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1.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(3): 432-437, jun. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346481

ABSTRACT

Resumen Las enfermedades transmitidas por vectores (ETVs) continúan siendo un desafío para los esfuerzos de agencias de salud pública, ya que mantienen o están aumentando su impacto sobre la salud de las comunidades afectadas. La característica común de las ETVs es que la única manera de prevenir exito samente nuevas infecciones es evitar el contacto entre vectores y humanos. No existen vacunas y no existirán en un futuro previsible para las principales ETVs que afectan la salud pública en Argentina. Aunque las epide mias de dengue desde 2009 atrajeron la atención mediática, otras ETVs, tales como Chagas o leishmaniasis, afectan la salud pública en Argentina desde hace décadas. Sobre ellas, y otras que potencialmente podrían instalarse en el territorio nacional (West Nile, Lyme, etc) hay repetidas referencias mediáticas que explican su recrudecimiento por el cambio climático. El argumento se basa en que la "tropicalización" del clima en regiones templadas promueve la instalación de ETVs en áreas previamente no favorables para ellas. Aunque existen muchas evidencias de que el clima está cambiando, son pocas las evidencias de que sea el clima el principal factor que promueve el recrudecimiento de las ETVs en Argentina. En este artículo, se discute la situación de los vectores de enfermedades en Argentina (con énfasis en triatominos), su vinculación con el llamado cambio climático y las actividades de control de vectores implementados por agencias gubernamentales de salud pública.


Abstract Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) continue to pose a challenge to the efforts of public health agencies by increasing their impact on the health of the affected communities. The common feature of VBDs is that the only way of preventing them is by avoid ing the contact between vectors and humans. There are no vaccines, and they will not be available shortly as tools for prevention and control in Argentina. Although dengue outbreaks attracted the attention of mass media from 2009, other VBDs have been affecting public health in Argentina for many decades, as Chagas disease and leishmaniasis. Over these, and others that could potentially settle in the national territory (West Nile, Lyme, etc.), there are repeated mass media claims and political declarations justifying their increase because of climate changes. The argument asserts that the "tropicalization" of the climate in temperate regions promotes the instal lation of VBDs in areas previously unfavorable for them. Although much evidence exists showing that the climate is changing, there is very little evidence that the climate is the main factor promoting the increase of VBDs. In this article, the influence of the so-called climate change on the situation of disease vectors in Argentina (with emphasis on triatomines) and vector control activities implemented by governmental public health agencies are discussed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Climate Change , Vector Borne Diseases , Argentina/epidemiology , Public Health , Disease Vectors
2.
Rev. Fac. Med. (Bogotá) ; 68(4): 541-549, oct.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1149555

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are considered one of the most versatile organisms in the world as they can breed in any pool of water, such as puddles or tanks. However, their reproduction is influenced by atmospheric variables that allow predicting their population density. Objective: To assess the impact of atmospheric pressure on mosquito population density in the province of Villa Clara, Cuba, by means of a mathematical model based on a regressive objective regression (ROR) methodology. Materials and methods: The development of the mathematical model to predict breeding sites was based on the number of breeding sites reported in the province of Villa Clara between 2000 and 2017, and the ROR model. Furthermore, a regression analysis was carried out using the IBM SPSS® version 19.0, which allowed obtaining models that explained 100% of the variance, with its corresponding standard error. Results: With respect to the number of breeding sites, an increasing trend was observed in the municipality of Cifuentes, while the trend was downward in Ranchuelo and Caibarién. The municipalities of Santa Clara and Encrucijada had the highest and lowest standard deviation (13.432 vs. 5.968, respectively), which demonstrates great variability among the data of each municipality. Conclusions: There is a close relationship between atmospheric pressure and mosquito population density since both total and specific larval densities increase as atmospheric pressure increases.


Resumen Introducción. Los mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae) son uno de los organismos más versátiles del mundo, pues pueden reproducirse en cualquier depósito de agua, como charcos o tanques. Sin embargo, su reproducción está influenciada por variables atmosféricas que permiten predecir su densidad poblacional. Objetivo. Evaluar el impacto de la presión atmosférica en la densidad poblacional de mosquitos en la provincia de Villa Clara, Cuba, mediante el uso de modelos matemáticos basados en la metodología de regresión objetiva regresiva (ROR). Materiales y métodos. El desarrollo del modelo matemático de pronóstico de focos de reproducción se basó en el número de focos reportados en la provincia de Villa Clara entre 2000 y 2017, y en el modelo ROR. Además, se realizó un análisis de regresión mediante el programa IBM SPSS® versión 19.0, lo que permitió obtener modelos de regresión que explicaron el 100% de la varianza, con su error típico. Resultados. Respecto a la cantidad de focos, se observó una tendencia al aumento en el municipio de Cifuentes, mientras que en Ranchuelo y Caibarién la tendencia fue a la reducción. Los municipios de Santa Clara y Encrucijada tuvieron la desviación estándar más alta y más baja, respectivamente (134.32 vs. 5.968), lo que evidencia una gran variabilidad entre los datos de cada municipio. Conclusiones. Existe una estrecha relación entre la presión atmosférica y la densidad poblacional de mosquitos, ya que a medida que aumenta la presión atmosférica, aumentan las densidades larvales, tanto total como específicas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cuba , Culicidae , Disease Vectors , Forecasting
3.
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 10(2): 94-99, abr.-jun. 2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1222337

ABSTRACT

Justificativa e Objetivos: os hospitais são locais propícios para a instalação e propagação de insetos, especialmente formigas. Essas, além da sua capacidade adaptativa, vivem em mutualismo com outros animais, como fungos e bactérias, o que confere risco elevado para infecções nosocomiais. O presente estudo teve como objetivo identificar a microbiota bacteriana associada com formigas intra-hospitalares na cidade de Anápolis, Goiás, e discutir o papel de tais agentes no desenvolvimento de infecções hospitalares e o consequente risco para indivíduos hospitalizados. Métodos: foram montadas armadilhas para formigas em dois hospitais da cidade de Anápolis a fim de capturá-las nos setores de enfermaria, unidade de terapia intensiva/semi-intensiva e nutrição. As armadilhas eram deixadas por um período pré-determinado nos respectivos setores e depois eram levadas ao Laboratório de Microbiologia da UniEvangélica para cultivo, semeadura e identificação bacteriana. Resultados: foram realizadas três coletas em cada um dos setores de cada instituição hospitalar. Foi possível isolar os seguintes microrganismos: Staphylococcus spp., bacilos Gram-positivos, Klebsiella ozaenae, K. rhinoscleromatis, Escherichia coli e Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Conclusão: pode-se concluir que as formigas podem atuar como veículos para microrganismos. Esse fato sugere que podem favorecer o processo de infecção em usuários de assistência hospitalar. Entretanto, permanece incerto a relação entre população de formigas e incidência de infecções nos hospitais, sendo necessário realizar estudos para associar tais variáveis.(AU)


Background and Objectives: hospitals are prone environments for the establishment and spread of insects, especially ants. In addition to their adaptive capacity, ants live in mutualism with other living beings such as fungi and bacteria, which increases the risk of nosocomial infections. This study aimed to identify the bacterial microbiota associated with intrahospital ants in the city of Anápolis, Goiás, and to discuss the role of such agents in the development of nosocomial infections and consequent risk for hospitalized individuals. Methods: ant traps were set up in two hospitals in Anápolis to capture them in the ward sectors as well as the intensive or semi-intensive care units and the nutrition sectors. The traps were left for a predetermined period in the respective locations and were then taken to the UniEvangélica Microbiology Laboratory for culture, sowing and bacterial identification. Results: three collections were performed in each of the hospital sectors of each hospital institution. The following microorganisms could be isolated: Staphylococcus spp., Gram-positive bacilli, Klebsiella ozaenae, K. rhinoscleromatis, Escherichia coli and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Conclusion: we can conclude that ants can act as vessels for microorganisms. This fact suggests that ants may favor infections in the hospitals. However, the relationship between ant population and incidence of infections in hospitals remains uncertain, and studies are necessary to associate these variables.(AU)


Justificación y Objetivos: los hospitales son ambientes propicios para la instalación y propagación de insectos, especialmente hormigas. Además de su capacidad de adaptación, estos animales viven en mutualismo con otros, como los hongos y las bacterias, lo que confiere un alto riesgo de infecciones nosocomiales en los humanos. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar la microbiota bacteriana asociada con hormigas intrahospitalarias en la ciudad de Anápolis, Goiás, y analizar el papel de dichos agentes en el desarrollo de infecciones hospitalarias y el riesgo para las personas hospitalizadas. Métodos: se instalaron trampas para hormigas en dos hospitales de la ciudad de Anápolis para capturarlas en los sectores de enfermería, unidades de cuidados intensivos, de cuidados semiintensivos y nutrición. Las trampas se dejaron durante un período predeterminado en los sectores respectivos y después se las llevaron al Laboratorio de Microbiología UniEvangélica para su cultivo, siembra e identificación bacteriana. Resultados: se realizaron tres colectas en cada uno de los sectores hospitalarios de cada institución hospitalaria. Se pudieron aislar los siguientes microorganismos: Staphylococcus spp., bacilos Gram positivos, Klebsiella ozaenae, K. rhinoscleromatis, Escherichia coli y Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Conclusiones: se concluye que las hormigas pueden servir como vehículos de microorganismos. Esto sugiere que pueden favorecer el proceso de infección a los usuarios de atención hospitalaria. Sin embargo, la relación entre la población de hormigas y la incidencia de infecciones en los hospitales sigue siendo incierta, y se necesitan más estudios para asociar estas variables.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Ants , Bacteria , Cross Infection , Infection Control , Disease Vectors , Insect Vectors , Public Health , Microbiota , Hospitals
4.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 40(2): 63-75, jun. 2020. graf, ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102739

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de este artículo es proporcionar una guía que sirva para la interpretación y seguimiento de los esfuerzos que se están desarrollando en todo el mundo con el objetivo de obtener una vacuna que pueda generar inmunidad contra el nuevo coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 de 2019, el agente causante de la enfermedad por coronavirus denominada COVID-19. Cinco meses después de haber sido detectada la enfermedad, ya hay 102 vacunas en distintos estadios de desarrollo, registradas por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), correspondientes a 8 plataformas vacunales con diferentes estrategias, y todos los días aparecen nuevas. Esto representará un enorme desafío de organismos internacionales, para la evaluación, comparación y selección de aquellas que cumplan con los criterios regulatorios indispensables de seguridad y eficacia y que, por otro lado, puedan ser producidas en cantidades suficientes para abastecer la demanda mundial. (AU)


The objective of this article is to provide a guide to help the interpretation and monitoring the efforts that are being carried out worldwide to obtain a vaccine that will be able to generate immunity against the new 2019 SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, the viral agent causes the disease named COVID-19. Five months after the disease was detected, there are already 102 vaccines at different stages of development, registered by World Health Organization (WHO), corresponding to 8 vaccination platforms base on different strategies, and every day new ones appear. This will represent a huge challenge for international organizations, to evaluate, compare and selects those that will meet the essential regulatory criteria of safety and efficacy and that, would be able to be produced in enough quantities to supply the worldwide demand. Key words: SARS-Cov-2 vaccine, vaccine platform, COVID-19 strategy, attenuated virus, viral vector, viral proteins, viral DNA, viral RNA, nucleic acids, viral like particles, WHO. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , SARS Virus/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , DNA/therapeutic use , RNA/therapeutic use , Vaccines/therapeutic use , Nucleic Acids/therapeutic use , Protein S/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , SARS Virus/physiology , SARS Virus/genetics , Disease Vectors
5.
Mem. Inst. Invest. Cienc. Salud (Impr.) ; 18(1)abr. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1293121

ABSTRACT

Las técnicas moleculares para la detección de infección natural y fuente de alimentación en vectores secundarios de la enfermedad de Chagas cuando son aplicadas a ejemplares capturados en áreas endémicas, históricamente ocupadas por Triatoma infestans, proporcionan a las investigaciones epidemiológicas respuestas más exactas con relación a la transmisibilidad de la enfermedad. El presente estudio tiene como objetivo emplear biomarcadores moleculares para evaluar el impacto de la infestación intra y peridomicilar de Triatoma sordida en viviendas bajo vigilancia entomológica de departamentos de la Región Oriental del Paraguay en el período 2007 al 2015. Un total de 559 ejemplares de T. sordida capturados en 253, 91 y 52 viviendas de los departamentos Paraguarí, San Pedro y Cordillera, respectivamente fueron analizados. La infestación detectada fue del 24% al 48% así como una elevada colonización intradomiciliar del 5% al 36% en los tres departamentos. La detección molecular de infección natural osciló entre el 14% y 44%; y en 111 ejemplares se determinó la fuente de alimentación. El marcador molecular citocromo b permitió demostrar por vez primera un elevado porcentaje de triatominos con sangre humana como fuente de alimentación, principalmente en Cordillera con un 82% (28/34 T. sordida capturados). Estos hallazgos dejan en evidencia el avance del T. sordida en la ocupación del nicho ecológico de T. cruzi y la capacidad de esta especie secundaria como vector en la transmisión de T. cruzi en comunidades de la Región Oriental


When molecular techniques for the detection of natural infection and blood meal source in secondary vectors of Chagas disease are applied to specimens captured in endemic areas, historically occupied by Triatoma infestans, provide more accurate answers to questions about transmissibility of the illness and further contribute to the epidemiological studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of intra and peridomiciliary infestation of Triatoma sordida in households from the departments of the Eastern Region of Paraguay, under entomological surveillance during the period 2007 to 2015, by using the molecular biomarkers technology. A total of 559 specimens of T. sordida captured in 253, 91 and 52 households from Paraguarí, San Pedro and Cordillera departments, respectively, were analyzed. The infestation detected was from 24% to 48% as well as a high intradomicialiary colonization from 5% to 36% in the three departments. The molecular detection of natural infections ranged from 14% to 44% and in 111 specimens the meal source was identified. The molecular marker cytochrome b allowed to demonstrate, for the first time, high frequency of triatomines with human blood as a food source, mainly in Cordillera as it was determined in 82% (28/34) of the T. sordida captured. These findings demonstrate a progress of T. sordida into the ecological niche of T. cruzi and the abillity of this secondary species as a vector of the transmission of T. cruzi in communities from the Eastern Region of Paraguay


Subject(s)
Animals , Chagas Disease/transmission , Cytochromes b , Triatoma , Disease Vectors
6.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200236, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143304

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Intermediate hosts are key organisms in maintaining parasite life cycles, because they can act as amplifiers in the transmission from natural reservoirs to humans. One of the most important groups of intermediate hosts for zoonotic nematode infections are gastropods,slugs and snails. These are essential organisms in the larval development of Angiostrongylus species. OBJECTIVES The objective of this paper is to review reports of Angiostrongylus spp. in naturally infected gastropods from the Americas, taking into account the diagnostic methods used in their identification, to be able to provide more accurate list of their intermediate hosts. We also discuss the factors that aid the dispersion of Angiostrongylus spp. in the Americas. METHODS This study reviews scientific publications and book sections on Angiostrongylus spp. in the Americas, including original works assessing larvae of Angiostrongylus in intermediate hosts. The eligible reports were classified accordingly to their geographical location, year of first record, and the larvae identification methodologies used. Digital repositories were used for the search. The bioecological characteristics of the main intermediate hosts are summarised. FINDINGS A total of 29 gastropod species that are naturally infected with Angiostrongylus spp. have been reported as intermediate hosts, 16 of which are land snails, two are freshwater snails, and 11 land slugs. MAIN CONCLUSIONS This study highlights the importance of integrative studies, analysing both the etiological agent and its transmission dynamic in the environment, the biological and ecological characteristics of the hosts, and the impact on host populations. It is necessary to increase interdisciplinary studies to determine the potential epidemiological health risk of angiostrongyliasis in the Americas, and thus be able to establish prevention, monitoring and contingency strategies in the region.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Snails/parasitology , Strongylida Infections/diagnosis , Gastropoda/parasitology , Angiostrongylus/isolation & purification , Americas , Zoonoses , Angiostrongylus cantonensis , Disease Vectors , Gastropoda/physiology
7.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200083, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143876

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Brazil has a high number of cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in the north and northeast regions. Therefore, continuous surveillance of environmental and socioeconomic factors in endemic areas is needed to develop strategic control measures. This study aimed to describe the clinical and epidemiological profiles of patients with ACL. METHODS: All patients were from the states of Amazonas and Pernambuco, and examinations were carried out between 2015 and 2018. All patients had a clinical and epidemiological history compatible with ACL after positive diagnostic tests. Information obtained from medical records included gender, employment activity, level of education, age, and number and sites of lesions. RESULTS: A total of 213 patients were included, of whom 30.98% were female and 69.02% were male. The main employment activity was agriculture (27.56%). The most common level of education was elementary (62.42%). The average age was approximately 39 years. The majority of the patients presented only with one lesion (54.87%), and legs/feet were the most commonly affected area (48.25%), followed by the arms/hands (44.75%). CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrated that irrespective of the patients' places of origin, interventions need to be focused on men of economically productive age, in view of the high risk of exposure to the vector in this group. Education activities need to be directed to farmers about the importance of protection against ACL vectors during work. Such information must also be directed to employers as a way of implementing and maintaining appropriate working conditions and stepping up vector control.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , United States , Brazil/epidemiology , Disease Vectors , Educational Status
8.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200335, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136822

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Schistosomiasis, caused by infection from Schistosoma mansoni, is a disease that represents an important public health problem for Brazil, especially for states in the Northeast region. Thus, the aim of this study is to present a new epidemiological profile for the disease in a municipality with low prevalence in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted through a coproparasitological and malacological survey. A structured questionnaire was applied to the study participants to survey possible risk factors and a spatial analysis (kernel density) was used to measure the risk of infection. RESULTS: Of the 347 participants, 106 (30.5%) were infected by Schistosoma mansoni, most of them from the urban area of the municipality (68.9%; 73/106). A 3-fold risk of infection was found for individuals living in the urban area and a risk of 2.15 times for self-declared farmers. Biomphalaria glabrata and B. straminea were the species found in the municipality, but no animals were diagnosed as infected by the parasite. Spatial analysis showed a random distribution of vectors and human cases of the disease, and the formation of two clusters of human cases in the urban area was seen. CONCLUSIONS: A new epidemiological profile for schistosomiasis from S. mansoni infection was presented in a municipality of low endemicity: a high proportion of positive individuals in the urban area; presence of snails without positive diagnosis for S. mansoni infection; random distribution of vectors and human cases; and absence of association between classical risk factors and human infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Schistosomiasis mansoni/diagnosis , Schistosomiasis mansoni/transmission , Schistosomiasis mansoni/epidemiology , Schistosoma mansoni , Biomphalaria , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Vectors , Middle Aged
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880819

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused a total of 55 928 327 confirmed cases and 1 344 003 deaths as of November 19, 2020. But so far the origin of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes this pandemic has remained undetermined. The purpose of this study is to review the current research of SARS-CoV-2 and the existing problems therein, which may provide inspiration for further researches. Existing evidence suggested that SARS-CoV-2 may be derived from bat coronavirus 40-70 years ago. During the evolution, this virus underwent extensive variations in the process of mutations and natural selection. Different genomic regions of SARS-CoV-2 may have different selection pressures, but all of which increase the difficulty of tracing the origin of this virus. A wide variety of animals have been considered as potential hosts of SARS-CoV-2, including cats, lions, tigers, dogs and minks. SARS-CoV-2 has a chance to transmit from humans to animals and can be transmitted among animals. Current research evidence has shown that China is not the original source of SARS-CoV-2. It is still unclear how the virus spreads to human, and efforts are still need to be made to explore the origin of SARS-CoV-2, its hosts and intermediate hosts, and the mechanism of its transmission across different species of animals.


Subject(s)
Animals , COVID-19/transmission , Cats , China , Chiroptera/virology , Disease Vectors , Dogs , Evolution, Molecular , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/classification
10.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 71(3): e386, sept.-dic. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093579

ABSTRACT

Introducción: A nivel mundial, Aedes aegypti es el culícido más importante en cuanto a la transmisión de arbovirus de impacto en salud pública. Objetivo: Profundizar en los conocimientos ecológicos de Ae. aegypti en República Dominicana, a través de los recipientes o contenedores que utiliza para desarrollar sus formas preimaginales. Métodos: El estudio se extendió desde octubre a diciembre de 2017. Se muestrearon aleatoriamente 100 viviendas, en las que se revisaron todos los recipientes con potencialidad para albergar larvas y/o pupas de mosquitos, dentro y fuera del domicilio. Se cuantificó el tipo y total de cada depósito positivo según su ubicación en cada vivienda, para calcular el porcentaje de representatividad, junto al Índice Pupal por Depósitos específicos (IPDe) para cada receptáculo con pupas. Resultados: Se detectó presencia de Ae. aegypti en el 41 por ciento de las casas visitadas. De los 419 recipientes analizados, 74 resultaron positivos a larvas y/o pupas (17,66 por ciento). Se clasificaron 28 tipos de depósitos atendiendo a su función y material. Cuantitativamente, los depósitos permanentes fueron los más representativos con un 54,05 por ciento. Las mayores capturas se realizaron en el peridomicilio. El tanque plástico fue el más relevante, pues aportó el 28,37 por ciento del total de depósitos positivos, así como un elevado IPDe. Conclusiones: Los resultados evidencian elevados niveles de infestación en los domicilios de Jarabacoa que deben ser controlados a fin de disminuir el riesgo en la transmisión de arbovirosis. El control de los recipientes artificiales, como los contenedores desechables, los neumáticos y sobre todo los tanques de agua, es la piedra angular de cualquier esfuerzo para prevenir estas enfermedades(AU)


Introduction: Aedes aegypti is the most important culicid worldwide in terms of transmission of arbovirus infections of a high impact on public health. Objective: Broaden ecological knowledge about Aedes aegypti in the Dominican Republic, particularly about the containers and other sites where immature development occurs. Methods: The study extended from October to December 2017. One hundred households were randomly surveyed, checking all the containers with a potential to host mosquito larvae and/or pupae both inside and outside the house. Quantification was made of the type and total of positive containers according to their location in each household, to estimate the percentage of representativeness and the pupal index per container identified (PICI) when pupae were found in them. Results: Aedes aegypti was found to be present in 41 percent of the houses visited. Of the 419 containers analyzed, 74 were positive for larvae and/or pupae (17.66 percent). Containers were classified into 28 types according to their function and material. Quantitatively, permanent containers were the best represented with 54.05 percent. The largest captures were made in the area around the house. Plastic water tanks were the most relevant, with 28.37 percent of the total positive containers and a high PICI. Conclusions: Results show high levels of infestation in Jarabacoa households. These should be controlled to reduce the risk of arbovirus infection transmission. Control of artificial breeding sites, such as disposable containers, tires and especially water tanks, is the cornerstone of any effort to prevent these diseases(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Ecosystem , Aedes/microbiology , Disease Vectors/classification , Larva/growth & development
11.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 41: 56-59, sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087166

ABSTRACT

Background: Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the most dependable mammalian cells for the production of recombinant proteins. Replication-incompetent retroviral vector (retrovector) is an efficient tool to generate stable cell lines. Multiple copies of integrated genes by retrovector transduction results in improved recombinant protein yield. HEK-293 and their genetic derivatives are principal cells for retrovector production. Retrovectors packaged in HEK-293 cells pose a risk of infectious agent transmission, such as viruses and mycoplasmas, from serum and packaging cells. Results: In this report, retrovectors were packaged in CHO cells cultured in chemically defined (CD) media. The retrovectors were then used to transduce CHO cells. This method can block potential transmission of infectious agents from serum and packaging cells. With this method, we generated glucagon-like protein-1 Fc fusion protein (GLP-1-Fc) stable expression CHO cell lines. Productivity of GLP-1-Fc can reach 3.15 g/L. The GLP-1-Fc protein produced by this method has comparable bioactivity to that of dulaglutide (Trulicity). These stable cell lines retain 95­100% of productivity after 40 days of continuous culture (~48­56 generations). Conclusions: Suspension CHO cells are clean, safe, and reliable cells for retrovector packaging. Retrovectors packaged from this system could be used to generate CHO stable cell lines for recombinant protein expression.


Subject(s)
Retroviridae , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , CHO Cells/metabolism , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments , Cell Line , Chromatography, Gel/methods , Disease Vectors , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Batch Cell Culture Techniques
12.
Infectio ; 23(2): 129-132, Apr.-June 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-989943

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objetive: To confirm the presence of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Lissachatina fulica individuals in Colombia. Methods: 19 individuals of L. fulica were collected in the city of Buenaventura, Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Lung tissue was extracted and two analysis methods were used: visual identification by histological observation, and identification through conventional and real-time PCR. The A. cantonensis detection rate was established taking into account each of the analysis techniques used. Results: Presence of A. cantonensis was confirmed in the lung tissue of L. fulica specimens collected in the city of Buenaventura, Valle del Cauca, Colombia. The detection rate based on visual identification through histological analysis was 89%, whereas it was 95% using conventional PCR, and 100% using real-time PCR. Conclusion: This study confirmed for the first time the presence of A. cantonensis associated with L. fulica specimens in Colombia. Therefore, eosinophilic meningitis could be considered an emerging disease in Colombia.


Resumen Objetivo: confirmar la presencia de Angiostrongylus cantonensis en individuos de Lissachatina fulica en Colombia. Materiales y métodos: se recolectaron 19 individuos de L. fulica en la ciudad de Buenaventura, Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Se extrajo el tejido pumonar y se utilizaron dos métodos de análisis: identificación visual por observación histológica e identificación a través de PCR convencional y en tiempo real. La tasa de detección de A. cantonensis fue establecida para cada una de las técnicas de análisis utilizadas. Resultados: se confirmó la presencia de A. cantonensis en el tejido pulmonar de los especímenes de L. fulica recolectados en la ciudad de Buenaventura, Valle del Cauca, Colombia. La tasa de detección alcanzanda a través de la técnica de identificación visual mediante análisis histológico fue del 89%, mientras que usando la técnica de PCR convencional fue del 95% y de PCR en tiempo real fue del 100%. Conclusión: este estudio confirma por primera vez la presencia de A. cantonensis asociado a especímenes de L. fulica en Colombia. Por lo tanto, se sugiere que la meningitis eosinofílica sea propuesta como una enfermedad emergente en Colombia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Snails , Angiostrongylus cantonensis , Meningitis , Colombia , Disease Vectors , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Viral Zoonoses , Lung , Meningoencephalitis , Mollusca
13.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(6): 683-692, jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020716

ABSTRACT

Background: Reproductive number (R0)-maps estimate risk zones of vector-borne diseases and geographical distribution changes under climate change. Aim: To map R0 aiming to estimate the epidemiological risk of Chagas disease in Chile, its distribution and possible changes due to the global climate change. Material and Methods: We used a relationship between R0 and entomological parameters of vectors as function of environmental variables, to map the risk of Chagas disease in Chile, under current and projected future environmental conditions. Results: We obtained a geographical R0 estimation of Chagas disease in Chile. The highest R0averages correspond to the Central-Northern regions of Chile. T. cruzi transmission area could increase in the future due to climate changes. Independent of the future condition, both for optimistic and pessimistic climate change scenarios, the area of potential risk for Chagas disease transmission would increase. The estimated R0 values suggest that, if a control of T. infestans is not maintained, Chagas disease endemic status will persist or increase, independently of the climate change scenarios. Conclusions: Mapping R0 values is an effective method to assess the risk of Chagas disease. The eventual increase in the transmission area of the disease is worrisome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Climate Change/statistics & numerical data , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Risk Assessment/methods , Disease Vectors , Temperature , Triatoma , Trypanosoma cruzi , Carbon Dioxide , Chile/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Chagas Disease/transmission , Statistics, Nonparametric , Geography
14.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 86: e0142018, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-998426

ABSTRACT

The objective of this research was to determine the thermal requirements and develop life expectancy and fertility tables of Aphis craccivora (L.) in Vigna unguiculata (Walp.). The insects were kept in Petri dishes and fed V. unguiculata leaf discs (cultivar BRS-Tumucumaque) under five constant temperatures (18, 22, 25, 28 and 31ºC). Live and dead insects and stages of development; the onset and duration of the pre-reproductive, reproductive and post-reproductive periods; the number of nymphs per female; and the longevity of the adults were quantified daily. Based on these observations, fertility life expectancy tables were developed, and the thermal requirements of the cowpea black-aphid were determined. Increased temperature influenced all stages of insect development, as well as the pre-reproductive and post-reproductive periods and the total number of nymphs per female. The base temperature for development was 9.13ºC with thermal development constant of 99.0 GD. The highest net reproduction rate (Ro) was at 25ºC. At 28ºC, the greatest capacity to increase in number (rm) was observed, as well as the highest finite rate of increase (λ) and the shortest time to double in number (TD). The thermal range between 22 and 28ºC can be considered most favourable to the development of A. ­craccivora in V. unguiculata. Temperatures below 22 and above 28ºC affect the fertility and survival of cowpea black-aphids. Increased temperature induces reproduction and reduces the longevity and life expectancy of A. craccivora in cowpeas.(AU)


Objetivou-se com esta pesquisa determinar as exigências térmicas e elaborar as tabelas de esperança de vida e de fertilidade de Aphis craccivora (L.) em Vigna unguiculata (Walp.). Os insetos foram mantidos em placas de Petri, alimentados com discos foliares de V. unguiculata, cultivar BRS-Tumucumaque, sob 5 temperaturas constantes: 18, 22, 25, 28 e 31ºC. Diariamente, foram quantificados os insetos vivos e mortos, o estádio de desenvolvimento, bem como o início e a duração dos períodos pré-reprodutivo, reprodutivo e pós-reprodutivo, o número de ninfas por fêmea e a longevidade de adultos. Com base nessas observações, elaboraram-se as tabelas de esperança de vida de fertilidade e determinaram-se as exigências térmicas do pulgão-preto do caupi. O aumento da temperatura influenciou todos os estádios de desenvolvimento do inseto, bem como os períodos pré-reprodutivo e pós-reprodutivo e o número total de ninfas por fêmea. A temperatura base de desenvolvimento foi de 9,13ºC, e a constante térmica de desenvolvimento, de 99,0 GD. A maior taxa líquida de reprodução (Ro) foi a 25ºC. A 28ºC, constatou-se a maior capacidade de aumentar em número (rm), bem como a maior razão finita de aumento (λ) e menor tempo para duplicar em número (TD). Pode-se considerar que a faixa térmica mais favorável ao desenvolvimento de A. craccivora em V. unguiculata está entre 22 e 28ºC. Temperaturas abaixo de 22 e acima de 28ºC prejudicam a fertilidade e a sobrevivência do pulgão-preto do caupi. O aumento da temperatura antecipa a reprodução e reduz a longevidade e esperança de vida de A. craccivora em feijão-caupi.(AU)


Subject(s)
Aphids/growth & development , Pest Control , Vigna , Temperature , Disease Vectors
16.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 35(9): e00123417, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039426

ABSTRACT

Resumo: A dinâmica de transmissão da dengue é multifatorial e envolve aspectos socioeconômicos, ecológicos e ambientais, sendo este último intimamente relacionado às condições climáticas locais que interferem no ciclo reprodutivo dos vetores da doença. Por sua vez, o clima é dependente dos mecanismos oceânicos tropicais, a exemplo das fases de El Niño/La Niña sobre o Pacífico. O presente trabalho contribui com esta temática e reporta as correlações entre o índice MEI (Multivariate ENOS Index) do Pacífico e o número de casos notificados de dengue em sete capitais da Amazônia brasileira, no período de 2001 a 2012. Além disso, investiga-se o padrão de sazonalidade (médias trimestrais) dos casos de dengue ao longo da região. As evidências de que o fenômeno El Niño/La Niña provoca redução/aumento no padrão pluviométrico local é consistente com o número menor/maior de casos notificados de dengue na maior parte das capitais amazônicas, cujo resultado foi comprovado pelas correlações negativas estatisticamente significantes encontradas para Manaus (Amazonas), São Luís (Maranhão), Belém (Pará) e Palmas (Tocantins). As médias dos 12 anos (2001/2012) revelaram a presença de sazonalidade pronunciada na incidência de dengue na maioria das capitais, com picos acentuados de janeiro a março [Rio Branco (Acre), Manaus, Belém e Palmas] e de abril a junho (São Luís), correspondendo em torno de 50% a 70% do total anual. As localidades mais ao norte [Boa Vista (Roraima) e Macapá (Amapá)] revelaram registro da dengue ao longo de todos os trimestres do ano, não apresentando sazonalidade acentuada.


Abstract: The dynamics of dengue transmission are multifactorial and involve socioeconomic, ecological, and environmental aspects, the latter being closely related to local climatic conditions that affect the vector's reproductive cycle. Climate depends in turn on tropical oceanic mechanisms such as phases of El Niño/La Niña over the Pacific. The study contributes to this discussion and reports on the correlations between the Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI) in the Pacific and the number of reported dengue cases in seven state capitals in the Brazilian Amazon from 2001 to 2012. The study also analyzes the seasonality pattern (quarterly mean values) in dengue cases throughout the region. Evidence that El Niño/La Niña causes a decrease versus increase in the local rainfall pattern is consistent with the lower versus higher number of reported dengue cases in most of the state capitals in the Amazon, a result proven by the statistically significant negative correlations seen in Manaus (Amazonas), São Luís (Maranhão), Belém (Pará) and Palmas (Tocantins). The 12-years means (2001-2012) revealed the presence of pronounced seasonality in dengue incidence in the majority of the state capitals, with sharp peaks from January to March [Rio Branco (Acre), Manaus, Belém and Palmas] and from April to June (São Luís), corresponding to 50-70% of the annual total. State capitals farther north [Boa Vista (Roraima) and Macapá (Amapá)] showed dengue reporting in all quarters of the year, with no pronounced seasonality.


Resumen: La dinámica de transmisión del dengue es multifactorial e implica aspectos socioeconómicos, ecológicos y ambientales, estando estos últimos íntimamente relacionados con las condiciones climáticas locales que interfieren en el ciclo reproductivo de los vectores de la enfermedad. A su vez, el clima depende de los mecanismos oceánicos tropicales, como por ejemplo las fases de El Niño/La Niña sobre el Pacífico. El presente trabajo contribuye a esta temática e informa sobre las correlaciones entre el índice MEI (Multivariate ENOS Index) del Pacífico y el número de casos notificados de dengue en siete capitales de la Amazonia brasileña durante el período de 2001 a 2012. Además, se investiga el patrón de estacionalidad (medias trimestrales) de los casos de dengue a lo largo de la región. Las evidencias de que el fenómeno El Niño/La Niña provoca reducción/aumento en el patrón pluviométrico local es consistente con el número menor/mayor de casos notificados de dengue en la mayor parte de las capitales amazónicas, cuyo resultado se comprobó por las correlaciones negativas estadísticamente significativas encontradas en Manaus (Amazonas), São Luís (Maranhão), Belém (Pará) y Palmas (Tocantins). Las medias de los doce años (2001/2012) revelaron la presencia de estacionalidad pronunciada en la incidencia de dengue en la mayoría de las capitales, con picos acentuados de enero a marzo [Rio Branco (Acre), Manaus, Belém y Palmas] y de abril a junio (São Luís), correspondiendo en torno del 50 al 70% del total anual. Las localidades más al norte [Boa Vista (Roraima) y Macapá (Amapá)] revelaron registro del dengue a lo largo de todos los trimestres del año, no presentando una estacionalidad acentuada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Dengue/epidemiology , El Nino-Southern Oscillation/adverse effects , Seasons , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Dengue/transmission , Disease Vectors
17.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e180448, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040617

ABSTRACT

Anthropogenic environmental changes arising from settlement and agriculture include deforestation and replacement of natural vegetation by crops providing opportunities for pathogen spillover from animals to humans. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of rodent-borne virus infections in seven rural settlements from Midwestern Brazil. Of the 466 individuals tested 12 (2.57%) were reactive for orthohantavirus and 3 (0.64%) for mammarenavirus. These rural settlers lived under unfavorable infrastructure, socioeconomic disadvantages, and unsanitary conditions, representing a risk for rodent-borne infections. Development of public policies towards the improvement of health, sanitation and awareness of rodent-borne diseases in improvised camps and settlements is imperative, in order to reduce morbidity and mortality caused by these diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Rodentia/virology , Arenaviridae Infections/epidemiology , Hantavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Vectors/classification , Rodentia/classification , Rural Population , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Arenaviridae Infections/diagnosis , Arenaviridae Infections/transmission , Hantavirus Infections/diagnosis , Hantavirus Infections/transmission , Middle Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood
18.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190171, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020440

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Biomphalaria glabrata is considered to be responsible for the incidence of schistosomiasis in Brazil. Therefore, surveillance of areas where schistosomiasis is prevalent is fundamental for public health planning. This study was aimed to evaluate B. glabrata populations in water bodies of the city of Salvador, determine their distribution, estimate the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infections, characterize shed cercariae, and identify transmission foci. METHODS: Malacological surveys were carried out in 17 water collections from Salvador. Snail species were identified based on shell and mantle characteristics. Snails were evaluated for S. mansoni infection by exposure to light and via real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) using S. mansoni-18S rRNA subunit specific primers. RESULTS: 1,403 B. glabrata were collected. Classical cercarial shedding indicated that 5 snails (0.4%) were positive for S. mansoni. A higher prevalence of infections was found in Horta de Saramandaia (5.5%) and Lagoa do IAT (1.9%). Non-Schistosoma larvae, such as Xiphidiocercaria, Strigeidae, Spirorchiidae and Clinostomidae, were observed in 3.2% of the snails. S. mansoni DNA was detected in 6.2% snails via qPCR. CONCLUSIONS: B. glabrata is widely distributed in Salvador, as indicated by 7 water collections associated with a risk of schistosomiasis transmission. To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify B. glabrata eliminating cercariae of Clinostomidae, Strigeidae, and Spirorchiidae in Salvador. We propose that qPCR may be employed in combination with classical cercarial shedding. Estimating S. mansoni prevalence in snails by only considering the results of light exposure method classical into account may underestimate the problem.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Schistosoma mansoni/genetics , Biomphalaria/parasitology , Disease Vectors , Schistosoma mansoni/isolation & purification , Urban Population , Schistosomiasis mansoni/transmission , RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
19.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 35(2): e00020218, 2019. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-984141

ABSTRACT

O entendimento das relações entre as variáveis de precipitação e nível d'água dos rios com os casos de malária podem fornecer indícios importantes da modulação da doença no contexto da variabilidade climática local. No intuito de demonstrar como essas relações variam no mesmo espaço endêmico, realizou-se a análise de coerência e fase de ondeletas entre as variáveis ambientais e epidemiológica no período de 2003 a 2010 para 8 municípios do Estado do Amazonas (Barcelos, Borba, Canutama, Carauari, Coari, Eirunepé, Humaitá e São Gabriel da Cachoeira). Os resultados indicam coerências significativas principalmente na escala de variabilidade anual, contudo, escalas menores que 1 ano e bienal também foram encontradas. As análises mostram que casos de malária apresentam pico com aproximadamente 1 mês e meio antes ou depois dos picos de chuva, e em média 1-4 meses após o pico dos rios para grande parte dos municípios estudados. Foi notado que cada variável ambiental apresentou atuação local distinta no tempo e no espaço, sugerindo que outras variáveis locais (a topografia é um exemplo) possam controlar as condições ambientais favorecendo uma atuação diferenciada em cada município, porém, quando as análises são feitas em conjunto é possível ver uma ordem não aleatória destas relações acontecerem. Embora os fatores ambientais e climáticos denotem certa influência sobre a dinâmica da malária, questões de vigilância, prevenção e controle não devem ser desprezadas, significando que as atuações governamentais de saúde podem mascarar possíveis relações com as condições hidrológicas e climáticas locais.


La comprensión de las relaciones entre las variables de precipitaciones y el nivel de agua de los ríos con los casos de malaria pueden proporcionar indicios importantes sobre la modulación de la enfermedad en el contexto de la variabilidad climática local. Con el fin de demonstrar cómo varían esas relaciones en el mismo espacio endémico, se realizó un análisis de coherencia y fase de ondeletas entre las variables ambientales y epidemiológicas, durante el período de 2003 a 2010, en 8 municipios del estado de Amazonas (Barcelos, Borba, Canutama, Carauari, Coari, Eirunepé, Humaitá y São Gabriel da Cachoeira). Los resultados indican coherencias significativas, principalmente en la escala de variabilidad anual, sin embargo, también se detectaron escalas menores de 1 año y bienal. Los análisis muestran que los casos de malaria presentan un pico con aproximadamente 1 mes y medio antes o después de la pluviosidad más alta, y de media 1-4 meses tras el pico de los ríos para gran parte de los municipios estudiados. Se observó que cada variable ambiental presentó una actuación local distinta en el tiempo y en el espacio, sugiriendo que otras variables locales (la topografía es un ejemplo) puedan controlar las condiciones ambientales, favoreciendo una actuación diferenciada en cada municipio, no obstante, cuando los análisis se realizan en conjunto es posible ver un orden no aleatorio de estas relaciones para que se produzcan. A pesar de que los factores ambientales y climáticos denoten una cierta influencia sobre la dinámica de la malaria, cuestiones de vigilancia, prevención y control no se deben despreciar, lo que significa que las actuaciones gubernamentales de salud pueden enmascarar posibles relaciones con las condiciones hidrológicas y climáticas locales.


Understanding the relations between rainfall and river water levels and malaria cases can provide important clues on modulation of the disease in the context of local climatic variability. In order to demonstrate how these relations can vary in the same endemic space, a coherence and wavelet phase analysis was performed between environmental and epidemiological variables from 2003 to 2010 for 8 municipalities (counties) in the state of Amazonas, Brazil (Barcelos, Borba, Canutama, Carauari, Coari, Eirunepé, Humaitá, and São Gabriel da Cachoeira). The results suggest significant coherences, mainly on the scale of annual variability, but scales of less than 1 year and of 2 years were also found. The analyses show that malaria cases display a peak at approximately 1 and a half months before or after peak rainfall and on average 1-4 months after peak river water levels in most of the municipalities studied. Each environmental variable displayed distinct local behavior in time and in space, suggesting that other local variables (e.g. topography) may control environmental conditions, favoring different patterns in each municipality. However, when the analyses were performed jointly it was possible to show a non-random order in these relations. Although environmental and climatic factors indicate a certain influence on malaria dynamics, surveillance, prevention, and control issues should not be overlooked, meaning that government public health interventions can mask possible relations with local hydrological and climatic conditions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Rain , Hydrology , Climate , Malaria/prevention & control , Malaria/epidemiology , Seasons , Brazil/epidemiology , Residence Characteristics , Incidence , Rivers , Disease Vectors
20.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2019. iv, 184 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1050046

ABSTRACT

Dípteros muscoides desempenham papel significante na disseminação de microrganismos. O principal objetivo deste estudo foi isolar bactérias resistentes aos antimicrobianos, a partir de dípteros muscoides, coletados em 5 pontos diferentes: no entorno e no lixo de um hospital municipal, na Zona Norte do Rio de Janeiro, assim como na Fiocruz e Quinta da Boa Vista, Rio de Janeiro. As moscas foram capturadas utilizando armadilhas de garrafa pet contendo isca atrativa, levadas ao Laboratório de Entomologioa Médica e Forense, IOC/Fiocruz, e identificadas utilizando chaves dicotômicas. Após esse procedimento foram maceradas em salina 0,85% estéril. Este extrato foi diluído e plaqueado em diferentes meios de cultura, contendo ou não antibiótico (ceftriaxona e polimixina, a 1 mg/L e 8 mg/L, respectivamente). Foram realizados o isolamento, a purificação das colônias e o teste de sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos (TSA) por disco difusão, utilizando os antibióticos cefepime, ceftazidima, cefoxitina, meropenem, gentamicina, tetraciclina e ciprofloxacina, cloranfenicol e trimetoprim-sulfametoxazol (Sensifar). Foram realizadas 16 coletas, e um total de 197 isolados bacterianos foram obtidos a partir dos 117 dipteros muscoides. Os isolados foram identificados por sequenciamento parcial do gene 16S rRNA e por MALDITOF-MS (Brucker). Do total, 46 isolados apresentaram perfil de não sensibilidade (perfil resistente e intermediário) a pelo menos dois antimicrobianos diferentes, enquanto dez isolados foram classificados como multirresistentes


Análise de cluster feita pelo programa Statistica revelou diferença significativa entre o Ponto 5 e os demais pontos, quanto ao número de isolados não sensíveis. Setenta e três amostras foram submetidas para detecção de genes de resistência aos ß-lactâmicos, aminoglicosídeos e colistina, através de PCR. Destas, apenas sete foram positivas. Três cepas de importância foram encontradas: Raoultella ornithinolytica positiva para o gene blaKPC-2, e para os principais elementos do transposon Tn4401, além dos grupos de incompatibilidade plasmideal IncK; Escherichia coli positiva para o gene blaNDM-1, Inc A/C, a partir da qual foram obtidas transconjugantes utilizando E. coli J53 como receptora e K. pneumoniae positiva para blaNDM-1 e grupo IncY. Todas as três cepas foram aac(6')-Ib e Int1 (integron de classe 1) 10 positivas. O sequenciamento total da cepa 23 (K. pneumoniae ST 3997 blaNDM-1 positiva) revelou a presença de diversos genes de resistências. A não hibridização com sonda específica e não obtenção de transconjugantes sugerem a presença cromossomal de blaNDM-1. Através da técnica de PFGE, analisamos o perfil genético dos isolados de origem clínica (urinocultura e hemocultura) e os isolados obtidos a partir de mosca, pertencentes à espécie K. pneumoniae, porém não foi detectado o mesmo clone nos dois ambientes. Nesse sentido, destaca-se a importância das moscas na disseminação (e reservatórios) de bactérias resistentes aos antimicrobianos. (AU)


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Diptera , Disease Vectors , Anti-Infective Agents
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