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1.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 49: Pub. 1845, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363577

ABSTRACT

Medial patellar luxation (MPL) is one of the commonest orthopaedic diseases in small dog breeds. Although the bone deformities associated with canine medial patellar luxation are described in numerous studies, the pathogenesis of the condition is still disputable. What is more, there is no categorical evidence that luxation of the patella is associated to a shallow trochlear groove as no objective method for determination of trochlear depth and shape has been proposed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the depth and shape of femoral trochlear groove on radiographs obtained from healthy dogs and dogs affected with grade II and grade III MPL. A total of 45 dogs (33 with MPL and 12 healthy) from 4 small breeds (Mini-Pinscher, Pomeranian, Chihuahua and Yorkshire terrier) were included in the study. After deep sedation, stifle radiographs were obtained in tangential projection (skyline view). The dogs were positioned in ventral recumbency, the examined stifle bent as much as possible, and the central beam focused on the patella between femoral condyles. Six morphometric parameters associated with the onset of trochlear dysplasia similar to those used in human medicine were measured: trochlear sulcus angle (SA), lateral and medial trochlear inclination angles (LTI; MTI), trochlear groove depth (TD), patellar thickness (PaT) and the ratio between trochlear depth and patellar thickness (PaT/TD). The non-parametric Mann-Whitney test was used for evaluation of differences between healthy joints and those affected with grade II and III MPL. The association between measured variables was evaluated via the Spearman's rank-order correlation. TD was greater in healthy joints as compared to those affected with MPL grade II and III (P < 0.001). In healthy stifles, PaT value exceeded significantly (P < 0.01) that in joints with grade III MPL. The TD/PaT ratio was significantly greater in healthy joints vs both those with grade II (P < 0.01) and grade III MPL (P < 0.001). In healthy joints, there was a significant negative relationship (rho­0.508; P = 0.0113) between SA and TD: smaller sulcus angles corresponded to deeper trochleas. This correlation was even stronger in joints with patellar luxation (rho ­0.723; P < 0.0001). The LTI and MTI showed a very strong positive correlation in healthy joints (rho 0.854; P < 0.0001) and at the same time, lack of significant association in joints affected with MPL (rho -0.163; P = 0.327 for grade II MPL and rho 0.175; P = 0.448 for grade III MPL) was demonstrated. The altered trochlear shape and depth were more pronounced in joints with grade III MPL. As MPL grade increased, the SA became statistically significantly greater. In grade III MPL it was accompanied with considerably reduced trochlear depth, medial trochlear inclination angle and trochlear depth/patellar thickness ratio. Five of the measured morphometric parameters for radiographic detection of trochlear dysplasia in dogs were found to be important in the evaluation of trochlear morphology in dogs. The obtained results indicated the presence of trochlear dysplasia in dogs with MPL. A 3-stage classification system for assessment of abnormal trochlear development in small dog breeds: mild; moderate and severe trochlear dysplasia, was proposed. The occurrence of shallow trochlear groove and medial femoral condyle's hypoplasia could be accepted as signs of mild and moderate trochlear dysplasia. The pre-operative measurements of these parameters could improve surgical planning and decisions-making.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Patellar Dislocation/diagnostic imaging , Dog Diseases/pathology , Dogs/injuries , Femoral Fractures/veterinary
2.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(7): 525-535, July 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135661

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to characterize the prevalence and clinical, macroscopic and histopathological aspects of dogs affected by testicular tumors based on biopsy specimens from the Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária of the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (LPV-UFSM) over 19 years. Parameters regarding the age, size, and breed of the affected dogs were also established. Of all dogs with some type of neoplasm submitted to histopathological analysis at the LPV over these 19 years (n=1,900), 213 (11.2%) had at least one testicular neoplasm. The tissues of 190 dogs (with 220 neoplasms) were available for histological reassessment. The dogs in this study had different types of testicular tumors with relatively similar frequencies. In descending order, the most frequent testicular neoplasms were seminomas (88/220), Leydig (interstitial) cell tumor (LCT; 64/220), Sertoli cell tumor (SCT; 61/220), and mixed germ cell-sex cord stromal tumor (MGSCT) (07/220). Among the dogs of defined breed (119 cases), large breeds had the largest number of cases (50/119), followed by small (47/119) and medium-sized (22/119) breeds. The ages of dogs affected by testicular tumors ranged from 10 months to 18 years. Increased testicular volume was the most common clinical manifestation. Eleven dogs presented information about clinical signs suggestive of hyperestrogenism syndrome (feminization). In seminomas, the diffuse pattern predominated over the intratubular pattern. Two sites (luminal and basal compartments) suggestive of the onset of neoplastic transformations in germ cells were observed in intratubular seminomas. They corroborate the hypothesis that canine seminomas possibly have pathogenesis similar to that observed in human spermatocytic seminomas. The SCTs and LCTs presented high cell morphology variation. SCTs had neoplastic cells organized in five different histological arrangements. As for LCT, solid-diffuse and cystic-vascular histological patterns were the most commonly observed. Through this study, it was possible to establish some of the leading clinical, macroscopic, and histopathological aspects of testicular neoplasms diagnosed over 19 years in the area covered by the LPV-UFSM.(AU)


Este estudo teve por objetivo caracterizar a prevalência, aspectos clínicos, macroscópicos e histopatológicos dos cães acometidos por neoplasmas testiculares, a partir dos espécimes de biópsias do Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (LPV-UFSM) em 19 anos. Parâmetros quanto à idade, porte, raça dos cães acometidos também foram estabelecidos. De todos os cães com algum tipo de neoplasma submetido à análise histopatológica no LPV nesses 19 anos (n=1.900), 213 (11,2%) tinham ao menos um neoplasma testicular. Os tecidos de 190 cães (com 220 neoplasmas) estavam disponíveis para reavaliação histológica. Os cães deste estudo apresentaram diferentes tipos de neoplasmas testiculares com frequências relativamente semelhantes. Em ordem decrescente, os neoplasmas testiculares mais frequentes foram: seminomas (88/220), leydigomas (64/220), sertoliomas (61/220) e o tumor misto de células germinativas e do estroma do cordão sexual (MGSCT; 07/220). Dentre os cães com raça definida (119 casos), as raças de grande porte tiveram o maior número de casos (50/119), seguido das raças de pequeno (47/119) e médio porte (22/119). As idades dos cães acometidos por neoplasmas testiculares variaram de 10 meses a 18 anos. Aumento de volume testicular foi a manifestação clínica mais comum. Onze cães tinham informações sobre sinais clínicos sugestivos da síndrome da feminilização. Nos seminomas, houve o predomínio do padrão difuso sobre o intratubular. Dois locais (compartimentos luminal e basal) sugestivos de início das transformações neoplásicas nas células germinativas foram observados nos seminomas intratubulares, corroborando com a hipótese de que os seminomas caninos possivelmente tem patogênese semelhante à observada nos seminomas espermatocíticos humanos. Sertoliomas e leydigomas foram neoplasmas com alta variação na morfologia celular. Os sertoliomas tinham células neoplásicas dispostas em cinco arranjos histológicos distintos. Quanto aos leydigomas, os padrões histológicos sólido-difuso e cístico-vascular foram os mais comumente observados. Através deste estudo foi possível estabelecer alguns dos principais aspectos clínicos, macroscópicos e histopatológicos dos neoplasmas testiculares diagnosticados em 19 anos na área de abrangência do LPV-UFSM.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Dogs , Testicular Neoplasms/pathology , Testicular Neoplasms/veterinary , Testicular Neoplasms/epidemiology , Seminoma/veterinary , Dog Diseases/pathology , Sertoli Cell Tumor/veterinary , Leydig Cell Tumor/veterinary
3.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(1): e016319, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058011

ABSTRACT

Abstract Leishmania infantum is a trypanosomatid that causes parasitic dermatopathy in dogs. Trypanosoma caninum is another trypanosomatid, which infects the skin of dogs, although cutaneous abnormalities are absent. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of T. caninum infection and its associated cutaneous and histological changes and compare it with the occurrence of L. infantum infection in dogs. The study included 150 dogs, of which T. caninum infection was identified in 3 (2%) and L. infantum infection in 15 (10%) of them, with no association (p>0.05) of these infections with the breed, gender, age, or cutaneous abnormalities. The cutaneous abnormalities were based on 1 (4.8%) and 12 (57.1%) dogs infected by T. caninum and L. infantum, respectively. The dermatohistopathological abnormalities in the dogs infected with T. caninum included mild perivascular lymphohistioplasmacytic infiltrates in the clinically asymptomatic ones, while in those with dermatological abnormalities, acanthosis, epidermal orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis, melanomacrophages, and co-infection with Microsporum sp. and Trichophyton sp. were observed. InL. infantum infected, the histopathological findings included chronic granulomatous inflammatory infiltrates and structures compatible with amastigotes. Despite the low frequency of T. caninum infection, our findings suggest that this trypanosomatid, unlike L. infantum, does not cause any macroscopic skin abnormalities.


Resumo Leishmania infantum é um tripanosomatídeo que causa dermatopatia parasitária em cães. Trypanosoma caninum é outro tripanosomatídeo, que infecta a pele de cães, embora anormalidades cutâneas sejam ausentes. Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar a ocorrência da infecção por T. caninum e suas alterações cutâneas e histológicas associadas e compará-las com a ocorrência da infecção por L. infantum em cães. O estudo incluiu 150 cães, dos quais a infecção por T. caninum foi identificada em 3 (2%) e a infecção por L. infantum em 15 (10%) deles, sem associação (p>0,05) dessas infecções com a raça, sexo, idade ou anormalidades cutâneas. As alterações cutâneas foram observadas em 1 (4,8%) e 12 (57,1%) cães infectados por T. caninum e L. infantum, respectivamente. As anormalidades dermato-histopatológicas nos cães infectados por T. caninum incluíram infiltrados linfo-histioplasmocitários perivasculares leves nos clinicamente assintomáticos, enquanto naqueles com anormalidades dermatológicas, foram observados acantose, hiperqueratose ortoqueratótica epidermal e melanomacrófagos e co-infecção por Microsporum sp. e Trichophyton sp. Nos cães infectados por L. infantum, os achados histopatológicos incluíram infiltrados inflamatórios granulomatosos crônicos e estruturas compatíveis com amastigotas. A despeito da baixa frequência da infecção por T. caninum, nossos achados sugerem que esse tripanosomatídeo, diferentemente de L. infantum, não causa anormalidades macroscópicas na pele.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Trypanosoma/genetics , Trypanosomiasis/veterinary , Leishmania infantum/genetics , Dog Diseases/pathology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Trypanosomiasis/pathology , Trypanosomiasis/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , DNA, Protozoan/genetics , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Coinfection , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/pathology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology
4.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 27(4): 430-438, Oct.-Dec. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977936

ABSTRACT

Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a disease caused by the protozoa Leishmania infantum and can cause an inflammatory reaction in the gastrointestinal tract, however the role of granulocytic cells (neutrophils, eosinophils, and mast cells) in the intestine of dogs infected is not fully understood. We performed a quantitative analysis these cells in the intestinal wall of dogs with canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Twenty dogs were assigned to one of three groups: group 1 (G1, n=8), dogs with CVL and L. infantum amastigotes in the intestine; group 2 (G2, n=9), dogs with CVL but without intestinal amastigotes; and group 3 (G3, n=3), uninfected dogs (control group). Granulocytic cells were counted in the crypt-villus unit (mucosa), submucosa, and muscle layer of the intestinal mucosa. Cell counts were higher in the intestinal wall of dogs from G2 followed by G1 and G3 (p≤0.05). In G1, there was a low inverse correlation between parasite burden of the small intestine and granulocyte counts (r= -0.1, p≤0.01). However, in G2 dogs, mast cell and eosinophil numbers showed positive correlation (r=0.85, p≤0.01). The granulocytic cell hyperplasia observed in the intestine of L. infantum-infected dogs suggests that these cells may be involved in the cell-mediated immune response for parasite elimination.


Resumo A leishmaniose visceral (LV) é uma doença causada pelo protozoário Leishmania infantum e pode causar uma reação inflamatória no trato gastrointestinal, entretanto o papel das células granulocíticas (neutrófilos, eosinófilos e mastócitos) no intestino de cães infectados não é totalmente compreendido. Neste estudo realizamos uma análise quantitativa dessas células na parede intestinal de cães com LV. Vinte cães foram distribuídos em três grupos: grupo 1 (G1, n=8), cães com LV e amastigotas de L. infantum no intestino; grupo 2 (G2, n=9), cães com LV, mas sem amastigotas intestinais; e grupo 3 (G3, n=3), não infectados (grupo controle). Células granulocíticas foram contadas na unidade cripta-vilo (mucosa), submucosa e camada muscular da mucosa intestinal. Observamos hiperplasia dessas células na parede intestinal de cães do G2, seguidas das G1 em relação ao G3 (p≤0,05). No G1, houve uma correlação inversa baixa entre a carga parasitária do intestino delgado e a contagem de granulócitos (r= -0,1; p≤0,01). No entanto, nos cães do G2, os números de mastócitos e eosinófilos apresentaram correlação positiva (r=0,85; p≤0,01). A hiperplasia de células granulocíticas observada no intestino de cães infectados por L. infantum sugere que essas células podem estar envolvidas na resposta imune mediada por células para a eliminação do parasita.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Dogs , Leishmania infantum , Dog Diseases/pathology , Intestinal Mucosa/pathology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/pathology , Case-Control Studies , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Eosinophils/pathology , Intestinal Mucosa/parasitology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/parasitology , Mast Cells/pathology , Neutrophils/pathology
5.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 25(1): 24-36, Jan.-Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777541

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this work was a correlation study and histopathological description of alterations associated with the presence of Leishmania infantumamastigote in the intestinal wall of dogs infected with canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Three groups were used: G1 (n = 8), comprising naturally infected dogs with CVL with amastigotes of L. infantum in the small and large intestines; G2 (n = 9), infected dogs with CVL, without intestinal amastigotes; and G3 (n = 3), uninfected dogs. Histochemistry and immunohistochemistry methods were used for histopathology and amastigotes identification. 47.1% (8/17) of dogs from G1 group had amastigotes in the mucosa, submucosa and muscle layers of the small and large intestines and it was observed a prominent inflammatory reaction characterized by chronic infiltration of mononuclear cells: macrophages, lymphocytes and plasma cells. Comparison between the groups showed only a significant difference in relation to mucosal microscopic structural alterations in dogs from G1 in relation to G2 and G3. Parasite burden showed significant correlations with the microscopic alterations and clinical status of dogs in G1. By the conclusion, the inflammatory reactions caused by the parasites in the intestines might have contributed towards alterations in digestive processes, worsening the dogs’ clinical status of CVL.


Resumo O objetivo foi realizar um estudo de correlação e descrição histopatológica das lesões associadas à presença de amastigotas de Leishmania infantum na parede intestinal de cães infectados com leishmaniose visceral canina (LVC). Os cães foram subdivididos em três grupos: G1 (n = 8) cães naturalmente infectados com LVC e com amastigotas de L. infantum no intestino; G2 (n = 9) com LVC, mas sem o parasitismo intestinal; e G3 (n = 3) cães não infectados. Métodos histoquímicos e imunoistoquímicos foram utilizados para a histopatologia e a identificação das amastigotas, respectivamente. 47,1% (8/17) dos cães infectados (grupo G1) apresentavam formas amastigotas na mucosa, submucosa e camada muscular do intestino delgado e grosso, destacando-se uma reação inflamatória caracterizada por infiltrado crônico de células mononucleares; macrófagos, linfócitos e plasmócitos. Observou-se uma diferença significativa somente com relação às alterações estruturais microscópicas intestinais nos cães do G1 quando comparadas com G2 e G3. A intensidade parasitária intestinal teve correlação significativa com as alterações microscópicas e os sinais clínicos dos cães do G1. Concluiu-se que as amastigotas de L. infantum por causarem reações inflamatórias na parede intestinal dos cães podem ter contribuído para as alterações dos processos digestórios, agravando ainda mais o quadro clínico dos animais.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Leishmania infantum , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Dog Diseases/pathology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/veterinary , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Immunohistochemistry/veterinary , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/parasitology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/pathology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/parasitology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/pathology
6.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 20(4): 99-125, July-Aug. 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-757417

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Interceptive treatment of Class II, Division 1 malocclusion is a challenge orthodontists commonly face due to the different growth patterns they come across and the different treatment strategies they have available.OBJECTIVE: To report five cases of interceptive orthodontics performed with the aid of Klammt's elastic open activator (KEOA) to treat Class II, Division 1 malocclusion.METHODS: Treatment comprehends one or two phases; and the use of functional orthopedic appliances, whenever properly recommended, is able to minimize dentoskeletal discrepancies with consequent improvement in facial esthetics during the first stage of mixed dentition. The triad of diagnosis, correct appliance manufacture and patient's compliance is imperative to allow KEOA to contribute to Class II malocclusion treatment.RESULTS: Cases reported herein showed significant improvement in skeletal, dental and profile aspects, as evinced by cephalometric analysis and clinical photographs taken before, during and after interceptive orthodontics.


INTRODUÇÃO: o tratamento interceptor da má oclusão de Classe II primeira divisão é um desafio comum para os ortodontistas, em função dos diferentes padrões de crescimento que podem ser encontrados e das estratégias de tratamento disponíveis.OBJETIVO:apresentar cinco casos de interceptação da má oclusão de Classe II primeira divisão usando o ativador aberto elástico de Klammt (AAEK).MÉTODOS: o tratamento dessa má oclusão pode ser realizado em uma ou duas fases; e a utilização dos aparelhos ortopédicos funcionais, de acordo com suas indicações, pode minimizar as discrepâncias dentoesqueléticas, melhorando, consequentemente, a estética facial na primeira fase da dentição mista. O diagnóstico, a correta confecção do aparelho e a cooperação do paciente são a tríade indispensável para que o AAEK seja um coadjuvante no tratamento dessa má oclusão.RESULTADOS: os casos clínicos apresentaram melhora significativa nos aspectos esquelético, dentário e de perfil, evidenciada pelas análises cefalométricas e, no aspecto clínico, pelas fotografias pré- e trans-tratamento e após a interceptação.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Female , Male , Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms/veterinary , Adrenalectomy/veterinary , Dog Diseases/pathology , Laparoscopy/veterinary , Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms/surgery , Adrenalectomy/adverse effects , Adrenalectomy/mortality , Dog Diseases/mortality , Laparoscopy/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies
7.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 20(4): 76-81, July-Aug. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-757419

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Although much has been investigated about the effects of cervical headgear, there remains some controversy. Therefore, the objective of this systematic review is to disclose the actual effects of the cervical headgear appliance, based on articles of relevant quality.METHODS: A literature review was conducted using PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Scopus and Cochrane databases. Inclusion criteria consisted of human studies written in English; published between 1970 and 2014; in which only the cervical headgear was used to correct Class II malocclusion; prospective or retrospective; with a clear description of cervical headgear effects; with a sample size of at least 15 individuals. No comparative studies, clinical cases or cases with dental extractions were included and the sample should be homogeneous.RESULTS: Initially, 267 articles were found. A total of 42 articles were selected by title and had their abstracts read. Finally, 12 articles were classified as with high quality and were used in this systematic review.CONCLUSIONS: The cervical headgear appliance proved efficient to correct Class II, Division 1 malocclusion. Its effects consisted in correction of the maxillomandibular relationship by restriction of maxillary anterior displacement; distalization and extrusion of maxillary molars; and slight maxillary expansion.


OBJETIVO: embora muitos estudos investiguem os efeitos do AEB cervical, ainda há algumas controvérsias sobre os seus efeitos. Portanto, o objetivo desta revisão sistemática é divulgar os efeitos reais do aparelho extrabucal cervical, com base em artigos com qualidade.MÉTODOS: os artigos foram pesquisados por meio das bases de dados PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Scopus e Cochrane. Os critérios de inclusão consistiram em: estudos em humanos escritos em inglês; publicados entre 1970 e 2014; apenas o AEB cervical foi utilizado para corrigir má oclusão de Classe II; prospectivos ou retrospectivos; com uma descrição clara dos efeitos do aparelho; com um tamanho de amostra de pelo menos 15 indivíduos. Estudos comparativos, relatos de caso ou casos com extrações não foram incluídos e a amostra deveria ser homogênea.RESULTADOS: inicialmente, 267 artigos foram encontrados; e 42 artigos desses foram selecionados pelo título, tendo seus resumos lidos. Por fim, 12 artigos foram classificados como de alta qualidade e foram utilizados na presente revisão sistemática.CONCLUSÕES: o aparelho extrabucal cervical foi eficiente para corrigir a má oclusão de Classe II divisão 1. Seus efeitos são correção da relação maxilomandibular, com restrição do deslocamento anterior da maxila; distalização e extrusão dos molares superiores e ligeira expansão maxilar.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Male , Alopecia Areata/veterinary , Dog Diseases/pathology , Alopecia Areata/pathology
8.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 20(4): 63-67, July-Aug. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-757421

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess facial morphology (Pattern) and sagittal relationship between dental arches (Class), and establish a potential association between them and the variables sex, age and ethnicity, among schoolchildren aged between 4 and 9 years old (mean age of 6.7 years) in primary and mixed dentitions.METHODS: The sample comprised 875 children (457 males and 418 females) attending schools in Descalvado, São Paulo, Brazil. An attempt was made with a view to establish a potential association between children's morphological features with sex, age and ethnicity.RESULTS: Descriptive analysis revealed a predominance of facial Pattern I (69.9 %) and Class I (67.4 %). Statistical tests (p < 0.001) showed that Class I was more frequent among Pattern I children, whereas Class II prevailed among Pattern II, and Class III was frequent among Pattern I and III children. Ethnicity was the only variable associated with facial pattern.CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that facial pattern and sagittal relationship between dental arches tend to be correlated. Ethnicity was associated with facial pattern, with Pattern I being the most recurrent among Caucasians and facial Pattern II being recurrent among Afro-descendant subjects.


OBJETIVO: avaliar a morfologia facial (Padrão) e a relação sagital entre as arcadas dentárias (Classe) e determinar a associação entre sexo, idade e etnia, em escolares com 4 a 9 anos de idade (média de 6,7 anos), nas fases de dentadura decídua e mista.MÉTODOS: a amostra constou de 875 crianças (457 do sexo masculino e 418 do sexo feminino) de escolas do município de Descalvado/SP, que tiveram suas características morfológicas relacionadas ao sexo, idade e etnia.RESULTADOS: com base na análise descritiva dos dados, constatou-se que há predominância do Padrão I (69,9%) e da Classe I (67,4%). Nos testes estatísticos (p < 0,001), ficou evidente que a Classe I foi mais frequente no Padrão I; a Classe II, no Padrão II; e a Classe III, igualmente frequente nos Padrões I e III; apenas a raça teve associação com o padrão facial.CONCLUSÃO: o padrão facial e a relação sagital entre as arcadas dentárias tendem a estar relacionados, e a etnia tem associação com o padrão facial, sendo mais recorrente o Padrão I nos leucodermas e o Padrão II nos melanodermas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Male , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Heart Diseases/veterinary , Thrombosis/veterinary , Dog Diseases/pathology , Heart Atria/pathology , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Heart Diseases/drug therapy , Heart Diseases/pathology , Thrombosis/diagnosis , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Thrombosis/pathology
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-86396

ABSTRACT

The bronchoarterial (BA) ratio measured with computed tomography is widely used in human medicine to diagnose bronchial dilation or collapse. Although use of the BA ratio in veterinary medicine has been recently studied, this has not been evaluated in brachycephalic dogs predisposed to bronchial diseases including bronchial collapse. The purpose of this study was to establish BA ratios for brachycephalic dogs and compare the values with those of non-brachycephalic dogs. Twenty-three brachycephalic dogs and 15 non-brachycephalic dogs without clinical pulmonary disease were evaluated. The BA ratio of the lobar bronchi in the left and right cranial as well as the right middle, left, and right caudal lung lobes was measured. No significant difference in mean BA ratio was observed between lung lobes or the individual animals (p = 0.148). The mean BA ratio was 1.08 +/- 0.10 (99% CI = 0.98~1.18) for brachycephalic dogs and 1.51 +/- 0.05 (99% CI = 1.46~1.56) for the non-brachycephalic group. There was a significant difference between the mean BA ratios of the brachycephalic and non-brachycephalic groups (p = 0.00). Defining the normal limit of the BA ratio for brachycephalic breeds may be helpful for diagnosing bronchial disease in brachycephalic dogs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bronchial Arteries/anatomy & histology , Craniosynostoses/pathology , Dog Diseases/pathology , Dogs , Female , Lung Diseases/etiology , Male , Reference Values , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/veterinary
10.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 66(3): 763-768, 06/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-718087

ABSTRACT

Biomolecular evidence has shown that ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) may develop into invasive carcinoma of the canine mammary gland, and mutations in proto-oncogenes HER2 and EGFR; two members of the family of epidermal growth factor receptors, may be involved in this process. The purpose of this study was the characterization of the immunohistochemical expression of the EGFR and HER2 proteins in the process of neoplastic transformation, supposedly present in ductal carcinomas in situ in canine mammary glands. Fifteen cases of DCIS were evaluated, with a higher expression of HER2 and EGFR being observed in low-grade carcinomas when compared with high-grade neoplasms, and with a high positive statistical correlation in the latter. Results suggest that aggressive tumors tend to lose the expression of EGFR and HER2 simultaneously. The loss of the expression of these markers may be related to the process of neoplastic progression in canine mammary tumors...


Evidências biomoleculares sugerem que o carcinoma ductal in situ (CDIS) pode progredir para carcinoma invasor na mama canina e que mutações nos proto-oncogenes HER-2 e EGFR, dois membros da família de receptores para fatores de crescimento epidérmicos, podem estar envolvidas neste processo. A partir disso, este trabalho teve por objetivo caracterizar a expressão imuno-histoquímica das proteínas EGFR e HER-2 no processo de transformação neoplásica supostamente presente em carcinomas ductais in situ da glândula mamária canina. Foram avaliados 15 casos de CDIS, sendo observada maior expressão de HER-2 e EGFR em carcinomas de baixo grau em comparação às neoplasias de alto grau, com correlação estatística positiva alta nestes últimos. Os resultados sugerem que tumores mais agressivos tendem a perder, simultaneamente, a expressão de EGFR e HER-2. A perda na expressão desses marcadores pode estar envolvida no processo de progressão neoplásica em tumores mamários caninos...


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/veterinary , Dogs , Dog Diseases/pathology , Genes, erbB-1 , Breast Neoplasms/veterinary , Immunohistochemistry/veterinary , Proto-Oncogenes/physiology
11.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 66(2): 609-612, Jan.-Apr. 2014. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-709304

ABSTRACT

O presente estudo apresenta o comportamento do gene HER2, a partir do uso da técnica de hibridização cromogênica in situ, em hiperplasias ductais atípicas associadas a carcinomas mamários caninos positivos para HER2. Aparentemente, uma fraca expressão da proteína HER2 foi observada nas hiperplasias ductais atípicas, bem como uma ausência de amplificação do seu gene codificador nessas hiperplasias e nos carcinomas mamários associados. O comportamento da proteína HER2 e do seu gene em carcinomas mamários caninos é similar ao observado em alguns subtipos histológicos de tumores mamários humanos, e a ausência dessas alterações sugerem que esse gene poderia aparentemente não estar envolvido com os estágios iniciais de proliferação celular atípica...


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Carcinoma/genetics , Dog Diseases/pathology , /physiology , In Situ Hybridization/veterinary , Hyperplasia/genetics , Hyperplasia/veterinary , Arginine Vasopressin , Immunohistochemistry/veterinary , Mammary Neoplasms, Animal
12.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 66(2): 626-630, Jan.-Apr. 2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-709308

ABSTRACT

The present study evaluated serum levels of urea, creatinine, calcium and phosphorus in non-azothemic dogs by continued use of lactulose orally. Serum levels of urea, creatinine, calcium and phosphorus were determined in Beagle dogs, clinically healthy and without biochemical changes (non-azothemic), undergoing oral treatment with lactulose (n = 6), for a period of 30 days. The prebiotic showed no significant lowering effect on serum urea and creatinine, but the values of calcium and phosphorus, as well as their relation, were modified with reduced serum phosphorus levels in animals treated with lactulose compared to controls, with a significant difference...


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Azotemia/therapy , Azotemia/veterinary , Dog Diseases/pathology , Lactulose/administration & dosage , Calcium/metabolism , Phosphorus/metabolism
13.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 23(1): 30-35, Jan-Mar/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-707188

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to analyze morphological changes and parasite loads in the adrenal gland from 45 dogs with visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The animals were from the Zoonosis Control Center of Araçatuba, state of São Paulo, which is an endemic region for the disease. These animals were euthanized due to positive diagnoses of VL. The dogs were classified into asymptomatic, oligosymptomatic and symptomatic groups. The parasite load was determined by immunohistochemistry, using VL-positive dog hyperimmune serum. Nine dogs showed an inflammatory infiltrate composed, predominantly, of plasma cells and macrophages. However, only eight dogs showed macrophages with amastigote forms of the parasite, immunolabeled in the cytoplasm. The medullary and reticular layers were the most affected areas, possibly due to a favorable microenvironment created by hormones in these regions. The density of parasites in the glandular tissue was not associated with clinical signs of VL (P > 0.05). However, the presence of the parasite was always associated with the presence of a granulomatous inflammatory infiltrate. This gland may not be an ideal place for the parasite's multiplication, but the presence of injuries to the glandular tissue could influence the dog's immune system, thus favoring the parasite's survival in the host's different organs.


O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar as alterações morfológicas e a carga parasitária da glândula adrenal de 45 cães com leishmaniose visceral (LV). Os animais eram provenientes do Centro de Controle de Zoonoses (CCZ) de Araçatuba (SP), região endêmica para a doença. Esses animais são submetidos à eutanásia, devido ao diagnóstico positivo para LV. Os cães foram classificados nos grupos assintomático, oligossintomático e sintomático. A determinação da carga parasitária foi feita por imuno-histoquímica, com utilização de soro hiperimune de cão positivo para LV. Em nove cães, verificou-se um infiltrado inflamatório, composto predominantemente por plasmócitos e macrófagos. Entretanto, apenas oito cães apresentaram macrófagos com formas amastigotas do parasito imunomarcadas em seu citoplasma. As camadas medular e reticulada foram as mais afetadas, possivelmente por um microambiente favorável criado pelos hormônios nestas regiões. A densidade de parasitos no tecido glandular não foi relacionada com os sinais clínicos de LV (P > 0,05). No entanto, a presença do parasito sempre esteve associada à presença de infiltrado inflamatório granulomatoso. Possivelmente, essa glândula não é um sítio ideal para a multiplicação do protozoário, mas a presença de injúrias no tecido glandular poderia influenciar o sistema imune do cão, favorecendo a sobrevivência do parasito nos diferentes órgãos do hospedeiro.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Adrenal Gland Diseases/veterinary , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Dog Diseases/pathology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Adrenal Gland Diseases/parasitology , Adrenal Gland Diseases/pathology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/parasitology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/pathology , Parasite Load
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-106729

ABSTRACT

This report describes the gross, histological, and immunohistochemical features of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) with pulmonary metastases in a young dog. Sheets of pleomorphic cells supported by fibrous stroma characterized the primary mass, while metastatic nodules had a neuroendocrine pattern. Despite differing histologic features, all masses showed marked immunoreactivity against calcitonin and multiple neuroendocrine markers consistent with MTC. Although MTC is a well-recognized entity, it may be difficult to distinguish this mass from other thyroid neoplasms, necessitating immunohistochemical characterization.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine/pathology , Dog Diseases/pathology , Dogs , Female , Laryngeal Neoplasms/secondary , Lung Neoplasms/secondary , Neoplasm Metastasis , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-106728

ABSTRACT

Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping are functional magnetic resonance imaging techniques for detecting water diffusion. DWI and the ADC map were performed for intracranial lesions in two dogs. In necrotizing leukoencephalitis, cavitated lesions contained a hypointense center with a hyperintense periphery on DWI, and hyperintense signals on the ADC maps. In metastatic sarcoma, masses including a necrotic region were hypointense with DWI, and hyperintense on the ADC map with hyperintense perilesional edema on DWI and ADC map. Since DWI and ADC data reflect the altered water diffusion, they can provide additional information at the molecular level.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain/pathology , Brain Neoplasms/pathology , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging/veterinary , Dog Diseases/pathology , Dogs , Female , Leukoencephalopathies/pathology , Necrosis/veterinary , Neuroimaging/veterinary , Sarcoma/pathology
16.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 22(3): 373-378, July-Sept. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: lil-688709

ABSTRACT

Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a zoonotic disease that presents variable clinical and laboratory aspects. The aims of this study were to identify the main biochemical/hematological status of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum and to associate theses parameters with clinical forms of CVL. Blood samples were analyzed from 51 dogs, 15 uninfected (control group) and 36 infected, which were classified clinically in three groups: asymptomatic (n=12), oligosymptomatic (n=12) and symptomatic (n=12). All the infected dogs showed lower albumin/globulin ratios (A-G ratio) than the limit of reference. The mean values of total protein, urea, α-globulin 2, globulin and A-G ratio of infected dogs were outside the reference interval and differed significantly from those of the controls. Anemia was detected only in groups that showed clinical signs of the disease, and a statistical analysis indicated a significantly higher frequency of lower eritrogram in these groups than in the asymptomatic group. In addition, a significant association was observed between anemia and the presence of the symptoms, with dogs displaying higher erythrogram values showing better clinical conditions. These results provide additional evidence that the clinical forms of CVL may reflect on the erythrogram status.


A leishmaniose visceral canina (LVC) é uma zoonose com aspectos clínicos e laboratoriais variáveis. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar os principais achados hematológicos e bioquímicos em cães naturalmente infectados com Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum e associar esses parâmetros com as formas clínicas da LVC. Foram analisadas amostras sanguíneas provenientes de 51 cães, sendo 15 cães não infectados (grupo controle) e 36 infectados, os quais foram classificados clinicamente em três grupos: assintomáticos (n=12), oligossintomáticos (n=12) e sintomáticos (n=12). Todos os cães infectados apresentaram valores na relação albumina/globulina (A/G) abaixo do limite inferior de referência. Os valores médios de proteína total, uréia, α-2 globulina, globulina e A/G dos grupos de cães infectados permaneceram fora dos intervalos de referências e significativamente diferente quando comparados aos do grupo controle. Anemia foi registrada somente nos grupos de animais que manifestavam sinais clínicos da enfermidade, sendo que nas análises estatísticas constatou-se frequência significativamente maior de alterações no eritrograma quando comparados ao grupo assintomático. Associação significativa foi observada entre anemia e a presença de sinais clínicos, onde os cães com os maiores valores de eritrograma apresentavam a melhor condição clínica. Os resultados fornecem evidência adicional que as formas clínicas da LVC podem refletir no eritrograma.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Anemia/veterinary , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Leishmania infantum , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Dog Diseases/pathology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/pathology , Severity of Illness Index
17.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 55(2): 113-116, Mar-Apr/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-668859

ABSTRACT

Visceral leishmaniasis affects various organs including the kidneys; which can lead to renal failure and death. In order to verify this renal involvement, material was evaluated from 100 dogs naturally infected and with serological diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Inflammatory changes were present in 25.3% of the tubules, in 67.0% of interstitium and in 52.0% of glomeruli. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the presence of glomerulonephritis in symptomatic and oligosymptomatic dogs. The membranous and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis were the most frequent, both with 18.0% frequency, followed by focal segmental glomerulosclerosis with 14.0%. Changes such as cylindruria, tubular and fibrosis hypertrophy, periglomerular inflammatory infiltrate, and multifocal and diffuse peritubular inflammatory infiltrate were observed. The findings are consistent with those of other authors indicating that renal involvement is common in CVL and the standards of membranous and membranoploriferative glomerulonephritis, as well as the tubulointerstitial involvement, are frequent.


A leishmaniose visceral acomete vários órgãos entre eles os rins; o que pode levar a insuficiência renal e a morte. Com o objetivo de verificar este acometimento renal foram avaliados materiais de 100 cães naturalmente infectados e com diagnósticos sorológicos de leishmaniose visceral canina - LVC. As alterações inflamatórias estavam presentes em 25,3% dos túbulos, em 67,0% do interstício e em 52,0% dos glomérulos. Não houve diferença significativa (p > 0,05) entre a presença de glomerulonefrite em cães sintomáticos e oligossintomáticos. As glomerulonefrites membranosa e membrano proliferativa foram as mais freqüentes, ambas com 18,0% de freqüência seguidas da glomeruloesclerose segmentar e focal com 14,0%. Foram observadas alterações como cilindrúria, hipertrofia tubular e fibrose e infiltrados inflamatórios periglomerulares e peritubulares multifocais e difusos. Os achados concordam com os de outros autores indicando que o acometimento renal é comum na LVC e que os padrões de glomerulonefrites membranoploriferativa e membranosa; assim como o acometimento tubulointersticial são freqüentes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Female , Male , Dog Diseases/pathology , Glomerulonephritis/veterinary , Kidney/pathology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Glomerulonephritis/parasitology , Glomerulonephritis/pathology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/complications , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/pathology
18.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 55(2): 105-112, Mar-Apr/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-668863

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the sero-conversion period in which dogs from endemic areas test positive for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) as well as the early post-infection period in which renal alterations are observed. Dogs that were initially negative for Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis (CVL) were clinically evaluated every three months by serological, parasitological and biochemical tests until sero-conversion was confirmed, and six months later a subsequent evaluation was performed. Samples of kidney tissues were processed and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E), Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) and Masson’s trichrome stain and lesions were classified based on the WHO criteria. Of the 40 dogs that initially tested negative for VL, 25 (62.5%) exhibited positive serological tests during the study period. Of these 25 dogs, 15 (60%) tested positive within three months, five (20%) tested positive within six months and five (20%) tested positive within nine months. The dogs exhibited antibody titers between 1:40 and 1:80 and 72% of the dogs exhibited clinical symptoms. The Leishmania antigen was present in the kidneys of recently infected dogs. We found higher levels of total protein and globulin as well as lower levels of albumin in the infected dogs when compared to the control dogs. Additionally, infected dogs presented levels of urea and creatinine that were higher than those of the uninfected dogs. Glomerulonephritis was detected in some of the dogs examined in this study. These data suggest that in Teresina, the sero-conversion for VL occurs quickly and showed that the infected dogs presented abnormal serum proteins, as well as structural and functional alterations in the kidneys during the early post-infection period.


Este estudo investigou o período em que o cão torna-se positivo para leishmaniose visceral (VL) em área endêmica e as alterações renais no período recente pós-infecção. Cães negativos para VL foram avaliados clinicamente a cada três meses por testes sorológicos, parasitológicos e bioquímicos até a soro-conversão e seis meses após. Foram colhidos tecido renal de seis cães, submetidos a processamento de rotina e corados com HE, PAS e Masson e as lesões foram classificadas com base nos critérios da OMS. Dos 40 cães nagativos para VL, 25 (62,5%) apresentaram sorologia positiva durante o estudo. Desses, 15 (60%) tornaram-se positiva nos primeiros três meses, cinco (20%) tornaram-se positivas dentro de seis meses e cinco (20%) tornaram-se positivas dentro de nove meses. Os cães apresentavam títulos de anticorpos entre 1:40 e 1:80, e 72% mostraram sinais clínicos. Antígeno de Leishmania estava presente no rim. Foram encontrados níveis mais elevados de proteína total e globulina, e menores níveis de albumina em cães infectados quando comparados aos controles. Além disso, os cães infectados apresentaram níveis de uréia e creatinina maior do que os cães controles. Glomerulonefrite foi observada em cinco cães. Os resultados sugerem que em Teresina a soro-conversão para VL ocorre rapidamente e os cães apresentam proteínas séricas anormais e alterações na estrutura e função dos rins em um período recente pós-infecção.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Female , Male , Dog Diseases/immunology , Leishmania infantum , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Dog Diseases/pathology , Dog Diseases/physiopathology , Kidney/parasitology , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/physiopathology , Leishmania infantum/immunology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/immunology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/pathology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/physiopathology , Time Factors
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-39673

ABSTRACT

This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of a modified silk ligature twisted with wire for inducing advanced periodontitis. Periodontitis was induced in five premolars and one molar of 20 healthy dogs over a 60-day period. The dogs were divided into four groups according to the ligature-inducing materials used: soft moistened food only, wire ligature (WL), silk ligature (SL) and twisted ligature with silk and wire (SWL). Periodontal indices were recorded, and dental radiographs were taken before and after 60 days of ligation. The ligatures were checked daily and the day the ligature fell out was noted. The period during which the ligatures were maintained was significantly shorter for the SL group compared to the SWL group (p < 0.05). Results of the clinical examination showed that almost all periodontal status parameters including the plaque index, gingival index, clinical attachment level, and bleeding on probing were significantly exacerbated in the SWL group compared to the other groups (p < 0.05). Radiographic evaluation demonstrated that alveolar bone levels were significantly lower in the SWL group than the other groups on day 60 (p < 0.05). These results suggested that experimental periodontitis induced by SWL could be an effective method for investigating periodontitis in canine models.


Subject(s)
Alveolar Bone Loss/veterinary , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Animals , Dog Diseases/pathology , Dogs , Ligation/instrumentation , Materials Testing/veterinary , Pain/drug therapy , Periodontitis/pathology , Tramadol/therapeutic use
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-39670

ABSTRACT

The association of cryptorchidism, functional Sertoli cell tumors, and spermatic cord torsion has been rarely reported in the literature. Two dogs were admitted for bilateral skin alopecia and weight loss. Both animals were cryptorchid and displayed a pendulous preputial sheath, prostate hypertrophy, and increased levels of circulating oestrogen. Transabdominal palpation and ultrasonography revealed the presence of neoplastic retained gonads. During surgery, spermatic cord torsion was also detected in the enlarged neoplastic testes of both dogs. Histologic examination confirmed the presence of Sertoli cell tumors that were primarily responsible for the feminizing syndrome. Complete remission of all symptoms occurred within 3 months after orchiectomy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cryptorchidism/pathology , Dog Diseases/pathology , Dogs , Male , Sertoli Cell Tumor/pathology , Spermatic Cord Torsion/pathology , Treatment Outcome
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