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1.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 40(supl.1): 139-147, mayo 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124251

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La aparición de enterobacterias multirresistentes y productoras de betalactamasas de espectro extendido en pacientes ambulatorios con infecciones urinarias representa un problema de salud pública en Perú. Objetivo. Comparar los perfiles de resistencia de Escherichia coli uropatógenas e identificar los fenotipos de cepas productoras de betalactamasas de espectro extendido en tres establecimientos privados de salud localizados en las regiones de la costa, la sierra y la selva de Perú. Materiales y métodos. Se llevó a cabo durante el 2016 un estudio descriptivo de 98 muestras de orina de pacientes con infección urinaria, 35 procedentes de Lima (costa), 38 de Juliaca (sierra) y 25 de Iquitos (selva), en el que se determinó la sensibilidad antimicrobiana utilizando ocho discos antibióticos. Asimismo, se evaluó la producción de betalactamasas de espectro extendido con discos de cefotaxima, de ceftazidima o de su combinación, con ácido clavulánico en agar Mueller-Hinton. Resultados. Se identificaron 18 perfiles de resistencia que incluían desde los sensibles a todos los antibióticos hasta los resistentes simultáneamente a siete antibióticos, con el 18,4 % de aislamientos resistentes a un antibiótico y el 54,0 % de multirresistentes. Se detectó producción de betalactamasas en el 28,6 % de las cepas procedentes de la región de Puno. También, se observó un mayor número de casos en el rango de edad de 31 a 45 años con resistencia a ceftazidima, ceftriaxona, gentamicina y trimetoprim-sulfametoxazol en el establecimiento de salud de Puno. Conclusión. Los perfiles de resistencia variaron según la localización geográfica del establecimiento de salud, observándose mayor resistencia a los antibióticos en la región de la sierra de Perú, con el 28,6 % de cepas productoras de betalactamasas de espectro extendido.


Introduction: The appearance of multidrug-resistant and beta-lactamase producing enterobacteria in outpatient care facilities represent a public health problem in Perú. Objective: To compare the resistance profiles of uropathogenic Escherichia coli and to identify extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing phenotypes in three private health facilities located in the Peruvian coast, Andean and jungle regions. Materials and methods: We conducted a descriptive study on 98 urine samples from Lima (coast), Juliaca (Andean region) and Iquitos (jungle region) during 2016. We determined the antimicrobial susceptibility in 35 samples from Lima, 38 from Juliaca and 25 from Iquitos using eight antibiotic disks in samples from patients diagnosed with urinary infection. We also evaluated the production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases with cefotaxime and ceftazidime disks and a combination of both with clavulanic acid on Mueller-Hinton agar. Results: We identified 18 resistance profiles ranging from those sensitive to others simultaneously resistant to seven antibiotics: 18.4% resistant to one and 54.0% to multiple antibiotics. We detected beta-lactamase production in 28.6% of the strains from the Puno region. Likewise, we observed a greater number of cases with resistance to ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, gentamicin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in Puno's health facility in patients within the 31 to 45 year age range. Conclusion: Resistance profiles varied according to the geographical location of the health facilities under study. Resistance to antibiotics was higher in the Andean region with 28.6% of strains producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases.


Subject(s)
Urinary Tract Infections , Drug Resistance , Enterobacteriaceae , Peru , beta-Lactamases , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests
2.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 57(1): e160956, 2020. ilus, mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1122160

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial resistance is a current and important issue to public health, and it is usually associated with the indiscriminate use of antimicrobials in animal production. This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility profile in bacterial isolates from pigs with clinical respiratory signs in Brazil. One hundred sixty bacterial strains isolated from pigs from 51 pig farms in Brazil were studied. In vitro disk-diffusion method was employed using 14 antimicrobial agents: amoxicillin, penicillin, ceftiofur, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, chlortetracycline, doxycycline, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, erythromycin, tilmicosin, florfenicol, lincomycin, and sulfadiazine/trimethoprim. The majority of isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent (98.75%; 158/160), while 31.25% (50/160) of the strains were multidrug resistant. Streptococcus suis and Bordetella bronchiseptica were the pathogens that showed higher resistance levels. Haemophilus parasuis showed high resistance levels to sulfadiazine/trimethoprim (9/18=50%). We observed that isolates from the midwestern and southern regions exhibited four times greater chance of being multidrug resistant than the isolates from the southeastern region studied. Overall, the results of the present study showed a great level of resistance to lincomycin, erythromycin, sulfadiazine/trimethoprim, and tetracycline among bacterial respiratory pathogens isolated from pigs in Brazil. The high levels of antimicrobial resistance in swine respiratory bacterial pathogens highlight the need for the proper use of antimicrobials in Brazilian pig farms.(AU)


A resistência antimicrobiana é uma questão atual e muito importante para a saúde pública, geralmente associada ao uso indiscriminado de antimicrobianos na produção animal. Diante disso, foi investigado o perfil de sensibilidade-antimicrobiana em isolados bacterianos de suínos com sinais clínicos respiratórios no Brasil. Foram estudadas 96 isolados provenientes de 51 granjas de suínos do Brasil. O método de disco-difusão foi empregado usando 14 antimicrobianos: amoxicilina, penicilina, ceftiofur, ciprofloxacina, enrofloxacina, clortetraciclina, doxiciclina, oxitetraciclina, tetraciclina, eritromicina, tilmicosina, florfenicol, lincomicina e sulfadiazina/trimetoprim. Streptococcus suis e Bordetella bronchiseptica foram os patógenos que apresentaram maiores níveis de resistência. Haemophilus parasuis apresentou altos níveis de resistência à sulfadiazina/trimetoprim (9/18=50%). Observou-se que isolados das regiões Centro-Oeste e Sul apresentaram quatro vezes mais chance de serem multirresistentes do que os isolados da região Sudeste. A maioria foi resistente a pelo menos um agente antimicrobiano (98,75%; 158/160) e 31,25% (50/160) das estirpes isoladas eram multirresistentes. No geral, os resultados do presente estudo mostraram grande nível de resistência à lincomicina, eritromicina, sulfadiazina/trimetoprim e tetraciclina entre patógenos respiratórios bacterianos isolados de suínos no Brasil. Os altos níveis de resistência antimicrobiana em patógenos bacterianos respiratórios em suínos reforçam a necessidade do uso criterioso de antimicrobianos na suinocultura brasileira.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Swine , Bordetella bronchiseptica , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Streptococcus , Brazil/epidemiology , Pasteurella multocida , Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae , Haemophilus parasuis , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests/veterinary
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886558

ABSTRACT

@#BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Manila Bay plays an important role both in economics and ecology because it serves as the major economic center of the Philippines and as it harbors different habitats and biodiversity. Unfortunately, it is threatened by various pollutions including the unregulated discharge of wastewater from industrial, agricultural, and household sectors and improper disposal of trash such as macroplastics among others. All these contributes to the current state of Manila Bay. This study identified bacteria isolated from water, seafood and floating macroplastic samples from Baseco Beach, Manila Bay and determined their antibiogram profiles. METHODOLOGY: Bacterial isolates were obtained from water, seafoods and macroplastic samples from Baseco Beach, Manila Bay using conventional culture techniques. Identification of the isolates was done using Vitek-2 Automated System and antibiogram profiling was done using Kirby-Bauer Disk Diffusion Susceptibility Test. RESULTS AND CONLUSION: A total of 30 bacterial isolates were obtained from different samples from water, seafood and macroplastic samples from Baseco Beach, Manila Bay. These isolates were identified and found to belong to 13 different bacterial species with Bacillus spp. comprising 33.33% of the isolates (10 out of 30), and Vibrio alginolyticus comprising 23.33% of the isolates (7 out of 30) and the other species comprise the remaining 43.34% (Pseudomonas spp., Vibrio fluvialis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shewanella alga, Sphingomonas paucimobilis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Chryseobacterium indologenes, Myroides sp. and Aeromonas salmonicida). Of these, six out of 30 isolates (20%) showed susceptibility to all six representative antibiotics used (Cefazolin 30μg, Gentamicin 10 μg, Chloramphenicol 30 μg, ampicillin 10 μg, Cefuroxime 30 μg, Ceftazidime 30 μg) while 7 isolates (23.33%) were resistant to only one class of antibiotic. Moreover, 17 out of 30 isolates (56.66%) were resistant to two or more classes of antibiotic while only one isolate (3.33%) was found to be resistant to gentamicin. All 30 isolates (100%) were susceptible to chloramphenicol. Interestingly, three antibiotic resistant (AMR) bacteria were isolated from macroplastics namely Pseudomonas oleovorans (S2), Vibrio alginolyticus (S5), and Pseudomonas alcaligenes (S29) which were all resistant to ampicillin and cefazolin. This is the first study in the Philippines to isolate AMR bacteria from macroplastics from Manila Bay. The presence of AMR bacteria in macroplastics shows that these materials can be a reservoir for its dynamics and distribution. Lastly, with the emergence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria, the elucidation of the antibiogram profile of bacteria is necessary to determine its implication sand threats to public health. This study served as a baseline study of presence of AMR bacteria in macroplastic samples from Manila Bay.


Subject(s)
Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests
4.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 56(4): 361-366, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055160

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori infection in Chile remains as a public and private health-care system's challenge, with a prevalence of the infection over 70%. Nowadays, antibiotic treatment of the infection is mandatory to prevent the arising of severe associated diseases but failures in the eradication therapy mainly due to clarithromycin resistance has been observed worldwide and first line eradication therapy seems to be not effective anymore in several geographical areas. Thus, health-care systems are committed to maintain an epidemiological surveillance upon the evolution of the antibiotic resistance of this priority 2 pathogen. OBJECTIVE: This work reports a 10 years surveillance of the primary antibiotic resistance of H. pylori clinical isolates at the Biobío region-Chile, and the evolution of resistance toward amoxicillin, clarithromycin, levofloxacin, metronidazole, and tetracycline among the species. METHODS: H. pylori strains were investigated during the periods 2005-2007 (1435 patients analysed) and 2015-2017 (220 patients analysed) by inoculating a saline homogenate biopsy onto the surface of Columbia agar (Oxoid, Basingstoke, UK) - supplemented with 7% horse red blood cells plus DENT inhibitor (Oxoid, Basingstoke, UK) - following by incubation at 37ºC under 10% CO2 atmosphere for five days. Antibiotic resistance pattern of the isolates was assessed using the disk diffusion test in Müeller-Hinton agar supplemented with 7% horse red blood cells followed by incubation for further three days under 10% CO2 atmosphere. Statistical analysis was done using the SPSS v22 software and P values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: A total of 41% of 1435 patients were detected to be infected with H. pylori by bacteriological culture in 2005-2007 period, meanwhile 32.7% from 220 patients were also infected in 2015-2017 period. The clinical isolates of H. pylori are mostly susceptible to amoxicillin and tetracycline (both over 98% of strains), but less susceptible to levofloxacin in both periods analysed (over 79% of the strains). On the other hand, metronidazole continuous showing the highest score of resistant isolates (over 40% of resistant strains), although an 18% fewer resistant strains were observed in 2015-2017 period. Clarithromycin, the key antibiotic in eradication therapies, has an increased frequency of resistant strain isolated in the decade (22.5% in 2005-2007 and 29.2% in 2015-2017). Multidrug resistant strains (two, three and four antibiotics) were also detected in both periods with the highest scores for simultaneous resistance to clarithromycin-metronidazole (18%) and clarithromycin-metronidazole-levofloxacin (12.5%) resistant strains. According to gender, the isolates resistant to amoxicillin, clarithromycin and metronidazole were more frequent in female, with a specific increment in amoxicillin and clarithromycin resistance. CONCLUSION: The frequency of clarithromycin resistance (29.2%) detected in 2015-2017 suggests that conventional triple therapy is no longer effective in this region.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A infecção por Helicobacter pylori no Chile permanece como um desafio do sistema de saúde público e privado, com prevalência da infecção acima de 70%. Hoje em dia, o tratamento antibiótico da infecção é obrigatório para prevenir o surgimento de graves doenças associadas, mas falhas na terapia de erradicação, principalmente devido à resistência à claritromicina, têm sido observadas em todo o mundo, e a terapia de erradicação de primeira linha parece não ser mais eficaz em várias áreas geográficas. Assim, os sistemas de saúde estão comprometidos em manter uma vigilância epidemiológica sobre a evolução da resistência aos antibióticos deste patógeno prioritário tipo 2. OBJETIVO: Este trabalho relata uma vigilância de 10 anos da resistência antibiótica primária de isolados clínicos de H. pylori na região do Biobío-Chile, e a evolução da resistência em relação à amoxicilina, claritromicina, levofloxacina, metronidazol e tetraciclina entre as espécies. MÉTODOS: As cepas de H. pylori foram investigadas durante os períodos 2005-2007 (1435 pacientes analisados) e 2015-2017 (220 pacientes analisados) inoculando uma biópsia de homogeneizado fisiológico na superfície do agar Columbia (Oxoid, Basingstoke, Reino Unido) - suplementado com 7% de glóbulos vermelhos do cavalo mais o inibidor de DENTE (Oxoid, Basingstoke, Reino Unido) - seguindo pela incubação em 37ºC a atmosfera de 10% de CO2 por cinco dias. O padrão de resistência aos antibióticos dos isolados foi avaliado utilizando-se o teste de difusão em disco em agar Müeller-Hinton suplementado com 7% de glóbulos vermelhos de cavalo seguidos de incubação por mais três dias a atmosfera de 10% de CO2. A análise estatística foi realizada utilizando-se o software SPSS V22 e os valores de P<0,5 foram considerados estatisticamente significantes. RESULTADOS: Um total de 41% dos 1435 pacientes foram detectados como contaminados por H. pylori pela cultura bacteriológica no período 2005-2007, ao mesmo tempo 32,7% de 220 pacientes foram contaminados igualmente no período 2015-2017. Os isolados clínicos de H. pylori são principalmente suscetíveis à amoxicilina e tetraciclina (tanto mais de 98% das cepas), mas menos suscetíveis à levofloxacina em ambos os períodos analisados (mais de 79% das cepas). Por outro lado, o metronidazol permaneceu mostrando a maior pontuação de resistentes isolados (mais de 40% de cepas resistentes), embora tenham sido observados 18% menos cepas resistentes no período de 2015-2017. A claritromicina, o antibiótico-chave em terapias de erradicação, tem uma frequência aumentada de cepa resistente isolada na década (22,5% em 2005-2007 e 29,2% em 2015-2017). Cepas multirresistentes (dois, três e quatro antibióticos) também foram detectadas em ambos os períodos com os maiores escores de resistência simultânea à claritromicina-metronidazol (18%) e claritromicina-metronidazol-levofloxacina (12,5%) cepas resistentes. De acordo com o sexo, os isolados resistentes à amoxicilina, claritromicina e metronidazol foram mais frequentes no sexo feminino, com incremento específico em amoxicilina e resistência à claritromicina. CONCLUSÃO: A frequência de resistência à claritromicina (29,2%) detectada em 2015-2017 sugere que a terapia tripla convencional não é mais efetiva nesta região.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Helicobacter pylori/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Tetracycline/pharmacology , Population Surveillance , Helicobacter Infections/microbiology , Clarithromycin/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests , Levofloxacin , Amoxicillin/pharmacology , Metronidazole/pharmacology , Middle Aged
5.
Vaccimonitor (La Habana, Print) ; 28(2)mayo.-ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1094627

ABSTRACT

Proteus species are found in the human intestinal tract as part of normal flora. Proteus species are also found in multiple environmental habitats, including long-term care facilities and hospitals, and can cause both community and nosocomial infections. For a long time Proteus was known to be susceptible to beta-lactam antibiotics but nowadays they become resistant. The aim of this study was to detect the Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) TEM and CTX-M genes in 90 Proteus species isolated from urine and wound swabs, obtained from different hospitals in Khartoum state, Sudan, from January to August 2018. Antimicrobial sensitivity was carried out using the following set of antibiotics: amoxiclav, ceftazidime, gentamicin, meropenem, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin, ceftriaxone and cotrimoxazole. ESBL producing strains were detected by double disc diffusion synergy test and the resistance genes TEM and CTX-M were detected by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Antibiotic resistance was found: amoxicillin 40 percent, ceftazidime 25.6 percent, ceftriaxone 23.3 percent, gentamicin 22.2 percent, cotrimoxazole 21.1 percent, and cefotaxime 18.9 percent. Most of the isolates were sensitive to meropenem 92.2 percent and ciprofloxacin 86.7 percent. In double-disk diffusion synergy test, 20 isolates (22.2 percent) were found to be positive for ESBL. The PCR demonstrated that TEM gene was present in 18 isolates (90 percent). It was present alone in 11 isolates (55 percent) and in combination with CTX-M gene in seven isolates (35 percent). The percentage of ESBL producing strains of Proteus was 23.5 percent. This percentage is a bit lower than in previous studies in Sudan. In conclusion; it seems that the CTX-M gene is emerging among Proteus species in SudanAU)


Las especies de Proteus se encuentran en el tracto intestinal humano y forman parte de su flora normal. También se localizan en el medio ambiente y otros hábitats, incluyendo hospitales y diversas instituciones de salud, provocando tanto infecciones en la comunidad como nosocomiales. Durante mucho tiempo, las especies de Proteus fueron susceptibles a los antibióticos betalactámicos, pero actualmente se han tornado resistentes. El propósito de este estudio fue detectar genes de resistencia betalactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE) TEM y CTX-M, en 90 especies de Proteus aisladas en orina y heridas, provenientes de diversos hospitales del estado de Jartum, Sudán, entre enero y agosto de 2018. La sensibilidad antimicrobiana se determinó con el siguiente juego de antibióticos: amoxiclav, ceftazidima, gentamicina, meropenem, cefotaxima, ciprofloxacina, amoxicilina, ceftriaxona y cotrimoxasol. Las cepas productoras de BLEE se detectaron mediante la técnica de sinergia de doble disco, y los genes de resistencia TEM y CTX-M mediante Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa (PCR). Se encontró resistencia antibiótica: amoxicilina 40 por ciento, ceftazidima 25,6 por ciento, ceftriaxona 23,3 por ciento, gentamicina 22,2 por ciento, cotrimoxasol 21,1 por ciento y cefotaxima 18,9 por ciento. La mayor parte de los aislamientos fueron sensibles a meropenem (92,2 por ciento) y ciprofloxacina (86,7 por ciento). Con la técnica de sinergia de doble disco se detectó positividad a BLEE en 20 aislamientos (22,2 por ciento). Mediante PCR se demostró que el gen que codifica TEM estaba presente en 18 aislamientos (90 por ciento); de forma aislada en 11 aislamientos (55 por ciento) y combinado con el gen CTX-M en los otros siete (35 por ciento). El porcentaje de cepas de Proteus productoras de BLEE fue de 23,5 por ciento. Este valor es ligeramente inferior que los detectados en estudios previos en Sudán. En conclusión, hay evidencias de que el gen CTX-M está emergiendo entre las especies de Proteus en Sudán(AU)


Subject(s)
Drug Resistance, Microbial/drug effects , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests/methods , Proteus Infections/epidemiology , Sudan
6.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(4): 455-460, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042662

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: El método de difusión de doble disco se presenta como una alternativa diagnóstica que permite identificar aislados de Staphylococcus aureus susceptibles a clindamicina, ante el aumento de resistencia a meticilina, reduciendo así la posibilidad de fallo en el tratamiento. Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia de resistencia a clindamicina inducida por eritromicina en S. aureus resistentes a meticilina (SARM) aislados de niños paraguayos. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio observacional, descriptivo, de corte transversal. Se colectaron 145 aislados S. aureus que causaron infecciones de piel y tejidos blandos y osteo-articulares en pacientes pediátricos del Hospital Central del Instituto de Previsión Social en el período de diciembre-2012 a noviembre-2013. La resistencia a clindamicina se determinó por métodos automatizados y de difusión de doble disco. Se realizó reacción de polimerasa en cadena para genes ermA, ermB, ermC y msrA de aislados representativos. Resultados: La resistencia global a meticilina y clindamicina fue de 67 y 13%, respectivamente (11% atribuible al mecanismo de resistencia a clindamicina inducible). Los genes ermC y msrA fueron detectados individualmente en 25 y 17% de los aislados, respectivamente, mientras que un aislado presentó ambos genes en simultáneo. Discusión: La frecuencia de mecanismo de resistencia inducible a clindamicina señala la importancia de los métodos de difusión de doble disco en la práctica microbiológica, así como se encuentran en los límites de puntos de cortes considerados como aceptables para el uso de este antimicrobiano para infecciones cutáneas y osteo-articulares causadas por SARM.


Background: The double disc diffusion method is an alternative diagnostic that allows the identification of Staphylococcus aureus isolates apparently susceptible to clindamycin but that may develop resistance due to an induction phenomena, mainly asociated to the increase in resistance to methicillin, thus increasing the possibility of failure in the treatment. Aim: To determine the frequency of induced clindamycin resistance in methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolated from Paraguayan children. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, we collected 145 S. aureus isolates that caused skin and soft tissue and osteoarticular infections in pediatric patients of the Central Hospital I.P.S. in the period from December-2012 to November-2013. Resistance to clindamycin was determined by automated methods and double disc diffusion. PCR was performed for ermA, ermB, ermC and msrA genes from representative isolates. Results: The global resistance to methicillin and clindamycin was 67 and 13%, respectively (11% attributable to the inducible mechanism). The ermC and msrA genes were detected individually in 25 and 17% of the isolates respectively while an isolate presented both genes simultaneously. Discussion: The frequency of inducible resistance to clindamycin indicates the importance of double disc diffusion methods in microbiological practice, as well as being within the cut off points considered acceptable for the use of this antibiotic for skin infections. and osteoarticular caused by MRSA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Clindamycin/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Paraguay , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cross-Sectional Studies , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/drug effects , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Genes, Bacterial
7.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(3): 203-206, May-June 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039226

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Global dissemination of mcr-like genes represents a serious threat to public health since it jeopardizes the effectiveness of colistin, an antibiotic used as a last-resort treatment against highly antibiotic-resistant bacteria. In 2017, a mcr-1-positive isolate of Escherichia coli was found in Chile for the first time. Herein we report the genetic features of this strain (UCO-457) by whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and conjugation experiments. The UCO-457 strain belonged to ST4204 and carried a 285 kb IncI2-type plasmid containing the mcr-1 gene. Moreover, this plasmid was transferred by conjugation to an E. coli J53 strain at high frequency. The isolate harbored the cma, iroN, and iss virulence genes and did carry resistance genes to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and fluoroquinolones. Other antibiotic resistance determinants such as β-lactamases-encoding genes were not detected, making the isolate highly susceptible to these antibiotics. Our results revealed that such susceptible isolates could be acting as platforms to disseminate plasmid-mediated colistin resistance. Based on this evidence, we consider that mcr-like prevalence deserves urgent attention and should be examined not only in highly resistant bacteria but also in susceptible isolates.


Subject(s)
Humans , Escherichia coli Proteins/genetics , Escherichia coli/genetics , Escherichia coli Infections/microbiology , Outpatients , Chile , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
8.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2019. 67 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-999556

ABSTRACT

Streptococcus agalactiae, ou Estreptococo do Grupo B, é um microrganismo que encontrado na microbiota intestinal, vaginal e/ou geniturinária de 10-30% de mulheres saudáveis. A principal infecção causada por S. agalactiae é a sepse neonatal. O bebê pode adquirir o microrganismo durante o parto ao passar pelo canal vaginal, ou até mesmo durante a gestação, caso haja ascensão de S. agalactiae para o útero. Existem diversos fatores associados à infecção do feto por S. agalactiae quando a mãe é colonizada, tais como fator CAMP, cápsula de polissacarídeos, hialuronidase, ß-citolisina/hemolisina e pili. Não existe consenso ou recomendação técnica sobre o tema no Brasil. Segundo o Caderno de Atenção Básica ao Pré-Natal, não existem estudos que levem à recomendação da antibioticoterapia intraparto. É necessário elucidar as características genotípicas de cepas de S. agalactiae isoladas no Brasil para alinhar as práticas clínicas às características fenotípicas do microrganismo. Desta forma, os objetivos deste projeto são: i) classificar cepas de S. agalactiae isoladas de gestantes e não gestantes quanto ao sorotipo capsular, por PCR Multiplex, ii) avaliar a presença e distribuição de fatores de virulência, por PCR e iii) avaliar o perfil de resistência antimicrobiana, pelo método de disco difusão e teste D. Os achados de virulência e resistência a antimicrobianos foram comparados com os sorotipos, gestação, localização geográfica e sítio de isolamento. Foram analisadas 292 cepas isoladas de gestantes e não gestantes em São Paulo, São José dos Campos e Rio de Janeiro. O sorotipo Ia foi o mais prevalente entre as cepas. Na cidade de São José dos Campos não houve diferença significativa entre a prevalência dos sorotipos Ia e V, sendo que o sorotipo V foi mais abundante do que nas cidades de São Paulo e Rio de Janeiro. O sorotipo II foi mais abundante em mulheres não gestantes do que gestantes. Não foram encontradas cepas resistentes à Penicilina e vancomicina; contudo a resistência a Cefepima, Eritromicina e Clindamicina ficou em torno de 22%. Foram encontradas diferenças entre os sorotipos quanto à resistência, genes de virulência e sítio de isolamento das cepas. Portanto essas diferenças podem se refletir no perfil epidemiológico da infecção por S. agalactiae quanto à localização geográfica também quanto à gestação. A incidência de sepse causada por S. agalactiae diminuiu muito nas últimas décadas, contudo o monitoramento constante é necessário para alinhar as práticas clínicas às características fenotípicas do microrganismo


Streptococcus agalactiae, or Group B Streptococcus, is a microorganism found in intestinal, vaginal and/or genitourinary microbiota from about 10-30% of all healthy women. The main infection caused by S. agalactiae is neonatal sepsis. The baby can contract the infection during labor when passing through the vaginal canal, or even during pregnancy, if S. agalactiae ascends from the vaginal canal to the uterus. There are several factors associated to the infection of the fetus by S. agalactiae when the mother is colonized, such as the CAMP factor, polysaccharide capsule, hyaluronidase, ß-cytolysin/hemolysin and pili. There is no consensus or technical recommendation regarding this theme in Brazil. According to the Brazilian guidelines to prenatal care, there is no research that justifies the implementation of intrapartum antibiotic therapy. There is a need to clarify genotype characteristics of S. agalactiae strains isolated in Brazil in order to align clinical practices to phenotypical characteristics of this microorganism. This way, the goals of this project are: i) to classify S. agalactiae strains isolated from pregnant and nonpregnant women according to their capsular serotype, using PCR Multiplex, ii) to evaluate the presence and distribution of virulence factors, using PCR and iii) to evaluate their antibiotic resistance profile, using disk-diffusion and D-zone tests. The findings regarding virulence and resistance were compared to serotypes, pregnancy, geographic localization and the site where the sample was isolated. A total of 292 strains from pregnant and nonpregnant women from the cities of São Paulo, São José dos Campos and Rio de Janeiro were analyzed. Serotype Ia was the most prevalent among the strains. In São José dos Campos there was no significate difference in the prevalence of serotypes Ia and V. Serotype V was the most abundant in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. Serotype II was most prevalent in nonpregnant women when compared to pregnant women. No resistance to Penicillin nor Vancomycin was found. However, resistance to Cefepime, Erythromycin or Clindamycin was found in around 22% of strains. There were differences among serotypes regarding resistance, virulence genes and site where the strain was isolated. Therefore these differences can reflect into the epidemiologic profile of S. agalactiae infection in regards to geographic localization and pregnancy. The incidence of sepsis caused by S. agalactiae has decrease in the last few decades, however constant monitoring is necessary in order to align clinical practice to the microorganisms phenotypical characteristics


Subject(s)
Streptococcus agalactiae/classification , Virulence/immunology , Pregnant Women , Comparative Study , Sepsis/classification , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests/methods , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Serogroup , Geographic Locations/ethnology
9.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(12): 2233-2236, dez. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-976423

ABSTRACT

Infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) being a constant concern, ceftaroline fosamil has been recently approved as a new cephalosporin, active against MRSA, for use in humans; only rare cases of resistance have been reported till date. There is no report of resistance to ceftaroline in Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, which is the main bacterium causing dermatitis and otitis in dogs. To evaluate staphylococcal resistance to ceftaroline, 35 isolates of methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP), carrying the mecA gene, from 26 dogs with folliculitis and nine dogs with external otitis, underwent disk diffusion test with cefoxitin, oxacillin, and ceftaroline. Tests with cefoxitin and oxacillin showed > 90% sensitivity in methicillin resistance detection. In the disk diffusion test, 97.14% (34/35) were resistant to cefoxitin, 94.29% (33/35) to oxacillin, and 31.43% (11/35) to ceftaroline. Of the ceftaroline-resistant strains, 27.27% (3/11) were obtained from the ears of dogs while the rest (8/11) were from the skin. The current report is the first description of MRSP resistance to ceftaroline.(AU)


Infecções causadas por Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina (MRSA) são uma preocupação médica constante. A ceftarolina fosamila é uma nova cefalosporina ativa contra Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina recentemente aprovada para uso em humanos e raros casos de resistência relatados até agora. Não há relatos de resistência à ceftarolina em Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, principal bactéria causadora de dermatite e otite em cães. Com o objetivo de avaliar a resistência estafilocócica à ceftarolina, 35 amostras de S. pseudintermedius resistentes à meticilina (MRSP), portadoras do gene mecA, provenientes de 26 cães com foliculite e 9 com otite externa foram submetidos ao teste de disco-difusão com cefoxitina, oxacilina e ceftarolina. Os testes realizados com cefoxitina e oxacilina mostraram mais de 90% de sensibilidade na detecção da resistência à meticilina em ambas. No teste da disco-difusão, 97,14% (1/35) foram resistentes à cefoxitina, 94,29% (3/35) à oxacilina e 31,43% (11/35) à ceftarolina. Das cepas resistentes às ceftarolina, 27,27 (3/11) foram provenientes de ouvido de cães e as demais (8/11), provenientes da pele, sendo essa primeira descrição de resistência de MRSP à ceftarolina na literatura atual.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Oxacillin , Staphylococcus/genetics , Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcal Skin Infections/veterinary , Cefoxitin , Cephalosporin Resistance , Dogs/microbiology , Dermatitis/veterinary , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests/veterinary , Folliculitis/veterinary
10.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(4): 533-536, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041470

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION This aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of fractions and isolates of Maytenus guianensis, a plant species used in Amazonian folk medicine. METHODS A disk diffusion technique was used to investigate the antibacterial potential. RESULTS The hexanic fractions and tingenone B isolate showed inhibitory effects against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. CONCLUSIONS These results indicate the antibacterial potential of this species and will enable future studies to identify novel therapeutic alternatives from this species.


Subject(s)
Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Maytenus/chemistry , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification
11.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(1): 44-51, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897051

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli, a species that is a leading cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs) and is a major global public health concern. This study was designed to detect the differences in antibiotic resistance patterns, the production and type of extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), and the clonal relationships among E. coli isolates from UTIs and fecal samples. METHODS: Antibacterial resistance was determined by the disk diffusion method. ESBL, carbapenemase, and AmpC-producing isolates were detected phenotypically. Then, the ESBL genes were sequenced to detect the type. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) was performed on the ESBL-positive isolates. RESULTS: The most common effective antibacterial agents were colistin, imipenem, and amikacin. Among the isolates, 204 (56.6%) were MDR. Of the 163 ESBL-positive isolates, 11 (6.7%) produced AmpC, and the frequencies of beta-lactamase-positive genes were as follows: bla CTX-Mgroup1, 76%; bla TEM1, 74.8%; bla SHV12, 1.2%; and bla OXA1, 12.88%. ERIC PCR showed a diverse pattern, suggesting that clonal spread of E. coli in this area is uncommon, and that most of the infecting strains are endogenous. CONCLUSIONS: The high rates of antibacterial-resistant and MDR isolates are quite important since these strains can act as source of resistant bacteria that can be spread in the community. Controlling antibiotic use, against inappropriate use and abuse, in the community and continuous surveillance of emerging resistance traits are critical to controlling the spread of resistance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Urinary Tract Infections/microbiology , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Feces/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , beta-Lactamases/drug effects , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Escherichia coli/enzymology , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests , Iran
12.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(1): 88-93, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041448

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Here, we determined the genes encoding antibiotic resistance enzymes and virulence factors and evaluated the genetic relationship between Enterobacter spp. isolated from different clinical samples. METHODS: A total of 57 clinical isolates of Enterobacter spp. were tested for the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), carbapenemase, and AmpC using phenotypic and genotypic methods. RESULTS: The most common ESBLs and AmpC β-lactamases were bla TEM (63.3%) and bla EBC (57.7%), respectively. The most prevalent virulence gene was rpos (87.7%). The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) patterns of strains were genetically unrelated. CONCLUSIONS: RAPD polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed high genetic diversity among isolates.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Proteins/biosynthesis , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Feces/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Phenotype , Bacterial Proteins/drug effects , beta-Lactamases/biosynthesis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Clone Cells , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , beta-Lactams/adverse effects , Escherichia coli/enzymology , Escherichia coli/genetics , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests , Genotype , Iran
13.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(1): 85-87, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041445

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION. This study aimed to evaluate different methods for differentiation of species of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) that caused infections in hospitalized immunocompromised patients. METHODS. A total of 134 CoNS strains were characterized using four different methods. RESULTS. The results of matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis were in complete agreement with those of tuf gene sequencing (kappa index = 1.00). The kappa index of Vitek 2® Compact analysis was 0.85 (very good) and that of the conventional method was 0.63 (moderate). CONCLUSIONS . MALDI-TOF MS provided rapid and accurate results for the identification of CoNS (134; 100%).


Subject(s)
Humans , Staphylococcus/genetics , Bacteriological Techniques/methods , Coagulase/metabolism , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization , Phenotype , Staphylococcus/drug effects , Staphylococcus/enzymology , Reproducibility of Results , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
14.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(6): e170558, 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040595

ABSTRACT

This study reports the presence of the blaNDM-1 gene in an isolate of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia obtained from a Brazilian soil, inside an IncA/C plasmid with ~ 45 Kb. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second report in the world and the first in Brazil of NDM-producing bacterium isolated from soil.


Subject(s)
Soil Microbiology , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia/enzymology , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia/isolation & purification , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia/drug effects , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
15.
Rev. salud pública ; 19(6): 800-805, nov.-dic. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-962074

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antifungal susceptibilities of isolates of Fusarium to amphotericin B, itraconazole and voriconazole. Methods The susceptibility of 44 isolates of Fusarium was tested by the E-test methodology. Results All the isolates were resistant to itraconazole, and 89 % and 54,5 % were resistant to amphotericin B and voriconazole, respectively. Discussion The results confirm the high level of resistance reported, regardless of the species or the strain of Fusarium involved. The high MICs level observed are worrying and suggest that new drugs are needed.(AU)


RESUMEN Objetivo Evaluar la susceptibilidad antifúngica in vitro de aislamientos de Fusarium a los antimicóticos amfotericina B, itraconazol y voriconazol. Métodos La susceptibilidad de 44 aislamientos clínicos de Fusarium fue evaluada por el método de difusión en disco, E-test. Resultados Todos los aislamientos fueron resistentes al itraconazol, y 89 % y 54,5 % fueron resistentes a la amfotericina B y al voriconazol, respectivamente. Discusión Los resultados confirman el alto nivel de resistencia reportado, independiente de la especie o la cepa de Fusarium involucrada. Los valores tan altos de MICs son preocupantes y sugieren la necesidad de evaluar nuevos medicamentos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Itraconazole/pharmacology , Voriconazole/pharmacology , Fusarium/isolation & purification , Colombia , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests/instrumentation
16.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(4): 464-467, July-Aug. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039197

ABSTRACT

Abstract Nasal colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have increasingly been reported in healthy communities. This study aimed to assess the rate of S. aureus in general and MRSA in particular from nasal secretion of children in daycare centers in Vitória da Conquista, Brazil. The isolates were identified based on morphology, biochemical tests and by PCR. Detection of virulence genes, biofilm production, and susceptibility test by disk diffusion agar were performed. MRSA isolates were characterized by spa, SCCmec, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). S. aureus were recovered from 70 (47.3%) of 148 children. Among the 11 MRSA strains (15.7%), two SCCmec types (IV and V) were detected. MLST identified four STs related to three clonal complexes (CC): 5, 45, and 398. Four spa types were found circulating in this setting. Resistance of S. aureus isolates to ampicillin, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, and tetracycline was 80%, 32.8%, 7.1%, 7.1% and 4.3%, respectively. One isolate presented intermediate resistance to vancomycin detected by Etest methodology. All strains were biofilm producers. The virulence genes seb, sec, spa, and pvl were detected in some isolates. This study revealed a high rate of children carrying MRSA among healthy attendees in daycare centers in Vitória da Conquista, Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Child Day Care Centers , Nose/microbiology , Community-Acquired Infections/microbiology , Biofilms/growth & development , Virulence Factors , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/pathogenicity , Genotype , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
17.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(4): 408-417, July-Aug. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888893

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: In India, Elores (CSE-1034: ceftriaxone + sulbactam + disodium edetate) was approved as a broad spectrum antibiotic in year 2011 and is used for management of Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamases/Metallo Beta lactamases infections in tertiary care centers. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of this drug in patients with Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamases/Metallo Beta lactamases infections and identify the incidence of adverse events in real clinical settings. Methods: This Post Marketing Surveillance study was conducted at 17 centers across India and included 2500 patients of all age groups suffering from various bacterial infections and treated with Elores (CSE1034). Information regarding demographic, clinical and microbiological parameters, dosage and treatment duration, efficacy and adverse events (AEs) associated with the treatment were recorded. Results: A total of 2500 patients were included in the study and efficacy was evaluated in 2487 patients. In total, 409 AEs were reported in 211 (8.4%) patients. The major AEs reported were vomiting (3.0%), pain at injection site (2.5%), nausea (2.3%), redness at site (1.96%), thrombophlebitis (1.4%). Of total reported AEs, 40 (5.3%) AEs were reported in pediatric, 310 (20.6%) in adult, and 59 (23.6%) in geriatric group. No AE belonging to grade IV or V was reported in any patient. In terms of efficacy, 1977 (79.4%) patients were cured, 501 (20.1%) patients showed clinical improvement and 5 (0.2%) patients were complete failure. The treatment duration varied from 5 to 7 days in different patients depending on the infection type. Conclusion: In this post-marketing surveillance study, CSE-1034 was found to be an effective and safe option against Pip tazo and meropenem in management of patients with multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacterial infections under routine ward settings.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adult , Aged , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Ceftriaxone/administration & dosage , Ceftriaxone/adverse effects , Sulbactam/administration & dosage , Sulbactam/adverse effects , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Edetic Acid/administration & dosage , Edetic Acid/adverse effects , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Drug Combinations , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests , Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/classification , India , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry
18.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(1): 159-166, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839333

ABSTRACT

Abstract Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus saprophyticus are the most common and most important staphylococcal species associated with urinary tract infections. The objective of the present study was to compare and to evaluate the accuracy of four phenotypic methods for the detection of beta-lactamase production in Staphylococcus spp. Seventy-three strains produced a halo with a diameter ≤28 mm (penicillin resistant) and all of them were positive for the blaZ gene. Among the 28 susceptible strain (halo ≥29 mm), 23 carried the blaZ gene and five did not. The zone edge test was the most sensitive (90.3%), followed by MIC determination (85.5%), but the specificity of the former was low (40.0%). The nitrocefin test was the least sensitive (28.9%). However, the nitrocefin test together with the disk diffusion method showed the highest specificity (100%). The present results demonstrated that the zone edge test was the most sensitive phenotypic test for detection of beta-lactamase, although it is still not an ideal test to detect this type of resistance since its specificity was low. However, the inhibition halo diameter of the penicillin disk can be used together with the zone edge test since the same disk is employed in the two tests. Combined analysis of the two tests shows a sensitivity of 90.3% and specificity of 100%, proving better sensitivity, especially for S. saprophyticus. This is a low-cost test of easy application and interpretation that can be used in small and medium-sized laboratories where susceptibility testing is usually performed by the disk diffusion method.


Subject(s)
beta-Lactamases/genetics , beta-Lactamases/metabolism , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , beta-Lactam Resistance , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Urinary Tract Infections/microbiology , Penicillin Resistance , Sensitivity and Specificity , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests , Staphylococcus saprophyticus/drug effects , Staphylococcus saprophyticus/genetics , Staphylococcus saprophyticus/metabolism , Genotype
19.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(2): 167-172, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-842841

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Acinetobacter baumannii is a major pathogen causing infections in intensive care units (ICUs). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the presence of A. baumannii in an ICU environment and gloves from ICU workers and to characterize the antimicrobial resistance of the isolates in comparison with those isolated from ICU patients at the same hospital. METHODS: ICU samples were collected from March to November 2010. Isolates biochemically characterized as Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex were evaluated by PCR targeting the 16S rDNA and bla OXA-51 genes. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using the disk diffusion method, and carbapenem-resistant isolates were also evaluated for the minimum inhibitory concentration of imipenem using broth microdilution. The presence of the bla OXA-23 gene was evaluated in isolates with reduced susceptibility to carbapenems. RESULTS: A. baumannii was detected in 9.5% (84) of the 886 samples collected from the ICU environment, including from furniture, medical devices, and gloves, with bed rails being the most contaminated location (23.8%; 20/84). Multidrug-resistant (MDR) A. baumannii was found in 98.8% (83/84) of non-clinical and 97.8% (45/46) of clinical isolates. Reduced susceptibility to carbapenems was detected in 83.3% (70/84) of non-clinical and 80.4% (37/46) of clinical isolates. All isolates resistant to carbapenems harbored bla OXA-23. CONCLUSIONS: We found a strong similarity between the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of non-clinical and clinical A. baumannii isolates. Such data highlight the ICU environment as a potential origin for the persistence of MDR A. baumannii, and hence the ICU may be a source of hospital-acquired infections caused by this microorganism.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Gloves, Protective/microbiology , Acinetobacter baumannii/drug effects , Environmental Microbiology , Equipment and Supplies, Hospital/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Acinetobacter baumannii/isolation & purification , Acinetobacter baumannii/enzymology , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests
20.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(2): 185-189, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039190

ABSTRACT

Abstract Staphylococcus aureus is an important cause of bloodstream infections. Therefore, the main purpose of this work was to characterize a collection of 139 S. aureus isolates from bloodstream infections in two public hospitals in relation to their antimicrobial susceptibility profile, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec types, and clonal relationship. Methicillin resistance and resistance to other 12 agents were accessed by the disk diffusion test. Minimum inhibitory concentration to mupirocin was also determined. The SCCmec types were accessed by multiplex PCR, and the clonal relationship was determined by pulsed field gel electrophoresis method and restriction modification system characterization. Besides, multilocus sequence typing was performed for representative methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates. The military hospital showed a dissemination of the New York/Japan (USA100/ST5/CC5/SCCmecII) lineage associated to multidrug resistance, including mupirocin resistance, and the teaching hospital presented polyclonal and non-multidrug resistant MRSA isolates. Complete substitution of the Brazilian endemic clone by other lineages was found in both hospitals. These findings can highlight differences in policy control and prevention of infections used in the hospitals and a change in the epidemiological profile of MRSA in Brazilian hospitals, with the replacement of BEC, a previously well-established clone, by other lineages.


Subject(s)
Humans , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Brazil , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Bacterial Typing Techniques , Mupirocin/pharmacology , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Genotype , Hospitals, Public
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