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Semina cienc. biol. saude ; 43(1): 101-118, jan./jun. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354575


Achyrocline satureioides is popularly known for its richness in phenolic compounds and medicinal properties (anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and hepatoprotective). The present study aimed at broadening the knowledge about the pharmacological potential exerted by the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of A. satureioides. These extracts were characterized by HPLC and tested for their modulatory action on phospholipases A2 and proteases of snake venoms. In addition, they were tested on the activities of digestive enzymes. Snake venoms were used as tools since they have enzymes with high functional and structural homology to human enzymes. The results demonstrate that the extracts of A. satureioides act as enzymatic inhibitors or potentiators, interfering in processes related to the hemostasis, such as coagulation and thrombus dissolution. In addition, the anti-genotoxic activity and inhibitions exerted on digestive enzymes suggests their potential use in the prevention and/or treatment of several pathologies. New studies could provide information on how the compounds present in the extracts and the different enzymes interact.

A Achyrocline satureioides é popularmente conhecida por sua riqueza em compostos fenólicos e por suas propriedades medicinais (anti-inflamatória, analgésica e hepatoprotetora). No presente estudo, com o objetivo de ampliar o conhecimento sobre o potencial farmacológico exercido por esses extratos, os extratos aquoso e etanólico de A. satureioides foram caracterizados por HPLC e testados quanto à sua ação modulatória sobre as fosfolipases A2 e proteases de peçonhas de serpentes. Além disso, também foram testados em atividades de enzimas digestivas. As peçonhas de serpentes foram usadas como ferramentas por apresentarem enzimas com alta homologia funcional e estrutural às humanas. Os resultados demonstram que os extratos de A. satureioides atuam como inibidores ou potencializadores enzimáticos, interferindo em processos relacionados à hemostasia, como coagulação e dissolução do trombo. Além do mais, destacam seu potencial antigenotóxico e as inibições exercidas sobre as enzimas digestivas direcionando seu potencial de uso na prevenção e/ou tratamento de diversas patologias. Novos estudos poderão fornecer informações sobre os mecanismos de interação entre os compostos presentes nos extratos e as diferentes enzimas.

Humans , Animals , Snakes , Blood Coagulation , Achyrocline , Digestion , Enzymes , Dissolution , Phospholipases A2 , Hemostasis , Analgesics , Inflammation
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20139, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403755


Abstract Compounding pharmacies play an important role not only in compounding personalized formulations, but also preparing drugs at the same concentration and dosage as those from commercial manufacturers. The excipients used in compounding are generally standardized for many drugs, however they do not consider the intrinsic properties, such as the poor water solubility, of each substance. The excipient performance of commercially available compounded furosemide capsules in 7 compounding pharmacies from Manaus was evaluated and compared them to the performance of the reference medicinal product (Lasix® tablets) and 2 batches of capsules made in-house (T2 and T4) with a standardized excipient. All batches were subjected to tests for weight variation, assay, uniformity of dosage units, disintegration and dissolution profile. Of the 7 different compound formulas acquired in the compounding pharmacies, only 2 passed all tests. Most formulas passed the tests for weight determination, disintegration time and assay, however batches from 2 establishments failed in regards to the uniformity of the content and 5 batches failed the dissolution test. The reference medicinal product was approved in all tests, as were the T2 capsules made in-house with drug-excipient ratio 1:2. These results confirm the importance of the excipient composition, especially for poorly soluble drugs.

Tablets/adverse effects , Capsules/analysis , Excipients/analysis , Furosemide/analysis , Pharmacies/standards , Quality Control , Pharmaceutical Preparations/classification , Good Manipulation Practices , Dosage , Dissolution
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 70 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1392313


The purpose of this work was to elaborate a diagnosis of the dissolution test in Africa in comparison with Brazil, evaluating the dissolution profile of low solubility drugs such as albendazole, ibuprofen, furosemide, glibenclamide, hydrochlorothiazide and carvedilol to ascertain their quality. The dissolution profiles were evaluated by utilizing the United States Pharmacopeia (USP). The glibenclamide medicine was evaluated according to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), while a dissolution method was developed for the carvedilol medicine. A filter selection test for all the drugs showed that cannula is suitable for all, except for carvedilol, which is centrifuged. The various brands of Nigerian and Brazilian medicines tested showed some statistical differences. The suitable conditions that allowed the dissolution of carvedilol to be determined were the USP type II apparatus at 75 rpm containing 900 mL of acetate buffer, pH 4.5. The results of the dissolution test showed that out of the 17 different brands of Brazilian medicines and 17 different products from Nigeria, 94.12% and 58.82% passed respectively

O objetivo deste trabalho foi elaborar um diagnóstico do teste de dissolução na África em comparação ao Brasil, avaliando o perfil de dissolução de medicamentos de baixa solubilidade como albendazol, ibuprofeno, furosemida, glibenclamida, hidroclorotiazida e carvedilol para verificar sua qualidade.Os perfis de dissolução foram avaliados utilizando a Farmacopeia dos Estados Unidos (USP). O medicamento glibenclamida foi avaliado de acordo com a Food and Drug Administration (FDA), enquanto um método de dissolução foi desenvolvido para o medicamento carvedilol.Um teste de seleção de filtro para todos os medicamentos mostrou que a cânula é adequada para todos, exceto para o carvedilol, que é centrifugado. As diversas marcas de medicamentos Nigerianos e Brasileiros testadas apresentaram algumas diferenças estatísticas. As condições adequadas que permitiram a determinação da dissolução do carvedilol foram o aparelho USP tipo II a 75 rpm contendo 900 mL de tampão acetato, pH 4,5. Os resultados do teste de dissolução mostraram que das 17 diferentes marcas de medicamentos brasileiros e 17 diferentes produtos da Nigéria, 94,12% e 58,82% foram aprovados, respectivamente

Solubility , Brazil/ethnology , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Africa/ethnology , Dissolution , United States Food and Drug Administration , Albendazole/pharmacology , Ibuprofen , Carvedilol/pharmacology , Furosemide/pharmacology , Methods , Acetates/adverse effects
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19710, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384010


The aim of this work was to assess if the commercially available Fluconazole drug products (Reference, Generic and Similar) would meet the biowaiver criteria from Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Brazilian Agency for Health Surveillance (ANVISA) agencies. All formulations were evaluated considering the dissolution profile carried out in Simulated Gastric Fluid (SGF) pH 1.2, Acetate Buffer (AB) pH 4.5 and Simulated Intestinal Fluid (SIF) pH 6.8. The results demonstrated that all formulations fulfilled the 85% of drug dissolved at 30 min criterion in SGF pH 1.2. However, in AB pH 4.5 and SIF pH 6.8, some formulations, including the comparator, did not achieve this dissolution percentage. The discrepant dissolution profiles also failed the ƒ2 similarity factor analysis, since none of the formulations showed values between 50 and 100 in the three dissolution media. Comparative dissolution profiles were not similar, considering that the main issues concerning the dissolution were evidenced for the comparator product. Hence, a revision in the regulatory norms in order to establish criteria to switch the comparator could result in an increased application of drugs based on biowaiver criteria

Fluconazole/analysis , United States Food and Drug Administration/classification , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Similar/classification , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency , Dissolution , Acetates/agonists
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19178, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384006


In this study, a dichloromethane fraction dry extract from the underground parts of Jatropha isabellei (DFJi) was used to prepare lipid nanocarriers (LNCJi) aimed at providing the oral delivery of terpenic compounds in the treatment of arthritis. The lipid nanocarriers were prepared by the spontaneous emulsification method. The lipid nanocarriers displayed sizes ranging from 180 to 200 nm and zeta potential values of around -18 mV. A high value of entrapment efficiency (> 90%) was obtained for jatrophone, which was used as the chemical marker of DFJi. LNCJi stored at 4°C were demonstrated to be stable through measurements of transmitted light after analytical centrifugation of the samples. In vitro drug release studies conducted in biorelevant dissolution media demonstrated that jatrophone release was faster from LNCJi than from free DFJi. When tested in an acute arthritis model, the LNCJi exhibited antinociceptive properties after oral administration of a 50 mg/kg dose, unlike the free DFJi, although no reduction in articular diameter was observed. These results suggest that an increase in the oral absorption of DFJi constituents may have occurred through the carrying of this fraction in LNCJi, thus improving the antinociceptive activity of this compound

Animals , Male , Rats , Arthritis/pathology , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Administration, Oral , Jatropha/adverse effects , Efficiency/classification , Dissolution , Drug Liberation , Lipids/pharmacology , Methylene Chloride/pharmacology
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19423, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384001


Abstract This work aims to ascertain the comprehensiveness of dissolution tests for oral suspensions registered in Brazil and the USA. After consulting literature since 1994, a paucity of information about dissolution methods for suspensions was detected. It makes it difficult to establish the most appropriate test parameters. In January, 2019, there were 46 drugs registered in Anvisa (Brazil) as oral suspension, being 47 reference, 173 generic and 114 interchangeable similar (IS) medicines; while in the USA, 90 drugs were registered as oral suspension by FDA, 235 Abreviatted New Drug Application and 111 New Drug Application medicines. Out of 46 and 90, only six and 15 drugs as oral suspension had a pharmacopeial dissolution test, corresponding to 70 (20.9%) and 82 (23.7%) products in Brazil and the USA, respectively. Dissolution studies were found for 17 drugs as oral suspension in the non-compendial literature. Dissolution test conditions were established to few marketable oral suspension drugs, most of which are BCS class II or IV. Thus, investing in dissolution studies could subsidize the registration of these products by regulators, especially for generic and IS drugs, by comparing dissolution profiles, and predicting their in vivo behavior to avoid exposure of healthy individuals to clinical research.

Suspensions/pharmacology , Therapeutic Equivalency , Dissolution , Reference Standards , Pharmaceutical Preparations/supply & distribution , Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency , Methods
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19759, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383977


Abstract Dissolution is a key step in the uptake of oral drugs. In order to compare the behaviour of the dissolution of two formulations, the dissolution profile test was used. This assay must be discriminative and should mimic in vivo conditions. Many dissolution media described in pharmacopoeias are not predictive of bioavailability. Due to this, biorelevant media are used as an alternative to solve this problem. The objective of this work is to evaluate the relevance of biorelevant dissolution media to predict in vivo drug dissolution. For this, a bibliographic search was carried out in scientific databases. The search was first performed for articles verifying the physicochemical properties of human gastrointestinal fluids. Subsequently, a comparison was made between the properties of gastrointestinal fluids and those of biorelevant and pharmacopoeial media. Finally, the results of bioequivalence studies and dissolution profile tests in biorelevant media described in the literature were compared. The results revealed that there are a few publications that have analysed some physicochemical properties of gastrointestinal fluids. In addition, high variability was observed for some properties. Regarding the comparison of these properties with pharmacopoeial media and biorelevant media, the analysis showed that the biorelevant media are more similar to gastrointestinal fluids than the pharmacopoeial media. Finally, the in vitro dissolution profile results were similar to the results obtained in vivo. Thus, biorelevant media may be useful for analysing dissolution profiles.

Therapeutic Equivalency , Dissolution , Drug Liberation , Publications/classification , In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e191023, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403698


Abstract In the work the andrographolide (AG)-solid dispersions (SDs) were prepared by the spray-drying method, using polyethylene glycol 8000 (PEG8000), Poloxamer188, polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (PVPK30), Soluplus® as carrier materials. The effect of different polymers as carrier materials on the properties of the AG-SDs were studied. The results showed obvious differences in intermolecular interaction, thermal stability, drug state, powder properties, dissolution behavior, and so on of AG-SDs prepared using different polymers as carrier materials. AG-PEG8000-SD was a partial-crystalline and partial-amorphous powder with smaller surface area and pore volume, but it was easy to wetting and did not swell in contact with dissolved medium. AG-Soluplus®-SD was completely amorphous powder with larger specific surface area and pore volume, but it swelled in contact with water. Therefore, the dissolution profile of AG in AG-PEG8000-SD was similar to that in AG-Soluplus®-SD. Soluplus® and PEG8000 were suitable polymers to design AG-SDs, considering both physicochemical properties and dissolution behaviors. The results of this reseach showed that when selecting carrier materials for SD, we should not only consider the state of drugs in SD and the powder properties of SD, but also consider whether there is swelling when the carrier materials are in contact with the dissolution medium.

Polyethylene Glycols/adverse effects , Dissolution , Methods , Polymers/analysis , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Water , Spray Drying
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e191024, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394036


Abstract Posaconazole exerts an extended spectrum of antifungal activity against various strains of clinically relevant moulds and yeasts. In recent years, antifungal triazole posaconazole has become increasingly important for the prophylaxis and treatment of systemic mycoses. After oral administration of posaconazole, absolute bioavailability has been estimated to range from 8% to 47%. Pharmaceutical co-crystallization is a promising approach for improving dissolution rate or manipulating other physical properties of API. The objective of this study is to improve the dissolution rate of posaconazole by co-crystallization. A 1:1 stoichiometric co-crystals of adipic acid were prepared by solvent assisted grinding method. The prepared co-crystals were subjected to solid-state characterization by FTIR, PXRD and DSC studies. The physicochemical properties of posaconazole and co-crystals were assessed in terms of melting point, flowability and dissolution rate. The results indicated improvement in flow property and dissolution rate. In vitro dissolution profile of co-crystals showed a significant increased dissolution of posaconazole from initial period in 0.1 N hydrochloric acid solution. The dissolution efficiency for posaconazole-adipic acid co-crystal was 61.65 % against posaconazole, 46.58 %. Thus, co-crystallization can be a promising approach to prepare posaconazole-adipic acid co-crystals with improved physicochemical properties.

Administration, Oral , Crystallization/instrumentation , Hydrochloric Acid , Sprains and Strains/diagnosis , Yeasts/classification , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Biological Availability , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Efficiency , Dissolution , Mycoses/pathology
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18800, 2022. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364431


Abstract Efavirenz is one of the most commonly used drugs in HIV therapy. However the low water solubility tends to result in low bioavailability. Drug nanocrystals, should enhance the dissolution and consequently bioavailability. The aim of the present study was to obtain EFV nanocrystals prepared by an antisolvent technique and to further observe possible effect, on the resulting material, due to altering crystallization parameters. A solution containing EFV and a suitable solvent was added to an aqueous solution of particle stabilizers, under high shear agitation. Experimental conditions such as solvent/antisolvent ratio; drug load; solvent supersaturation; change of stabilizer; addition of milling step and solvents of different polarities were evaluated. Suspensions were characterized by particle size and zeta potential. After freeze- dried and the resulting powder was characterized by PXRD, infrared spectroscopy and SEM. Also dissolution profiles were obtained. Many alterations were not effective for enhancing EFV dissolution; some changes did not even produced nanosuspensions while other generated a different solid phase from the polymorph of raw material. Nevertheless reducing EFV load produced enhancement on dissolution profile. The most important modification was adding a milling step after precipitation. The resulting suspension was more uniform and the powder presented grater enhancement of dissolution efficacy.

Efficacy/classification , HIV/pathogenicity , Crystallization/instrumentation , Dissolution/methods , Particle Size , Solubility , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Excipients/pharmacology , Dissolution/classification , Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Methods
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20079, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403747


Abstract Sustained release matrix tablets of 100 mg losartan potassium HCl were fabricated with two release retarding polymers namely HPMC K100 M and affinisol by direct compression method. Nine trial formulations were prepared by varying content of these polymers, each from 50 mg to 100 mg; keeping the total weight of the tablet 310 mg. The best formulation was selected based on in vitro drug release profile for 12 hours conducted in Type II dissolution apparatus at 50 rpm and water as dissolution medium. Pre-compression parameters such as bulk density, tap density, Carr's index and Hausner ratio were evaluated for the selected tablet. The tablets were subjected to thickness, weight variation test, drug content, hardness and friability. Drug release kinetics, surface morphology and accelerated stability study were investigated for that selected formulation. Formulation F4 with the composition of 75 mg HPMC K100M and 100 mg affinisol was selected as the best formulation that extended the drug release up to 12 hours. Pre-compression parameters and other tableting properties were within the Pharmacopoeia limit. Release kinetics analysis proved non-fickian zero-order drug release and that was further confirmed by surface morphology of the tablets before and after dissolution study visualized by SEM. The developed formulation was found to be stable for one month stored at 60 ○C.

Tablets/analysis , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Losartan/agonists , Drug Compounding/methods , Dissolution , Drug Liberation/drug effects , Methods
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 415 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1416418


For a drug to excerpt pharmacological action after oral intake, it first needs to be released from the formulation, get into solution (dissolve), be absorbed, and reach the systemic circulation. Since only solubilized drugs can be absorbed, and thus have therapeutic effect, the understanding of the dissolution and drug release processes of a drug product is of primary importance. Such understanding allows a robust formulation development with an ideal in vivo performance. In order to meet set standards, the performance assessment of oral drug products, such as dissolution testing, often applies conditions that are not reflective of the in vivo environment. The use of non-physiologically relevant dissolution method during the drug product development phase can be misleading and give poor mechanistic understanding of the in vivo dissolution process. Hence, we hypothesized that applying physiologically relevant conditions to the dissolution test would result in more accurate in vivo predictability for a robust and precise development process. Since the buffering system in the intestinal lumen operates at low molarity values, phosphate buffer at low buffer capacity was used as a first approach to an in vivo relevant parameter. Furthermore, a biphasic system was used, that is, the low buffer capacity medium was paired with an organic layer (n-octanol) to mimic the concurrent drug absorption that happens with the in vivo dissolution. Both poorly and highly soluble drugs in immediate release formulations (ibuprofen and metronidazole, respectively) were tested in this set-up to assess the dissolution in the aqueous medium and the partitioning to the organic phase. Additionally, enteric coated formulations were tested in bicarbonate buffer at the in vivo reported molarities values to assess the impact of buffer species on drug dissolution. The evaluated parameters were the buffer system (bicarbonate buffer vs. phosphate buffer), buffer capacity and medium pH. In all approaches, dissolution was also carried out in compendial buffer for comparison purposes. Our results demonstrate that the USP-recommended dissolution method greatly lacked discriminatory power, whereas low buffer capacity media discriminated between manufacturing methods. The use of an absorptive phase in the biphasic dissolution test assisted in controlling the medium pH due to the drug removal from the aqueous medium. Hence, the applied noncompendial methods were more discriminative to drug formulation differences and manufacturing methods than conventional dissolution conditions. In this study, it was demonstrated how biphasic dissolution and a low buffer capacity can be used to assess drug product performance differences. This can be a valuable approach during the early stages of drug product development for investigating drug release with improved physiological relevance. Similarly, all the enteric coated formulations displayed a fast release in phosphate buffer and complied with the compendial performance specifications. On the other hand, they all had a much slower drug release in bicarbonate buffer and failed the USP acceptance criteria. Also, the nature of the drug (acid vs base) impacted the dissolution behavior in bicarbonate buffer. This study indicates that compendial dissolution test for enteric coated tablets lacks physiological relevance and it needs to be reevaluated. Thus, an in vivo relevant performance method for EC products is needed. Overall, the findings of this thesis comprehensively demonstrates that meaningful differences in performance and accordance to clinical reports were only obtained when physiological relevant conditions were applied. Hence, our results indicate that the central hypothesis was answered positively

Para que um medicamento exerça a ação farmacológica após a ingestão oral, ele primeiro precisa ser liberado da formulação, dissolver, ser absorvido e atingir a circulação sistêmica. Uma vez que apenas medicamentos solubilizados podem ser absorvidos e, assim, ter efeito terapêutico, a compreensão dos processos de dissolução e liberação de um medicamento é de extrema importância. Tal compreensão permite o desenvolvimento de uma formulação robusta com o desempenho in vivo ideal. Para atender aos padrões regulatórios previamente estabelecidos, a avaliação da performance de formulações orais, como por exemplo, o teste de dissolução, frequentemente aplica condições que não refletem o ambiente fisiológico. O uso de métodos de dissolução não fisiologicamente relevante durante a fase de desenvolvimento do medicamento pode gerar resultados equivocados sem uma compreensão mecanistica do processo de dissolução in vivo. Portanto, a hipótese desse trabalho é que a aplicação de condições fisiologicamente relevantes no teste de dissolução resultaria em uma predição mais precisa da dissolução in vivo para um processo de desenvolvimento robusto e preciso. Uma vez que o sistema tampão no lúmen intestinal possui baixa molaridade, o tampão fosfato com baixa capacidade tamponante foi usado como uma primeira abordagem como um meio de dissolução fisiologicamente relevante. Além disso, foi utilizado um sistema bifásico, ou seja, o meio de baixa capacidade tamponante combinado a uma fase orgânica (n-octanol) para imitar a absorção in vivo. Formulações de liberação imediata contendo fármacos de baixa e de alta solubilidade (ibuprofeno e metronidazol, respectivamente) foram testadas no sistema bifásico para avaliar a dissolução no meio aquoso e a partição para a fase orgânica. Ademais, formulações com revestimento entérico foram testadas em tampão bicarbonato nos valores de molaridades fisiológicos para avaliar o impacto da espécie tamponante na dissolução do fármaco. Os parâmetros avaliados foram o sistema tampão (tampão bicarbonato vs. tampão fosfato), capacidade tamponante e pH médio. Em todas as abordagens, a dissolução também foi realizada em tampão farmacopeico para fins de comparação. Nossos resultados demonstraram que o método de dissolução farmacopeico não foi discriminativo, enquanto o meio com menor capacidade tamponante diferenciou entre as formulações obtidas via granulação úmida ou compressão direta. Ademais, a utilização da fase orgânica no teste de dissolução bifásica auxiliou no controle do pH do meio aquoso. Portanto, os métodos não compendiais aplicados foram mais discriminativos do que as condições de dissolução convencionais. Neste estudo, foi demonstrado como a dissolução bifásica e uma baixa capacidade tamponante podem ser usadas para avaliar as diferenças na performance de formulações. Esta pode ser uma abordagem valiosa durante os estágios iniciais do desenvolvimento de medicamentos para investigar a liberação destes sob condições fisiologicamente relevantes. Da mesma forma, todas as formulações com revestimento entérico exibiram uma liberação rápida em tampão de fosfato e atenderam às especificações farmacopeicas. Entretanto, a liberação do fármaco foi muito mais lenta em tampão de bicarbonato e consequentemente não cumpriram com as especificações farmacopeicas. Além disso, a natureza do fármaco (ácido vs. base) impactou o comportamento de dissolução no tampão de bicarbonato. Este estudo indica que o teste de dissolução convencional para comprimidos de liberação retardada não possui relevância fisiológica e precisa ser reavaliado. Portanto, os resultados desta tese demonstram de forma abrangente que diferenças significativas na performance condizentes com relatórios clínicos foram obtidas apenas quando as condições fisiológicas relevantes foram aplicadas. Esses resultados indicam que a hipótese central foi respondida positivamente

Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Pharmacologic Actions , Process Optimization , Dissolution , Drug Development/instrumentation , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/instrumentation , Drug Compounding , Efficiency , Drug Liberation , Health Services Needs and Demand/classification , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Metronidazole/adverse effects
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 166 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1416533


O organogel é formado por uma matriz tridimensional composta de filamentos que se auto-organizam em uma rede entrelaçada e que, por seu tipo de estrutura, pode ser utilizado com o objetivo de atuar como um implante que se forma in situ, sendo capaz de se comportar como uma forma farmacêutica de liberação prolongada. Esse trabalho tem, por tanto, o objetivo desse trabalho foi desenvolver, caracterizar, quantificar e traçar perfis de dissolução para formulações de organogel contendo meloxicam como principio ativo. O material está dividido em quatro capítulos, sendo apresentada inicialmente (I) revisão da literatura a respeito da lecitina de origem vegetal, com suas principais fontes de obtenção, como soja, girassol e colza, e também seu uso farmacêutico na obtenção de formulações como organogéis, microemulsões e lipossomas. Os demais capítulos abordam (II) desenvolvimento e otimização de uma formulação de organogel contendo lecitina de soja e Pluronic® F-127 como formadores da matriz tridimensional e meloxicam como principio ativo. (III) Desenvolvimento e validação de um método de quantificação do teor de meloxicam por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE). (IV) Desenvolvimento de um método de dissolução para formulações de organogel, que fosse capaz de ser utilizado na caracterização do perfil de dissolução de diferentes formulações. Com os resultados obtidos, foi possível desenvolver formulações de organogel contendo lecitina de soja, Pluronic® F-127 e meloxicam, assim como um método analítico validado para as analises de teor. Por fim, foram obtidos também os perfis de dissolução de duas formulações mais promissoras

Organogels are formed by a three-dimensional matrix composed of filaments that selforganize in an interlaced network and that, due to its type of structure, can be used with the objective of acting as an implant that forms in situ, being able to behave as an extendedrelease dosage form. This work has, therefore, the objective of this work was to develop, characterize, quantify and trace dissolution profiles for organogel formulations containing meloxicam as active ingredient. The material is divided into four chapters, initially presented (I) review of the literature on lecithin of plant origin, with its main sources of production, such as soybean, sunflower and rapeseed, and also its pharmaceutical use in obtaining formulations such as organogels , microemulsions and liposomes. The remaining chapters address (II) development and optimization of an organogel formulation containing soy lecithin and Pluronic® F-127 as three-dimensional matrix formers and meloxicam as an active ingredient. (III) Development and validation of a method for quantification of meloxicam content by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). (IV) Development of a dissolution method for organogel formulations, capable of being used to characterize the dissolution profile of different formulations. With the results obtained, it was possible to develop organogel formulations containing soy lecithin, Pluronic® F-127 and meloxicam, as well as a validated analytical method for content analysis. Finally, the dissolution profiles of two more promising formulations were also obtained

Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Veterinarians , Veterinary Drugs/analysis , Poloxamer/analysis , Dissolution , Lecithins/analysis , Meloxicam/antagonists & inhibitors , Pharmacists/classification , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/instrumentation , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Dosage Forms , Methods
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 107 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1416541


A conjuntivite bacteriana tem significante impacto na Saúde Pública. Essa infecção representa mais de um terço das doenças oculares relatadas em âmbito global. É uma doença altamente contagiosa causada por variedade de bactérias aeróbias e anaeróbias. Diferentes antibióticos empregados no tratamento dessa doença têm apresentado elevada incidência de resistência bacteriana. Dentre os antibióticos de última geração, destaca-se o besifloxacino, antibiótico de quarta geração da classe das fluoroquinolonas, indicado exclusivamente para uso oftálmico tópico. Entretanto, esse fármaco possui baixa solubilidade em água, diminuindo sua biodisponibilidade. Tendo em vista superar esse desafio, foi proposta abordagem nanotecnológica para o desenvolvimento de nanocristais desse fármaco. A preparação de nanocristais de besifloxacino empregando moagem via úmida em escala reduzida foi promissora empregando tensoativo Povacoat®. O Diâmetro hidrodinâmico médio (DHM) da partícula foi de aproximadamente 550 nm, com índice de polidispersão (IP) menor que 0,2. Esse resultado permitiu aumentar a solubilidade de saturação em aproximadamente duas vezes em relação a matéria-prima, possibilitando aumentar a velocidade de dissolução desse fármaco e melhorar sua biodisponibilidade e segurança. Além disso, foi validado o método para quantificação do besifloxacino por CLAE, apresentando especificidade, linearidade no intervalo de 20 a 80µg/mL (r= 0,9996), precisão por repetibilidade (DPR= 1,20%, 0,84% e 0,39%), precisão intermediária (DPR= 0,94%) e exatidão 99,03%. Estudo de estabilidade acelerado (90 dias) na condição 40°C±2°C/75%UR±5%UR e estudo de estabilidade de acompanhamento (150 dias) na condição: 25°C ± 2°C / 60% UR ± 5% UR evidenciaram a estabilidade do teor no período avaliado. Ainda, a nanossuspensão de besifloxacino 0,6% m/m (nanocristais) na dose máxima (500 mg/kg) e o estabilizante Povacoat® (750 mg/kg) não apresentaram toxicidade em larvas de G. mellonella. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) para a formulação inovadora foi de 0,0960 µg/mL e 1,60 µg/mL frente a Staphylococcus aureus e Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectivamente, confirmando eficácia in vitro

Bacterial conjunctivitis greatly impacts the population's health, presenting more than a third of eye diseases reported worldwide. It is an infection caused by various aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and is highly contagious. Therefore, it presents a high incidence of bacterial resistance to the antibiotics commonly used for treatment. Among the most recent antibiotics, besifloxacin is a fourth-generation fluoroquinolone antibiotic indicated exclusively for topical ophthalmic use. Due to its importance in treating bacterial conjunctivitis and its low solubility in the water, a nanotechnological approach was proposed to develop besifloxacin nanocrystals. The preparation of besifloxacin nanocrystals using small-scale wet milling was promising using Povacoat® surfactant. The particle's average hydrodynamic diameter (DHM) was approximately 550 nm, with a polydispersity index (IP) of less than 0.2. This result increased the saturation solubility approximately two times concerning the raw material, making it possible to increase the dissolution rate of this drug and improve its bioavailability and safety. In addition, the method for quantification of besifloxacin by HPLC was validated, presenting specificity, linearity in the range of 20 to 80µg/mL (r= 0.9996), precision by repeatability (DPR= 1.20%, 0.84% and 0.39%), intermediate precision (DPR= 0.94%) and accuracy 99.03%. Accelerated stability study (90 days) at 40°C±2°C/75%RH±5%RH condition and follow-up stability study (150 days) at 25°C ± 2°C / 60% RH ± condition 5% RH showed the stability of content in the evaluated period. Furthermore, the 0.6% besifloxacin nanosuspension (nanocrystals) at the maximum dose (500 mg/kg) and the Povacoat® stabilizer (750 mg/kg) did not show toxicity in G. mellonella larvae. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to innovative formulation was 0.0960 µg/mL and e 1.60 µg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively, confirming in vitro efficacy

Pharmaceutical Preparations , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Chemistry, Physical/instrumentation , Conjunctivitis, Bacterial/metabolism , Nanoparticles/analysis , Bacteria, Aerobic/classification , In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Fluoroquinolones , Dissolution , Eye Diseases/pathology , Infections/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/classification
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2021. 176 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396454


A baixa solubilidade aquosa dos insumos farmacêuticos ativos (IFA) é um grande desafio no desenvolvimento de formulações farmacêuticas, pois pode resultar em biodisponibilidade insuficiente e variável. Diversas estratégias de modificação do estado sólido dos compostos ativos, têm sido propostas para incrementar a solubilidade de fármacos pouco solúveis em água. Dentre as estratégias abordadas a ispersão sólida (DS) é uma das formas mais promissoras de aumentar a solubilidade, dissolução e a biodisponibilidade de IFAs com baixa solubilidade aquosa. O efavirenz (EFV) é um inibidor não nucleosídeo da transcriptase reversa (NNRTI) e um dos componentes da terapia antirretroviral de alta atividade (HAART), sendo parte da primeira linha de tratamento de infecções do vírus HIV tipo 1. O antirretroviral está classificado como pertencente à classe II do SCB, e exibe baixa solubilidade aquosa (solubilidade menor que 10 µg/mL) e alta permeabilidade com absorção dependente da taxa de dissolução, resultando em biodisponibilidade oral baixa e variável. A administração de fármacos pouco solúveis na forma de DS é um método atraente para aumentar a biodisponibilidade in vivo. Neste estudo, um método de triagem rápida por evaporação de solvente foi empregado para preparar DS de EFV, variando-se proporções em misturas compostas pelos carreadores, polivinilpirrolidona K-28/32 (PVP K-28/32), copovidona (CoPVP), hidroxipropilmetilcelulose ftalato (HPMCP-50, HPMCP-55 e HPMCP-55s), poloxâmero 188 (P188) e poloxâmero 407 (P407). A solubilidade das DS foi avaliada por meio do método do equilíbrio (shake-flask), onde selecionou-se os polímeros P188 e P407 que conduziram a uma elevada capacidade de saturação em meio aquoso, superior a 1.000 vezes ao fármaco puro. As propriedades físico-químicas e do estado sólido das amostras foram avaliadas por meio de calorimetria exploratória diferencial (DSC); termogravimetria (TG); espectroscopia do infravermelho com transformada de Fourier (FTIR), difratometria de raios X pelo método do pó (DRXP) e ensaios de dissolução com emprego do aparato IV USP. Os resultados de DRXP demonstraram que os carreadores P188 e P407 foram capazes de estabilizar o EFV na forma amorfa nas DS, fato esse evidenciado pela ausência de picos característicos do antirretroviral

he low aqueous solubility of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) is a major challenge in the development of pharmaceutical formulations as it may result in insufficient and variable bioavailability. Several strategies for modifying the solid-state of the active compounds have been proposed to increase solubility of drugs that are poorly soluble in water. Among the strategies approaches, solid dispersion (SD) is one of the most promising ways to increase solubility, dissolution and bioavailability of APIs with low aqueous solubility. Efavirenz (EFV) is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) and one of the components of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), being part of the first line of treatment of type 1 HIV virus infections. The antiretroviral is classified as belonging to BCS class II, and exhibits low aqueous solubility (solubility less than 10 µg / mL) and high permeability with dissolution ratedependent absorption, resulting in low and variable oral bioavailability. Drug delivery of poorly aqueous soluble drugs in form SD is an appealing method to increase in vivo bioavailability. In this study, a fast screening method of solvent evaporation method was used to prepare EFV SD, varying the proportions in mixtures composed by the carriers polyvinylpyrrolidone K-28/32 (PVP K-28/32), copovidone (CoPVP), hydroxypropylmethylcellulose phthalate (HPMCP-50, HPMCP-55 e HPMCP-55s), poloxamer 188 (P188) e poloxamer 407 (P407). The solubility of the samples was evaluated by the method of equilibrium (shake-flask), wherein the polymers P188 and P407 were selected due to the capacity to promote high saturation in aqueous medium, 1,000 times superior to the pure drug. The physicochemical and solid-state properties of the samples were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC); thermogravimetry (TG); Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and dissolution assays using the IV USP apparatus. The results of XRPD demonstrated that the carriers P188 and P407 were able to stabilize the EFV in amorphous form in the SD, a fact evidenced by the absence of characteristic peaks of the antiretroviral

Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Pharmaceutical Raw Material , Dissolution , Spectrum Analysis/instrumentation , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning/methods , RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase/adverse effects , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Poloxamer/analogs & derivatives , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/instrumentation , Hypromellose Derivatives/metabolism , Fourier Analysis
Con-ciencia (La Paz) ; 8(1): 33-52, 20200400. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIBOCS | ID: biblio-1178435


INTRODUCCIÓN: el metronidazol, antiparasitario y antimicrobiano, y la amoxicilina, aminopenicilina de amplio espectro, son medicamentos de amplio uso. OBJETIVOS: determinar la calidad farmacéutica de formulaciones de administración oral disponibles en el mercado hondureño, en la ciudad de Tegucigalpa. MÉTODOS: se analizaron productos de cinco marcas de comprimidos de metronidazol 500 mg y cápsulas de amoxicilina 500 mg, respectivamente, todas ellas dentro de su período de validez de uso. Se evaluaron las propiedades tecnológicas y químicas de las tabletas y cápsulas, tales como peso pro-medio, dureza, valoración, uniformidad de contenido, ensayo de disolución, perfil de disolución, área bajo la curva y eficiencia de la disolución. RESULTADOS: no todas las especialidades medicinales contenían la información sobre las condiciones de almacenamiento, respecto a la temperatura, luz y humedad, declarados en los rótulos y prospectos. De acuerdo a la evaluación tecnológica y química, todos los productos evaluados cumplieron con las especificaciones de la farmacopea. Sin embargo, existen diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los productos según las pruebas de disolución in vitro. La liberación del metronidazol se ajustó al modelo de Hixson Crowell, mientras que la de amoxicilina, en dos formulaciones se ajustó al modelo de Higuchi, y en el resto al modelo de Hixson-Crowell. CONCLUSIONES: se sugiere la necesidad de una mayor vigilancia a los medicamentos que se comercializan en el país con el fin de verificar el cumplimiento de los estándares de calidad.

INTRODUCTION: metronidazole, an antiparasitic and antimicrobial, and amoxicillin, a broad-spectrum aminopenicillin, are widely used drugs. Aims: to determine the pharmaceutical quality of oral administration formulations available in the Honduran market, in the city of Tegucigalpa. METHODS: products from five brand of metronidazole tablets (500 mg) and amoxicillin capsules (500 mg) were analyzed, respectively, all of them within their period of validity of use. For this, the technological, chemical and chemical properties of the tablets and capsules were evaluated, such as average weight, hardness, evaluation of active principle, uniformity of content, dissolution test, dis-solution profile, area under curve and dissolution efficiency. RESULTS: not all medicinal specialties contained information on storage conditions, regarding temperature, light and humidity, stated on the labels and leaflets. According to the technological and chemical evaluation, all the evaluated products satisfied the specifications of the pharmacopeia. However, there are statistically significant differences between the products according to in vitro dissolution tests. The release of metronidazole was adjusted to the Hixson-Crowell model, while that of amoxicillin, in two formulations was adjusted to the Higuchi model, and in the rest to the Hix-son-Crowell model. CONCLUSIONS: The need for greater surveillance of the drugs that are marketed in the country is suggested, in order to verify compliance with quality standards.

Total Quality Management , Amoxicillin , In Vitro Techniques , Dissolution
Dent. press endod ; 10(1): 27-31, Jan-Apr2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1344084


Avaliar, por microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV), o efeito do uso individual e combinado do etidronato 18% (HEBP) na remoção da smear layer do canal radicular. Métodos: Trinta dentes humanos unirradiculares foram utilizados. As raízes foram preparadas com instrumentos rotatórios do Sistema ProTaper Universal e divididas aleatoriamente em três grupos, de acordo com o protocolo de irrigação empregado: G1 = hipoclorito de sódio 2,5% (NaOCl) e ácido etilenodiaminotetracético 17% (EDTA); G2 = NaOCl 2,5% e HEBP 18%; e G3 = NaOCl 2,5% + HEBP 18%, misturados em partes iguais. As raízes foram seccionadas longitudinalmente e metalizadas, para análise em MEV. As fotomicrografias obtidas dos terços cervical, médio e apical foram avaliadas por três examinadores calibrados, que atribuíram escores de 1 a 5 às imagens. Os grupos experimentais foram comparados usando o teste de Kruskal-Wallis e o teste de Student-New- man-Keuls. Os terços radiculares foram comparados pelo teste de Friedman. O nível de significância foi estabelecido em 5%. Resultados: A capacidade de remoção da smear layer com NaOCl 2,5% e 18% HEBP (G2) foi semelhante à obtida com NaOCl 2,5% e EDTA 17% (G1) no terço médio e cervical da raiz; o nível de limpeza do terço apical foi semelhante, independentemente do protocolo de irrigação utilizado. Conclusão: HEBP é uma solução promissora para uso em tratamentos endodônticos (AU).

Introduction: We evaluated the effect of individual and combined use of 18% etidronate (HEBP) in root canal smear layer removal using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Methods: Thirty human single-rooted teeth were used. The roots were prepared with ProTaper Universal System rotary files and randomly divided into three groups according to the irrigation protocol used. G1: 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA); G2: 2.5% NaOCl and 18% HEBP; and G3: 2.5% NaOCl + HEBP 18%, mixed in equal parts. The roots were sectioned longitudinally and metallized for SEM analysis. The photomicrographs obtained from the cervical, middle, and apical thirds were evaluated by three calibrated examiners, who assigned scores from 1 to 5 to the images. The experimental groups were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Student-Newman-Keuls test. Root thirds were compared by the Friedman test. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results: The capacity for removal of the smear layer by 2.5% NaOCl and 18% HEBP (G2) was similar to that achieved with 2.5% NaOCl and 17% EDTA (G1) in the cervical and middle thirds of the root; the cleansing level of the apical third was similar, regardless of the irrigation protocol used. Conclusion: HEBP is a promising solution for use in endodontic treatments (AU).

Humans , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Etidronic Acid , Lifting , Dental Pulp Cavity , Solutions , Efficacy , Dissolution , Organic Matter
Con-ciencia (La Paz) ; 8(2): 75-87, 2020. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIBOCS | ID: biblio-1148001


INTRODUCCIÓN: los estudios de bioequivalencia demuestran la equivalencia en la calidad biofarmacéutica entre el producto farmacéutico multifuente y el medicamento de referencia, permitiendo el establecimiento de puentes entre las pruebas preclínicas y los ensayos clínicos asociados con el medicamento de referencia. La Metformina clorhidrato es el fármaco de primera elección para el tratamiento de la diabetes mellitus II y pertenece a la clase 3 del sistema de clasificación biofarmacéutica. OBJETIVO: establecer mediante pruebas de disolución in vitro, si 4 productos farmacéuticos multifuentes de liberación inmediata, de administración peroral, con Metformina clorhidrato, comercializados en Bolivia son bioequivalentes en relación con el producto de referencia, a través de un diseño experimental, con significancia estadística. MÉTODO: Se elaboraron perfiles de disolución de cada producto, tomando en cuenta las condiciones del método del ensayo de disolución establecido en la monografía Metformina, tabletas de la USP 39, considerando seis tiempos de muestreo. Se realizó el análisis cinético de los datos de porcentaje disuelto acumulado de los perfiles de disolución versus el tiempo. Se empleó el método de modelo independiente para comparar los perfiles de disolución de los productos a través del cálculo de los factores de diferencia (f1) y de similitud (f2) recomendados para estudios de bioexención por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. RESULTADOS: todos los productos tomados en cuenta en la investigación cumplieron satisfactoriamente los análisis de Control de Calidad. Los resultados del estudio de Bioequivalencia mostraron que existen diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los productos del estudio. CONCLUSIÓN: en este estudio no se demostró la Bioequivalencia in vitro de los productos B, C, D y E con relación al producto de referencia A, con base en pruebas de disolución in vitro.

INTRODUCTION: bioequivalence studies demonstrate the equivalence in biopharmaceutical quality between the multi-source pharmaceutical product and the reference medicine, allowing the establishment of bridges between preclinical tests and clinical trials associated with the reference medicine. Metformin hydrochloride is the drug of first choice for the diabetes mellitus II treatment and belongs to class 3 of the Biopharmaceutical Classification System. OBJECTIVE: establish by in vitro dissolution tests, whether 4 multisource pharmaceutical products of immediate release and peroral administration, with Metformin hydrochloride, marketed in Bolivia are bioequivalent in relation to the reference product, through an experimental design, with statistical significance. METHOD: dissolution profiles were prepared for each product, taking into account the conditions of the dissolution test method established in the Metformin, tablets monograph of USP 39, considering six sampling times. The kinetic analysis of the accumulated dissolved percentage data of the dissolution profiles versus time was performed. The independent model method was used to compare the dissolution profiles of the products by calculating the difference factor (f1) and similarity factor (f2) recommended for Biowaiver studies, by the World Health Organization. RESULTS: All the products taken into account in the investigation, satisfactorily fulfilled the Quality Control analysis. The results of the Bioequivalence study showed that there are statistically significant differences between the products of the study. CONCLUSION: In this study the in vitro bioequivalence of the products B, C, D and E in relation to the reference product A was not demonstrated, based on in vitro dissolution tests.

Biopharmaceutics , In Vitro Techniques , Metformin , Quality Control , Research Design , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Diabetes Mellitus , Dissolution , Methods
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18363, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132057


This paper reports on the development of nanoparticles aiming at the in vitro controlled release of simvastatin (SVT). The nanoparticles were prepared by the nanoprecipitation method with polymers Eudragit® FS30D (EDGFS) or Eudragit® NE30D (EDGNE). EDGFS+SVT nanoparticles showed mean size of 148.8 nm and entrapment efficiency of 76.4%, whereas EDGNE+SVT nanoparticles showed mean size of 105.0 nm and entrapment efficiency of 103.2%. Infrared absorption spectra demonstrated that SVT incorporated into the polymer matrix, especially EDGNE. Similarly, the differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) curve presented no endothermic peak of fusion, indicating that the system is amorphous and the drug is not in the crystalline state. The maintenance of SVT in the amorphous state may favors its solubilization in the target release sites. In the in vitro dissolution assay, the SVT incorporated into the EDGFS+SVT nanoparticles showed a rapid initial release, which may be related to the pH of the dissolution medium used. Regarding the EDGNE+SVT nanoparticles, the in vitro release occurred in a bimodal behavior, i.e., an initial "burst" followed by a sustained delivery, with the kinetics of drug release following Baker-Lonsdale's mathematical model. All these features suggest the nanoparticulate system's potential to modulate SVT delivery and enhance its bioavailability.

Simvastatin/pharmacology , Nanoparticles/analysis , Drug Liberation , In Vitro Techniques/classification , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Dissolution/adverse effects
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e17737, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132050


The aim of this work was to perform solubility studies for fexofenadine hydrochloride and establish dissolution conditions for this drug in oral suspension dosage form. The solubility study was executed through the shake-flask method, below 37 ºC±1 ºC, at 100 rpm stirring for 12 h in three buffer solutions: hydrochloric acid pH 2.0, acetate pH 4.5 and phosphate pH 6.8. The dissolution test was developed in vessels containing 900 mL of the same buffer, employing the paddle apparatus in speed of 25 and 50 rpm, below 37 ºC±0.5 ºC. The drug was classified as low solubility according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System, since the dose/solubility ratio was higher than 250 mL in all media tested (326.55 mL in buffer pH 2.0; 2,456.33 mL in buffer pH 4.5 and 1,021.16 mL in buffer pH 6.8). The dissolution test showed that a release of 85% in 30 min could be established. The rotation speed of 25 rpm, media volume of 900 mL and insertion of the samples through weighted syringes are adequate. The buffered media pH 2.0 could be chosen as dissolution media.

Solubility , Suspensions/pharmacology , Dissolution/methods , Biopharmaceutics , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Dosage Forms