the microorganisms that were most isolated. Antimicrobial resistance levels were high(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Coronavirus Infections , Chain Reaction , Disease Susceptibility , Coinfection , Hospitals, Military , Anti-Infective Agents
17.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(4): 1353-1362, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131515

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se avaliar características de virulência, perfil de resistência antimicrobiana e padrão de similaridade genética de 71 cepas de Salmonella Minnesota isoladas na cadeia produtiva de frangos de corte, entre 2009 e 2010, em duas unidades de uma empresa (A e B). Os isolados foram sorotipificados e submetidos ao teste de susceptibilidade antimicrobiana pelo teste de difusão em disco. Utilizando-se PCR, foi avaliada a presença dos genes invA, lpfA, agfA e sefA e os genes de resistência aos betalactâmicos (bla TEM , bla SHV e bla CTX-M ). A relação filogenética foi determinada por RAPD-PCR. Os maiores percentuais de resistência foram para tetraciclina e sulfonamida. Foram reconhecidos oito perfis de resistência aos antimicrobianos entre as cepas isoladas na indústria A, e 11 perfis de resistência na indústria B. Do total de cepas, 100% foram positivas para o gene invA, 98,6% para o gene agfA, 49,3% para o gene lpfA e nenhuma para o gene sefA. Três cepas foram positivas para o gene bla TEM (4,2%) e 11 (15,5%) para o gene bla CTX-M . A avaliação filogenética demonstrou a presença de sete clusters com similaridade superior a 80% e três perfis distintos. Com base no dendrograma, observou-se a disseminação de um mesmo perfil em ambas as empresas.(AU)


The aim of this study was to evaluate virulence characteristics, antimicrobial resistance profile and the pattern of genetic similarity of 71 strains of Salmonella Minnesota isolated in the production chain of broilers between 2009 and 2010, into two units of a company (A and B). Isolates were serotyped and submitted to antimicrobial susceptibility by disk diffusion test. Using PCR, the presence of genes invA, lpfA, agfA and sefA and the genes conferring resistance to beta-lactam (blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCTX-M) were evaluated. The phylogenetic relationship was determined by the RAPD-PCR method. The highest percentages of resistance were to tetracycline and sulfonamide. Eight antimicrobial resistance profiles were recognized among strains isolated in industry A, and 11 resistance profiles in industry B. Of all strains of both industries, 100% were positive for the invA gene, 98.6% to agfA gene, 49.3% for lpfA gene, and no strain showed the sefA gene. Three strains were positive for the gene blaTEM (4.2%), 11 (15.5%) for the blaCTX-M gene. Phylogenetic evaluation showed the presence of seven clusters with similarity greater than 80% and three distinct profiles. Based on the dendrogram we observed the spread with similar profiles in both companies.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Poultry , Salmonella , Salmonella Infections, Animal/epidemiology , Chickens , Virulence Factors , Virulence , Zoonoses/prevention & control , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Disease Susceptibility
18.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(7): 430-439, July 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131732

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic poses a potential threat to patients with autoimmune disorders, including multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). Such patients are usually treated with immunomodulatory or immunosuppressive agents, which may tamper with the organism's normal response to infections. Currently, no consensus has been reached on how to manage MS and NMOSD patients during the pandemic. Objective: To discuss strategies to manage those patients. Methods: We focus on how to 1) reduce COVID-19 infection risk, such as social distancing, telemedicine, and wider interval between laboratory testing/imaging; 2) manage relapses, such as avoiding treatment of mild relapse and using oral steroids; 3) manage disease-modifying therapies, such as preference for drugs associated with lower infection risk (interferons, glatiramer, teriflunomide, and natalizumab) and extended-interval dosing of natalizumab, when safe; 4) individualize the chosen MS induction-therapy (anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies, alemtuzumab, and cladribine); 5) manage NMOSD preventive therapies, including initial therapy selection and current treatment maintenance; 6) manage MS/NMOSD patients infected with COVID-19. Conclusions: In the future, real-world case series of MS/NMOSD patients infected with COVID-19 will help us define the best management strategies. For the time being, we rely on expert experience and guidance.


RESUMO Introdução: A mais recente pandemia causada pelo coronavírus SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19, do inglês coronavirus disease 2019) representa uma ameaça potencial para pacientes com doenças autoimunes, incluindo esclerose múltipla (EM) e transtorno do espectro de neuromielite óptica (NMOSD, do inglês neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders). Esses pacientes são geralmente tratados com medicamentos imunomoduladores ou imunossupressores que podem alterar a resposta normal do organismo a infecções. Até o momento, não há consenso sobre como o manejo dos pacientes com EM e NMOSD deve ser realizado durante a pandemia. Objetivo: Discutir estratégias para manejar esses pacientes. Métodos: Focamos em como 1) reduzir o risco de infecção por COVID-19, como distanciamento social, telemedicina e exames laboratoriais e de imagem em intervalos mais amplos; 2) manejo de surtos, incluindo evitar tratamento de surto leve e uso de corticoide oral; 3) gerenciar terapias modificadoras de doença, como a preferência por medicamentos associados a menor risco de infecção (interferons, glatirâmer, teriflunomida e natalizumabe) e infusão em intervalo estendido de natalizumabe, quando seguro; 4) individualizar a escolha da terapia de indução para EM (anticorpos monoclonais anti-CD20, alentuzumabe e cladribina); 5) manejar terapias preventivas de NMOSD, incluindo seleção inicial de terapia e manutenção do tratamento atual; 6) manejar pacientes com EM/NMOSD que foram infectados por COVID-19. Conclusão: No futuro, séries de casos de pacientes com MS/NMOSD infectados com COVID-19 nos ajudará a definir as melhores estratégias de manejo. Por enquanto, contamos com a experiência e orientação especializadas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Neuromyelitis Optica/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Risk , Neuromyelitis Optica/diagnosis , Telemedicine , Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Susceptibility , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis/diagnosis
19.
Rev. colomb. psiquiatr ; 49(2): 68-75, abr.-jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1115646

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: El Trastorno depresivo mayor (TDM) es una enfermedad multifactorial en la que, por interacción con diversas variables, se incrementa la vulnerabilidad a padecerla. Diversos modelos han explicado las interacciones, como el de diátesis-estrés. Vivir eventos estresantes no siempre lleva a la aparición del TDM, y se ha planteado que la atribución y la valoración de los eventos estresantes podrían ser un mejor predictor de la aparición de los síntomas. Objetivo: Determinar la asociación y el poder predictivo de la frecuencia y la valoración de eventos vitales estresantes en la presencia de sintomatología del TDM. Métodos: Estudio de casos y controles con 120 pacientes psiquiátricos y 120 personas de la población general. Se utilizó una entrevista clínica estructurada y el Cuestionario de Sucesos Vitales de Sandín y Chorot. Los datos se analizaron con pruebas no paramétricas y regresión logística binaria. Resultados: El grupo de casos obtuvo significativamente más altos en afecto negativo, frecuencia de eventos estresantes, nivel de estrés percibido, valoración negativa de la situación y percepción de no control. El modelo de regresión logística binaria indicó que la baja percepción de control frente al evento estresante es el factor más determinante, seguido por la evaluación negativa del evento. Conclusiones: Las atribuciones realizadas sobre los eventos estresantes son determinantes en la presentación del TDM, en especial la valoración del control percibido frente a los sucesos vitales, en concordancia con los modelos etiológicos del TDM de diátesis cognitiva al estrés.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a multifactorial disease in which, due to the interaction of several variables, the vulnerability of suffering from it increases. Several models, such as the diathesis-stress model, have explained these interactions. However, experiencing stressful events does not always lead to the development of MDD, and the attribution and appraisal of stressful events contributing to further development of depression symptoms has been considered as a possible explanation. Objective: To determinate the association and the predictive power of the frequency and appraisal of stressful life events to predict MDD symptomatology. Methods: Case-control study with 120 psychiatric patients and 120 people from the general population. A structured clinical interview and the life events questionnaire (Sandín and Chorcot) were used to evaluate the sample. The data were analysed with non-parametric tests and binary logistic regression. Results: The psychiatric patients reported significantly higher levels of negative affect, frequency of stressful life events, perceived stress, negative appraisal of the situation and lack of perceived control. The binary logistic regression model indicated that poor perception of control of the stressful event is the most determining factor, followed by negative evaluation of the situation. Conclusions: The attributions that are made regarding a stressful event are variables that predict MDD, specifically the assessment of the perceived control over the situation. These results concur with the aetiological models of MDD, such as the cognitive diathesis-stress model.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Depressive Disorder, Major , Signs and Symptoms , Stress, Psychological , Power, Psychological , Disaster Vulnerability , Depression , Disease Susceptibility
20.
Gastroenterol. latinoam ; 31(1): 39-42, mayo 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1103459

ABSTRACT

To date, it has not been described that celiac disease (CD) increases the risk of contagion by the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 nor the severity of the disease. The main risk factors for severe disease for this coronavirus are old male patients (> 65 years) with hypertension, diabetes, obesity, smoking, lung, cardiovascular and kidney diseases. The only treatment for CD is a gluten-free diet that improves the intestinal immune response. Adherence to treatment and follow-up of recommendations by experts during the COVID-19 period, would ensure celiac patients are better prepared for this pandemic.


Hasta la fecha no se ha descrito que la enfermedad celíaca (EC) incremente el riesgo de contagio por el nuevo coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 ni la gravedad de la enfermedad. Los principales factores de riego de enfermedad grave para este coronavirus son pacientes mayores de 65 años de sexo masculino con hipertensión, diabetes, obesidad, tabaquismo, y enfermedades pulmonar, cardiovascular y renal. El único tratamiento de la EC es la dieta libre de gluten que mejora la respuesta inmune intestinal. La adherencia al tratamiento y el seguimiento de recomendaciones dadas por expertos durante el período COVID-19, aseguraría a los enfermos celíacos, estar mejor preparados para esta pandemia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Celiac Disease/complications , Celiac Disease/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Risk Factors , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disease Susceptibility , Pandemics
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