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1.
São Paulo; s.n; 2022. 59 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1402053

ABSTRACT

A leishmaniose visceral (LV) continua sendo um grave problema de Saúde Pública principalmente pela expansão a localidades urbanas do Brasil nas últimas décadas. Esta zoonose é causada pelo protozoário Leishmania infantum, transmitida principalmente pelo flebotomíneo Lutzomyia longipalpis e tem o cão doméstico como principal reservatório vertebrado. As formas de controle preconizadas no Brasil têm mostrado baixa efetividade na redução de casos e de óbitos, com dificuldades tanto no controle de reservatórios (dificuldades para execução da eutanásia) bem como no controle de vetores. Estes fatos trazem à tona a necessidade de estudos de formas alternativas que possam contribuir em um contexto de manejo integrado. O objetivo foi comparar a suscetibilidade e a sobrevida de formas imaturas de Lutzomyia longipalpis aos larvicidas biológicos Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) e Espinosade. Foram realizados experimentos com doses de 10 mg/g e 20 mg/g dos compostos Bti e Espinosade aplicados no alimento oferecido aos frascos contendo larvas de Lu. longipalpis de terceiro estádio larval. Para cada concentração/composto, foram expostas 30 larvas em 3 réplicas. Como controle, foram utilizadas 30 larvas com aplicação de água. Nos tratamento com Bti foi observada mortalidade de 18,8% na concentração de 10 mg/g e de 50,4% na concentração de 20 mg/g. Quanto ao tempo de desenvolvimento larval e de pupas, observou-se que o tempo mediano de emergência dos alados foi 2,35 vezes maior na concentração de 20 mg/g e 1,9 vezes maior na concentração 10 mg/g, comparados ao grupo controle. Para o composto Espinosade nestas concentrações iniciais, a mortalidade foi de 100%. O ensaio foi repetido com o Espinosade em 4 diluições da menor dose testada anteriormente (10 mg/g), na proporção de 1:10, 1:20. 1:50 e 1:100, com resultados de mortalidade de 71%, 66,5%, 2,1% e 1,4% respectivamente. A DL90 foi estimada em 6,3 mg/g. Os resultados sugerem potencial uso dos dois compostos para o controle de imaturos de Lu. longipalpis, aplicado de forma diluída diretamente nos potenciais criadouros destes insetos, como forma complementar às ações de controle integrados em áreas de transmissão de LV.


Visceral leishmaniasis (LV) is a serious issue in public health in Brazil mainly by the spread in urban areas in the last decades. This zoonosis is caused by the protozoan Leishmania infantum, transmitted mainly by Lutzomyia longipalpis. The control measures recommended in Brazil showed low effectiveness in the reduction of cases, with difficulties in the control of domestic reservoirs as well as the vector control. These facts highlight the necessity of studies evaluating alternative methods that can contribute in an integrated management approach. The objective was to compare the susceptibility and the survival of Lutzomyia longipalpis immature forms to the biological compounds Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis and Spinosade. Experiments with doses of 10 mg/g and 20 mg/g of each compound, Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis and Spinosade were realized applying in Petri dishes containing larvae third instar. For each stage 30 larvae were exposed to each concentration compound and the observation was realized in triplicate. As control 30 larvae of each instar in which was applied water. The treatments with Bti resulted in mortality of 18.78% at a concentration of 10 mg/g and of 50.42% at a concentration of 20 mg/g and delay in the development of immature forms, with a median time for emergence of adults forms 2.35 times higher in the first group and 1.9 times higher in the second compared to the control group. For the Spinosad compound at these initial concentrations, the mortality was 100%. The assay was repeated with Espinosade in 4 dilutions of the lowest dose tested previously (10 mg/g), in the proportion of 1:10, 1:20. 1:50 and 1:100, with mortality results of 71%, 66.5%, 2.1% and 1.4% respectively. LC90 was estimated at 6.3 mg/g. The results suggest potential use of the two compounds for the control of Lu. Longipalpis immatures, applied in a diluted form directly to the potential breeding sites of these insects, as a complement to integrated control actions in areas of VL transmission.


Subject(s)
Zoonoses , Diptera , Disease Vectors , Insecticides , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/prevention & control , Psychodidae , Entomology , Animals, Domestic
2.
Med.lab ; 26(4): 319-322, 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1412438

ABSTRACT

Entre finales de 2019 y mediados de 2022, la pandemia de COVID-19 ha causado más de 600 millones de casos confirmados y al menos 6,5 millones de muertes, constituyendo la emergencia de salud pública más importante de las últimas décadas. En paralelo con el transcurso de la pandemia, ha tenido lugar una carrera sin precedentes por la obtención de vacunas eficaces para el control de la rápida dispersión del virus. Cuatro meses después del anuncio de la emergencia del SARS-CoV-2, agente de la pandemia, ya habían 115 "vacunas candidatas", cinco de ellas en fase de ensayos clínicos [1]. Al mismo tiempo, una gran revolución en la producción de vacunas estaba ocurriendo; nuevas tecnologías de producción de biológicos, más eficaces y más rápidas, llevaron al desarrollo de vacunas útiles en un tiempo increíblemente corto. Antes de la pandemia, el desarrollo de una nueva vacuna típicamente solía tomar entre cinco y diez años, pero en 2020, a menos de un año de haberse declarado la pandemia, ya se habían publicado ensayos clínicos que demostraban la eficacia de varias vacunas producidas mediante tecnologías novedosas [2]. Son numerosas las vacunas contra el SARS-CoV-2 que han sido autorizadas para su uso. A la fecha, más de 12 mil millones de dosis de vacunas han sido administradas en el mundo [3]. Se estima que tres dosis de vacunas pueden evitar hasta en un 94 % el riesgo de uso de ventilación mecánica y muerte [4], así mismo, estudios demuestran que el riesgo de mortalidad por COVID-19 en los no vacunados es 25 veces mayor que en los vacunados


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19 , Recombinant Proteins , RNA, Messenger , Disease Vectors , COVID-19 Vaccines
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e237789, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249272

ABSTRACT

Abstract Aedes aegypti is a culicide that has gained relevance over the years due to its ability to transmit various viruses that cause diseases in humans that all the years cause high mortality rates in the world population. The main problem is that Ae. aegypti has managed to establish and maintain a close relationship with humans and their habitat, which is why the search for alternatives to control vector populations becomes imperative. The objective of the present work was to study the effects of two Beauveria bassiana strains on Aedes aegypti. Third instar larvae of Ae. aegypti in 250 mL plastic containers were inoculated with the GHA and NB3 strains at different concentrations (1.5 × 104, 1.5× 105, 1.5 × 106 and 1.5 × 107 conidia/mL). The NB3 strain presented highest mortality values ​​with 63% in the highest concentration i.e., 1.5 × 107, while for the GHA strain the highest mortality value was 30.7% at the same concentration. The results showed significant difference in mortality with respect to the strain and days post treatment (P = 0.0001), but not with respect to the conidial concentration (P = 0.634). The average mortality of larvae per day for the NB3 for different concentrations ranged from 20 to 25 larvae per day, while for the GHA daily mortality ranged from 5 to 12 larvae. In post-treatment mortality, the highest mortality was recorded in the third stage larvae for the NB3, while for GHA the highest percentage mortality was observed in individuals who managed to reach the adult state. The findings of the current research depicted the noteworthy role of B. bassiana for the management of an important vector of human disease.


Resumo O Aedes aegypti é um culicida que vem ganhando relevância ao longo dos anos devido à sua capacidade de transmitir diversos vírus causadores de doenças em humanos que ao longo dos anos ocasionam altas taxas de mortalidade na população mundial. O principal problema é que Ae. aegypti tem conseguido estabelecer e manter uma relação próxima com o homem e seu habitat, por isso a busca por alternativas para o controle das populações de vetores torna-se imperativa. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar os efeitos de duas cepas de Beauveria bassiana sobre Ae. aegypti. Larvas de terceiro instar de Ae. aegypti em recipientes plásticos de 250 mL foram inoculados com as cepas GHA e NB3 em diferentes concentrações (1.5 × 104, 1.5 × 105, 1.5 × 106 e 1.5 × 107 conídios/mL). A cepa NB3 apresentou os maiores valores de mortalidade com 63% na concentração mais alta, ou seja, 1.5 × 107, enquanto para a cepa GHA o maior valor de mortalidade foi 30.7% na mesma concentração. Os resultados mostraram diferença significativa na mortalidade com relação à cepa e dias pós-tratamento (P = 0.0001), mas não com relação à concentração de conídios (P = 0.634). A mortalidade média de larvas por dia para o NB3 para diferentes concentrações variou de 20 a 25 larvas por dia, enquanto para o GHA a mortalidade diária variou de 5 a 12 larvas. Na mortalidade pós-tratamento, a maior mortalidade foi registrada nas larvas de terceiro estágio para o NB3, enquanto para o GHA o maior percentual de mortalidade foi observado em indivíduos que conseguiram atingir o estado adulto. Os resultados da pesquisa atual retratam o papel notável de B. bassiana no manejo de um importante vetor de doenças humanas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Aedes , Beauveria , Disease Vectors , Mosquito Vectors , Larva
4.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 62(2): 190-201, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1379273

ABSTRACT

Las comunidades vegetales en la zona de Tingo María, Perú, se encuentran sometidas a los efectos del cambio climático, generando modificaciones en su biodiversidad, impactando su ecosistema. Por otra parte, se ha referido que actividades que ocasionan perturbación de bosques tropicales pueden favorecer la persistencia de vectores de enfermedades metaxénicas como la malaria, la cual representa un problema de salud pública por la alta tasa de morbimortalidad en la región. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo para evaluar los rasgos funcionales del bosque perturbado de Tingo María, observando que la especie vegetal Parkia panurensis presentó mayor promedio en altura total; 47% de las especies presentaron una densidad básica alta de árboles en pie; la familia Euphorbiaceae y la especie Senefeldera inclinata presentaron el valor más alto de biomasa, mientras que Micropholis guyanensis y Pierre Subsp. Guyanensis mostraron el mayor porcentaje y cobertura de copa, respectivamente; Asimismo, Pseudopiptadenia suaveolens presentó la mayor longitud de copa, Eugenia egensis mostró mayor diámetro y Senefeldera inclinata tuvo mejor índice de valor de importancia. Además, se demostró alta circulación de vectores de malaria en la zona, siendo An. Pseudopunctipennis, An. Benarrochi, An. Darling y An. Evansae los más frecuentes, mientras que los géneros de insectos más comunes resultaron ser Anófeles, Aedes, Coqueletilia y Cúlex. Los rasgos funcionales de las especies vegetales les han permitido adaptarse a las condiciones adversas, no obstante, la presencia de abundantes vectores de malaria, hace necesario implementar estrategias de impacto ambiental, que reduzcan el riesgo de malaria en la región(AU)


Plant communities in the area of Tingo María, Peru, are subject to the effects of climate change, generating modifications in their biodiversity, impacting their ecosystem. On the other hand, it has been reported that activities that cause disturbance of tropical forests can favor the persistence of vectors of metaxenic diseases such as malaria, which represents a public health problem due to the high rate of morbidity and mortality in the region. A descriptive study was carried out to evaluate the functional traits of the disturbed forest of Tingo María, observing that the plant species Parkia panurensis presented a higher average total height; 47% of the species presented a high basic density of standing trees; the Euphorbiaceae family and the species Senefeldera inclinata presented the highest biomass value, while Micropholis guyanensis and Pierre Subsp. Guyanensis showed the highest percentage and crown cover, respectively; Likewise, Pseudopiptadenia suaveolens had the longest crown length, Eugenia egensis had the largest diameter and Senefeldera inclinata had the best importance value index. In addition, high circulation of malaria vectors was demonstrated in the area, being An. pseudopunctipennis, An. benarrochi, An. darling and An. evansae the most frequent, while the most common insect genera were Anopheles, Aedes, Coqueletilia and Culex. The functional traits of plant species have allowed them to adapt themselves to adverse conditions, however, the presence of abundant malaria vectors makes it necessary to implement environmental impact strategies that reduce the risk of malaria in the region(AU)


Subject(s)
Plasmodium , Disease Vectors , Malaria , Anopheles , Climate Change , Forests , Public Health , Ecosystem , Biodiversity
5.
Rio de Janeiro; rBLH; 2 rev; set. 2021. [7] p. ilus.(Normas técnicas BLH-IFF/NT, 1, 4). (BLH-IFF/NT 04.21).
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369275

ABSTRACT

Esta Norma Técnica tem por objetivo estabelecer as medidas preventivas e responsabilidades no controle de pragas e vetores de doenças em Bancos de Leite Humano e Postos de Coleta de Leite Humano, visando a garantia da qualidade nestes serviços e sua certificação.


Subject(s)
Pest Control, Biological/standards , Milk Banks/standards , Disease Vectors , Breast Milk Expression , Brazil
6.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(2): 347-352, abr.-jun. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339272

ABSTRACT

Abstract | Introduction: Ixodes tropicalis is a little-known tick species reported parasitizing wild rodents only in Colombia and Perú. Objective: To report a case of I. tropicalis infesting a human in the south of the metropolitan area of the Valle de Aburrá, Antioquia, Colombia, and to report the molecular detection of Rickettsia bellii in this species. Materials and methods: The tick was identified using a morphological key and sequencing of tick mitochondrial 16S rRNA. Additionally, bacterial and protozoa pathogens were evaluated using PCR for the detection of Rickettsia spp., family Anaplasmataceae, Borrelia spp., and piroplasmid. Results: We identified the tick as an I. tropicalis female according to Kohls, 1956, description and to partial 16S rRNA sequences showing a minimum of 5% divergencies compAred to Ixodes sequences. We also detected the gltA gene of R. bellii in the tick with 99.87% of identity. Conclusion: This is the first report in Colombia of a species of the Ixodes genus parasitizing a human and the first report of the detection of R. bellii in this tick species.


Resumen | Introducción. Ixodes tropicalis es una especie de garrapata poco conocida que se había reportado parasitando únicamente roedores silvestres en Colombia y Perú. Objetivo. Reportar un caso de infestación por I. tropicalis en un ser humano del sur del área metropolitana del Valle de Aburrá (Antioquia) y reportar la detección molecular de Rickettsia bellii en esta especie. Materiales y métodos. La garrapata se identificó usando claves morfológicas y mediante la secuenciación de su gen 16S ARNr mitocondrial. Además, se evaluó la presencia de agentes patógenos bacterianos y protozoos usando PCR para la detección de Rickettsia spp., la familia Anaplasmataceae, Borrelia spp. y piroplásmidos. Resultados. La garrapata se identificó como una hembra de I. tropicalis, según la descripción de Kohls, 1956, y la secuencia parcial del gen 16S ARNr, la cual mostró una divergencia de mínimo 5 % en la compAración con las secuencias de Ixodes. Además, se detectó el gen gltA de R. bellii en esta garrapata con una similitud del 99,87 %. Conclusión. Este es el primer reporte en Colombia de una especie del género Ixodes parasitando a un humano y el primer reporte de la detección de R. bellii en esta especie de garrapata.


Subject(s)
Rickettsia , Ixodes , Bacteria , Disease Vectors
7.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(3): 432-437, jun. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346481

ABSTRACT

Resumen Las enfermedades transmitidas por vectores (ETVs) continúan siendo un desafío para los esfuerzos de agencias de salud pública, ya que mantienen o están aumentando su impacto sobre la salud de las comunidades afectadas. La característica común de las ETVs es que la única manera de prevenir exito samente nuevas infecciones es evitar el contacto entre vectores y humanos. No existen vacunas y no existirán en un futuro previsible para las principales ETVs que afectan la salud pública en Argentina. Aunque las epide mias de dengue desde 2009 atrajeron la atención mediática, otras ETVs, tales como Chagas o leishmaniasis, afectan la salud pública en Argentina desde hace décadas. Sobre ellas, y otras que potencialmente podrían instalarse en el territorio nacional (West Nile, Lyme, etc) hay repetidas referencias mediáticas que explican su recrudecimiento por el cambio climático. El argumento se basa en que la "tropicalización" del clima en regiones templadas promueve la instalación de ETVs en áreas previamente no favorables para ellas. Aunque existen muchas evidencias de que el clima está cambiando, son pocas las evidencias de que sea el clima el principal factor que promueve el recrudecimiento de las ETVs en Argentina. En este artículo, se discute la situación de los vectores de enfermedades en Argentina (con énfasis en triatominos), su vinculación con el llamado cambio climático y las actividades de control de vectores implementados por agencias gubernamentales de salud pública.


Abstract Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) continue to pose a challenge to the efforts of public health agencies by increasing their impact on the health of the affected communities. The common feature of VBDs is that the only way of preventing them is by avoid ing the contact between vectors and humans. There are no vaccines, and they will not be available shortly as tools for prevention and control in Argentina. Although dengue outbreaks attracted the attention of mass media from 2009, other VBDs have been affecting public health in Argentina for many decades, as Chagas disease and leishmaniasis. Over these, and others that could potentially settle in the national territory (West Nile, Lyme, etc.), there are repeated mass media claims and political declarations justifying their increase because of climate changes. The argument asserts that the "tropicalization" of the climate in temperate regions promotes the instal lation of VBDs in areas previously unfavorable for them. Although much evidence exists showing that the climate is changing, there is very little evidence that the climate is the main factor promoting the increase of VBDs. In this article, the influence of the so-called climate change on the situation of disease vectors in Argentina (with emphasis on triatomines) and vector control activities implemented by governmental public health agencies are discussed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Climate Change , Vector Borne Diseases , Argentina/epidemiology , Public Health , Disease Vectors
8.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 149(5): 738-746, mayo 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389511

ABSTRACT

Climate changes evidenced by an increase in our planet's mean temperature, changes in rainfall, increased sea level and extreme weather conditions, favor air and soil contamination, ocean acidification, droughts, floods, heat waves and forest fires, which affect the health and wellbeing of exposed populations. These changes will exert negative effects on respiratory and cardiovascular systems, nutritional status, burden of infectious diseases, especially vector-borne infections, and human mental health. Moreover, environmental damages, such as loss of biodiversity, ecological collapse and deterioration of socioeconomic factors such as agricultural and fishery production, and the loss of habitable land, will impulse massive migrations. This article summarizes the impact that climate change is expected to have on respiratory, cardiovascular and infectious diseases and its repercussions on people of extreme ages. It is imperative to achieve the immediate commitment of worldwide national governments to control green-house gas emissions. The appropriate technology does exist, but political will is urgently needed to accomplish this goal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Climate Change , Communicable Diseases , Seawater , Disease Vectors , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
9.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 30(1): e2020354, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154143

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Descrever os casos de raiva humana no estado do Ceará, Brasil, no período 1970-2019. Métodos: Estudo descritivo, sobre dados secundários da Secretaria da Saúde e do hospital de referência do Ceará. Resultados: Dos 171 casos, 75,7% ocorreram em homens, 60,0% nas idades até 19 anos e 56,0% em áreas urbanas. O cão foi agente transmissor em 74,0% dos casos; sagui em, 16,7%; e morcego, em 7,3%. Entre 1970 e 1978, houve crescimento do número de casos (pelo Joinpoint Regression Program, percentual da mudança anual [APC] = 13,7 - IC95% 4,6;41,5); e entre 1978 e 2019, redução (APC = -6,7 - IC95% -8,8;-5,9). Houve redução da transmissão por cães (71 casos; último caso em 2010) e aumento relativo por mamíferos silvestres (5 casos a partir de 2005). Conclusão: O estudo evidencia mudança na dinâmica da transmissão da raiva no período observado, com redução da transmissão por cão e incremento de casos por animais silvestres.


Objetivo: Describir los casos de la rabia humana en Ceará, Brasil, 1970-2019. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo con datos secundarios de la Secretaría de Salud y del hospital de referencia de Ceará. Resultados: De los 171 casos, 75,7% ocurrió en hombres, el 60,0% en los 19 años y el 56,0% en áreas urbanas. El perro fue transmisor en 74,0%, el mono tití en 16,7% y el murciélago el 7,3%. Entre 1970 y 1978, hubo un aumento de casos (por el Joinpoint Regression Program, cambio porcentual anual [APC] = 13,7 - IC95% 4,6; 41,5), entre 1978 y 2019 una disminución (APC= -6,7 - IC95% -8,8; -5,9). Hubo una reducción de la transmisión por perros (71 casos, el último en 2010) y un aumento por mamíferos salvajes (5 casos, desde 2005). Conclusión: El estudio muestra un cambio en la dinámica de la transmisión de la rabia en los últimos años, con reducción de la transmisión por perros y aumento de casos por animales salvajes.


Objective: To describe cases of human rabies in Ceará State, Brazil between 1970 and 2019. Methods: This was a descriptive study using secondary data from the Ceará State Department of Health and the state reference hospital. Results: Of 171 cases, 75.7% occurred in males, 60.0% in <19-year-olds, and 56.0% in urban areas. Rabies was transmitted by dogs in 74.0% of cases, marmosets in 16.7% and bats in 7.3%. Between 1970 and 1978, there was an increase of cases (using the Joinpoint Regression Program, annual percentage change [APC] = 13.7 - 95%CI 4.6;41.5), while between 1978 and 2019 there was a decrease (APC = -6.7 - 95%CI -8.8;-5.9). There was a reduction in transmission by dogs (71 cases, last case in 2010) and an increase by sylvatic animals (5 cases since 2005). Conclusion: This study demonstrates changes in rabies transmission dynamics during the period studied, with a reduction in transmission by dogs and an increase of transmission by sylvatic animals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Rabies/transmission , Rabies/epidemiology , Viral Zoonoses/epidemiology , Rabies virus/classification , Brazil/epidemiology , Disease Vectors , Neglected Diseases , Epidemiological Monitoring
10.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e08512020, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288085

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Ourinhos is a municipality located between the Pardo and Paranapanema rivers, and it has been characterized by the endemic transmission of schistosomiasis since 1952. We used geospatial analysis to identify areas prone to human schistosomiasis infections in Ourinhos. We studied the association between the sewage network, co-occurrence of Biomphalaria snails (identified as intermediate hosts [IHs] of Schistosoma mansoni), and autochthonous cases. METHODS: Gi spatial statistics, Ripley's K12-function, and kernel density estimation were used to evaluate the association between schistosomiasis data reported during 2007-2016 and the occurrence of IHs during 2015-2017. These data were superimposed on the municipality sewage network data. RESULTS: We used 20 points with reported IH; they were colonized predominantly by Biomphalaria glabrata, followed by B. tenagophila and B. straminea. Based on Gi statistics, a significant cluster of autochthonous cases was superimposed on the Christoni and Água da Veada water bodies, with distances of approximately 300 m and 2200 m from the points where B. glabrata and B. straminea were present, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The residence geographical location of autochthonous cases allied with the spatial analysis of IHs and the coverage of the sewage network provide important information for the detection of human-infection areas. Our results demonstrated that the tools used for direct surveillance, control, and elimination of schistosomiasis are appropriate.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Schistosomiasis/epidemiology , Biomphalaria , Schistosomiasis mansoni/epidemiology , Schistosoma mansoni , Sewage , Brazil/epidemiology , Geographic Information Systems , Disease Vectors
11.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 30(2): e2020154, 2021. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249796

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Comparar o mapeamento oficial com um mapeamento probabilístico da infestação por Aedes spp. nos municípios do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Métodos: Estudo ecológico com dados de amostras de criadouros em 2016-2017; obteve-se a classificação oficial em boletins epidemiológicos e estimou-se a probabilidade de infestação por município e semana, ajustando-se um modelo dinâmico de ocupação de sítios aos dados da vigilância epidemiológica municipal. Resultados: 187.245 amostras coletadas em 473 municípios originaram 10.648 detecções de Aedes aegypti e 8.414 de Aedes albopictus; o mapeamento oficial concorda com o probabilístico em municípios da região noroeste e oeste do RS; os mapeamentos discordam nas regiões leste, centro, nordeste e sul, revelando municípios oficialmente não infestados com alta probabilidade de infestação e notificação de arboviroses. Conclusão: A classificação oficial identificou infestação nos municípios infestados do noroeste e oeste, e não identificou infestação em municípios com possíveis falsos zeros e onde ela varia temporalmente.


Objetivo: Comparar el mapeo oficial con un mapeo probabilístico de infestación por Aedes spp. en los municipios de Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Métodos: Estudio ecológico analizando muestras colectadas en criaderos en 2016-2017; se obtuvo la clasificación oficial en boletines epidemiológicos, y la probabilidad de infestación por municipio y semana ajustando un modelo dinámico de ocupación de sitios a los datos de la vigilancia epidemiológica municipal. Resultados: 187.245 muestras de 473 municipios generaron 10.648 detecciones de Aedes aegypti y 8.414 detecciones de Aedes albopictus. El mapeo oficial está de acuerdo con el probabilístico en municipios del noroeste y oeste de RS; los mapeos no concuerdan en el este, centro, nordeste y sur, revelando municipios oficialmente no infestados con alta probabilidad de infestación y notificación de arbovirus. Conclusión: Mientras la clasificación oficial identifica municipios del noroeste y oeste infestados críticamente, no identifica infestación en municipios con posiblemente falsos ceros y en donde la infestación varía temporalmente.


Objective: To compare official mapping with probabilistic mapping of infestation by Aedes spp. in the municipalities of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. Methods: This was an ecological study using data from samples of mosquito breeding sites collected in 2016-2017; official classification was obtained from epidemiological reports, and infestation per municipality and week was estimated by fitting a dynamic site-occupancy model to data from municipal epidemiological surveillance. Results: 187,245 samples collected in 473 municipalities returned 10,648 detections of Aedes aegypti, and 8,414 detections of Aedes albopictus; official mapping agrees with probabilistic mapping in municipalities in the northwestern and western regions of the state. The mappings are not in agreement in the eastern, central, northeastern and southern regions, revealing municipalities officially not infested but with high probability of infestation and notification of arbovirus infection. Conclusion: While official classification identified critically infested municipalities in the state's northwestern and western regions, it did not identify infestation in municipalities with possible false zero errors and where infestation varies over time.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Aedes/virology , Disease Vectors/classification , Epidemiological Monitoring , Arbovirus Infections/prevention & control , Brazil/epidemiology , Probability , Vector Control of Diseases , Models, Theoretical
12.
NOVA publ. cient ; 18(34): 77-94, jul.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1149458

ABSTRACT

Resumen Las enfermedades de transmisión vectorial (ETV), como dengue, zika y chikungunya, representan un problema de salud pública en Colombia. Autoridades e instituciones de salud municipales promovieron campañas de prevención y manejo de los factores asociados a estas enfermedades. No obstante, el municipio de Ocaña registró una alta prevalencia. Se realizó un análisis de contenido a 14 mensajes comunicativos impresos orientados a la prevención de enfermedades de transmisión vectorial durante el período de 2014 a junio de 2016. Las unidades de análisis comprendieron términos referidos a la enfermedad, términos generales, partes del texto (frases y oraciones) y función y objetivo de la imagen, bajo los constructos control y prevención de ETV con los códigos de vector, enfermedad y público. Se emplearon como instrumentos de recolección y análisis de datos los siguientes: instrumento de evaluación de material educativo de la OPS, instrumento específico ad-hoc para evaluación de contenido y la prueba objetiva INFLESZ. Si bien, el grado de legibilidad de las unidades comunicativas fue de 'normal' hasta 'muy fácil', se identificaron oportunidades de mejora para la comprensión e identificación del público meta, necesarios para la educación en salud, que no genere interpretaciones contrapuestas desde los aspectos semióticos y semánticos sobre conductas y comportamientos, y sobre todo, que se perciba como un mensaje que va dirigido a un público específico, con la exigencia de contextualización frente a los lineamientos generales y la participación de la comunidad.


Abstract Vector-borne diseases (VTD), such as dengue, zika and chikungunya, represent a public health problem in Colombia. Municipal authorities and health institutions promoted campaigns to prevent and manage the factors associated with these diseases. However, the municipality of Ocaña registered a high prevalence. A content analysis was carried out on 14 printed communicative messages aimed at preventing vector-borne diseases during the period from 2014 to June 2016. The analysis units included terms referring to the disease, general terms, parts of the text (phrases and sentences) and function and objective of the image, under the control and prevention constructs of VTD with the vector, disease and public codes. The following instruments were used as data collection and analysis instruments: PAHO educational material evaluation instrument, ad-hoc specific instrument for content evaluation and the INFLESZ objective test. Although the legibility of the communicative units was from 'normal' to 'very easy', opportunities for improvement were identified for the understanding and identification of the target audience, necessary for health education, which does not generate conflicting interpretations from the semiotic and semantic aspects about behaviors and behaviors, and above all, that it is perceived as a message that is addressed to a specific audience, with the requirement of contextualization in front of the general guidelines and community participation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Vector Borne Diseases , Disease Vectors , Disease Prevention , Chikungunya Fever , Data Analysis
13.
Rev. Fac. Med. (Bogotá) ; 68(4): 541-549, oct.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1149555

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are considered one of the most versatile organisms in the world as they can breed in any pool of water, such as puddles or tanks. However, their reproduction is influenced by atmospheric variables that allow predicting their population density. Objective: To assess the impact of atmospheric pressure on mosquito population density in the province of Villa Clara, Cuba, by means of a mathematical model based on a regressive objective regression (ROR) methodology. Materials and methods: The development of the mathematical model to predict breeding sites was based on the number of breeding sites reported in the province of Villa Clara between 2000 and 2017, and the ROR model. Furthermore, a regression analysis was carried out using the IBM SPSS® version 19.0, which allowed obtaining models that explained 100% of the variance, with its corresponding standard error. Results: With respect to the number of breeding sites, an increasing trend was observed in the municipality of Cifuentes, while the trend was downward in Ranchuelo and Caibarién. The municipalities of Santa Clara and Encrucijada had the highest and lowest standard deviation (13.432 vs. 5.968, respectively), which demonstrates great variability among the data of each municipality. Conclusions: There is a close relationship between atmospheric pressure and mosquito population density since both total and specific larval densities increase as atmospheric pressure increases.


Resumen Introducción. Los mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae) son uno de los organismos más versátiles del mundo, pues pueden reproducirse en cualquier depósito de agua, como charcos o tanques. Sin embargo, su reproducción está influenciada por variables atmosféricas que permiten predecir su densidad poblacional. Objetivo. Evaluar el impacto de la presión atmosférica en la densidad poblacional de mosquitos en la provincia de Villa Clara, Cuba, mediante el uso de modelos matemáticos basados en la metodología de regresión objetiva regresiva (ROR). Materiales y métodos. El desarrollo del modelo matemático de pronóstico de focos de reproducción se basó en el número de focos reportados en la provincia de Villa Clara entre 2000 y 2017, y en el modelo ROR. Además, se realizó un análisis de regresión mediante el programa IBM SPSS® versión 19.0, lo que permitió obtener modelos de regresión que explicaron el 100% de la varianza, con su error típico. Resultados. Respecto a la cantidad de focos, se observó una tendencia al aumento en el municipio de Cifuentes, mientras que en Ranchuelo y Caibarién la tendencia fue a la reducción. Los municipios de Santa Clara y Encrucijada tuvieron la desviación estándar más alta y más baja, respectivamente (134.32 vs. 5.968), lo que evidencia una gran variabilidad entre los datos de cada municipio. Conclusiones. Existe una estrecha relación entre la presión atmosférica y la densidad poblacional de mosquitos, ya que a medida que aumenta la presión atmosférica, aumentan las densidades larvales, tanto total como específicas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cuba , Culicidae , Disease Vectors , Forecasting
14.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 40(3): 516-527, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131903

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Triatoma recurva is a Trypanosoma cruzi vector whose distribution and biological development are determined by factors that may influence the transmission of trypanosomiasis to humans. Objective: To identify the potential spatial distribution of Triatoma recurve, as well as social factors determining its presence. Materials and methods: We used the MaxEnt software to construct ecological niche models while bioclimatic variables (WorldClim) were derived from the monthly values of temperature and precipitation to generate biologically significant variables. The resulting cartography was interpreted as suitable areas for T. recurva presence. Results: Our results showed that the precipitation during the driest month (Bio 14), the maximum temperature during the warmest month (Bio 5), and the altitude (Alt) and mean temperature during the driest quarter (Bio 9) determined T. recurva distribution area at a higher percentage evidencing its strong relationship with domestic and surrounding structures. Conclusions. This methodology can be used in other geographical contexts to locate potential sampling sites where these triatomines occur.


Introducción. Triatoma recurva es un vector de Trypanosoma cruzi cuya existencia y desarrollo biológico están determinados por factores que pueden influir en la transmisión de la tripanosomiasis a los seres humanos. Objetivo. Determinar una posible distribución espacial de Triatoma recurva y algunos factores sociales que determinan su presencia. Materiales y métodos. El modelado de nicho ecológico se hizo con el programa MaxEnt empleando las variables bioclimáticas (WorldClim) derivadas de los valores mensuales de temperatura y precipitación para generar variables biológicamente significativas. La cartografía resultante evidenció áreas adecuadas para la presencia de T. recurva. Resultados. Los resultados indicaron que la precipitación del mes más seco (Bio 14), la temperatura máxima del mes más cálido (Bio 5), y la altitud (Alt) y la temperatura media del trimestre más seco (Bio 9), determinaron en mayor porcentaje el área de distribución de T. recurva, observándose que es una especie con una acentuada relación con las estructuras domésticas y circundantes. Conclusión. Esta metodología puede emplearse en otros contextos geográficos para localizar posibles sitios de muestreo de estos triatominos.


Subject(s)
Triatoma , Triatominae , Climate , Chagas Disease , Ecosystem , Disease Vectors
15.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 40(2): 63-75, jun. 2020. graf, ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102739

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de este artículo es proporcionar una guía que sirva para la interpretación y seguimiento de los esfuerzos que se están desarrollando en todo el mundo con el objetivo de obtener una vacuna que pueda generar inmunidad contra el nuevo coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 de 2019, el agente causante de la enfermedad por coronavirus denominada COVID-19. Cinco meses después de haber sido detectada la enfermedad, ya hay 102 vacunas en distintos estadios de desarrollo, registradas por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), correspondientes a 8 plataformas vacunales con diferentes estrategias, y todos los días aparecen nuevas. Esto representará un enorme desafío de organismos internacionales, para la evaluación, comparación y selección de aquellas que cumplan con los criterios regulatorios indispensables de seguridad y eficacia y que, por otro lado, puedan ser producidas en cantidades suficientes para abastecer la demanda mundial. (AU)


The objective of this article is to provide a guide to help the interpretation and monitoring the efforts that are being carried out worldwide to obtain a vaccine that will be able to generate immunity against the new 2019 SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, the viral agent causes the disease named COVID-19. Five months after the disease was detected, there are already 102 vaccines at different stages of development, registered by World Health Organization (WHO), corresponding to 8 vaccination platforms base on different strategies, and every day new ones appear. This will represent a huge challenge for international organizations, to evaluate, compare and selects those that will meet the essential regulatory criteria of safety and efficacy and that, would be able to be produced in enough quantities to supply the worldwide demand. Key words: SARS-Cov-2 vaccine, vaccine platform, COVID-19 strategy, attenuated virus, viral vector, viral proteins, viral DNA, viral RNA, nucleic acids, viral like particles, WHO. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , SARS Virus/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , DNA/therapeutic use , RNA/therapeutic use , Vaccines/therapeutic use , Nucleic Acids/therapeutic use , Protein S/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , SARS Virus/physiology , SARS Virus/genetics , Disease Vectors
16.
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 10(2): 94-99, abr.-jun. 2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1222337

ABSTRACT

Justificativa e Objetivos: os hospitais são locais propícios para a instalação e propagação de insetos, especialmente formigas. Essas, além da sua capacidade adaptativa, vivem em mutualismo com outros animais, como fungos e bactérias, o que confere risco elevado para infecções nosocomiais. O presente estudo teve como objetivo identificar a microbiota bacteriana associada com formigas intra-hospitalares na cidade de Anápolis, Goiás, e discutir o papel de tais agentes no desenvolvimento de infecções hospitalares e o consequente risco para indivíduos hospitalizados. Métodos: foram montadas armadilhas para formigas em dois hospitais da cidade de Anápolis a fim de capturá-las nos setores de enfermaria, unidade de terapia intensiva/semi-intensiva e nutrição. As armadilhas eram deixadas por um período pré-determinado nos respectivos setores e depois eram levadas ao Laboratório de Microbiologia da UniEvangélica para cultivo, semeadura e identificação bacteriana. Resultados: foram realizadas três coletas em cada um dos setores de cada instituição hospitalar. Foi possível isolar os seguintes microrganismos: Staphylococcus spp., bacilos Gram-positivos, Klebsiella ozaenae, K. rhinoscleromatis, Escherichia coli e Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Conclusão: pode-se concluir que as formigas podem atuar como veículos para microrganismos. Esse fato sugere que podem favorecer o processo de infecção em usuários de assistência hospitalar. Entretanto, permanece incerto a relação entre população de formigas e incidência de infecções nos hospitais, sendo necessário realizar estudos para associar tais variáveis.(AU)


Background and Objectives: hospitals are prone environments for the establishment and spread of insects, especially ants. In addition to their adaptive capacity, ants live in mutualism with other living beings such as fungi and bacteria, which increases the risk of nosocomial infections. This study aimed to identify the bacterial microbiota associated with intrahospital ants in the city of Anápolis, Goiás, and to discuss the role of such agents in the development of nosocomial infections and consequent risk for hospitalized individuals. Methods: ant traps were set up in two hospitals in Anápolis to capture them in the ward sectors as well as the intensive or semi-intensive care units and the nutrition sectors. The traps were left for a predetermined period in the respective locations and were then taken to the UniEvangélica Microbiology Laboratory for culture, sowing and bacterial identification. Results: three collections were performed in each of the hospital sectors of each hospital institution. The following microorganisms could be isolated: Staphylococcus spp., Gram-positive bacilli, Klebsiella ozaenae, K. rhinoscleromatis, Escherichia coli and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Conclusion: we can conclude that ants can act as vessels for microorganisms. This fact suggests that ants may favor infections in the hospitals. However, the relationship between ant population and incidence of infections in hospitals remains uncertain, and studies are necessary to associate these variables.(AU)


Justificación y Objetivos: los hospitales son ambientes propicios para la instalación y propagación de insectos, especialmente hormigas. Además de su capacidad de adaptación, estos animales viven en mutualismo con otros, como los hongos y las bacterias, lo que confiere un alto riesgo de infecciones nosocomiales en los humanos. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar la microbiota bacteriana asociada con hormigas intrahospitalarias en la ciudad de Anápolis, Goiás, y analizar el papel de dichos agentes en el desarrollo de infecciones hospitalarias y el riesgo para las personas hospitalizadas. Métodos: se instalaron trampas para hormigas en dos hospitales de la ciudad de Anápolis para capturarlas en los sectores de enfermería, unidades de cuidados intensivos, de cuidados semiintensivos y nutrición. Las trampas se dejaron durante un período predeterminado en los sectores respectivos y después se las llevaron al Laboratorio de Microbiología UniEvangélica para su cultivo, siembra e identificación bacteriana. Resultados: se realizaron tres colectas en cada uno de los sectores hospitalarios de cada institución hospitalaria. Se pudieron aislar los siguientes microorganismos: Staphylococcus spp., bacilos Gram positivos, Klebsiella ozaenae, K. rhinoscleromatis, Escherichia coli y Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Conclusiones: se concluye que las hormigas pueden servir como vehículos de microorganismos. Esto sugiere que pueden favorecer el proceso de infección a los usuarios de atención hospitalaria. Sin embargo, la relación entre la población de hormigas y la incidencia de infecciones en los hospitales sigue siendo incierta, y se necesitan más estudios para asociar estas variables.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Ants , Bacteria , Cross Infection , Infection Control , Disease Vectors , Insect Vectors , Public Health , Microbiota , Hospitals
17.
Mem. Inst. Invest. Cienc. Salud (Impr.) ; 18(1)abr. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1293121

ABSTRACT

Las técnicas moleculares para la detección de infección natural y fuente de alimentación en vectores secundarios de la enfermedad de Chagas cuando son aplicadas a ejemplares capturados en áreas endémicas, históricamente ocupadas por Triatoma infestans, proporcionan a las investigaciones epidemiológicas respuestas más exactas con relación a la transmisibilidad de la enfermedad. El presente estudio tiene como objetivo emplear biomarcadores moleculares para evaluar el impacto de la infestación intra y peridomicilar de Triatoma sordida en viviendas bajo vigilancia entomológica de departamentos de la Región Oriental del Paraguay en el período 2007 al 2015. Un total de 559 ejemplares de T. sordida capturados en 253, 91 y 52 viviendas de los departamentos Paraguarí, San Pedro y Cordillera, respectivamente fueron analizados. La infestación detectada fue del 24% al 48% así como una elevada colonización intradomiciliar del 5% al 36% en los tres departamentos. La detección molecular de infección natural osciló entre el 14% y 44%; y en 111 ejemplares se determinó la fuente de alimentación. El marcador molecular citocromo b permitió demostrar por vez primera un elevado porcentaje de triatominos con sangre humana como fuente de alimentación, principalmente en Cordillera con un 82% (28/34 T. sordida capturados). Estos hallazgos dejan en evidencia el avance del T. sordida en la ocupación del nicho ecológico de T. cruzi y la capacidad de esta especie secundaria como vector en la transmisión de T. cruzi en comunidades de la Región Oriental


When molecular techniques for the detection of natural infection and blood meal source in secondary vectors of Chagas disease are applied to specimens captured in endemic areas, historically occupied by Triatoma infestans, provide more accurate answers to questions about transmissibility of the illness and further contribute to the epidemiological studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of intra and peridomiciliary infestation of Triatoma sordida in households from the departments of the Eastern Region of Paraguay, under entomological surveillance during the period 2007 to 2015, by using the molecular biomarkers technology. A total of 559 specimens of T. sordida captured in 253, 91 and 52 households from Paraguarí, San Pedro and Cordillera departments, respectively, were analyzed. The infestation detected was from 24% to 48% as well as a high intradomicialiary colonization from 5% to 36% in the three departments. The molecular detection of natural infections ranged from 14% to 44% and in 111 specimens the meal source was identified. The molecular marker cytochrome b allowed to demonstrate, for the first time, high frequency of triatomines with human blood as a food source, mainly in Cordillera as it was determined in 82% (28/34) of the T. sordida captured. These findings demonstrate a progress of T. sordida into the ecological niche of T. cruzi and the abillity of this secondary species as a vector of the transmission of T. cruzi in communities from the Eastern Region of Paraguay


Subject(s)
Animals , Chagas Disease/transmission , Cytochromes b , Triatoma , Disease Vectors
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880819

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused a total of 55 928 327 confirmed cases and 1 344 003 deaths as of November 19, 2020. But so far the origin of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes this pandemic has remained undetermined. The purpose of this study is to review the current research of SARS-CoV-2 and the existing problems therein, which may provide inspiration for further researches. Existing evidence suggested that SARS-CoV-2 may be derived from bat coronavirus 40-70 years ago. During the evolution, this virus underwent extensive variations in the process of mutations and natural selection. Different genomic regions of SARS-CoV-2 may have different selection pressures, but all of which increase the difficulty of tracing the origin of this virus. A wide variety of animals have been considered as potential hosts of SARS-CoV-2, including cats, lions, tigers, dogs and minks. SARS-CoV-2 has a chance to transmit from humans to animals and can be transmitted among animals. Current research evidence has shown that China is not the original source of SARS-CoV-2. It is still unclear how the virus spreads to human, and efforts are still need to be made to explore the origin of SARS-CoV-2, its hosts and intermediate hosts, and the mechanism of its transmission across different species of animals.


Subject(s)
Animals , COVID-19/transmission , Cats , China , Chiroptera/virology , Disease Vectors , Dogs , Evolution, Molecular , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/classification
19.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200236, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143304

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Intermediate hosts are key organisms in maintaining parasite life cycles, because they can act as amplifiers in the transmission from natural reservoirs to humans. One of the most important groups of intermediate hosts for zoonotic nematode infections are gastropods,slugs and snails. These are essential organisms in the larval development of Angiostrongylus species. OBJECTIVES The objective of this paper is to review reports of Angiostrongylus spp. in naturally infected gastropods from the Americas, taking into account the diagnostic methods used in their identification, to be able to provide more accurate list of their intermediate hosts. We also discuss the factors that aid the dispersion of Angiostrongylus spp. in the Americas. METHODS This study reviews scientific publications and book sections on Angiostrongylus spp. in the Americas, including original works assessing larvae of Angiostrongylus in intermediate hosts. The eligible reports were classified accordingly to their geographical location, year of first record, and the larvae identification methodologies used. Digital repositories were used for the search. The bioecological characteristics of the main intermediate hosts are summarised. FINDINGS A total of 29 gastropod species that are naturally infected with Angiostrongylus spp. have been reported as intermediate hosts, 16 of which are land snails, two are freshwater snails, and 11 land slugs. MAIN CONCLUSIONS This study highlights the importance of integrative studies, analysing both the etiological agent and its transmission dynamic in the environment, the biological and ecological characteristics of the hosts, and the impact on host populations. It is necessary to increase interdisciplinary studies to determine the potential epidemiological health risk of angiostrongyliasis in the Americas, and thus be able to establish prevention, monitoring and contingency strategies in the region.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Snails/parasitology , Strongylida Infections/diagnosis , Gastropoda/parasitology , Angiostrongylus/isolation & purification , Americas , Zoonoses , Angiostrongylus cantonensis , Disease Vectors , Gastropoda/physiology
20.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200083, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143876

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Brazil has a high number of cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in the north and northeast regions. Therefore, continuous surveillance of environmental and socioeconomic factors in endemic areas is needed to develop strategic control measures. This study aimed to describe the clinical and epidemiological profiles of patients with ACL. METHODS: All patients were from the states of Amazonas and Pernambuco, and examinations were carried out between 2015 and 2018. All patients had a clinical and epidemiological history compatible with ACL after positive diagnostic tests. Information obtained from medical records included gender, employment activity, level of education, age, and number and sites of lesions. RESULTS: A total of 213 patients were included, of whom 30.98% were female and 69.02% were male. The main employment activity was agriculture (27.56%). The most common level of education was elementary (62.42%). The average age was approximately 39 years. The majority of the patients presented only with one lesion (54.87%), and legs/feet were the most commonly affected area (48.25%), followed by the arms/hands (44.75%). CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrated that irrespective of the patients' places of origin, interventions need to be focused on men of economically productive age, in view of the high risk of exposure to the vector in this group. Education activities need to be directed to farmers about the importance of protection against ACL vectors during work. Such information must also be directed to employers as a way of implementing and maintaining appropriate working conditions and stepping up vector control.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , United States , Brazil/epidemiology , Disease Vectors , Educational Status
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