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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e241162, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278483

ABSTRACT

Abstract Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum is transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies and a major zoonotic disease in Brazil. Due to the southward expansion of the disease within the country and the central role of dogs as urban reservoirs of the parasite, we have investigated the occurrence of CVL in two municipalities Erval Velho and Herval d'Oeste in the Midwest region of Santa Catarina state. Peripheral blood samples from 126 dogs were collected in both cities and tested for anti-L. infantum antibodies by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence reaction (IIF) and for the presence of parasite DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in peripheral blood. From examined dogs, 35.71% (45/126) were positive for at least one of the three tests and two (1.6%) were positive in all performed tests. Twelve dogs (9.5%) were positive for both ELISA and IIF, while 21 dogs were exclusively positive for ELISA (16.7%), and 15 (11.9%) for IIF. L. infantum k-DNA was detected by PCR in 9 out of 126 dogs (7.1%) and clinical symptoms compatible with CVL were observed for 6 dogs. Taken together, these results indicate the transmission of CVL in this region, highlighting the needs for epidemiological surveillance and implementation of control measures for CVL transmission in this region.


Resumo A Leishmaniose Visceral Canina (LVC) causada pela Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum e transmitida por flebotomíneos e é uma das principais zoonoses do Brasil que se encontra em expansão em estados da região sul do país, sendo os cães o principal reservatório urbano do parasito. O presente estudo investigou a ocorrência de LVC em dois municípios, Erval Velho e Herval d'Oeste localizados no meio-oeste de Santa Catarina. Para tanto, amostras de sangue periférico de 126 cães foram coletadas em ambas as cidades e submetidas à detecção de anticorpos anti-L. infantum por meio de testes de ELISA e imunofluorescência indireta (IFI), bem com a detecção de k-DNA pela reação em cadeia de polimerase (PCR). Além disso, também foram observados os sintomas clínicos e as condições ambientais associadas a esses animais. Dos cães examinados, 35,7% (45/126) foram positivos para pelo menos um dos três testes, dois cães (1,6%) foram positivos em todos os três testes, 12 cães (9,5%) foram positivos tanto no ELISA quanto na IFI, enquanto 21 cães (16,7%) foram positivos para ELISA e 15 (11,9%) para o IFI. A amplificação do k-DNA de L. infantum foi positiva em 9 dos 126 cães (7,1%). Entre os cães positivos seis apresentaram um ou mais sintomas clínicos correlacionados com a LVC. Esses resultados confirmaram a ocorrência de LVC na região e destacaram a importância do monitoramento e implementação de medidas de controle para a LVC nessa região


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Leishmania infantum , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cities
2.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 38(1): e00272020, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355989

ABSTRACT

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a public health problem in Brazilian municipalities. As much as there is a planning of public policies regards VL in São Paulo State, new cases have been reported and spread. This paper aims to discuss how the Center for Zoonoses Control conducts its actions spatially in endemic city of Presidente Prudente, São Paulo State. Data are from the Municipal Health Department of Presidente Prudente, Adolfo Lutz Institute, and Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. We spatially estimated the dog population per census tract and used geoprocessing tools to perform choropleth maps, spatial trends, and spatial autocorrelation. We found a spatial pattern of higher prevalence in the city's outskirt and a positive statistically significant spatial autocorrelation (I = 0.2, p-value < 0.000) with clusters of high-high relationships in the Northwest part of the city. Moreover, we identified a different direction in the path of the conducted serosurveys versus the canine VL trend, which stresses the fragility of the Center for Zoonoses Control actions to control the disease. The Center for Zoonoses Control always seems to chase the disease. The spatial analysis may be useful for rethinking how the service works and helps in public policies.


A leishmaniose visceral (LV) é um problema de saúde pública nas cidades brasileiras. Por mais que haja um planejamento de políticas públicas para LV no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, novos casos têm sido notificados e se disseminado. O artigo objetiva discutir como o Centro de Controle de Zoonoses realiza suas atividades espacialmente em uma cidade endêmica, Presidente Prudente, no Estado de São Paulo. Os dados são da Secretaria Municipal de Saúde de Presidente Prudente, Instituto Adolfo Lutz e Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. Estimamos espacialmente a população canina por setor censitário e utilizamos ferramentas de geoprocessamento para produzir mapas coropléticos, tendências espaciais e autocorrelação espacial. Encontramos um padrão espacial de maior prevalência na periferia da cidade e uma autocorrelação espacial positiva estatisticamente significativa (I = 0,2; p < 0,000) com clusters de relação alta-alta no noroeste da cidade. Além disso, identificamos uma direção diferente no caminho dos inquéritos sorológicos realizados versus a tendência na LV canina, o que enfatiza a fragilidade das medidas de controle do Centro de Controle de Zoonoses para controlar casos da doença. O Centro de Controle de Zoonoses parece estar sempre correndo atrás da doença. A análise espacial pode ser útil para repensar o funcionamento do serviço e auxiliar as políticas públicas.


La leishmaniasis visceral (LV) es un problema de salud pública en las ciudades brasileñas. Aunque hay políticas públicas de planificación relacionadas con la LV en el estado de São Paulo, Brasil, se han informado de nuevos casos, además de su propagación. El objetivo de este trabajo es discutir cómo el Centro de Control de Zoonosis dirige sus acciones espacialmente en una ciudad endémica del estado de São Paulo, Presidente Prudente. Los datos proceden de la Secretaría Municipal de Salud de Presidente Prudente, del Instituto Adolfo Lutz, y del Instituto Brasileño de Geografía y Estadística. Estimamos espacialmente la población de perros por sector censal y utilizamos herramientas de geoprocesamiento para elaborar mapas de coropletas, tendencias espaciales, y autocorrelación espacial. Encontramos un patrón espacial de más alta prevalencia en la periferia de la ciudad, además de una autocorrelación espacial positiva y estadísticamente significativa (I = 0,2; valor de p < 0,000) con clústeres de relaciones alto-alto en la parte noroccidental de la ciudad. Además, identificamos una dirección diferente en la trayectoria de las encuestas serológicas llevadas a cabo, frente a la tendencia de LV canina, que enfatiza la debilidad de acciones del Centro de Control de Zoonosis para controlar casos de la enfermedad. El Centro de Control de Zoonosis parece siempre estar tras la enfermedad. El análisis espacial podría ser útil para repensar cómo está funcionando el servicio, además de ayudar a políticas públicas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Dogs , Dog Diseases/prevention & control , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/prevention & control , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Zoonoses/prevention & control , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Spatial Analysis
3.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 28(4): 198-205, out./dez. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363471

ABSTRACT

Os cães idosos são acometidos com frequência por enfermidades no sistema cardiovascular e respiratório, estando muita das vezes assintomáticos até terem indicação para algum procedimento cirúrgico que requer a avaliação pré-operatória, momento este que muitos achados clínicos poderão ser detectados, ao ponto da necessidade de tratamento prévio à intervenção cirúrgica. Diante disso, o trabalho tem por objetivo detectar as principais manifestações cardiorrespiratórias e sua correlação aos dados encontrados nos exames complementares e informações epidemiológicas de 138 cães atendidos em um serviço especializado em cardiologia e doenças respiratórias, no período de 2017 a 2021, para fins de risco cirúrgico. Foi possível observar maior predominância de animais idosos, de pequeno porte e do sexo feminino. Dentre as doenças cardíacas, a doença degenerativa crônica de mitral foi a mais prevalente, seguida da dirofilariose. Em relação as afecções respiratórias, a bronquite crônica e o colapso de traqueia foram mais diagnosticadas, seguidas da broncopneumonia e da síndrome braquicefálica. Quando da observação do ritmo cardíaco por meio do eletrocardiograma, a arritmia sinusal, ritmo sinusal e sinus arrest foram os principais achados. Quanto aos achados laboratoriais, foi possível observar aumento da média de hematimetria, redução da média do hematócrito e das plaquetas. Entretanto, alguns animais apresentaram azotemia, leucocitose e eosinofilia. Observou-se que pacientes com doenças cardíacas em estágios de congestão possuem redução da pressão arterial, aumento da hematimetria e taquiarritmias, como taquicardia sinusal e/ou complexos atriais prematuros. Pacientes com idade mais avançada tendem a ter redução dos valores de leucometria global e maior probabilidade de manifestação de aumento da pressão arterial. Portadores de dirofilariose cursam com aumento de eosinófilos.


Elderly dogs are frequently affected by diseases in the cardiovascular and respiratory system, being often asymptomatic until they are indicated for a surgical procedure that requires preoperative evaluation, at which point many clinical findings can be detected, to the point of need for treatment prior to surgical intervention. Therefore, the work aims to detect the main cardiorespiratory manifestations and their correlation to data found in complementary exams and demographic information of 138 animals treated at a service specialized in cardiology and respiratory diseases, from 2017 to 2021, for risk purposes surgical. It was possible to observe a greater predominance of elderly, small and female animals. Among heart diseases, chronic degenerative mitral disease was the most prevalent, followed by heartworm disease. Regarding respiratory affections, chronic bronchitis and tracheal collapse were more commonly diagnosed, followed by bronchopneumonia and brachycephalic syndrome. When observing the cardiac rhythm through the electrocardiogram, sinus arrhythmia, sinus rhythm and sinus arrest were the main findings. As for laboratory findings, it was possible to observe an increase in mean hematimetry, a reduction in mean hematocrit and platelets. However, some animals showed azotemia, leukocytosis and eosinophilia. It was observed that patients with cardiac diseases in stages of congestion have reduced blood pressure, increased hematimetry and tachyarrhythmias, such as sinus tachycardia and/or premature atrial complexes. Older patients tend to have reduced global white blood cell values and more likely to manifest increased blood pressure. Heartworm patients have an increase in eosinophils.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Respiratory Tract Diseases/veterinary , Cardiovascular Diseases/veterinary , Dog Diseases , Heart Diseases/veterinary
4.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 28(3): 167-173, jul./set. 2021. il.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1366793

ABSTRACT

Hematological and serum biochemical characteristics and prevalence of microorganisms in the uterine content of bitches with pyometra were described, according to type and age. This study was carried out at the Veterinary Medicine Hospital Renato Rodenburg de Medeiros Netto of the UFBA with 132 patients diagnosed with pyometra through imaging and laboratory tests, divided into two groups: Group 1 - less than eight years (n=72) and Group 2 - more than eight years (n=60). Both groups were submitted to Ovariohysterectomy (OH), in which blood and uterine lumen secretion samples were collected. The highest incidence of pyometra was found in bitches under 8 years (54.5%), Poodle breed (31.8%) and mixed-breed (27.3%). Open pyometra represented 80.3% of all cases. The death rate (6.0%) did not show significant difference between the types. Anemia (73.0%), thrombocytopenia (41.2%) and leukocytosis (77.0%) were observed. Urea and ALP were above the reference values in 41.8% and 52.2% of each group, respectively, while ALT (94.0%) and creatine (82%) remained normal in most animals. Serum biochemistry did not show significant differences (P<0.05). Escherichia coli and Klebsiella sp. grew in 33.3% and 16.7% of the samples, respectively. Therefore, no significant hematological and serum biochemical differences were observed in bitches with pyometra in both age categories.


Descreveu-se características hematológicas, bioquímicas séricas e prevalência de microrganismos no conteúdo uterino de cadelas com piometra, de acordo com o tipo e idade. Realizou-se este estudo no Hospital de Medicina Veterinária Renato Rodenburg de Medeiros Netto da UFBA com 132 pacientes diagnosticadas com piometra, por exames de imagem e laboratoriais, divididas em dois grupos: Grupo 1 ­ menos de oito anos (n=72) e Grupo 2 ­ mais de oito anos (n=60), submetidas a Ovariectomia (OH), quando se coletou amostras de sangue e secreção do lúmen uterino. A incidência maior deu-se em cadelas abaixo de 8 anos (54,5%), da raça Poodle (31,8%) e sem raça definida (SRD) (27,3%), sendo 80,3% de piometra aberta. A taxa de óbito (6,0%) não apresentou diferença significativa entre os tipos. Observou-se a ocorrência de anemia (73,0%), trombocitopenia (41,2%) e leucocitose (77,0%). Os valores de ureia e FA estiveram acima dos valores de referência em 41,8% e 52,2% das cadelas respectivamente, enquanto a ALT (94,0%) e a creatina (82%) mantiveram-se dentro dos valores de referência na maioria dos animais. A bioquímica sérica não apresentou diferenças significativas (P<0,05). Observou-se crescimento de Escherichia coli e Klebsiella sp. em 33,3% e 16,7% das amostras, respectivamente. Sendo assim, não se observou diferenças significativas hematológicas e na bioquímica sérica de cadelas com piometra nas categorias de idade.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Dog Diseases , Pyometra/veterinary , Biochemistry , Age Factors , Endometrial Hyperplasia/veterinary , Hematologic Tests/veterinary
5.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(2): 166-172, June 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287267

ABSTRACT

Resumen La hidatidosis, causada por el parásito Echinococcus granulosus, es una zoonosis endémica en la provincia de Santa Cruz asociada a áreas de producción ganadera. El hombre puede permanecer asintomático durante un largo período luego de la infección. Una vez desarrollada, la enfermedad representa un importante problema de salud pública debido a la complejidad y el costo de su tratamiento. Los objetivos del trabajo fueron determinar la prevalencia de contaminación ambiental por E. granulosus en zona rural y periurbana de la localidad de Los Antiguos, mediante la detección de antígenos específicos en heces caninas, e identificar factores de riesgo de transmisión. Entre mayo-2016 y abril-2017, se visitaron 38 chacras periurbanas y estancias rurales, definidas como "unidades epidemiológicas". Se analizaron 144 muestras de heces de caninos con téc nica copro-ELISA. Se realizó una encuesta epidemiológica de los pobladores rurales sobre patrones culturales relacionados a la hidatidosis. Se encontró un índice de contaminación ambiental del 17.3% y el 44.7% de las unidades epidemiológicas fueron positivas. Se identificaron prácticas de riesgo como faena domiciliaria (34.2%), alimentación de caninos con vísceras crudas (52.6%), y ausencia de desparasitación de perros (86.8%). Alrededor de la mitad de la población encuestada desconocía las formas de contagio y las medidas de prevención de la enfermedad. Este trabajo muestra un índice alto de contaminación y establece una línea de base para realizar comparaciones a futuro. También refuerza la necesidad de implementar medidas de educación, prevención y control de hidatidosis a nivel local de acuerdo a los programas nacionales.


Abstract Hydatidosis − caused by the parasite Echinococcus granulosus − is a zoonosis endemic to the province of Santa Cruz, associated with areas of livestock production. Once infected, man may remain asymptomatic for a prolonged pe riod but the disease has an important impact on public health owing to the complexity and costs of its treatment. This study aimed at assessing the prevalence of environmental E. granulosus infection in rural and peri-urban areas of the town of Los Antiguos, through the detection of antigens in scattered canine feces, and to identify risk factors for transmission. From May-2016 to April-2017, 38 peri-urban and rural farms, defined as "epidemio logical units", were visited; 144 samples of canine feces were analyzed with the copro-ELISA technique. Rural settlers were enrolled in an epidemiological survey on cultural patterns related to hydatidosis. An environmental contamination index of 17.3% was found and 44.7% of the epidemiological units were positive. Risk practices were found, such as domiciliary slaughter (34.2%), canine feeding with raw viscera (52.6%), and lack of dog de worming (86.8%). In turn, about half of the surveyed population ignored the modes of transmission of the infection and the measures to prevent it. This work shows a high infection index in the area and establishes a baseline for future comparisons. It also reinforces the need to implement education, prevention, and control activities at the local level − according to national program guidelines − in order to reduce the prevalence of environmental contamination of the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Dogs , Echinococcus granulosus , Dog Diseases/prevention & control , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Echinococcosis/prevention & control , Echinococcosis/epidemiology , Rural Population , Feces
6.
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 20(1): e681, ene.-abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156364

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El estudio y tratamiento del dolor ha sido una de las preocupaciones más importantes en los últimos 30 años en el ámbito médico mundial. Desde hace varias décadas a nivel internacional se realizan estudios sobre el efecto del tramadol y la lidocaína como analgésicos intraoperatorio, con el fin de obtener una adecuada analgesia durante el procedimiento quirúrgico y el periodo posoperatorio inmediato. Objetivo: Comparar el efecto analgésico del tramadol y la lidocaína durante el período transoperatorio en caninos programados para intervención quirúrgica. Método: Se realizó un estudio prospectivo, comparativo, con animales programados para tratamiento quirúrgico por presentar tumores periféricos. Se incluyeron 10 animales divididos en 2 grupos. El grupo control (G-C) que recibió lidocaína sin preservo (lidocaína SP) en infusión continua durante el procedimiento quirúrgico y el grupo 1 (G-1) que se le administró tramadol endovenoso previo al acto quirúrgico. Se evaluaron variables hemodinámicas y de oxigenación como indicadores indirectos de dolor transoperatorio. Resultados: La muestra fue homogénea para la edad y el sexo. El comportamiento de las variables hemodinámicas resultó más estable durante la infusión de lidocaína. La saturación periférica de oxígeno fue similar con ambos medicamentos, así como la temperatura. Conclusiones: La infusión intravenosa de lidocaína SP durante el periodo transoperatorio en caninos oncológico demostró una mejor efectividad analgésica en comparación con el tramadol aplicado preoperatoriamente, según los parámetros evaluados(AU)


Introduction: Study and treatment of pain has been one of the most important concerns in the last thirty years in the worldwide medical field. For several decades, international studies have been carried out on the effect of tramadol and lidocaine as intraoperative analgesics, in order to achieve adequate analgesia during surgical procedures and the immediate postoperative period. Objective: To compare the analgesic effect of tramadol and lidocaine during the intraoperative period in canines scheduled for surgical intervention. Method: A prospective, comparative study was carried out with animals scheduled for surgical treatment due to peripheral tumors. Ten animals were included, divided into two groups: the control group, which received lidocaine without preservation in continuous infusion during the surgical procedure, and group 1, which was administered intravenous tramadol prior to the surgical act. Hemodynamic and oxygenation variables were assessed as indirect indicators of intraoperative pain. Results: The sample was homogeneous for age and sex. The behavior of the hemodynamic variables was more stable during the lidocaine infusion. Peripheral oxygen saturation was similar in both drugs, as well as temperature. Conclusions: Intravenous infusion of lidocaine without preservation during the intraoperative period in oncological canines showed better analgesic effectiveness compared to tramadol applied preoperatively, according to the parameters assessed(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Tramadol/therapeutic use , Anesthesia and Analgesia/methods , Lidocaine/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Dog Diseases/drug therapy
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921343

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aims to investigate the infection of @*Method@#Infection of the definitive human host and intermediate fish host by @*Results@#In 2016-2020, the average population infection rate of Hunan was 1.38%, while in Tongdao County the rate was up to 26.90%, and the highest fish infection rate was detected in Qiyang County (99.44% in the dorsal fin of @*Conclusion@#The systematically study of


Subject(s)
Animals , Cat Diseases/parasitology , Cats , China/epidemiology , Clonorchiasis/veterinary , Clonorchis sinensis/genetics , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Dogs , Fish Diseases/parasitology , Fishes , Humans , Incidence , Prevalence , Species Specificity
8.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(4): e015021, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1351876

ABSTRACT

Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis is a parasitic zoonosis that mainly affects poorest and most vulnerable populations, and domestic dogs are considered to be the main source of infection to the vector and therefore humans. However, several studies have investigated the role of other vertebrate hosts in the disease cycle. In this context, the aim of the present study was to conduct a survey of Leishmania infantum infection in donkeys and mules living in a semiarid region of Brazil. Whole blood sampled from 72 equids (65 donkeys and 7 mules) was used to perform molecular diagnosis using the real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) technique. A total of 25% of the samples (18/72) were positive through qPCR, but there were no significant differences between the species (donkeys or mules), sex (male or female) and abandonment situation of the animals (yes or no). Donkeys and mules living under semiarid conditions have high frequency of L. infantum infection. It is therefore worth assigning importance to these species in the epidemiological cycle of visceral leishmaniasis, either as potential reservoirs or just as an abundant food source for vectors.


Resumo A leishmaniose visceral é uma zoonose parasitária que afeta principalmente populações mais pobres e vulneráveis, e os cães domésticos são considerados as principais fontes de infecção para o vetor e, portanto, para os humanos. Porém diversos estudos têm pesquisado o papel de outros hospedeiros vertebrados no ciclo da doença. Neste contexto, objetivou-se realizar um levantamento da infecção por Leishmania infantum em asininos e muares, vivendo em região semiárida do Brasil. Foi utilizado sangue total de 72 equídeos (65 asininos e 7 muares) para a realização de diagnóstico molecular por meio da técnica de Reação em Cadeia de Polimerase em Tempo Real (qPCR). Um total de 25% das amostras (18/72) resultaram positivas na qPCR, porém não houve diferença significativa entre as espécies (asininos e muares), sexo (macho e fêmea) e situação de abandono dos animais (sim ou não). Asininos e muares, vivendo em condições semiáridas, apresentam alta frequência de infecção por L. infantum, sendo válido atribuir importância a essas espécies no ciclo epidemiológico da leishmaniose visceral, seja como um reservatório em potencial, seja apenas como uma fonte alimentar abundante para os vetores.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Dogs , Leishmaniasis/veterinary , Leishmania infantum/genetics , Dog Diseases , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Equidae
9.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(4): e011021, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1351874

ABSTRACT

Abstract Leishmaniases are zoonotic diseases caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. The disease has two clinical manifestations described in humans: visceral (VL) and cutaneous (CL) leishmaniasis. In Brazil, there has been an expansion of human VL. The participation of the dog as a reservoir of Leishmania infantum, the agent of VL, is important for the epidemiology of the disease since canine cases generally precede human cases. The present study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of Leishmania spp. infection in dogs in the municipality of Ji-Paraná by PCR assays using blood samples. Leishmania DNA was detected in two of the 105 studied dogs. The PCR products were sequenced and confirmed that the two samples (1.90%) correspond to L. infantum. The dogs had allochthonous history. Therefore, the positive results found here should serve as a warning to public health agencies. This is because Ji-Paraná is the third municipality to register cases of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in Rondônia state. Thus, reinforcing the importance of expanding studies on the epidemiology and surveillance of VL in the region.


Resumo As leishmanioses são doenças causadas por protozoários do gênero Leishmania. A doença apresenta duas manifestações clínicas: leishmaniose visceral (LV) e cutânea (LC). No Brasil, a LV está em expansão. A participação do cão como reservatório é importante para a epidemiologia da doença, pois os casos caninos geralmente precedem os humanos. O presente estudo avaliou a ocorrência de LV em cães (LVC) do município de Ji-Paraná por meio de ensaios de PCR, utilizando-se amostras de sangue. O DNA de Leishmania foi detectado em dois dos 105 cães estudados. Os produtos da PCR foram sequenciados e confirmaram que duas amostras (1,90%) eram Leishmania infantum. Os cães tinham histórico alóctone. Os resultados positivos encontrados servem de alerta aos órgãos públicos de saúde. Isso porque Ji-Paraná é o terceiro município a registrar casos de LVC no estado de Rondônia. Dessa forma, reforça-se a importância da ampliação dos estudos sobre a epidemiologia e vigilância da LV na região.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Leishmaniasis/veterinary , Leishmania infantum , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary
10.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(4): e007021, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1347270

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study attempted to evaluate the practical experience and methods employed by Brazilian veterinary practitioners for control of parasites. Twenty-one questions were asked of 403 veterinary practitioners based in different climatic zones with reference to parasite epidemiology from the country. Administration of a combination of drugs at three-month intervals was the most common regime recommended for prophylaxis against gastrointestinal helminths, with a single treatment repeated after 15 days. Routine prophylaxis against dog ectoparasites was recommended by 82.4% veterinary practitioners, and 46.6% changed the drug compound used. Monthly prophylaxic treatments for ectoparasites, using systemic, topical and/or collar-impregnated drugs, was recommended by 21.5% veterinary practitioners. Side-effects of ectoparasiticide-impregnated collars were suspected by 58% of the veterinary practitioners. Isoxazolines were the most frequently used chemical group to treat ectoparasites in dogs. Poor efficacy of fipronil in controlling ticks was suspected by 79.5% of the veterinary practitioners. The isoxazolines and combination of anthelmintic compounds are the most common drugs to prevent or treat ectoparasites and gastrointestinal nematodes, respectively. The suspect of the inefficacy of antiparasitic drugs is shared among the veterinary practitioners from part of Brazil. Guidelines are needed, specifically for the control of gastrointestinal helminths and ectoparasites in Brazilian dogs.


Resumo O presente estudo avaliou os métodos de controle empregados por médicos veterinários clínicos para o controle de parasitos de cães no Brasil. Vinte e uma perguntas foram feitas a 403 veterinários de diferentes regiões do país. O uso de associações de compostos ativos em intervalos de três meses foi o mais recomendado para profilaxia de helmintos gastrointestinais, repetido após 15 dias. A profilaxia de rotina contra ectoparasitos foi recomendada por 82,4% dos veterinários, e 46,6% mudam rotineiramente o composto indicado. Tratamentos profiláticos mensais para ectoparasitos, com produtos sistêmicos, tópicos e / ou impregnados com colar, foram recomendados por 21,5% dos veterinários. Os efeitos colaterais das coleiras impregnadas com ectoparasiticidas foram relatados por 58% dos médicos veterinários. As isoxazolinas foram o grupo químico mais utilizado para tratar ectoparasitos em cães. A baixa eficácia do fipronil no controle de carrapatos foi suspeitada por 79,5% dos médicos veterinários. As isoxazolinas e a associação de compostos anti-helmínticos são os medicamentos mais comuns para prevenir ou tratar ectoparasitos e nematoides gastrointestinais, respectivamente. A suspeita da ineficácia dos antiparasitários é compartilhada entre os médicos veterinários de algumas regiões do Brasil. Orientações são necessárias, especificamente para o controle de helmintos e ectoparasitos gastrointestinais em cães no Brasil.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Parasites , Ticks , Dog Diseases/prevention & control , Dog Diseases/drug therapy , Insecticides , Nematoda
11.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(3): e007121, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1341188

ABSTRACT

Abstract American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a neglected zoonotic disease caused mainly by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, which is endemic throughout Brazil. Canine ACL cases were investigated in a rural area of Monte Mor, São Paulo, where a human ACL case had been confirmed. Dogs were evaluated through clinical and laboratory diagnosis including serology, cytological tissue preparations and PCR on skin lesions, lymph node and bone marrow samples. Entomological investigations on sandflies trapped in the surroundings of the study area were performed for 14 months. Nyssomyia neivai was the predominant phlebotomine species, comprising 94.65% of the captured specimens (832 out of 879). This species was the most abundant in all trapping sites, including human homes and dog shelters. Ny. whitmani, Migonemyia migonei, Pintomyia monticola, Evandromyia cortellezzii, Pi. fischeri and Expapilata firmatoi were also captured. Two of the three dogs examined were positive for anti-Leishmania IgG in ELISA using the antigen Fucose mannose ligand and skin samples were positive for L. (V.) braziliensis in PCR, but all the samples collected were negative for L. (L.) infantum. One of the dogs had a confirmed persistent infection for more than one year.


Resumo A leishmaniose tegumentar Americana (LTA) é uma doença zoonótica negligenciada, causada principalmente por Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, sendo endêmica em todo o Brasil. Foram investigados casos de LTA canina em uma área rural da cidade de Monte Mor, São Paulo, onde foi confirmado um caso humano de LTA. Os cães foram avaliados por diagnóstico clínico e laboratorial, incluindo sorologia, esfregaços microscópicos e PCR de amostras em lesões de pele, linfonodos e medula óssea. Também foram realizadas investigações entomológicas durante 14 meses, usando-se armadilhas luminosas para flebotomíneos nas proximidades da área de estudo. Nyssomyia neivai foi a espécie de flebotomíneo predominante com 94,65% dos espécimes capturados (832 de 879). Essa espécie foi a mais abundante em todos os locais de captura, incluindo-se abrigos para humanos e cães. Foram também capturadas as espécies Ny. whitmani, Migonemyia migonei, Pintomyia monticola, Evandromyia cortellezzii, Pi. fischeri e Expapilata firmatoi. Dos três cães examinados, dois apresentaram IgG anti-Leishmania positivo no ELISA, usando-se o antígeno "Fucose mannose ligand", PCR da lesão de pele positivo para L. (V.) braziliensis e negativo em todas amostras para L. (L.) infantum. Um dos cães apresentou infecção persistente por mais de um ano.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Leishmania braziliensis , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/veterinary , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Psychodidae , Brazil , Insect Vectors
12.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(3): e009921, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1341186

ABSTRACT

Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected and endemic zoonosis that occurs throughout Brazil; nevertheless, few studies have focused on the early detection of the disease. The municipality of Ourinhos is a non-receptive, silent and vulnerable area for VL, where the seroprevalence of this disease has so far not been investigated. The present study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of canine VL in Ourinhos-SP, and to identify the presence of risk factors. Blood samples were obtained from 604 dogs during a rabies vaccination campaign together with application of a socioeconomic questionnaire, environmental and animal characteristics and tutor's knowledge about the disease. The samples were subjected to indirect ELISA and new samples were collected from reactive and suspect animals, including whole blood and lymph node aspiration evaluated by parasitological method, complete blood count and PCR. No animal was diagnosed as positive based on the combination of direct and indirect tests and the tutors' answers indicated little knowledge about leishmaniasis, being often confused with other diseases transmitted by arthropods; hence, according to the proposed methods, the presence of canine leishmaniasis in the city of Ourinhos was not confirmed and health education campaigns about the disease should be carried out.


Resumo A leishmaniose visceral (LV) é uma zoonose negligenciada e endêmica presente em todas as regiões do Brasil, mas mesmo assim poucos estudos têm objetivado a detecção inicial da doença. O município de Ourinhos - SP é uma área não receptiva, silenciosa e vulnerável à LV, não havendo até o momento estudos que tenham investigado a soroprevalência no município. Nesse sentido, o presente estudo objetivou determinar a soroprevalência da LV canina em Ourinhos-SP, bem como associar a presença de fatores de risco. Amostras sanguíneas de 604 cães foram obtidas juntamente com a aplicação de questionário socioeconômico, características ambientais e dos animais e conhecimento sobre a doença. As amostras foram submetidas à sorologia por ELISA e novas amostras coletadas de cães reagentes ou suspeitos foram analisadas por método parasitológico direto, hemograma e PCR. Nenhum animal foi considerado positivo na combinação de testes direto e indireto, e as respostas dos tutores indicaram pouco conhecimento sobre a leishmaniose, sendo muitas vezes confundida com outras doenças transmitidas por artrópodes. Dessa forma, de acordo com os métodos propostos, a presença de leishmaniose canina, na cidade de Ourinhos, não foi confirmada. Por isso campanhas de educação em saúde sobre a doença deveriam ser realizadas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Leishmaniasis/veterinary , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies
13.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(3): e008821, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1341183

ABSTRACT

Abstract This cross-sectional study investigates Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum among 445 recently spontaneously aborted (RSA) Jordanian women using ELISA and indirect fluorescent antibody (at a cut-off value of 1/200) tests, respectively. The type of hospital, age, cat and dog contacts, raw and barbecued meat and wild plant consumption, number of abortions, and stillbirths were tested as independent variables using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. The true seroprevalences were 22.1% for T. gondii-IgG, 22.7% for N. caninum-IgG, 2.6% for T. gondii-IgM, 10.6% for N. caninum-IgM, 0% for T. gondii-IgG and IgM, 6.7% for N. caninum-IgG and IgM, and 4.6% and 0% for both parasite IgG and IgM, respectively. T. gondii-IgM-seropositivity was associated with the number of abortions with odds ratios (OR) of 2.4 and eating barbecued meat (OR = 0.12). N. caninum-IgG-seropositivity was associated with having a dog in the house (OR = 2.6), and with stillbirth (OR = 0.1). N. caninum-IgM was associated with visiting a private-hospital (OR = 2.7). RSA Jordanian women are equally exposed to both parasites with significantly (p < 0.05) higher seroprevalence of N. caninum-IgM compared to T. gondii-IgM suggestive of active infections among RSA women in Jordan.


Resumo Este é um estudo transversal, investigando Toxoplasma gondii e Neospora caninum entre 445 mulheres jordanianas recentemente abortadas espontaneamente (RSA), usando-se ELISA e testes de anticorpos fluorescentes indiretos (com valor de corte de 1/200), respectivamente. Tipo de hospital, idade, contato com o cão, consumo de carne, número de abortos foram testados como variáveis independentes, usando-se análises de regressão logística univariada e multivariada. As verdadeiras seroprevalências foram 22,1% para T. gondii-IgG; 22,7% para N. caninum-IgG; 2,6% para T. gondii-IgM; 10,6% para N. caninum-IgM, 0% para T. gondii-IgG e IgM, 6,7% para N. caninum-IgG e IgM, e 4,6% e 0% para ambos os parasitas IgG e IgM, respectivamente. A soropositividade para T. gondii-IgM foi associada ao número de abortos com "odds ratio" (OR) de 2,4 e ingestão de carne grelhada (OR = 0,12). A soropositividade para N. caninum-IgG foi associada à presença de cachorro em casa (OR = 2,6) e natimorto (OR = 0,1). N. caninum-IgM foi associada à visita a um hospital privado (OR = 2,7). Mulheres jordanianas com RSA estão igualmente expostas a ambos os parasitas com soroprevalência significativamente (p <0,05) maior de N. caninum-IgM, em comparação com T. gondii-IgM, sugestivo de infecções ativas entre mulheres com RSA na Jordânia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Cats , Dogs , Toxoplasma , Cat Diseases , Toxoplasmosis, Animal , Neospora , Dog Diseases , Antibodies, Protozoan , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Abortion, Veterinary/epidemiology
14.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(3): e009121, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1288705

ABSTRACT

Abstract The dog is the main domestic reservoir of Leishmania and font of infection for the vector, constituting an important host for the transmission of the parasite to humans. Non-invasive collection of swab samples for leishmaniasis diagnosis has been a promising alternative. This study analyzed the positivity of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis in conjunctiva samples. DNA extraction was performed using SDS 20% and PCR was performed using 13A/13B primers that amplify 120-bp of Leishmania kDNA. Of the 77 dogs analyzed, 50 (64.93%) had ocular changes: 25 (32.47%) dogs had periocular lesion, 41 (53.25%) dogs had purulent eye discharge, and 17 (22.08%) dogs had both signals. PCR was positive in 35 dogs (45.45%), and there was no significant difference between dogs with and without ocular signals (p=0.4074). PCR positivity was significant higher in dogs without periocular injury (p=0.0018). Conjunctive PCR, a less invasive, fast, and painless collection technique, is indicated to complement the diagnosis, especially in dogs without periocular injury, independent of the presence of purulent eye discharge.


Resumo O cão é o principal reservatório doméstico de Leishmania e também fonte de infecção para o vetor, constituindo um importante hospedeiro para a transmissão do parasita ao homem. A coleta não invasiva de amostras em swab para diagnóstico das leishmanioses tem sido uma alternativa promissora. Este estudo analisou a positividade da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) para o diagnóstico de leishmaniose canina em amostras de conjuntiva. A extração do DNA foi realizada com SDS 20%. A PCR foi realizada com primers 13A/13B que amplificam 120-pb do kDNA de Leishmania. Dos 77 cães analisados, 50 (64,93%) tiveram alterações oculares; 25 (32,47%) cães tiveram uma lesão periocular; 41 (53,25%) tiveram secreção ocular purulenta e 17 (22,08%) cães tiveram ambos os sinais. A PCR foi positiva em 35 cães (45,45%) e não houve diferença significativa em cães com e sem sinais oculares (p = 0,4074). A positividade da PCR foi significativamente maior em cães sem lesão periocular (p = 0,0018). PCR em conjuntiva, uma técnica de coleta menos invasiva, rápida e indolor, é indicada para complementar o diagnóstico, principalmente em cães sem lesão periocular, independentemente da presença de secreção ocular purulenta.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Leishmania infantum/genetics , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Leishmania/genetics , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , DNA , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , DNA, Protozoan/genetics , Conjunctiva
15.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(3): e004821, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1288702

ABSTRACT

Abstract Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a zoonotic disease of high lethality caused by Leishmania infantum in the Americas. In the infected dog, the amastigotes are scarce in blood, especially in the late phase of the disease. This study aimed to report a rare case of L. infantum amastigotes found in neutrophils from peripheral blood of a naturally infected dog in terminal phase of CVL, also describing its clinical status before and after treatment with miltefosine 2%. The dog, which presented as polysymptomatic and with classical signs and symptoms of CVL was submitted to the following tests: Dual Path Platform (DPP) rapid test, ELISA and parasitological examination of peripheral blood. Hematological and biochemical parameters were obtained before and after treatment. All diagnostic tests were positive for CVL. The identification of L. infantum amastigotes inside neutrophils from peripheral blood was confirmed through microscopy, and the species was confirmed by molecular analysis. At the end of the treatment, peripheral parasitemia was not detected, and improvements were observed in clinical and laboratorial parameters. Finally, this atypical finding can be used as example to raise discussions about the real immunological role of neutrophils in late phases of CVL and its clinical/therapeutic implications.


Resumo A leishmaniose visceral canina (LVC) é uma doença zoonótica de alta letalidade causada por Leishmania infantum nas Américas. No cão infectado, as formas amastigotas são escassas no sangue, principalmente na fase tardia da doença. Este estudo teve como objetivo relatar um caso raro de amastigotas de L. infantum encontradas em neutrófilos do sangue periférico de um cão naturalmente infectado e terminal da LVC, descrevendo também seu estado clínico antes e após o tratamento com miltefosina a 2%. O cão, que se apresentou como polissintomático e com sinais e sintomas clássicos da LVC foi submetido aos seguintes testes: teste rápido Dual Path Platform (DPP), ELISA e exame parasitológico de sangue periférico. Os parâmetros hematológicos e bioquímicos foram obtidos antes e após o tratamento. Todos os testes diagnósticos foram positivos para LVC. A identificação de formas amastigotas de L. infantum, dentro de neutrófilos do sangue periférico foi confirmada por microscopia, e a espécie foi confirmada por análise molecular. Ao final do tratamento, não foi detectada parasitemia periférica, observando-se melhora dos parâmetros clínicos e laboratoriais. Por fim, esse achado atípico pode ser usado como exemplo para levantar discussões sobre o real papel imunológico dos neutrófilos nas fases tardias da LVC e suas implicações clínicas/terapêuticas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Leishmania infantum , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Neutrophils
16.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(3): e005721, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1288700

ABSTRACT

Abstract Two lineages of Rhipicephalus sanguineus are known in Brazil: the temperate or southern and the tropical or northern populations. The distribution patterns of both lineages of R. sanguineus have epidemiological implications that can affect vectorial competence concerning Ehrlichia canis, the agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. Intending to identify the microbiomes of both lineages and compare microorganisms in R. sanguineus, we used the 16S rRNA (V4-V5 region) gene-based metataxonomic approach, through NGS sequencing on the MiSeq Illumina platform. We selected specimens of females from the environment and samples of primary embryonic cell cultures, from both lineages, and this was the first study to investigate the prokaryotic microbiome in tick cell cultures. The results showed that many bacterial taxa detected in the samples were typical members of the host environment. A significant diversity of microorganisms in R. sanguineus females and in embryonic cell cultures from both lineages was found, with emphasis on the presence of Coxiella in all samples, albeit in different proportions. The Coxiella species present in the two lineages of ticks may be different and may have co-evolved with them, thus driving different patterns of interactions between ticks and the pathogens that they can harbor or transmit to vertebrate hosts.


Resumo Duas linhagens de Rhipicephalus sanguineus são conhecidas no Brasil: populações da linhagem temperada ou do sul, e tropical ou do norte. Os padrões de distribuição de ambas as linhagens de R. sanguineus têm implicações epidemiológicas, podendo afetar a competência vetorial de Ehrlichia canis, o agente etiológico da erliquiose monocítica canina. Com a intenção de identificar os microbiomas de ambas as linhagens e comparar microrganismos de R. sanguineus, foi utilizada a metataxonomia, baseada no gene 16S rRNA (região V4-V5), por meio do sequenciamento de nova geração na plataforma MiSeq Illumina. Foram selecionadas amostras de fêmeas do ambiente e cultivo primário de células embrionárias, considerando-se as duas linhagens conhecidas do Brasil. Este é o primeiro estudo que investiga o microbioma procariótico de células de cultura de carrapato. Os resultados mostram que muitos grupos de bactérias detectadas nas amostras são membros típicos do ambiente do hospedeiro. Uma diversidade significativa de microrganismos em fêmeas e cultura de células embrionárias nas duas linhagens de R. sanguineus foi encontrada, com ênfase na presença de Coxiella em todas as amostras, ainda que em diferentes proporções. Possivelmente, as espécies de Coxiella presentes nas duas linhagens de carrapatos são diferentes e co-evoluíram com essas linhagens, conduzindo a diferentes padrões de interação entre carrapatos e patógenos que podem abrigar ou transmitir aos hospedeiros vertebrados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Dogs , Rhipicephalus sanguineus , Dog Diseases , Microbiota , Brazil , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Cell Culture Techniques/veterinary
17.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(3): e006621, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1288698

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the level of exposure to Leishmania infection in stray dogs in an area of intense visceral leishmaniasis transmission in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Blood samples from 178 dogs were analyzed using serological and molecular assays: rapid immunochromatographic test (ICT), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT), and conventional and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (cPCR and qPCR). Positivity values obtained with serological tests were 71.4% (127/178), 70.2% (125/178), and 50.6% (90/178) using ICT, ELISA, and IFAT, respectively, with 38.8% (69/178) of the dogs were simultaneously positive for all three tests. The positivity values obtained with cPCR and qPCR were 20.2% (36/178) and 38.8% (69/178), respectively, with 11.8% (21/178) testing positive in both molecular assays. Overall, 87.1% (155/178) were positive for anti-Leishmania spp. antibodies and/or Leishmania spp. DNA. Positivity to one or more tests was statistically associated with lymphadenomegaly, skin lesions, lymphocytosis, anemia and hyperproteinemia. The results of this study revealed a high level of exposure to Leishmania in stray dogs in an area of intense human visceral leishmaniasis transmission, suggesting that dogs play a role as reservoirs in the transmission cycle of this zoonosis.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar o nível de exposição à infecção por Leishmania em cães errantes de uma área de transmissão intensa de leishmaniose visceral no estado de Pernambuco. Amostras de sangue de 178 cães foram avaliadas por testes sorológicos e moleculares: teste imunocromatográfico (IC), ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA), teste de imunofluorescência de anticorpos (RIFI), reação em cadeia da polimerase convencional e quantitativa (cPCR e qPCR). Os valores de positividade obtidos com os testes sorológicos foram 71,4% (127/178), 70,2% (125/178) e 50,6% (90/178) com IC, ELISA e RIFI, respectivamente. E com 38,8% (69/178) dos cães mostraram-se simultaneamente positivos aos três testes. Os valores de positividade obtidos por cPCR e qPCR foram 20,2% (36/178) e 38,8% (69/178), respectivamente. E com 11,8% (21/178) dos cães foram positivos em ambos os testes moleculares. No geral, 87,1% (155/178) foram positivos para anticorpos anti-Leishmania spp. e/ou material genético de Leishmania spp. A positividade a um ou mais testes foi estatisticamente associada à linfonodomegalia, lesões cutâneas, linfocitose, anemia e hiperproteinemia. Os resultados do estudo revelam um alto nível de exposição à Leishmania spp. em cães errantes em uma área de transmissão intensa de leishmaniose visceral humana, sugerindo que eles podem desempenhar um papel como reservatórios no ciclo de transmissão dessa zoonose.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Dogs , Leishmaniasis/veterinary , Leishmania infantum/genetics , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Leishmania/genetics , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Brazil/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology
18.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(2): e026720, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1288695

ABSTRACT

Abstract Dogs are the main urban reservoir of Leishmania infantum, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), which is transmitted by sand flies. In the state of Paraná, the first detection of a positive dog for VL was in 2014, this year Paraná lost free status for this disease (VL). The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Palotina, the occurrence of vectors that may transmit Leishmania infantum, and the number of notifications of human visceral leishmaniasis cases from period 2010 to 2020. To determine the occurrence of canine visceral leishmaniasis, blood samples from 204 dogs were analyzed using the rapid test DPP® to detect anti-L. infantum antibodies. To investigate the occurrence of potential vectors, monthly collections were made at 18 points within the urban area of the municipality. The number of human visceral leishmaniasis cases was investigated from Epidemiological Surveillance records. None of the serologically tested dogs showed positive titration. Only two specimens of Lutzomyia neivai, one of Lutzomyia sp. and four of Brumptomyia brumpti specimens were collected. No human visceral leishmaniasis cases were reported. These results suggest that there is no evidence of circulation of L. infantum in Palotina.


Resumo Os cães são os principais reservatórios urbanos da Leishmania infantum, agente causador da leishmaniose visceral (VL), transmitida por vetores conhecidos como flebotomíneos. No Paraná, a primeira detecção de casos positivos caninos ocorreu em 2014, ano em que o Paraná perdeu o status de estado indene. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a prevalência da leishmaniose visceral canina no município de Palotina, a ocorrência de vetores que possam transmitir Leishmania infantum e o número de notificação de casos de leishmaniose visceral humana, no período de 2010 a 2020. Para determinar a ocorrência da leishmaniose visceral canina, amostras de sangue de 204 cães foram analisadas, utilizando-se o teste rápido (DPP®) para detectar anticorpos anti-L. infantum. Com o objetivo de investigar a ocorrência de potenciais vetores, coletas foram realizadas mensalmente em 18 pontos na área urbana do município. O número de casos de leishmaniose visceral humana foi investigado a partir de registros da Vigilância Epidemiológica. Nenhum cão testado foi positivo no teste sorológico. Apenas dois espécimes de Lutzomyia neivai, uma de Lutzomyia sp. e quatro de Brumptomyia brumpti foram coletados. Nenhum caso de leishmaniose visceral humana foi notificado. Esses resultados sugerem que não há evidência da circulação de L. infantum em Palotina.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Leishmania infantum , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cities , One Health , Insect Vectors
19.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 49: Pub. 1816, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363860

ABSTRACT

Blood transfusion is a tool capable of saving lives. Patients undergoing blood transfusion usually present several alterations in the acid-base and electrolyte balance, aggravating the condition of critically ill patients. Some studies have demonstrated haematological alterations in certain species that received whole blood transfusions, however, few studies have evaluated acid base and electrolyte changes in dogs undergoing whole blood haemotherapy. The aim of this study was to analyze clinical, hematological, blood gas and electrolyte changes in anemic dogs after whole blood transfusion. Twenty nine dogs transfused due to anemia were enrolled in the study. Donors blood was collected in a transfusion bag containing citrate phosphate adenine dextrose and stored up to 24 h. Blood collections and evaluations were made before and 24 h after the transfusion. Data distribution normality was tested by the Shapiro Wilk Test. The means of the variables were compared by paired t-test. It was observed an increase in diastolic blood pressure and a reduction in heart rate (P < 0.05). There was a not significant increase in systolic blood pressure, temperature, and a reduction in respiratory rate per minute. Erythrocyte, haemoglobin and haematocrit averages were significantly increased after blood transfusion (P < 0.05). It was observed a reduction in the mean values of pH (P < 0.05), potassium (P > 0.05) and ionized calcium (P > 0.05) and an increase in the mean partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2 ) (P < 0.001), bicarbonate (P > 0.05) and sodium (P < 0.05). The probable cause of anemia was monocytic ehrlichiosis (14/29), visceral leishmaniasis (1/29), babesiosis (1/29), co-infection of Ehrlichia canis and Leishmania infantum (2/29), co-infection of E. canis and Babesia vogeli (1/29). It was not possible to determine the etiology of the anemia in ten dogs. Heart rate significantly reduced after transfusion, probably because of the increase in hematocrit, hemoglobin and erythrocyte values. It may be justified by the displacement of extravascular fluid to the intravascular space. Mean values of systolic blood pressure were slightly elevated before transfusion and remained elevated afterwards, while diastolic and mean arterial pressure increased significantly after transfusion. These changes may be due to the morbid condition and may be influenced by many other factors. Haematocrit, haemoglobin and erythrocyte values increased significantly after transfusion, according to what was observed in other studies. The significant reduction in pH and increase in pCO2 reflects the compensatory mechanism for metabolic acidosis to increase ventilation, leading to pCO2 reduction and changes in pH. The reduction in pH due to the contact of the collected blood with conservative solutions is one of the main changes thar occurs during blood storage. It was described significantly lower pH in dogs' whole blood samples stored for more than 24 h in vacutainer plastic containing CPDA-1. We may assume there was no intense pH reduction in the present study because the bags were stored for up to 24 h. Although not statistically significant, the increase of pO2 mean reflects the improvement of tissue oxygen perfusion. It was observed a significant increase in sodium ions. The mean sodium ion concentration before transfusion was very close to the maximum reference value. Hyperkalaemia was not observed, nor was there significant reduction of potassium ions after transfusion. Several studies report hyperkalaemia and transfusion-associated cardiac arrests in humans, associated with infusion of large volumes of blood. Whole blood transfusion increased erythrogram values and did not negatively affect the electrolyte or acid-base status, representing a safe and useful tool in the intensive care of small animals.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Water-Electrolyte Balance , Blood Transfusion/veterinary , Dog Diseases/blood , Transfusion Reaction/veterinary , Anemia/veterinary , Blood Gas Analysis/veterinary , Dogs
20.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 49: Pub. 1817, 2021. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363858

ABSTRACT

Canine Leishmaniasis (CanL) is a multisystemic and chronic inflammatory disease characterized by nonspecific clinical manifestations. In CanL, inflammatory cells and chemical mediators released in response to the parasite play a role in disease development and progression. Alterations on hematological parameters have been documented in CanL. These changes can also be assessed in relation to systemic inflammation caused by this disease. The circulating leukocyte counting, such as neutrophils, as well as the albumin level, are considered direct indicators of an inflammatory host environment. Several studies point to the use of biomarkers on the assistance in diagnosis and prognosis of several canine pathologies. The present study investigated the Neutrophils to Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR), Albumin to Globulin Ratio (AGR), and Neutrophils to Albumin Ratio (NAR) on systemic inflammatory response induced by Canine Leishmaniasis (CanL). For this purpose, adult dogs with confirmed diagnosis to CanL were divided into symptomatic (SD, n = 33) and asymptomatic (AD, n = 20) dogs for L. infantum and control dogs (CD, n = 20). Routine hematological and biochemical parameters were determined in blood samples using a veterinary automatic hematology and biochemical analyzers. Asymptomatic dogs (AD) had a higher number of white blood cells and neutrophils (16.48 ± 4.93; 13.41 ± 3.60, respectively) in relation to symptomatic dogs (SD) (13.54 ± 5.13; 10.42 ± 3.69, respectively) (P = 0.015 and P < 0.0001, respectively). Neutrophils to Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR) was higher in dogs with leishmaniasis (9.45 ± 3.76) than in healthy dogs (3.39 ± 1.19) (P < 0.0001). Serum total proteins (STP) and globulins increased in CanL, while albumin and AGR decreased in CanL, when compared to CD and references values to canine species. Neutrophils to Albumin Ratio (NAR) was higher in AD and SD (5.02 ± 1.14; 4.79 ± 1.07, respectively) when compared to CD (2.36 ± 0.55) (P < 0.0001). As reported in scientific researches, dogs with Leishmaniasis present alterations in circulating cell counts. Based on these data, we decided to expand this information using the NLR as a parameter in an attempt to better clarify the changes in these cells in CanL. We observed that NLR was increased on CanL in relation to healthy dogs, which could be a consequence of relative neutrophilia rather than lymphopenia. Neutrophils to Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR) is a biomarker that conveys information about inflammatory conditions. An elevated NLR can reflect an upregulated innate immune response, since neutrophils are effector cells of innate immunity and are involved in several acute and chronic inflammatory processes. Albumin is an acute phase protein that is considered an immune-inflammatory biomarker, which can be found reduced systemically in progressive inflammatory response. Serum total proteins (STP) and globulins were increased in CanL. These data are already well documented in CanL, which serum globulins are mainly associated with the increase of acute phase proteins, cytokines, and increase of specific antibodies to Leishmania infantum. Our results showed neutrophilia with hypoalbuminemia in CanL. So, in an attempt to assess the relationship of these two available markers, we used NAR calculation in order to evaluate the changes induced by CanL. In this study NAR was higher in CanL when compared to control dogs. Thus, our data indicate that NLR and NAR could be used as biomarkers in veterinary medical clinics in order to assess inflammatory profile in CanL, mainly in asymptomatic dogs. These parameters obtained from routine blood tests might be useful as cost-effective, easily accessible and helpful markers in order to distinguish the inflammatory response intensity in CanL.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Biomarkers/blood , Leishmaniasis/veterinary , Leishmania infantum , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Dog Diseases/blood , Hematologic Tests/veterinary , Dogs , Neglected Diseases/veterinary
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