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1.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 61(4): 603-609, dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1395576

ABSTRACT

Nuestro objetivo fue determinar un score que ayude a predecir la probabilidad de infestación canina por Echinococcus en una zona endémica en hidatidosis. Se realizó un estudio longitudinal en 3 anexos de la provincia de Concepción ubicado en los andes centrales de Perú. La infección canina por Echinococcus granulosus fue definido por la presencia de antígeno identificado en la muestra de heces. El modelo predictivo se obtuvo mediante un análisis de regresión logística basado en los parámetros sociodemográficos, esta regla fue internamente validada por remuestreo de tipo bootstrap. Resultados: De 152 canes que se sometieron al estudio de heces, 76 tuvieron infección por Echinococcus confirmada por antígeno reactivo. Se identificaron 4 factores ponderados dentro de la regla de predicción que, en suma, dieron el puntaje: El can que duerme fuera de casa (3 puntos), alimentar con vísceras crudas al can (3 puntos) y sacrificar al ganado dentro de la casa (2 puntos) y el can se alimenta con croquetas (-2 puntos). Se encontró que esta regla de predicción tuvo valor del área bajo la curva ROC 0,78; (IC 95%: 0,70 ­ 0,86). Estos parámetros de predicción con un puntaje ≥ 3 tenía una sensibilidad del 75% y especificidad del 65,8%, con un valor predictivo positivo del 85,3%. Esta regla ayudará al personal de la salud a identificar a los canes infestados por Echinococcus granulosus, para su intervención anti parasitaria y preventiva en sus dueños(AU)


Cystic hydatidosis is an endemic disease in Andean regions, our objective was to determine a score that helps to predict canine Echinococcus infestation in an endemic area with hydatidosis. A longitudinal study was carried out in 3 annexes of the province of Concepción located in the central Andes of Peru. Canine echinococcosis infection was defined by the presence of E. granulosus antigen identified in the stool sample. The predictive model was obtained through a logistic regression analysis based on the sociodemographic parameters, this rule was internally validated by bootstrap type resampling. Results: Of 152 dogs that underwent the stool study, 76 had an Echinococcus infection confirmed by reactive antigen. Four weighted factors were identified within the prediction rule that, in sum, gave the score: The dog that sleeps outside the home (3 points), feeding raw viscera to the dog (3 points), slaughtering the cattle inside the house (2 points) and the dog is fed with croquettes (-2 points). This prediction rule was found to have a value of the area under the ROC curve 0.78 (95% CI: 0.70 - 0.86). At a cutoff point of ≥ 3 points, the prediction rule was found to have a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 65.8%, with a positive predictive value of 85.3%. This rule will help health personnel to identify canes infested by Echinococcus granulosus, for their anti-parasitic and preventive intervention in their owners(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Echinococcus granulosus , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Echinococcosis/diagnosis , Echinococcosis/prevention & control , Echinococcosis/epidemiology , Peru/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Longitudinal Studies , Endemic Diseases , Feces/parasitology , Forecasting
2.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 49: Pub. 1821, 2021. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363843

ABSTRACT

The incidence of cancer has increased due to greater longevity of the animals as a consequence of better control of other diseases, improvement of nutrition and good practices in preventive medicine. Malignant tumors can cause paraneoplastic syndrome such as hypercalcemia, anemia, cachexia, among others and consequent cardiovascular disorders. The electrocardiography (ECG) is a complementary exam that can reveal with its traces these rhythmic disorders. Based on that, the objective of this study was to evaluate the ECG in bitches with mammary tumors in order to detect in which type of tumor would be found significant changes as in cardiac rhythm, ECG waves, segments or cardiac axis. Twenty-nine female dogs were used in this study, being 19 bitches with mammary tumor, and they were allocated in three groups: G1: control group (n = 10), G2: benign neoplasia group (n = 6) and G3: malignant neoplasia group (n = 13). The most prevalent type of neoplasia in G2 was the benign mixed tumor (83%), followed by adenoma (17%) whereas in G3: carcinoma in mixed tumor (61%); papillary carcinoma (23%). Regarding cardiac rhythm, it was found sinus arrhythmia (SA) and normal sinus rhythm (NS): G1: 50% SA and 50% NS; G2: 67% SA and 33% NS; G3: 54% SA and 46% NS. No ventricular or atrial arrhythmias were detected. For other parameters in G1, G2 and G3, respectively (mean ± Std error): FC (bpm): 110±9.2, 120 ± 8.5, 124±7,5; P (ms): 48 ± 1.6, 51 ± 1.8, 50 ± 1.2; P (mV) 0.19 ± 0.02, 0.2 ± 0.02, 0.19 ± 0.02; PR (ms): 94 ± 4.3, 93 ± 5.5, 89 ± 3.9; QRS (ms): 56 ± 1.54, 60 ± 4, 62 ± 1.2; R (mV): 1.1 ± 0.06, 1.2 ± 0.24, 0.9 ± 0.13; QT (ms): 203 ± 9.4; 204 ± 7.9; 182 ± 15.6; and cardiac axis (°): 66 ± 6.2, 61 ± 7.9, 70 ± 7.5. There were no significant differences for all cardiac parameters and also for ST interval and T wave morphology. All electrocardiographic parameters found are in accordance with other studies carried out in the canine species. The results regarding tumor types differ from what was found in another study, in which in 18 bitches with mammary tumors, 55% were benign, with prevalence of adenomas (38%) followed by benign mixed tumors, and 45% malignant, with adenocarcinoma prevailing (22%). In another study, it was verified in 63 bitches the predominance of tubular carcinoma (26.56%) and carcinoma in mixed tumors (23.44%). Diverging from the electrocardiographic parameters of this study, a significant difference was found in the R wave amplitude value in the research by Barros et al., (2015) who performed computerized electrocardiography in 50 dogs, not only with mammary neoplasms (55% mammary carcinomas), but also in mastocytomas, lymphomas, benign tumors and other sarcomas. This author found out that the R wave amplitude values of the neoplasia group were lower when compared to the control group. In addition, we suspect that other types of tumors could result in more paraneoplastic syndrome than the mammary neoplasms found in this research. Neoplasms as lymphomas (T cells), apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinomas, multiple myelomas and thymomas are known as a cause of hypercalcemia of malignancy and histiocytic sarcomas, myelomas, leukemia and lymphomas causing anemia. In conclusion, ECG has no changes in benign or malignant mammary tumors in dogs. However, this fact does not exclude the importance of its performance in pre-anesthetic evaluations. Further studies with a larger sample including the clinical staging of these bitches with a balanced number of animals with low and high staging are suggested.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Dogs , Cardiovascular Diseases/veterinary , Mammary Neoplasms, Animal/complications , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Electrocardiography/veterinary , Dogs
3.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(4): e011021, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1351874

ABSTRACT

Abstract Leishmaniases are zoonotic diseases caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. The disease has two clinical manifestations described in humans: visceral (VL) and cutaneous (CL) leishmaniasis. In Brazil, there has been an expansion of human VL. The participation of the dog as a reservoir of Leishmania infantum, the agent of VL, is important for the epidemiology of the disease since canine cases generally precede human cases. The present study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of Leishmania spp. infection in dogs in the municipality of Ji-Paraná by PCR assays using blood samples. Leishmania DNA was detected in two of the 105 studied dogs. The PCR products were sequenced and confirmed that the two samples (1.90%) correspond to L. infantum. The dogs had allochthonous history. Therefore, the positive results found here should serve as a warning to public health agencies. This is because Ji-Paraná is the third municipality to register cases of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in Rondônia state. Thus, reinforcing the importance of expanding studies on the epidemiology and surveillance of VL in the region.


Resumo As leishmanioses são doenças causadas por protozoários do gênero Leishmania. A doença apresenta duas manifestações clínicas: leishmaniose visceral (LV) e cutânea (LC). No Brasil, a LV está em expansão. A participação do cão como reservatório é importante para a epidemiologia da doença, pois os casos caninos geralmente precedem os humanos. O presente estudo avaliou a ocorrência de LV em cães (LVC) do município de Ji-Paraná por meio de ensaios de PCR, utilizando-se amostras de sangue. O DNA de Leishmania foi detectado em dois dos 105 cães estudados. Os produtos da PCR foram sequenciados e confirmaram que duas amostras (1,90%) eram Leishmania infantum. Os cães tinham histórico alóctone. Os resultados positivos encontrados servem de alerta aos órgãos públicos de saúde. Isso porque Ji-Paraná é o terceiro município a registrar casos de LVC no estado de Rondônia. Dessa forma, reforça-se a importância da ampliação dos estudos sobre a epidemiologia e vigilância da LV na região.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Leishmaniasis/veterinary , Leishmania infantum , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary
4.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(3): e007121, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1341188

ABSTRACT

Abstract American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a neglected zoonotic disease caused mainly by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, which is endemic throughout Brazil. Canine ACL cases were investigated in a rural area of Monte Mor, São Paulo, where a human ACL case had been confirmed. Dogs were evaluated through clinical and laboratory diagnosis including serology, cytological tissue preparations and PCR on skin lesions, lymph node and bone marrow samples. Entomological investigations on sandflies trapped in the surroundings of the study area were performed for 14 months. Nyssomyia neivai was the predominant phlebotomine species, comprising 94.65% of the captured specimens (832 out of 879). This species was the most abundant in all trapping sites, including human homes and dog shelters. Ny. whitmani, Migonemyia migonei, Pintomyia monticola, Evandromyia cortellezzii, Pi. fischeri and Expapilata firmatoi were also captured. Two of the three dogs examined were positive for anti-Leishmania IgG in ELISA using the antigen Fucose mannose ligand and skin samples were positive for L. (V.) braziliensis in PCR, but all the samples collected were negative for L. (L.) infantum. One of the dogs had a confirmed persistent infection for more than one year.


Resumo A leishmaniose tegumentar Americana (LTA) é uma doença zoonótica negligenciada, causada principalmente por Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, sendo endêmica em todo o Brasil. Foram investigados casos de LTA canina em uma área rural da cidade de Monte Mor, São Paulo, onde foi confirmado um caso humano de LTA. Os cães foram avaliados por diagnóstico clínico e laboratorial, incluindo sorologia, esfregaços microscópicos e PCR de amostras em lesões de pele, linfonodos e medula óssea. Também foram realizadas investigações entomológicas durante 14 meses, usando-se armadilhas luminosas para flebotomíneos nas proximidades da área de estudo. Nyssomyia neivai foi a espécie de flebotomíneo predominante com 94,65% dos espécimes capturados (832 de 879). Essa espécie foi a mais abundante em todos os locais de captura, incluindo-se abrigos para humanos e cães. Foram também capturadas as espécies Ny. whitmani, Migonemyia migonei, Pintomyia monticola, Evandromyia cortellezzii, Pi. fischeri e Expapilata firmatoi. Dos três cães examinados, dois apresentaram IgG anti-Leishmania positivo no ELISA, usando-se o antígeno "Fucose mannose ligand", PCR da lesão de pele positivo para L. (V.) braziliensis e negativo em todas amostras para L. (L.) infantum. Um dos cães apresentou infecção persistente por mais de um ano.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Leishmania braziliensis , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/veterinary , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Psychodidae , Brazil , Insect Vectors
5.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(3): e009921, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1341186

ABSTRACT

Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected and endemic zoonosis that occurs throughout Brazil; nevertheless, few studies have focused on the early detection of the disease. The municipality of Ourinhos is a non-receptive, silent and vulnerable area for VL, where the seroprevalence of this disease has so far not been investigated. The present study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of canine VL in Ourinhos-SP, and to identify the presence of risk factors. Blood samples were obtained from 604 dogs during a rabies vaccination campaign together with application of a socioeconomic questionnaire, environmental and animal characteristics and tutor's knowledge about the disease. The samples were subjected to indirect ELISA and new samples were collected from reactive and suspect animals, including whole blood and lymph node aspiration evaluated by parasitological method, complete blood count and PCR. No animal was diagnosed as positive based on the combination of direct and indirect tests and the tutors' answers indicated little knowledge about leishmaniasis, being often confused with other diseases transmitted by arthropods; hence, according to the proposed methods, the presence of canine leishmaniasis in the city of Ourinhos was not confirmed and health education campaigns about the disease should be carried out.


Resumo A leishmaniose visceral (LV) é uma zoonose negligenciada e endêmica presente em todas as regiões do Brasil, mas mesmo assim poucos estudos têm objetivado a detecção inicial da doença. O município de Ourinhos - SP é uma área não receptiva, silenciosa e vulnerável à LV, não havendo até o momento estudos que tenham investigado a soroprevalência no município. Nesse sentido, o presente estudo objetivou determinar a soroprevalência da LV canina em Ourinhos-SP, bem como associar a presença de fatores de risco. Amostras sanguíneas de 604 cães foram obtidas juntamente com a aplicação de questionário socioeconômico, características ambientais e dos animais e conhecimento sobre a doença. As amostras foram submetidas à sorologia por ELISA e novas amostras coletadas de cães reagentes ou suspeitos foram analisadas por método parasitológico direto, hemograma e PCR. Nenhum animal foi considerado positivo na combinação de testes direto e indireto, e as respostas dos tutores indicaram pouco conhecimento sobre a leishmaniose, sendo muitas vezes confundida com outras doenças transmitidas por artrópodes. Dessa forma, de acordo com os métodos propostos, a presença de leishmaniose canina, na cidade de Ourinhos, não foi confirmada. Por isso campanhas de educação em saúde sobre a doença deveriam ser realizadas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Leishmaniasis/veterinary , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies
6.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(3): e009121, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1288705

ABSTRACT

Abstract The dog is the main domestic reservoir of Leishmania and font of infection for the vector, constituting an important host for the transmission of the parasite to humans. Non-invasive collection of swab samples for leishmaniasis diagnosis has been a promising alternative. This study analyzed the positivity of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis in conjunctiva samples. DNA extraction was performed using SDS 20% and PCR was performed using 13A/13B primers that amplify 120-bp of Leishmania kDNA. Of the 77 dogs analyzed, 50 (64.93%) had ocular changes: 25 (32.47%) dogs had periocular lesion, 41 (53.25%) dogs had purulent eye discharge, and 17 (22.08%) dogs had both signals. PCR was positive in 35 dogs (45.45%), and there was no significant difference between dogs with and without ocular signals (p=0.4074). PCR positivity was significant higher in dogs without periocular injury (p=0.0018). Conjunctive PCR, a less invasive, fast, and painless collection technique, is indicated to complement the diagnosis, especially in dogs without periocular injury, independent of the presence of purulent eye discharge.


Resumo O cão é o principal reservatório doméstico de Leishmania e também fonte de infecção para o vetor, constituindo um importante hospedeiro para a transmissão do parasita ao homem. A coleta não invasiva de amostras em swab para diagnóstico das leishmanioses tem sido uma alternativa promissora. Este estudo analisou a positividade da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) para o diagnóstico de leishmaniose canina em amostras de conjuntiva. A extração do DNA foi realizada com SDS 20%. A PCR foi realizada com primers 13A/13B que amplificam 120-pb do kDNA de Leishmania. Dos 77 cães analisados, 50 (64,93%) tiveram alterações oculares; 25 (32,47%) cães tiveram uma lesão periocular; 41 (53,25%) tiveram secreção ocular purulenta e 17 (22,08%) cães tiveram ambos os sinais. A PCR foi positiva em 35 cães (45,45%) e não houve diferença significativa em cães com e sem sinais oculares (p = 0,4074). A positividade da PCR foi significativamente maior em cães sem lesão periocular (p = 0,0018). PCR em conjuntiva, uma técnica de coleta menos invasiva, rápida e indolor, é indicada para complementar o diagnóstico, principalmente em cães sem lesão periocular, independentemente da presença de secreção ocular purulenta.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Leishmania infantum/genetics , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Leishmania/genetics , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , DNA , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , DNA, Protozoan/genetics , Conjunctiva
7.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(3): e004821, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1288702

ABSTRACT

Abstract Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a zoonotic disease of high lethality caused by Leishmania infantum in the Americas. In the infected dog, the amastigotes are scarce in blood, especially in the late phase of the disease. This study aimed to report a rare case of L. infantum amastigotes found in neutrophils from peripheral blood of a naturally infected dog in terminal phase of CVL, also describing its clinical status before and after treatment with miltefosine 2%. The dog, which presented as polysymptomatic and with classical signs and symptoms of CVL was submitted to the following tests: Dual Path Platform (DPP) rapid test, ELISA and parasitological examination of peripheral blood. Hematological and biochemical parameters were obtained before and after treatment. All diagnostic tests were positive for CVL. The identification of L. infantum amastigotes inside neutrophils from peripheral blood was confirmed through microscopy, and the species was confirmed by molecular analysis. At the end of the treatment, peripheral parasitemia was not detected, and improvements were observed in clinical and laboratorial parameters. Finally, this atypical finding can be used as example to raise discussions about the real immunological role of neutrophils in late phases of CVL and its clinical/therapeutic implications.


Resumo A leishmaniose visceral canina (LVC) é uma doença zoonótica de alta letalidade causada por Leishmania infantum nas Américas. No cão infectado, as formas amastigotas são escassas no sangue, principalmente na fase tardia da doença. Este estudo teve como objetivo relatar um caso raro de amastigotas de L. infantum encontradas em neutrófilos do sangue periférico de um cão naturalmente infectado e terminal da LVC, descrevendo também seu estado clínico antes e após o tratamento com miltefosina a 2%. O cão, que se apresentou como polissintomático e com sinais e sintomas clássicos da LVC foi submetido aos seguintes testes: teste rápido Dual Path Platform (DPP), ELISA e exame parasitológico de sangue periférico. Os parâmetros hematológicos e bioquímicos foram obtidos antes e após o tratamento. Todos os testes diagnósticos foram positivos para LVC. A identificação de formas amastigotas de L. infantum, dentro de neutrófilos do sangue periférico foi confirmada por microscopia, e a espécie foi confirmada por análise molecular. Ao final do tratamento, não foi detectada parasitemia periférica, observando-se melhora dos parâmetros clínicos e laboratoriais. Por fim, esse achado atípico pode ser usado como exemplo para levantar discussões sobre o real papel imunológico dos neutrófilos nas fases tardias da LVC e suas implicações clínicas/terapêuticas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Leishmania infantum , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Neutrophils
8.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(3): e006621, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1288698

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the level of exposure to Leishmania infection in stray dogs in an area of intense visceral leishmaniasis transmission in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Blood samples from 178 dogs were analyzed using serological and molecular assays: rapid immunochromatographic test (ICT), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT), and conventional and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (cPCR and qPCR). Positivity values obtained with serological tests were 71.4% (127/178), 70.2% (125/178), and 50.6% (90/178) using ICT, ELISA, and IFAT, respectively, with 38.8% (69/178) of the dogs were simultaneously positive for all three tests. The positivity values obtained with cPCR and qPCR were 20.2% (36/178) and 38.8% (69/178), respectively, with 11.8% (21/178) testing positive in both molecular assays. Overall, 87.1% (155/178) were positive for anti-Leishmania spp. antibodies and/or Leishmania spp. DNA. Positivity to one or more tests was statistically associated with lymphadenomegaly, skin lesions, lymphocytosis, anemia and hyperproteinemia. The results of this study revealed a high level of exposure to Leishmania in stray dogs in an area of intense human visceral leishmaniasis transmission, suggesting that dogs play a role as reservoirs in the transmission cycle of this zoonosis.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar o nível de exposição à infecção por Leishmania em cães errantes de uma área de transmissão intensa de leishmaniose visceral no estado de Pernambuco. Amostras de sangue de 178 cães foram avaliadas por testes sorológicos e moleculares: teste imunocromatográfico (IC), ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA), teste de imunofluorescência de anticorpos (RIFI), reação em cadeia da polimerase convencional e quantitativa (cPCR e qPCR). Os valores de positividade obtidos com os testes sorológicos foram 71,4% (127/178), 70,2% (125/178) e 50,6% (90/178) com IC, ELISA e RIFI, respectivamente. E com 38,8% (69/178) dos cães mostraram-se simultaneamente positivos aos três testes. Os valores de positividade obtidos por cPCR e qPCR foram 20,2% (36/178) e 38,8% (69/178), respectivamente. E com 11,8% (21/178) dos cães foram positivos em ambos os testes moleculares. No geral, 87,1% (155/178) foram positivos para anticorpos anti-Leishmania spp. e/ou material genético de Leishmania spp. A positividade a um ou mais testes foi estatisticamente associada à linfonodomegalia, lesões cutâneas, linfocitose, anemia e hiperproteinemia. Os resultados do estudo revelam um alto nível de exposição à Leishmania spp. em cães errantes em uma área de transmissão intensa de leishmaniose visceral humana, sugerindo que eles podem desempenhar um papel como reservatórios no ciclo de transmissão dessa zoonose.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Dogs , Leishmaniasis/veterinary , Leishmania infantum/genetics , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Leishmania/genetics , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Brazil/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology
9.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(2): e026720, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1288695

ABSTRACT

Abstract Dogs are the main urban reservoir of Leishmania infantum, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), which is transmitted by sand flies. In the state of Paraná, the first detection of a positive dog for VL was in 2014, this year Paraná lost free status for this disease (VL). The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Palotina, the occurrence of vectors that may transmit Leishmania infantum, and the number of notifications of human visceral leishmaniasis cases from period 2010 to 2020. To determine the occurrence of canine visceral leishmaniasis, blood samples from 204 dogs were analyzed using the rapid test DPP® to detect anti-L. infantum antibodies. To investigate the occurrence of potential vectors, monthly collections were made at 18 points within the urban area of the municipality. The number of human visceral leishmaniasis cases was investigated from Epidemiological Surveillance records. None of the serologically tested dogs showed positive titration. Only two specimens of Lutzomyia neivai, one of Lutzomyia sp. and four of Brumptomyia brumpti specimens were collected. No human visceral leishmaniasis cases were reported. These results suggest that there is no evidence of circulation of L. infantum in Palotina.


Resumo Os cães são os principais reservatórios urbanos da Leishmania infantum, agente causador da leishmaniose visceral (VL), transmitida por vetores conhecidos como flebotomíneos. No Paraná, a primeira detecção de casos positivos caninos ocorreu em 2014, ano em que o Paraná perdeu o status de estado indene. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a prevalência da leishmaniose visceral canina no município de Palotina, a ocorrência de vetores que possam transmitir Leishmania infantum e o número de notificação de casos de leishmaniose visceral humana, no período de 2010 a 2020. Para determinar a ocorrência da leishmaniose visceral canina, amostras de sangue de 204 cães foram analisadas, utilizando-se o teste rápido (DPP®) para detectar anticorpos anti-L. infantum. Com o objetivo de investigar a ocorrência de potenciais vetores, coletas foram realizadas mensalmente em 18 pontos na área urbana do município. O número de casos de leishmaniose visceral humana foi investigado a partir de registros da Vigilância Epidemiológica. Nenhum cão testado foi positivo no teste sorológico. Apenas dois espécimes de Lutzomyia neivai, uma de Lutzomyia sp. e quatro de Brumptomyia brumpti foram coletados. Nenhum caso de leishmaniose visceral humana foi notificado. Esses resultados sugerem que não há evidência da circulação de L. infantum em Palotina.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Leishmania infantum , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cities , One Health , Insect Vectors
10.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e01822021, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340830

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an important zoonosis in Brazil. Previous identification of parasitized dogs can also help prevent the disease in humans, even in non-endemic areas of the country. The Brazilian Ministry of Health recommends diagnosis in dogs using a DPP® (rapid test) as a screening test and an immunoenzymatic assay (ELISA) as a confirmatory test (DPP®+ELISA), and culling infected dogs as a legal control measure. However, the accuracy of these serological tests has been questioned. METHODS: VL in dogs was investigated in a non-endemic area of the São Paulo state for three consecutive years, and the performances of different diagnostic tests were compared. RESULTS: A total of 331 dog samples were collected in 2015, 373 in 2016, and 347 in 2017. The seroprevalence by DPP®+ELISA was 3.3, 3.2, and 0.3%, respectively, and by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), it was 3.0, 5.6, and 5.5%, respectively. ELISA confirmed 18.4% of DPP® positive samples. The concordance between the IFA and DPP® was 83.9%. The concordance between IFA and DPP®+ELISA was 92.9%. A molecular diagnostic test (PCR) was performed in 63.2% of the seropositive samples, all of which were negative. CONCLUSIONS: In non-endemic areas, diagnostic tests in dogs should be carefully evaluated to avoid false results.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Leishmania infantum/genetics , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Antibodies, Protozoan , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Pathology, Molecular
11.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200428, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154875

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Dogs are the main peridomiciliary reservoir of Leishmania infantum thus the correct diagnosis of infection is essential for the control of the transmission and treatment as well. However, the diagnosis is based on serological assays that are not fully effective. OBJECTIVE We aimed to establish an effective serological assay for the diagnosis of L. infantum infected dogs using Leishmania-derived recombinant antigens. METHODS Leishmania derived rK39-, rK28-, rKR95-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was standardized using symptomatic and asymptomatic L. infantum-infected dogs. Then 2,530 samples from inquiry in endemic areas for VL were evaluated and the results compared with recommended assays by the Brazilian Ministry of Health (MH algorithm). Further samples from a cohort of 30 dogs were searched. FINDINGS For rK39-, rK28- and rKR95-ELISA the sensitivity was around 97% and specificity 100%. The positivity of these three ELISA in the inquiry samples was 27-28%, around 10% higher than the assays currently in use. When cohort samples were searched, we observed likely false-negative results (> 65%) with supposedly negative samples that turned positive six months later with the assays in use (MH algorithm). MAIN CONCLUSIONS For the diagnosis of L. infantum-infected dogs, rK39-based ELISA showed better diagnostic performance than other assays in use in Brazil and worldwide.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/standards , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Leishmania infantum/immunology , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , Brazil , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Serologic Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity , Leishmania infantum/isolation & purification , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/blood , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Antigens, Protozoan/biosynthesis
12.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(3): e00041320, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285819

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Dogs are the main reservoirs in the domestic transmission cycle of visceral leishmaniasis, and the diagnosis is essential for the effectiveness of the control measures recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. We assessed the diagnostic performance of the ELISA-Vetlisa/BIOCLIN prototype with serum samples from 200 dogs, in triplicate, including symptomatic, oligosymptomatic, asymptomatic, and healthy dogs, originated by two distinct panels (A and B) characterized by parasitological tests as the reference standard. In this study, the prototype kit showed a 99% sensitivity (95%CI: 94.5-100.0) and a 100% specificity (95%CI: 96.4-100.0). The sensitivity of the prototype kit did not vary significantly with the clinical status of the dogs. Considering the final result classification (positive or negative), agreement between the results of repeated tests was almost perfect (kappa = 0.99; 95%CI: 0.98-1.00). ELISA-Vetlisa/BIOCLIN is a promising option for the serological diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil.


Resumo: Os cães são os principais reservatórios do ciclo de transmissão domiciliar da leishmaniose visceral, e o diagnóstico é essencial para a efetividade das medidas de controle recomendadas pelo Ministério da Saúde. Os autores avaliam o desempenho diagnóstico do protótipo da ELISA-Vetlisa/BIOCLIN em amostras sorológicas de 200 cães, em triplicata, incluindo cães sintomáticos, oligossintomáticos e saudáveis, com dois painéis distintos (A e B) caracterizados por testes parasitológicos enquanto referência. No estudo, o kit-protótipo mostrou sensibilidade de 99% (IC95%: 94,5-100,0) e especificidade de 100% (IC95%: 96,4-100,0). A sensibilidade do kit-protótipo não variou de maneira significativa de acordo com o estado clínico dos cães. Considerando a classificação final dos resultados (positivo ou negativo), a concordância entre os resultados dos testes em triplicata foi quase perfeita (kappa = 0,99; IC95%: 0,98-1,00). O protótipo ELISA-Vetlisa/BIOCLIN tem o potencial de ser utilizada para o diagnóstico sorológico da leishmaniose visceral canina no Brasil.


Resumen: Los perros son los principales reservorios en el ciclo de transmisión doméstica de la leishmaniasis visceral, por ello el diagnóstico es esencial para la efectividad de las medidas de control recomendadas por el Ministerio de Salud de Brasil. Evaluamos el desempeño diagnóstico de ELISA-Vetlisa/BIOCLIN prototipo con muestras de sérum de 200 perros, en triplicado, incluyendo sintomático, oligosintomático, asintomático y perros sanos, originadas por dos paneles distintos (A y B), caracterizados por test parasitológicos como referencia estándar. En este estudio, el kit prototipo mostró un 99% de sensibilidad (IC95%: 94,5-100,0) y un 100% de especificidad (IC95%: 96,4-100,0). La sensibilidad del kit prototipo no varió significativamente con el estatus clínico de los perros. Considerando la clasificación final del resultado (positiva o negativa), el acuerdo entre los resultados de los tests repetidos fue casi perfecto (kappa = 0,99; IC95%: 0,98-1,00). ELISA-Vetlisa/BIOCLIN tiene potencial para ser usado para el diagnóstico serológico de la leishmaniasis visceral canina en Brasil.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Leishmania infantum , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Brazil , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Sensitivity and Specificity
13.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(2): e022620, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251390

ABSTRACT

Abstract Efforts to control a zoonotic disease such as visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania infantum can be successful if they rely on comprehensive data on animal infection. In Bahia state, Brazil, human VL is endemic, yet some areas have no epidemiological data on canine L. infantum infection and canine leishmaniasis (CanL) to date. We aimed to perform an epidemiological study describing the spatial distribution and characterizing canine L. infantum infection in two districts of the municipality of Muritiba, where human cases have occurred. Brazilian official serodiagnostic protocol (ELISA and immunochromatographic tests), PCR and clinical examination were performed in 351 owned dogs. A seroprevalence of 15.7% (55/351) was found, and L. infantum identified in 88.8% (32/36) of PCR tested samples. Spatial distribution of positive dogs indicated infection in both urban and rural districts. There was no association between seropositivity and sex or breed, but dogs older than 2 years were 3.8 times more likely to be seropositive (95% CI 1.57 - 9.18) than younger dogs. Among seropositive dogs, 80% (44/55) had clinical manifestations of CanL: 75% (33/44) presented dermatopathy, 50% (22/44) emaciation, and 29.5% (13/44) ophthalmopathy. This is the first report on canine seroprevalence and natural L. infantum infection in Muritiba, Bahia.


Resumo O sucesso dos esforços para controlar uma doença zoonótica como a leishmaniose visceral (LV), causada por Leishmania infantum, depende de dados abrangentes sobre a infecção animal. Na Bahia, Brasil, embora a LV humana seja endêmica, diversos municípios, como Muritiba, ainda não dispõem de dados epidemiológicos sobre infecção por L. infantum e leishmaniose canina (LCan). Objetivou-se realizar um estudo epidemiológico para descrever a distribuição espacial e caracterizar a infecção canina por L. infantum em dois distritos de Muritiba, onde notificam-se casos humanos. Foi aplicado o protocolo sorodiagnóstico oficial brasileiro (ELISA e imunocromatografia), PCR e exame clínico em 351 cães domiciliados. Encontrou-se uma soroprevalência de 15,7% (55/351) e positividade de 88,8% (32/36) na PCR para L. infantum. A distribuição espacial dos cães positivos indicou infecção em ambos os distritos, urbano e rural. Não houve associação entre soropositividade e sexo ou raça, mas cães com idade acima de 2 anos foram 3,8 vezes mais soropositivos (IC 95% 1,57 - 9,18). Dentre os cães soropositivos, 80% (44/55) apresentavam manifestações clínicas de LCan: 75% (33/44) apresentavam dermatopatia; 50% (22/44) emagrecimento e 29,5% (13/44) oftalmopatia. Este é o primeiro estudo a determinar a soroprevalência e confirmar a circulação natural de L. infantum e LCan em cães de Muritiba.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Dogs , Leishmaniasis/veterinary , Leishmania infantum , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Antibodies, Protozoan , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Cities , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary
14.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(2): e023620, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251372

ABSTRACT

Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonosis with a worldwide distribution that has a major impact on public health. The aim of this study was to verify the prevalence of canine infection by Leishmania infantum, the factors associated with the infection and its spatial distribution in the municipality of Mãe D'Água, in the Sertão region of Paraíba State, Northeast Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 150 dogs for diagnosis by the DPP®, ELISA-S7®, ELISA-EIE® and qPCR assays. The prevalence was calculated considering the positivity in at least two tests. SaTScan® was used for spatial analysis. The prevalence of canine infection with Leishmania was 18.6% (28/150), with the rural area being identified as a risk factor (Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.93). The permanence of the dog loose during the night (OR = 0.33) and deworming (OR = 0.30) were identified as protective factors. A risk cluster was formed in the northern region of the urban area. Mãe D'Água showed a pattern of active transmission in the rural area, but VL control measures also need to be carried out in the urban area to prevent human cases and the spread of the disease in the risk zone.


Resumo A leishmaniose visceral (LV) é uma zoonose com distribuição mundial de grande impacto na saúde pública. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a prevalência da infecção canina por Leishmania infantum, os fatores associados à infecção e sua distribuição espacial no município de Mãe D'Água, na região do Sertão da Paraíba, Nordeste do Brasil. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas de 150 cães para diagnóstico pelos ensaios DPP®, ELISA-S7®, ELISA-EIE® e qPCR. A prevalência foi calculada considerando-se a positividade em pelo menos dois testes. O SaTScan® foi utilizado para a análise espacial. A prevalência da infecção canina com Leishmania foi de 18,6% (28/150), sendo a zona rural identificada como fator de risco (Odds Ratio (OR) = 2,93). A permanência do cão solto durante a noite (OR = 0,33) e a vermifugação (OR = 0,30) foram classificadas como fatores de proteção. Um cluster de risco foi formado na região Norte da área urbana. Mãe D'Água apresentou um padrão de transmissão ativa na área rural, porém medidas de controle da LVC também precisam ser realizadas na área urbana para evitar casos humanos e a dispersão da doença na zona de risco.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Leishmaniasis/veterinary , Leishmania infantum , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary
15.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(1): e018620, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156226

ABSTRACT

Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis is a widely distributed zoonosis and canine infection is an important indicator of risk for the occurrence of the disease in humans. The goal of this analysis was to study the spatial clustering of canine leishmaniasis (CL) in the municipality of Santa Luzia, state of Paraíba. For this, 749 samples of canine plasma were tested using three serological tests. The dog was considered positive if it reacted in two serological tests. The location of the residences was performed with a Global Positioning System receiver (GPS Garmin® eTrex 30), and used to perform georeferencing and spatial analysis. The prevalence of CL was 15.49% and it was observed that most cases of the urban area were concentrated in the Frei Damião neighborhood, on the outskirts of the city, where a high-risk cluster for the occurrence of the disease was formed (p = 0.02; RR = 2.48). No statistically significant cluster was observed in rural areas. CL is widely distributed in the municipality of Santa Luzia in a heterogeneous manner and with a tendency to urbanization. The areas identified with high prevalence and highest risk should be prioritized to maximize the efficiency of the Visceral Leishmaniasis Surveillance and Control Program and minimize the chance of new canine and human cases.


Resumo A leishmaniose visceral é uma zoonose amplamente distribuída, e a infecção canina é um importante indicador de risco para a ocorrência da doença em humanos. O objetivo foi estudar o comportamento espacial da leishmaniose canina (LC) no município de Santa Luzia, estado da Paraíba. Para tal, 749 amostras de plasma canino foram testadas por meio de três técnicas sorológicas. O cão seria considerado positivo se apresentasse duas sorologias reagentes. A localização das residências foi realizado pelo receptor de Sistema de Posicionamento Global (GPS Garmin® eTrex 30) e usado para a realização do georreferenciamento e análise espacial. A prevalência da LC foi de 15,49% e observou-se que a maioria dos casos de LC da zona urbana estava concentrada no bairro Frei Damião, localizado na periferia da cidade, onde se formou um cluster de alto risco para ocorrência da doença (p = 0,02; RR = 2,48). Nenhum cluster estatisticamente significativo foi observado na zona rural. A LC está amplamente distribuída no município de Santa Luzia, porém de forma heterogênea e com tendência à urbanização. As áreas identificadas com intensa prevalência e maior risco devem ser priorizadas para maximizar a eficiência do Programa de Vigilância e Controle da Leishmaniose Visceral e minimizar a chance de novos casos caninos e humanos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Spatial Analysis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Cities/epidemiology , Desert Climate
16.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 27(3): 104-109, jul./set. 2020. il.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1370238

ABSTRACT

O objetivo desse trabalho foi analisar a ocorrência dos critérios de Favrot em cães diagnosticados com Dermatite Atópica Canina (DAC) no Hospital Veterinário Professor Firmino Mársico Filho da Universidade Federal Fluminense, bem como sua associação com doenças concomitantes. Foram analisadas 2199 fichas propedêuticas com queixas dermatológicas, dos anos de 2016 e 2017. Do total, 165 (7,5%) animais foram diagnosticados com DACdos quais 94 (57%) eram fêmeas e 71 (43%) machos. Embora os cães mestiços fossem a maioria dos casos (22,4%), a raça pura mais frequentemente acometida foi a Poodle (12,5%). Foram identificados 134 (81,2%) cães com cinco ou mais critérios de Favrot, sendo 32,7% animais com seis critérios, 26,7% com cinco critérios, 17,0% com sete critérios e 4,8% com oito critérios. Enfatiza-se o aparecimento em mais de 90% dos casos os critérios intradomiciliado, com prurido primário, responsivo à corticoterapia e com bordas das pinas não acometidas. Dos 165 animais avaliados, 115 (69,7%) eram portadores de uma ou mais afecções concomitantes à DAC, sendo a otite externa a principal (73%). Considera-se que os critérios de Favrot podem ser aplicados para a triagem dos pacientes com suspeita de dermatite atópica canina atendidos no HUVET-UFF.


The objective of this study was to analyze the occurrence of Favrot criteria in dogs diagnosed with Canine Atopic Dermatitis (CAD) at the Veterinary Hospital Professor Firmino Mársico Filho of Universidade Federal Fluminense, as well as its association with concomitant diseases. A total of 2199 propaedeutic records with dermatological complaints from 2016 and 2017 were analyzed. Of the total, 165 (7.5%) animals were diagnosed with CAD. Among those diagnosed with CAD, 94 (57%) were females and 71 (43%) males. Although crossbreed dogs were the majority of cases (22.4%), the purebred dog most frequently affected by CAD was the Poodle (12.5%). One hundred and thirty four (81.2%) animals were identified with five or more Favrot criteria, 32.7% animals with six criteria, 26.7% with five criteria, 17.0% with seven criteria and 4.8% with eight criteria. It emphasizes the appearance in more than 90% of criteria, dog living mostly indoors,alesional pruritus, glucocorticoid-responsive pruritus and nonaffected ear margins. Of the 165 animals evaluated, 115 (69.7%) had one or more conditions concomitant with CAD, with otitis externa being the main one (73%). It is considered that the Favrot criteria can be applied for the screening of patients with suspected canine atopic dermatitis treated at HUVET-UFF.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Skin Diseases/veterinary , Concurrent Symptoms , Dermatitis, Atopic/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Comorbidity , Clinical Diagnosis/veterinary
17.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(2): 103-110, abr. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125049

ABSTRACT

To diagnose dogs infected by Leishmania infantum rK39 rapid diagnosis test is widely used in the Americas, while dual path platform (DPP) was recently adopted by Brazil. In this study we assessed the performance of rK39-RDT and DPP tests in recent urban transmission scenarios of Argentina. The sensitivity and specificity were evaluated with a sera panel and field samples, taken as true infected those from parasitological and/or PCR positive tests. Since none of these tests can be taken as a gold standard, the performance was also evaluated using Latent Class Analysis, a statistical modeling technique which allows to estimating sensitivity and specificity defining a latent class variable as the reference standard. The sensitivity of both tests in the panel was around 92% (symptomatic dogs 96%, asymptomatic 83%), while the sensitivity in field samples of rK39-RDT was 77%, and DPP 98% (mean in symptomatic dogs 89%, asymptomatic 82%). The specificity was similar for both tests and samples, around 98%. Therefore, these tests are acceptable for program dog population-based studies, as spatial stratification, focus intervention and follow up, and they could be used for individual screening and confirmation of clinical presumptive diagnosis in polysymptomatic dogs. The inability to discriminate between immunity and actual infectiousness suggest that a combination with other non-immunological based tests will be required for highly sensitive/specific diagnosis in order to targeting control measures in individual reservoirs from public health perspective, as for individual management from animal health perspective.


Para diagnosticar perros infectados por Leishmania infantum, en las Américas se utiliza ampliamente la prueba rápida rK39, mientras que DPP fue adoptado recientemente por Brasil. En este estudio se evaluó el desempeño de las pruebas rK39-RDT y DPP en escenarios de transmisión urbana reciente en Argentina. La sensibilidad y especificidad se evaluaron con un panel de sueros y muestras de campo, considerando muestras infectadas verdaderas aquellas con pruebas parasitológicas y/o de PCR positivas. Como ninguna de estas pruebas puede considerarse estándar de oro, el desempeño también se evaluó mediante análisis de clases latentes, una técnica de modelado estadístico que permite estimar sensibilidad y especificidad definiendo una variable de clase latente como estándar. La sensibilidad de ambas pruebas en el panel fue de alrededor del 92% (perros sintomáticos 96%, asintomáticos 83%), mientras que la sensibilidad en muestras de campo fue rK39-RDT: 77%, y DPP 98% (media en perros sintomáticos 89%, asintomáticos 82%). La especificidad fue similar para ambas pruebas y muestras, cerca de 98%. Por lo tanto, estas pruebas son aceptables para estudios programáticos caninos de base-poblacional, como estratificación espacial, intervención de foco y seguimiento, y podrían utilizarse para el tamizaje individual y la confirmación del diagnóstico clínico presuntivo en perros poli-sintomáticos. La incapacidad de discriminar entre inmunidad e infectividad real sugiere que se requerirá una combinación con otras pruebas, de base no inmunológica, para un diagnóstico suficientemente sensible/específico que permita definir las medidas de control en reservorios individuales, tanto para salud pública, como para la gestión individual en salud animal.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Argentina , Brazil , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Sensitivity and Specificity , Dog Diseases/transmission , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/transmission
18.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(3): 202-209, Mar. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135603

ABSTRACT

The objective of this research was to creates a reference interval for C-reactive protein (CRP)/albumin ratio (CAR) in the canine species and to analyze the potential of CRP, albumin and the relationship between both, to serve as indicators of disease severity, length of hospital stay (LoS) and mortality in this species. For this, an outcome study was conducted in a Veterinary Teaching Hospital in southern Brazil. One hundred ninety dogs were included randomly, without distinction of gender, age, or breed, from June 2013 to November 2016. Plasma was collected from them and analyzed for assessment of CRP and albumin. The reference range stipulated for CAR in dogs was 0.36-0.60, as determined by the confidence interval of mean resamplings (in percentiles). The frequencies mean, and standard deviations of the variables, correlation analysis, and comparative analysis (Kruskal-Wallis in α = 5%) were calculated. Elevation (above reference) of CAR was determined to be proportional to the severity of the underlying disease, and CRP means were reasonable. Besides, hypoalbuminemia was indicative of systemic disease, but not of severity. Thus, CAR was a better marker of disease severity than were CRP and albumin, analyzed separately. Concerning LoS, there was a positive correlation with CAR (p<0.01) in patients, and the same was not observed with CRP and albumin. Concerning mortality, hypoalbuminemia was the only marker valid in animals with a critical illness (p=0.04). In conclusion, CAR is a better marker of disease severity and LoS in dogs than are CRP and albumin analyzed separately.(AU)


O objetivo desta pesquisa foi determinar um intervalo de referência para a relação proteína C reativa (PCR)/albumina (R:PCR/ALB) na espécie canina e analisar o potencial de PCR, albumina e a relação entre ambas como indicadores de gravidade de doença, tempo de internação (TI) e mortalidade nesta espécie. Para isso, um estudo foi realizado em um Hospital Veterinário Escola no sul do Brasil. Cento e noventa cães foram incluídos aleatoriamente, sem distinção de sexo, idade ou raça, de junho de 2013 a novembro de 2016. O plasma foi coletado e analisado para avaliação da PCR e albumina. O intervalo de referência estipulado para o R:PCR/ALB em cães foi de 0,36-0,60, conforme determinado pelo intervalo de confiança da média das reamostragens (em percentis). Foram calculadas as frequências, médias e desvios-padrões das variáveis, análises de correlação e análises comparativas (Kruskal-Wallis em α = 5%). Notou-se elevação (acima da referência) da R:PCR/ALB proporcional à gravidade da doença de base, sendo normais as médias da PCR. Adicionalmente, a hipoalbuminemia foi indicadora de doença sistêmica, mas, não de gravidade. Dessa forma, a R:PCR/ALB foi melhor indicadora de gravidade de doença do que a PCR e albumina, analisadas separadamente. Em relação ao TI, houve correlação positiva com a R:PCR/ALB (p<0,01) em doentes, não sendo observado o mesmo com a PCR e albumina. Em relação à mortalidade, a hipoalbuminemia foi a única marcadora válida em animais com doenças críticas (p=0,04). Conclui-se, portanto, que a R:PCR/ALB é melhor marcadora de gravidade de doença e TI em cães do que a PCR e albumina analisadas separadamente.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index , C-Reactive Protein , Serum Albumin , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Hospitalization
19.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190525, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136829

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a public health problem, and its prevalence is associated with the coexistence of vectors and reservoirs. CVL is a protozoonosis caused by Leishmania infantum that is endemic in the southeast region of Brazil. Thus, vector and canine reservoir control strategies are needed to reduce its burden. This study aimed to verify the CVL seroprevalence and epidemiology in a municipality in Southeast Brazil to initiate disease control strategies. METHODS: A total of 833 dogs were subjected to Dual Path Platform (DPP) testing and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. For seropositive dogs, epidemiological aspects were investigated using a questionnaire and a global position system. The data were submitted to simple logistic regression, kernel estimation, and Bernoulli spatial scan statistical analysis. RESULTS: The overall CVL-confirmed seroprevalence was 16.08%. The 28.93% in the DPP screening test was associated with dogs maintained in backyards with trees, shade, animal and/or bird feces, and contact with other dogs and cats, with sick dogs showing the highest chances of infection (odds ratio, 2.6; 95% confidence interval, 2.38-1.98), especially in residences with elderly people. A spatial analysis identified two hotspot regions and detected two clusters in the study area. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that residences with elderly people and the presence of trees, shade, feces, and pet dogs and cats increased an individual's risk of developing CVL. The major regions where preventive strategies for leishmaniasis were to be initiated in the endemic area were identified in two clusters.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Cats , Dogs , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Brazil/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Prevalence , Leishmania infantum/immunology , Endemic Diseases , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Spatial Analysis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology
20.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(1): e020219, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092693

ABSTRACT

Abstract Rickettsia rickettsii is the causative agent of Brazilian spotted fever (BSF), for which humans and dogs are both susceptible. Dogs are sentinels in serological surveys, however, canine disease is rarely reported. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate natural infection by spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia spp. in dogs and ticks collected from domiciles close to forest fragments, featuring domestic-wildlife interface areas. Samples from 115 dogs and 135 ixodids were assessed by polymerase chain reactions (PCR) targeting the gltA gene for Rickettsia spp. and the ompA gene for the SFG rickettsial species. One dog (0.87%; 1/115) was positive for R. rickettsii. This dog presented nonspecific laboratory and clinical abnormalities (thrombocytopenia, hyperproteinemia, lymph node enlargement, emaciation, anorexia, and lethargy). Rickettsia parkeri was identified in 2.96% (4/135) of the ticks (Amblyomma sculptum, A. aureolatum, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus). This study confirmed the presence of SFG bacteria in non-endemic and preserved locations, where domestic and wild populations interact. We reinforce the fact that the dog is susceptible to natural R. rickettsii infection. Although this is a rare finding, preventive measures should be taken against BSF in the studied areas. Finally, R. parkeri infection is possibly being demonstrated in A. sculptum for the first time.


Resumo Rickettsia rickettsii é o agente causador da Febre Maculosa Brasileira (FMB), doença na qual humanos e cães são susceptíveis. Os cães são sentinelas nos inquéritos sorológicos, contudo, a doença canina é raramente descrita. Assim sendo, objetivou-se avaliar a infecção natural por Rickettsia spp. do Grupo da Febre Maculosa (GFM) em cães e carrapatos obtidos de domicílios próximos a fragmentos de mata, caracterizando áreas de interface doméstico-silvestre. Amostras de 115 cães e 135 ixodídeos foram avaliadas pela reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) tendo como alvo o gene gltA de Rickettsia spp. e o gene ompA das espécies do GFM. Um cão (0,87%; 1/115) foi positivo para R. rickettsii. Este animal apresentou alterações clínicas e laboratoriais inespecíficas (trombocitopenia, hiperproteinemia, linfonodos edemaciados, emagrecimento, anorexia e letargia). Rickettsia parkeri foi identificada em 2,96% (4/135) dos carrapatos (Amblyomma sculptum, A. aureolatum e Rhipicephalus sanguineus). Este estudo confirmou a presença de bactérias do GFM em locais preservados e não endêmicos, onde populações domésticas e silvestres interagem. Reforçamos o fato do cão ser susceptível à infecção natural por R. rickettsii. Embora este seja um achado raro, medidas preventivas devem ser tomadas contra a FMB nas áreas estudadas. Em última análise, a infecção por R. parkeri possivelmente está sendo demonstrada pela primeira vez em A. sculptum.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Dogs , Rickettsia/genetics , Ticks/microbiology , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiosis/veterinary , Rickettsia/isolation & purification , Rickettsia/classification , Brazil , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Dog Diseases/microbiology , Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiosis/diagnosis , Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiosis/microbiology , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood
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