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1.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(Suppl 2): 124-129, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136399

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY An alarming fact was revealed by recent publications concerning disinfectants: chlorhexidine digluconate is ineffective for disinfecting surfaces contaminated by the new coronavirus. This is a finding that requires immediate disclosure since this substance is widely used for the disinfection of hands and forearms of surgeons and auxiliaries and in the antisepsis of patients in minimally invasive procedures commonly performed in hospital environments. The objective of this study is to compare the different disinfectants used for disinfection on several surfaces, in a review of worldwide works. Scientific studies were researched in the BVS (Virtual Health Library), PubMed, Medline, and ANVISA (National Health Surveillance Agency) databases. The following agents were studied: alcohol 62-71%, hydrogen peroxide 0.5%, sodium hypochlorite 0.1%, benzalkonium chloride 0.05-0.2%, povidone-iodine 10%, and chlorhexidine digluconate 0.02%, on metal, aluminum, wood, paper, glass, plastic, PVC, silicone, latex (gloves), disposable gowns, ceramic, and Teflon surfaces. Studies have shown that chlorhexidine digluconate is ineffective for inactivating some coronavirus subtypes, suggesting that it is also ineffective to the new coronavirus.


RESUMO Um dado alarmante revelado por publicações a respeito dos agentes desinfetantes: o digluconato de clorexidina é ineficaz para desinfecção de superfícies contaminadas por coronavírus. Trata-se de uma constatação que reclama imediata divulgação, uma vez que essa substância é amplamente usada para degermação de mãos e antebraços dos cirurgiões e auxiliares e na antissepsia dos pacientes, em procedimentos minimamente invasivos, comumente em ambientes hospitalares. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar os diferentes desinfetantes usados para desinfecção em diversas superfícies em revisão de trabalhos mundiais. Foram pesquisados trabalhos científicos na BVS (Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde), PubMed, Medline e Anvisa (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária). Foram estudados os seguintes agentes: álcool 62-71%, peróxido de hidrogênio 0,5%, hipoclorito de sódio 0,1%, cloreto de benzancônio 0,05-0,2%, iodo povidina 10% e digluconato de clorexidina 0,02%, em superfícies de metal, alumínio, madeira, papel, vidro, plástico, PVC, silicone, látex (luvas), avental descartável, cerâmica e teflon. Os estudos demonstraram que o digluconato de clorexidina é ineficaz para a inativação de alguns subtipos de coronavírus, sugerindo que também seja ineficaz contra o novo coronavírus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Povidone-Iodine/pharmacology , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Coronavirus/drug effects , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Disinfection , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics
2.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(2): 310-319, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889225

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was evaluated the biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus 4E and Salmonella spp. under mono and dual-species biofilms, onto stainless steel 316 (SS) and polypropylene B (PP), and their sensitivity to cetrimonium bromide, peracetic acid and sodium hypochlorite. The biofilms were developed by immersion of the surfaces in TSB by 10 d at 37 °C. The results showed that in monospecies biofilms the type of surface not affected the cellular density (p > 0.05). However, in dual-species biofilms on PP the adhesion of Salmonella spp. was favored, 7.61 ± 0.13 Log10 CFU/cm2, compared with monospecies biofilms onto the same surface, 5.91 ± 0.44 Log10 CFU/cm2 (p < 0.05). The mono and dual-species biofilms were subjected to disinfection treatments; and the most effective disinfectant was peracetic acid (3500 ppm), reducing by more than 5 Log10 CFU/cm2, while the least effective was cetrimonium bromide. In addition, S. aureus 4E and Salmonella spp. were more resistant to the disinfectants in mono than in dual-species biofilms (p < 0.05). Therefore, the interspecies interactions between S. aureus 4E and Salmonella spp. had a negative effect on the antimicrobial resistance of each microorganism, compared with the monospecies biofilms.


Subject(s)
Biofilms/drug effects , Cetrimonium Compounds/pharmacology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Peracetic Acid/pharmacology , Salmonella/drug effects , Sodium Hypochlorite/pharmacology , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Bacterial Adhesion/drug effects , Biofilms/growth & development , Colony Count, Microbial , Culture Media/chemistry , Environmental Microbiology , Microbial Interactions , Microbial Viability/drug effects , Polypropylenes , Salmonella/growth & development , Stainless Steel , Staphylococcus aureus/growth & development , Temperature , Time
4.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(1): 151-158, Jan.-Mar. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839342

ABSTRACT

Abstract Although infections with NonTuberculous Mycobacteria have become less common in AIDS patients, they are important opportunistic infections after surgical procedures, likely because they are ubiquitous and not efficiently killed by many commonly used disinfectants. In Venezuela there have recently been many non-tuberculous mycobacteria soft tissue infections after minor surgical procedures, some apparently related to the use of a commercial disinfectant based on a Quaternary Ammonium Compound. We studied the activity of this and other quaternary ammonium compounds on different non-tuberculous mycobacteria by transforming the mycobacteria with a dnaA-gfp fusion and then monitoring fluorescence to gauge the capacity of different quaternary ammonium compounds to inhibit bacterial growth. The minimum inhibitory concentration varied for the different quaternary ammonium compounds, but M. chelonae and M. abscessus were consistently more resistant than M. smegmatis, and M. terrae more resistant than M. bovis BCG.


Subject(s)
Gene Expression , Green Fluorescent Proteins , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Nontuberculous Mycobacteria/drug effects , Plasmids/genetics , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Green Fluorescent Proteins/genetics , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Nontuberculous Mycobacteria/classification , Nontuberculous Mycobacteria/genetics
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 76(2): 420-427, Apr.-June 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-781403

ABSTRACT

Abstract The fungus Beauveria bassiana is naturally found in poultry houses and causes high rates of mortality in Alphitobius diaperinus. Laboratory and field experiments have shown the potential of this fungus as an insect control agent. However, in poultry houses, bacteria as Salmonella, can be found and have been studied alternative control methods for this pathogen. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of plant extracts and a disinfectant on the fungus Beauveria bassiana (strain Unioeste 4). Conidial viability, colony-forming unit (CFU) counts, vegetative growth, conidia production, insecticidal activity of the fungus and compatibility were used as parameters in the evaluation of the effect of these products on the fungus. Alcoholic and aqueous extracts of jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora (Mart.), guava (Psidium guajava (L.)), and jambolan (Syzygium cumini (L.), at concentrations of 10% as well as the commercial disinfectant, Peroxitane® 1512 AL, were evaluated at the recommended concentrations (RC), 1:200 (RC), 0.5 RC and 2 RC. There was a negative influence of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of jabuticaba, guava and three dilutions of Peroxitane on the viability of conidia. The CFUs and vegetative growth of the fungus were affected only by the Peroxitane (all dilutions). For conidial production, the aqueous extract of guava had a positive effect, increasing production, while the Peroxitane at the R and RC concentrations resulted in a negative influence. The mortality of A. diaperinus, caused by the fungus after exposure to these products, was 60% for the peracetic acid at 0.5 RC, and above 80% for the extracts. Thus, the results showed that all the extracts and Peroxitane at RC 0.5 are compatible with the fungus B. bassiana Unioeste 4, however only the extracts had a low impact on inoculum potential.


Resumo O fungo Beauveria bassiana é encontrado naturalmente em aviários de frango de corte, tendo sua eficácia como agente controlador do Alphitobius diaperinus, em condições de laboratório e campo. No entanto, nos aviários encontram-se também bactérias, como a Salmonella, para a qual vêm sendo pesquisadas alternativas de controle. Sendo assim, o objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de extratos vegetais e um desinfetante com potencial de uso contra Salmonella spp., sobre os parâmetros biológicos do fungo B. bassiana isolado Unioeste 4. Foram avaliados extratos alcoólicos e aquosos de folhas de jabuticabeira (Myrciaria cauliflora (Mart.)), goiabeira (Psidium guajava (L.)), jamboleiro (Syzygium cumini (L.)), na concentração de 10% e também o desinfetante comercial Peroxitane®1512 AL na concentração recomendada – 1:200 (CR), 0,5 CR e 2CR. Foram avaliados a: germinação dos conídios, unidades formadoras de colônias (UFC), crescimento vegetativo, produção de conídios e efeito sobre a atividade inseticida do fungo contra adultos de A. diaperinus, bem como a compatibilidade entre produtos e o fungo. Verificou-se influência negativa dos extratos alcoólico e aquoso de jabuticabeira, goiabeira e das três diluições de Peroxitane sobre a viabilidade dos conídios. Já, a UFC e o crescimento vegetativo foram afetados apenas com Peroxitane (em todas as diluições). Para produção de conídios, o extrato aquoso de goiabeira teve efeito positivo, elevando a produção, enquanto as diluições recomendada e o dobro de Peroxitane mostraram influência negativa. Observou-se ainda que a mortalidade de A. diaperinus causada pelo fungo após a exposição aos produtos foi de 60% para o ácido peracético na 0,5 CR, já para os extratos foi acima de 80%. Assim, os resultados demonstraram que todos os extratos e o Peroxitane na 0,5 CR são compatíveis com o fungo B. bassiana Unioeste 4, porém apenas os extratos tiveram baixo impacto sobre o potencial de inóculo do fungo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Beauveria/pathogenicity , Virulence/drug effects , Coleoptera/drug effects , Psidium , Beauveria/drug effects , Insecticides
6.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(4): 1177-1181, Oct.-Dec. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769639

ABSTRACT

Salmonella serovars sampled from meat products in Southern Spain (Andalucía) during the period 2002-2007 were analyzed in this study. The serovars most frequently detected (in order) were Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Derby, Anatum and Rissen. Isolates (n = 43) were tested for sensitivity to biocides, including the quaternary ammonium compounds benzalkonium chloride (BC), cetrimide (CT) and hexadecylpyridinium chloride (HDP), and the bisphenols triclosan (TC) and hexachlorophene (CF). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for the quaternary ammonium compounds was in the range of 25 to 50 mg/L for most isolates, although a few isolates required much higher concentrations, up to 250 mg/L. Bisphenols showed higher inhibitory activity, with a MIC of 2.5 to 25 mg/L. A few isolates showed a “non-wildtype” MIC for TC of up to 250 mg/L. These results indicate a low incidence of tolerance towards quaternary ammonium compounds and triclosan among Salmonella from meats and meat products.


Subject(s)
Disinfectants/pharmacology , Meat/microbiology , Salmonella/drug effects , Salmonella/isolation & purification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Serogroup , Spain , Salmonella/classification
7.
J. appl. oral sci ; 23(5): 523-528, Sept.-Oct. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-764154

ABSTRACT

Objectives To evaluate the microbial contamination of pacifiers by Mutans Streptococci(MS) and the efficacy of different methods for their disinfection.Methods Twenty-eight children were assigned to a 4-stage changeover system with a 1-week interval. In each stage, children received a new pacifier and the parents were instructed to maintain their normal habits for 1 week. After this time, the pacifiers were subjected to the following 4 disinfection methods: spraying with 0.12% chlorhexidine solution, Brushtox® or sterile tap water, and immersion in boiling tap water for 15 minutes. Microbiological culture for MS and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were performed. The results were analyzed statistically by Friedman’s non-parametric test (a=0.05).Results The 0.12% chlorhexidine spray was statistically similar to the boiling water (p>0.05) and more effective than the Brushtox®spray and control (p<0.05). The analysis of SEM showed the formation of a cariogenic biofilm in all groups with positive culture.Conclusions Pacifiers become contaminated by MS after their use by children and should be disinfected routinely. Spraying with a 0.12% chlorhexidine solution and immersion in boiling water promoted better disinfection of the pacifiers compared with a commercial antiseptic toothbrush cleanser (Brushtox®).


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Disinfection/methods , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , Pacifiers/microbiology , Streptococcus mutans/drug effects , Water/chemistry , Biofilms/drug effects , Biofilms/growth & development , Colony Count, Microbial , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Hot Temperature , Immersion , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Statistics, Nonparametric , Streptococcus mutans/growth & development , Time Factors
8.
J. appl. oral sci ; 23(4): 436-441, July-Aug. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-759361

ABSTRACT

AbstractObjective This study evaluated the effect of root canal disinfectants on the elimination of bacteria from the root canals, as well as their effect on glass-fiber posts bond strength.Material and Methods Fifty-three endodontically treated root canals had post spaces of 11 mm in length prepared and contaminated with E. faecalis. For CFU/ml analysis, eight teeth were contaminated for 1 h or 30 days (n=4). Teeth were decontaminated with 5% NaOCl, 2% CHX, or distilled water. As control, no decontamination was conducted. After decontamination, sterile paper points were used to collect samples, and CFU/ml were counted. For push-out, three groups were evaluated (n=15): irrigation with 2.5% NaOCl, 2% CHX, or sterile distilled water. A bonding agent was applied to root canal dentin, and a glass-fiber post was cemented with a dual-cured cement. After 24 h, 1-mm-thick slices of the middle portion of root canals were obtained and submitted to the push-out evaluation. Three specimens of each group were evaluated in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Dunnett’s T3 test (α=0.05).Results The number of CFU/ml increased from 1 h to 30 days of contamination in control and sterile distilled water groups. Decontamination with NaOCl was effective only when teeth were contaminated for 1 h. CHX was effective at both contamination times. NaOCl did not influence the bond strength (p>0.05). Higher values were observed with CHX (p<0.05). SEM showed formation of resin tags in all groups.Conclusion CHX showed better results for the irrigation of contaminated root canals both in reducing the bacterial contamination and in improving the glass-fiber post bonding.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dental Pulp Cavity/drug effects , Dental Pulp Cavity/microbiology , Glass/chemistry , Post and Core Technique , Root Canal Irrigants/pharmacology , Adhesiveness/drug effects , Analysis of Variance , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Colony Count, Microbial , Dental Bonding/methods , Dentin-Bonding Agents/chemistry , Dentin/drug effects , Dentin/microbiology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Resin Cements/chemistry , Root Canal Preparation/methods , Shear Strength , Sodium Hypochlorite/pharmacology , Time Factors
9.
J. appl. oral sci ; 23(4): 431-435, July-Aug. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-759357

ABSTRACT

AbstractThe presence of endotoxin inside the root canal has been associated with periapical inflammation, bone resorption and symptomatic conditions.Objectives To determine, in vitro, the effect of QMix® and other three root canal irrigants in reducing the endotoxin content in root canals.Material and Methods Root canals of single-rooted teeth were prepared. Samples were detoxified with Co-60 irradiation and inoculated with E. coli LPS (24 h, at 37°C). After that period, samples were divided into 4 groups, according to the irrigation solution tested: QMix®, 17% EDTA, 2% chlorhexidine solution (CHX), and 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). LPS quantification was determined by Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay. The initial counting of endotoxins for all samples, and the determination of LPS levels in non-contaminated teeth and in contaminated teeth exposed only to non-pyrogenic water, were used as controls.Results QMix® reduced LPS levels, with a median value of 1.11 endotoxins units (EU)/mL (p<0.001). NaOCl (25.50 EU/mL), chlorhexidine (44.10 EU/mL) and positive control group (26.80 EU/mL) samples had similar results. Higher levels were found with EDTA (176.00 EU/mL) when compared to positive control (p<0.001). There was no significant difference among EDTA, NaOCl and CHX groups. Negative control group (0.005 EU/mL) had statistically significant lower levels of endotoxins when compared to all test groups (p<0.001).Conclusion QMix® decreased LPS levels when compared to the other groups (p<0.001). 3% NaOCl, 2% CHX and 17% EDTA were not able to significantly reduce the root canal endotoxins load.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biguanides/pharmacology , Endotoxins/analysis , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Lipopolysaccharides/analysis , Polymers/pharmacology , Root Canal Irrigants/pharmacology , Analysis of Variance , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Dental Pulp Cavity/drug effects , Dental Pulp Cavity/microbiology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Edetic Acid/pharmacology , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results , Sodium Hypochlorite/pharmacology , Time Factors
10.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(1): 231-235, 05/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748241

ABSTRACT

Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen able to adhere and to form biofilms in several materials commonly present in food processing plants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the resistance of Listeria monocytogenes attached to abiotic surface, after treatment with sanitizers, by culture method, microscopy and Quantitative Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR). Biofilms of L. monocytogenes were obtained in stainless steel coupons immersed in Brain Heart Infusion Broth, under agitation at 37 °C for 24 h. The methods selected for this study were based on plate count, microscopic count with the aid of viability dyes (CTC-DAPI), and qPCR. Results of culture method showed that peroxyacetic acid was efficient to kill sessile L. monocytogenes populations, while sodium hypochlorite was only partially effective to kill attached L. monocytogenes (p < 0.05). When, viability dyes (CTC/DAPI) combined with fluorescence microscopy and qPCR were used and lower counts were found after treatments (p < 0.05). Selective quantification of viable cells of L. monocytogenes by qPCR using EMA revelead that the pre-treatment with EMA was not appropriate since it also inhibited amplification of DNA from live cells by ca. 2 log. Thus, the use of CTC counts was the best method to count viable cells in biofilms.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Load/methods , Biofilms/drug effects , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Environmental Microbiology , Listeria monocytogenes/drug effects , Listeria monocytogenes/physiology , Microbial Viability/drug effects , Biofilms/growth & development , Colony Count, Microbial , Listeria monocytogenes/isolation & purification , Microscopy , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Temperature , Time
11.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 29(1): 1-7, 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777220

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the ex vivoantimicrobial efficacy of the EndoVac system and the photodynamic therapy (PDT) associated with chemomechanical debridement (CMD) and intracanal medication on Candida albicans. Seventy-eight sterile premolars were contaminated withC. albicans (ATCC 21433) for 30 days. The teeth were randomly assigned into four groups: Control (CMD with conventional irrigation); Endovac (CMD with EndoVac system); PDT (CMD with conventional irrigation and PDT); and Endovac + PDT (CMD with EndoVac and PDT). After the therapies, intracanal dressing (calcium hydroxide) was applied to all teeth for seven days. Samples were obtained before (T1) and after the therapeutic procedures (T2), and after intracanal medication (T3), plated onto BHI agar and incubated (37°C, 48 h) to determine the colony-forming units (CFU)/mL. The overall mean level ofC. albicans at baseline was relatively high (1.85 x 106 ± 2.7 x 106 CFU mL-1). A significant reduction of C. albicans(p < 0.05) was observed over time (T1 to T2 and T1 to T3) in all groups. An additional significant reduction from T2 to T3 was observed only in the Endovac group (p < 0.05). No differences in mean reduction of C. albicans were observed among groups. However, the Endovac group presented the lowest mean counts of C. albicans at T3, whereas the PDT group had the highest counts of this microorganism (p < 0.05). The EndoVac system of irrigation/aspiration associated with CMD was the most effective therapeutic protocol for reducing intracanal levels of C. albicans. PDT showed a very limited efficacy against this species.


Subject(s)
Humans , Candida albicans/drug effects , Dental Pulp Cavity/microbiology , Photochemotherapy/methods , Root Canal Irrigants/pharmacology , Root Canal Therapy/methods , Colony Count, Microbial , Calcium Hydroxide/pharmacology , Debridement/methods , Dental Pulp Cavity/drug effects , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Materials Testing , Random Allocation , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results , Root Canal Therapy/instrumentation , Statistics, Nonparametric , Sodium Hypochlorite/pharmacology , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
12.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 29(1): 1-6, 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777251

ABSTRACT

The instruments and materials used in health establishments are frequently exposed to microorganism contamination, and chemical products are used before sterilization to reduce occupational infection. We evaluated the antimicrobial effectiveness, physical stability, and corrosiveness of two commercial formulations of peracetic acid on experimentally contaminated specimens. Stainless steel specimens were contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, blood, and saliva and then immersed in a ready peracetic acid solution: 2% Sekusept Aktiv (SA) or 0.25% Proxitane Alpha (PA), for different times. Then, washes of these instruments were plated in culture medium and colony-forming units counted. This procedure was repeated six times per day over 24 non-consecutive days. The corrosion capacity was assessed with the mass loss test, and the concentration of peracetic acid and pH of the solutions were measured with indicator tapes. Both SA and PA significantly eliminated microorganisms; however, the SA solution was stable for only 4 days, whereas PA remained stable throughout the experiment. The concentration of peracetic acid in the SA solutions decreased over time until the chemical was undetectable, although the pH remained at 5. The PA solution had a concentration of 500-400 mg/L and a pH of 2-3. Neither formulation induced corrosion and both reduced the number of microorganisms (p = 0.0001). However, the differences observed in the performance of each product highlight the necessity of establishing a protocol for optimizing the use of each one.


Subject(s)
Humans , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfection/methods , Peracetic Acid/pharmacology , Stainless Steel/chemistry , Colony Count, Microbial , Corrosion , Candida albicans/drug effects , Drug Stability , Disinfectants/chemistry , Equipment and Supplies/microbiology , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Peracetic Acid/chemistry , Reproducibility of Results , Statistics, Nonparametric , Saliva/microbiology , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Time Factors
13.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(1): 67-75, 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-709480

ABSTRACT

This study assessed the capacity of adhesion, the detachment kinetic and the biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus isolated from food services on stainless steel and polypropylene surfaces (2 x 2 cm) when cultivated in a meat-based broth at 28 and 7 ºC. It was also to study the efficacy of the sanitizers sodium hypochlorite (250 mg/L) and peracetic acid (30 mg/L) in inactivating the bacterial cells in the preformed biofilm. S. aureus strains adhered in high numbers regardless the assayed surface kind and incubation temperature over 72 h. Cells detachment of surfaces revealed high persistence over the incubation period. Number of cells needed for biofilm formation was noted at all experimental systems already after 3 days. Peracetic acid and sodium hypochlorite were not efficient in completely removing the cells of S. aureus adhered on polypropylene and stainless steel surfaces. From these results, the assayed strains revealed high capacity to adhere and form biofilm on polypropylene and stainless steel surfaces under different growth conditions. Moreover, the cells in biofilm matrix were resistant for total removal when submitted to the exposure to sanitizers.


Subject(s)
Biofilms/growth & development , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Environmental Microbiology , Food Handling , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/physiology , Bacterial Adhesion , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Peracetic Acid/pharmacology , Sodium Hypochlorite/pharmacology , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Temperature , Time Factors
14.
Bauru; s.n; 2014. 135 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-756763

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar se a variação da temperatura e pH do hipoclorito de sódio (NaOCl), incrementa sua capacidade antibacteriana e de dissolução. Foi avaliado também, se as nanopartículas de Quitosana (CNPs) inibem o crescimento bacteriano e removem a lama dentinária. Foram utilizados 260 blocos de dentina bovina infetados intra-oralmente. As soluções experimentais foram NaOCl a 1% e 2.5%, a temperatura ambiente e 37oC e acidificado a pH 5 e 7. Os tempos de exposição foram 5 e 20 min. Os espécimes foram analisados pré (controle) e pósirrigação. Após esta análise, as amostras foram incubadas em BHI por 24 horas e analisadas novamente quanto a reativação bacteriana. Estes procedimentos foram realizados em duplicado para poder determinar a porcentagem de limpeza dentinária. Para analisar o efeito quelante das CNPs sobre a dentina infetada in situ, as amostras receberam uma irrigação final com CNPs em solução e analisadas imediatamente ou infetadas intra-oralmente para avaliar o efeito antibacteriano. O NaOCl apresentou poder antibacteriano e foi capaz de dissolver significativamente o biofilme sem importar sua temperatura. O NaOCl em pHs ácidos apresentaram alto poder antibacteriano, contudo seu poder de dissolução decresceu. As CNPs foram capazes de significativamente remover a lama dentinária e interferir com o crescimento bacteriano sobre dentina. Portanto, a temperatura do NaOCl não é relevante quando é testada sobre biofilmes multi-espécies. O poder antibacteriano do NaOCl foi inversamente proporcional a seu pH, enquanto que a sua capacidade de dissolução foi diretamente proporcional. As CNPs podem ser uma alternativa para o uso de EDTA devido a suas propriedades quelantes e de interferir com a adesão inicial das bactérias sobre dentina...


The aim of this study was to evaluate if the variation of the sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) temperature and pH increase its antibacterial and dissolution abilities. It was also evaluated if the chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) inhibit the bacterial growth and remove smear layer. Two hundred-sixty bovine dentin blocks were infected intraorally. The experimental solutions were 1% and 2.5% NaOCl at room temperature and 37oC. the solution was acidified at pH 5 and 7. The exposure times were 5 and 20 min. The specimens were analyzed pre- (control) and postirrigation. After that, the samples were incubated in BHI and analyzed again to evaluate the bacterial recolonization. These procedures were performed in duplicate to access the percentage of dentinal cleaning. The samples were rinsed with a final irrigation of CNPs and analyzed immediately to determine the chelating effect, or infected intraorally to evaluate its antibacterial ability. NaOCl showed antibacterial power and was able to significantly dissolve the biofilm regardless its temperature. NaOCl at acid pHs showed great antibacterial properties, however its dissolution ability decreased. The CNPs were able to remove significantly the smear layer and interfere with the bacterial growth on dentin. Therefore, the NaOCl temperature is not relevant when the solution was tested on multi-specie biofilms. The antibacterial power of NaOCl was inversely proportional to its pH, while its dissolution capacity was directly proportional. CNPs could be an alternative instead of EDTA due to its chelating properties and ability to interfere with the earlier bacterial adhesion on dentin...


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Biofilms , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Sodium Hypochlorite/pharmacology , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Chelating Agents/pharmacology , Chitosan/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Dentin , Dentin/microbiology , Disinfectants/chemistry , Hot Temperature , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Sodium Hypochlorite/chemistry , Microscopy, Confocal , Chelating Agents/chemistry , Chitosan/chemistry , Reproducibility of Results
15.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1152-1156, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-207145

ABSTRACT

Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) infections vary widely, from local infections resulting from animal bites and scratches to general infections. As of yet, no vaccine against P. multocida has been developed, and the most effective way to prevent pathogenic transmission is to clean the host environment using disinfectants. In this study, we identified which disinfectants most effectively inhibited environmental isolates of P. multocida. Three readily available disinfectants were compared: 3% hydrogen peroxide (HP), 70% isopropyl alcohol, and synthetic phenol. In suspension tests and zone inhibition tests, 3% HP was the most promising disinfectant against P. multocida.


Subject(s)
Disinfectants/pharmacology , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pasteurella multocida/drug effects
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-70335

ABSTRACT

The disinfectant effects (DEs) of 10 types of chemicals, defined by their ability to destroy or inhibit oocysts and consequently prevent sporulation of Eimeria tenella field isolate, were evaluated in vitro. Correct species assignments and sample purities were confirmed by the singular internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-PCR analysis. A total of 18 treatments were performed, and the disinfection suppression levels were 75.9% for 39% benzene + 22% xylene (1:10 dilution), 85.5% for 30% cresol soup (1:1 dilution), and 91.7% for 99.9% acetic acid (1:2 dilution) group. The results indicate that acetic acid, cresol soup, and benzene+xylene are good candidates for suppression of E. tenella oocyst sporulation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antiprotozoal Agents/pharmacology , Cluster Analysis , DNA, Protozoan/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/chemistry , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Eimeria tenella/drug effects , Microscopy , Molecular Sequence Data , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests , Phylogeny , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Spores, Protozoan/drug effects
17.
Bauru; s.n; 2014. 135 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-867257

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar se a variação da temperatura e pH do hipoclorito de sódio (NaOCl), incrementa sua capacidade antibacteriana e de dissolução. Foi avaliado também, se as nanopartículas de Quitosana (CNPs) inibem o crescimento bacteriano e removem a lama dentinária. Foram utilizados 260 blocos de dentina bovina infetados intra-oralmente. As soluções experimentais foram NaOCl a 1% e 2.5%, a temperatura ambiente e 37oC e acidificado a pH 5 e 7. Os tempos de exposição foram 5 e 20 min. Os espécimes foram analisados pré (controle) e pósirrigação. Após esta análise, as amostras foram incubadas em BHI por 24 horas e analisadas novamente quanto a reativação bacteriana. Estes procedimentos foram realizados em duplicado para poder determinar a porcentagem de limpeza dentinária. Para analisar o efeito quelante das CNPs sobre a dentina infetada in situ, as amostras receberam uma irrigação final com CNPs em solução e analisadas imediatamente ou infetadas intra-oralmente para avaliar o efeito antibacteriano. O NaOCl apresentou poder antibacteriano e foi capaz de dissolver significativamente o biofilme sem importar sua temperatura. O NaOCl em pHs ácidos apresentaram alto poder antibacteriano, contudo seu poder de dissolução decresceu. As CNPs foram capazes de significativamente remover a lama dentinária e interferir com o crescimento bacteriano sobre dentina. Portanto, a temperatura do NaOCl não é relevante quando é testada sobre biofilmes multi-espécies. O poder antibacteriano do NaOCl foi inversamente proporcional a seu pH, enquanto que a sua capacidade de dissolução foi diretamente proporcional. As CNPs podem ser uma alternativa para o uso de EDTA devido a suas propriedades quelantes e de interferir com a adesão inicial das bactérias sobre dentina.


The aim of this study was to evaluate if the variation of the sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) temperature and pH increase its antibacterial and dissolution abilities. It was also evaluated if the chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) inhibit the bacterial growth and remove smear layer. Two hundred-sixty bovine dentin blocks were infected intraorally. The experimental solutions were 1% and 2.5% NaOCl at room temperature and 37oC. the solution was acidified at pH 5 and 7. The exposure times were 5 and 20 min. The specimens were analyzed pre- (control) and postirrigation. After that, the samples were incubated in BHI and analyzed again to evaluate the bacterial recolonization. These procedures were performed in duplicate to access the percentage of dentinal cleaning. The samples were rinsed with a final irrigation of CNPs and analyzed immediately to determine the chelating effect, or infected intraorally to evaluate its antibacterial ability. NaOCl showed antibacterial power and was able to significantly dissolve the biofilm regardless its temperature. NaOCl at acid pHs showed great antibacterial properties, however its dissolution ability decreased. The CNPs were able to remove significantly the smear layer and interfere with the bacterial growth on dentin. Therefore, the NaOCl temperature is not relevant when the solution was tested on multi-specie biofilms. The antibacterial power of NaOCl was inversely proportional to its pH, while its dissolution capacity was directly proportional. CNPs could be an alternative instead of EDTA due to its chelating properties and ability to interfere with the earlier bacterial adhesion on dentin.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Biofilms , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Sodium Hypochlorite/pharmacology , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Chelating Agents/pharmacology , Chitosan/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Dentin , Dentin/microbiology , Disinfectants/chemistry , Hot Temperature , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Sodium Hypochlorite/chemistry , Microscopy, Confocal , Chelating Agents/chemistry , Chitosan/chemistry , Reproducibility of Results
18.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(3): 673-678, July-Sept. 2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-699780

ABSTRACT

Lettuce is a leafy vegetable widely used in industry for minimally processed products, in which the step of sanitization is the crucial moment for ensuring a safe food for consumption. Chlorinated compounds, mainly sodium hypochlorite, are the most used in Brazil, but the formation of trihalomethanes from this sanitizer is a drawback. Then, the search for alternative methods to sodium hypochlorite has been emerging as a matter of great interest. The suitability of chlorine dioxide (60 mg L-1/10 min), peracetic acid (100 mg L-1/15 min) and ozonated water (1.2 mg L-1 /1 min) as alternative sanitizers to sodium hypochlorite (150 mg L-1 free chlorine/15 min) were evaluated. Minimally processed lettuce washed with tap water for 1 min was used as a control. Microbiological analyses were performed in triplicate, before and after sanitization, and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 days of storage at 2 ± 1 ºC with the product packaged on LDPE bags of 60 µm. It was evaluated total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., psicrotrophic and mesophilic bacteria, yeasts and molds. All samples of minimally processed lettuce showed absence of E. coli and Salmonella spp. The treatments of chlorine dioxide, peracetic acid and ozonated water promoted reduction of 2.5, 1.1 and 0.7 log cycle, respectively, on count of microbial load of minimally processed product and can be used as substitutes for sodium hypochlorite. These alternative compounds promoted a shelf-life of six days to minimally processed lettuce, while the shelf-life with sodium hypochlorite was 12 days.


Subject(s)
Chlorine Compounds/pharmacology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfection/methods , Lettuce/microbiology , Oxides/pharmacology , Ozone/pharmacology , Peracetic Acid/pharmacology , Bacterial Load , Brazil , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Food Storage , Salmonella/isolation & purification , Sodium Hypochlorite/pharmacology , Temperature , Time Factors
19.
J. appl. oral sci ; 21(5): 409-415, Sep-Oct/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-690093

ABSTRACT

An increase in dentin roughness, associated with surface composition, contributes to bacterial adherence in recontaminations. Surface roughness is also important for micromechanical interlocking of dental materials to dentin, and understanding the characteristics of the surface is essential to obtain the adhesion of root canal sealers that have different physico-chemical characteristics. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), ethylenediaminetetraacetic (EDTA), etidronic (HEBP), and citric acid (CA) associated with different irrigation regimens on root dentin roughness. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-five root halves of anterior teeth were used. The root parts were sectioned in thirds, embedded in acrylic resin and polished to a standard surface roughness. Initially, the samples of each third were randomly assigned into 3 groups and treated as follows: G1 - saline solution (control); G2 - 5% NaOCl+18% HEBP mixed in equal parts; and G3 - 2.5% NaOCl. After initial measuments, the G3 samples were distributed into subgroups G4, G5 and G6, which were subjected to 17% EDTA, 10% CA and 9% HEBP, respectively. Following the new measuments, these groups received a final flush with 2.5% NaOCl, producing G7, G8 and G9. The dentin surface roughness (Ra) was determined before and after treatments using a profilometer. The Wilcoxon test (α<0.05) was used to compare the values before and after treatments, and the Friedman test (α<0.05) to detect any differences among root thirds. RESULTS: (i) NaOCl did not affect the surface roughness; (ii) there was a significant increase in roughness after the use of chelating agents (P<0.01); and (iii) only the G3 group showed a difference in surface roughness between apical third and other thirds of the teeth (P<0.0043). CONCLUSION: Only the irrigation regimens that used chelating agents altered the roughness of root dentin. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Dentin/drug effects , Etidronic Acid/pharmacology , Root Canal Irrigants/pharmacology , Root Canal Preparation/methods , Tooth Root/drug effects , Chelating Agents/pharmacology , Citric Acid/pharmacology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Edetic Acid/pharmacology , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results , Sodium Hypochlorite/pharmacology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Surface Properties/drug effects , Time Factors
20.
Braz. dent. j ; 24(5): 487-491, Sep-Oct/2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-697640

ABSTRACT

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) can grow as structured biofilm in different surfaces, including oral mucosa and denture surfaces. Such biofilms can be released into the oral fluids and aspirated, causing systemic infections such as aspiration pneumonia. This study evaluated the efficacy of two disinfectant solutions and microwave irradiation in disinfecting acrylic specimens contaminated with MRSA biofilm. Thirty-six acrylic specimens were made, sterilized and contaminated with MRSA (107 cfu/mL). After incubation (37 °C/48 h), the specimens were divided into 4 groups: not disinfected (positive control); soaking in 1% sodium hypochlorite for 10 min; soaking in 2% chlorhexidine gluconate for 10 min; and irradiating by microwave for 3 min at 650 W. The viability of cells was evaluated by XTT reduction method. All specimens from the positive control group showed biofilm formation after 48 h incubation. The mean absorbance value of the control specimens was 1.58 (OD at 492 nm). No evidence of biofilm formation was observed on specimens after the disinfection methods. Disinfection by soaking in 1% sodium hypochlorite and 2% chlorhexidine gluconate and irradiating by microwaves resulted in 100% reduction of MRSA biofilm metabolism. The use of chemical solutions and microwave irradiation was shown to be effective for eradicating mature MRSA biofilms on acrylic resin specimens.


Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina (MRSA, do inglês methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) pode crescer como biofilme estruturado em diferentes superfícies, incluindo mucosa bucal e superfícies de próteses. Estes biofilmes podem se dispersar nos fluidos orais e ser aspirados, causando infecções sistêmicas, como a pneumonia aspirativa. Este estudo avaliou a eficácia de duas soluções desinfetantes e irradiação por microondas na desinfecção de corpos-de-prova acrílicos contaminados com biofilme de MRSA. Trinta e seis espécimes de resina acrílica foram fabricados, esterilizados e contaminados com MRSA (107 ufc/mL). Após a incubação (37 °C/48 h), os espécimes foram divididos em quatro grupos: não desinfetados (controle positivo); imersos em hipoclorito de sódio 1% por 10 min; imersos em gluconato de clorexidina 2% por 10 min e irradiados por microondas durante 3 min a 650 W. A viabilidade das células foi avaliada pelo método de redução de XTT. Todos os espécimes do grupo controle apresentaram formação de biofilme após 48 h de incubação. O valor médio de absorbância destes espécimes foi de 1.58 (OD a 492 nm). Nenhuma evidência de formação de biofilme foi observada em todas as amostras desinfetadas. A desinfecção em hipoclorito de sódio 1%, gluconato de clorexidina 2% e irradiação em microondas resultou em 100% de redução do metabolismo do biofilme de MRSA. O uso de soluções químicas e irradiação em microondas mostrou-se eficaz na eliminação do biofilme maduro de MRSA sobre corpos-de-prova de resina acrílica.


Subject(s)
Acrylates , Biofilms , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Microwaves , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/radiation effects , Surface Properties , Sodium Hypochlorite/pharmacology
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