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1.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 89-102, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878239

ABSTRACT

Parkinson's disease (PD), one of the most frequent neurodegenerative disorders, is characterized by the selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN). Genetic vulnerability, aging, environmental insults are believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of PD. However, the cellular and molecular mechanism of dopaminergic neurons degeneration remains incompletely understood. Dopamine (DA) metabolism is a cardinal physiological process in dopaminergic neurons, which is closely related to the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the SN. DA metabolism takes part in several pathological processes of PD neurodegeneration, such as iron metabolism disturbance, α-synuclein mis-folding, endoplasmic reticulum stress, protein degradation dysfunction, neuroinflammatory response, etc. In this review, we will describe altered DA metabolism and its contributions to PD pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Dopamine , Dopaminergic Neurons , Humans , Parkinson Disease/etiology , Substantia Nigra , alpha-Synuclein/metabolism
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 530-535, June 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098283

ABSTRACT

Dysregulated autophagy, whether excessive or downregulated, has been thought to be associated with neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease. Accordingly, the present study was carried out to investigate whether 3-methyladenine, an autophagy inhibitor, can modulate the effects of rotenone on dopaminergic neurons in primary mesencephalic cell culture. Cultures were prepared from embryonic mouse mesencephala at gestation day 14. Four groups of cultures were treated on the 10th DIV for 48 h as follows: the first was kept as an untreated control, the second was treated with 3-methyladenine alone (1, 10, 100, 200 mM), the third was treated with 20 nM rotenone and the fourth was co-treated with 20 nM rotenone and 3-methyladenine (1, 10, 100, 200 mM). On the 12th DIV, cultured cells were stained immunohistochemically against tyrosine hydroxylase and culture media were used to measure the levels of lactate dehydrogenase. 3methyladenine had no effects on both the survival of dopaminergic neurons and the release of lactate dehydrogenase. Rotenone significantly decreased the number of dopaminergic neurons and increased the levels of lactate dehydrogenase in the culture media. When cultures concomitantly treated with 3-methyladenine and rotenone, 3-methyladenine had no effect against rotenone-induced dopaminergic cell damage and lactate dehydrogenase release into the culture medium. In conclusion, the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine could not modulate rotenone-induced dopaminergic cell damage in primary mesencephalic cell culture.


Se estima que la autofagia desregulada, ya sea excesiva o con baja regulación, está asociada con trastornos neurodegenerativos, incluyendo la enfermedad de Parkinson. En consecuencia, el se realizó este estudio para investigar si la 3metiladenina, un inhibidor de la autofagia,puede modular los efectos de la rotenona en las neuronas dopaminérgicas en el cultivo primario de células mesencefálicas. Los cultivos se prepararon a partir de mesencéfalo de ratón embrionario el día 14 de gestación. Cuatro grupos de cultivos se trataron en el 10º DIV durante 48 h de la siguiente manera: el primer grupo se mantuvo como un control no tratado, el segundo se trató con 3-metiladenina sola (1, 10, 100, 200 mM), el tercer grupo se trató con rotenona 20 nM y el cuarto se trató conjuntamente con rotenona 20 nM y 3-metiladenina (1, 10, 100, 200 mM). En el 12º DIV; las células cultivadas fueron tratadas mediante tinción inmunohistoquímica en tirosina hidroxilasa y se usaron medios de cultivo para medir los niveles de lactato deshidrogenasa. La 3-metiladenina no tuvo efectos tanto en la supervivencia de las neuronas dopaminérgicas como en la liberación de lactato deshidrogenasa. La rotenona disminuyó significativamente el número de neuronas dopaminérgicas y se observó un aumento de los niveles de lactato deshidrogenasa en los medios de cultivo. Cuando los cultivos tratados concomitantemente con 3-metiladenina y rotenona, la 3metiladenina no tuvo efecto contra el daño celular dopaminérgico inducido por la rotenona y la liberación de lactato deshidrogenasa en el medio de cultivo. En conclusión, el inhibidor de la autofagia 3-metiladenina no moduló el daño celular dopaminérgico inducido por la rotenona en el cultivo celular mesencefálico primario.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Parkinson Disease , Rotenone/toxicity , Adenine/analogs & derivatives , Autophagy , Mesencephalon , Adenine/pharmacology , Cells, Cultured , Cell Death/drug effects , Dopaminergic Neurons/drug effects , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/analysis
3.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 578-592, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763788

ABSTRACT

Depending on the intracellular buffering of calcium by chelation, zinc has the following two apparent effects on neuronal excitability: enhancement or reduction. Zinc increased tonic activity in the depolarized state when neurons were intracellularly dialyzed with EGTA but attenuated the neuronal activity when BAPTA was used as an intracellular calcium buffer. This suggests that neuronal excitability can be modulated by zinc, depending on the internal calcium buffering capacity. In this study, we elucidated the mechanisms of zinc-mediated alterations in neuronal excitability and determined the effect of calcium-related channels on zinc-mediated alterations in excitability. The zinc-induced augmentation of firing activity was mediated via the inhibition of small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels with not only the contribution of voltage-gated L-type calcium channels (VGCCs) and ryanodine receptors (RyRs), but also through the activation of VGCCs via melastatin-like transient receptor potential channels. We suggest that zinc modulates the dopaminergic neuronal activity by regulating not only SK channels as calcium sensors, but also VGCCs or RyRs as calcium sources. Our results suggest that the cytosolic calcium-buffering capacity can tightly regulate zinc-induced neuronal firing patterns and that local calcium-signaling domains can determine the physiological and pathological state of synaptic activity in the dopaminergic system.


Subject(s)
Animals , Calcium , Calcium Channels, L-Type , Cytosol , Dopaminergic Neurons , Egtazic Acid , Electrophysiology , Fires , Neurons , Potassium , Rats , Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel , Transient Receptor Potential Channels , Zinc
4.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 504-515, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763777

ABSTRACT

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the late-onset neurodegenerative movement disorder. Major pathological markers of PD include progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons, Lewy body formation, genetic mutations, and environmental factors. Epigenetic regulation of specific gene expression via impaired histone acetylation is associated with neuronal dysfunction in various neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we hypothesized that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, valproic acid (VPA), can improve motor function by enhancing cell survival in PD genetic model mice with LRRK2 R1441G mutation. To address this question, we administered VPA in LRRK2 R1441G transgenic mice to determine whether VPA affects 1) histone acetylation and HDAC expression, 2) dopaminergic neuron survival, 3) inflammatory responses, 4) motor or non-motor symptoms. As results, VPA administration increased histone acetylation level and the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive neurons in substantia nigra of LRRK2 R1441G mice. VPA reduced iba-1 positive activated microglia and the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory marker genes in LRRK2 R1441G mice. In addition, VPA induced the improvement of PD-like motor and non-motor behavior in LRRK2 R1441G mice. These data suggest that the inhibition of HDAC can be further studied as potential future therapeutics for PD.


Subject(s)
Acetylation , Animals , Cell Survival , Dopaminergic Neurons , Epigenomics , Gene Expression , Histone Deacetylases , Histones , Lewy Bodies , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Microglia , Models, Genetic , Movement Disorders , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neurons , Neuroprotection , RNA, Messenger , Substantia Nigra , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase , Valproic Acid
5.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 414-424, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763764

ABSTRACT

Mitochondria continuously fuse and divide to maintain homeostasis. An impairment in the balance between the fusion and fission processes can trigger mitochondrial dysfunction. Accumulating evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction is related to neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD), with excessive mitochondrial fission in dopaminergic neurons being one of the pathological mechanisms of PD. Here, we investigated the balance between mitochondrial fusion and fission in the substantia nigra of a non-human primate model of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD. We found that MPTP induced shorter and abnormally distributed mitochondria. This phenomenon was accompanied by the activation of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), a mitochondrial fission protein, through increased phosphorylation at S616. Thereafter, we assessed for activation of the components of the cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling cascades, which are known regulators of Drp1(S616) phosphorylation. MPTP induced an increase in p25 and p35, which are required for CDK5 activation. Together, these findings suggest that the phosphorylation of Drp1(S616) by CDK5 is involved in mitochondrial fission in the substantia nigra of a non-human primate model of MPTP-induced PD.


Subject(s)
1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 , Cyclin-Dependent Kinases , Dopaminergic Neurons , Homeostasis , Mitochondria , Mitochondrial Dynamics , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Parkinson Disease , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Primates , Substantia Nigra
6.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 732-740, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777137

ABSTRACT

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, characterized by loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the dense part of the substantia nigra (SNpc). Postmortem analysis of PD patients and experimental animal studies found that microglial cell activation and increased levels of pro-inflammatory factors were common features of PD brain tissue. At the same time, the invasion and accumulation of peripheric immune cells were detected in the brain of PD patients. In this paper, peripheral inflammation across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), the misfolded α-synuclein (α-syn)-induced microglial cell activation and intracerebral inflammation in PD are summarized, providing potential therapeutic measures for delaying the onset of PD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood-Brain Barrier , Dopaminergic Neurons , Pathology , Humans , Inflammation , Pathology , Microglia , Parkinson Disease , Pathology , Substantia Nigra , Pathology , alpha-Synuclein
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763038

ABSTRACT

This study sought to evaluate the effects of Asiatic acid in LPS-induced BV2 microglia cells and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-pyridine (MPP⁺)-induced SH-SY5Y cells, to investigate the potential anti-inflammatory mechanisms of Asiatic acid in Parkinson’s disease (PD). SH-SY5Y cells were induced using MPP⁺ to establish as an in vitro model of PD, so that the effects of Asiatic acid on dopaminergic neurons could be examined. The NLRP3 inflammasome was activated in BV2 microglia cells to explore potential mechanisms for the neuroprotective effects of Asiatic acid. We showed that Asiatic acid reduced intracellular production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and altered the mitochondrial membrane potential to regulate mitochondrial dysfunction, and suppressed the NLRP3 inflammasome in microglia cells. We additionally found that treatment with Asiatic acid directly improved SH-SY5Y cell viability and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by MPP⁺. These data demonstrate that Asiatic acid both inhibits the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome by downregulating mitochondrial reactive oxygen species directly to protect dopaminergic neurons from, and improves mitochondrial dysfunction in SH-SY5Y cells, which were established as a model of Parkinson’s disease. Our finding reveals that Asiatic acid protects dopaminergic neurons from neuroinflammation by suppressing NLRP3 inflammasome activation in microglia cells as well as protecting dopaminergic neurons directly. This suggests a promising clinical use of Asiatic acid for PD therapy.


Subject(s)
Cell Survival , Dopaminergic Neurons , In Vitro Techniques , Inflammasomes , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial , Microglia , Mitochondria , Neuroprotective Agents , Reactive Oxygen Species
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739660

ABSTRACT

Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra pars compacta. In the present study, we investigated whether β-Lapachone (β-LAP), a natural naphthoquinone compound isolated from the lapacho tree (Tabebuia avellanedae), elicits neuroprotective effects in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced Parkinson's disease mouse model. β-LAP reduced the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immuno-reactive fiber loss induced by MPTP in the dorsolateral striatum, and alleviated motor dysfunction as determined by the rotarod test. In addition, β-LAP protected against MPTP-induced loss of TH positive neurons, and upregulated B-cell lymphoma 2 protein (Bcl-2) expression in the substantia nigra. Based on previous reports on the neuroprotective role of nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) in neurodegenerative diseases, we investigated whether β-LAP induces upregulation of the Nrf2-hemeoxygenae-1 (HO-1) signaling pathway molecules in MPTP-injected mouse brains. Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses indicated that β-LAP increased HO-1 expression in glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytes. Moreover, β-LAP increased the nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity of Nrf2, and the phosphorylation of upstream adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). β-LAP also increased the localization of p-AMPK and Nrf2 in astrocytes. Collectively, our data suggest that β-LAP exerts neuroprotective effect in MPTP-injected mice by upregulating the p-AMPK/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathways in astrocytes.


Subject(s)
1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine , Adenosine , Animals , Astrocytes , Blotting, Western , Brain , DNA , Dopaminergic Neurons , Lymphoma, B-Cell , Mice , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neurons , Neuroprotection , Neuroprotective Agents , Parkinson Disease , Pars Compacta , Phosphorylation , Protein Kinases , Rotarod Performance Test , Substantia Nigra , Trees , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase , Up-Regulation
9.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 289-299, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739537

ABSTRACT

Transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) on astrocytes prevents ongoing degeneration of nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) neurons in MPP⁺-lesioned rats via ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF). The present study determined whether such a beneficial effect of astrocytic TRPV1 could be achieved after completion of injury of DA neurons, rather than ongoing injury, which seems more relevant to therapeutics. To test this, the MPP⁺-lesioned rat model utilized here exhibited approximately 70~80% degeneration of nigrostriatal DA neurons that was completed at 2 weeks post medial forebrain bundle injection of MPP⁺. TRPV1 agonist, capsaicin (CAP), was intraperitoneally administered. CNTF receptor alpha neutralizing antibody (CNTFRαNAb) was nigral injected to evaluate the role of CNTF endogenously produced by astrocyte through TRPV1 activation on DA neurons. Delayed treatment of CAP produced a significant reduction in amphetamine-induced rotational asymmetry. Accompanying this behavioral recovery, CAP treatment increased CNTF levels and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), and levels of DA and its metabolites in the striatum compared to controls. Interestingly, behavioral recovery and increases in biochemical indices were not reflected in trophic changes of the DA system. Instead, behavioral recovery was temporal and dependent on the continuous presence of CAP treatment. The results suggest that delayed treatment of CAP increases nigral TH enzyme activity and striatal levels of DA and its metabolites by CNTF endogenously derived from CAP-activated astrocytes through TRPV1, leading to functional recovery. Consequently, these findings may be useful in the treatment of DA imbalances associated with Parkinson's disease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Astrocytes , Capsaicin , Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor , Dopamine , Dopaminergic Neurons , Medial Forebrain Bundle , Models, Animal , Neurons , Parkinson Disease , Pars Compacta , Rats , Receptor, Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785826

ABSTRACT

In Parkinson’s disease (PD) research, human neuroblastoma and immortalized neural cell lines have been widely used as in vitro models. The advancement in the field of reprogramming technology has provided tools for generating patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) as well as human induced neuronal progenitor cells (hiNPCs). These cells have revolutionized the field of disease modeling, especially in neural diseases. Although the direct reprogramming to hiNPCs has several advantages over differentiation after hiPSC reprogramming, such as the time required and the simple procedure, relatively few studies have utilized hiNPCs. Here, we optimized the protocol for hiNPC reprogramming using pluripotency factors and Sendai virus. In addition, we generated hiNPCs of two healthy donors, a sporadic PD patient, and a familial patient with the LRRK2 G2019S mutation (L2GS). The four hiNPC cell lines are highly proliferative, expressed NPC markers, maintained the normal karyotype, and have the differentiation potential of dopaminergic neurons. Importantly, the patient hiNPCs show different apoptotic marker expression. Thus, these hiNPCs, in addition to hiPSCs, are a favorable option to study PD pathology.


Subject(s)
Cell Line , Dopaminergic Neurons , Fibroblasts , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells , Karyotype , Neuroblastoma , Neurons , Pathology , Sendai virus , Stem Cells , Tissue Donors
11.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 315-324, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775449

ABSTRACT

The thalamostriatal pathway is implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD); however, PD-related changes in the relationship between oscillatory activity in the centromedian-parafascicular complex (CM/Pf, or the Pf in rodents) and the dorsal striatum (DS) remain unclear. Therefore, we simultaneously recorded local field potentials (LFPs) in both the Pf and DS of hemiparkinsonian and control rats during epochs of rest or treadmill walking. The dopamine-lesioned rats showed increased LFP power in the beta band (12 Hz-35 Hz) in the Pf and DS during both epochs, but decreased LFP power in the delta (0.5 Hz-3 Hz) band in the Pf during rest epochs and in the DS during both epochs, compared to control rats. In addition, exaggerated low gamma (35 Hz-70 Hz) oscillations after dopamine loss were restricted to the Pf regardless of the behavioral state. Furthermore, enhanced synchronization of LFP oscillations was found between the Pf and DS after the dopamine lesion. Significant increases occurred in the mean coherence in both theta (3 Hz-7 Hz) and beta bands, and a significant increase was also noted in the phase coherence in the beta band between the Pf and DS during rest epochs. During the treadmill walking epochs, significant increases were found in both the alpha (7 Hz-12 Hz) and beta bands for two coherence measures. Collectively, dramatic changes in the relative LFP power and coherence in the thalamostriatal pathway may underlie the dysfunction of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical network circuits in PD, contributing to some of the motor and non-motor symptoms of the disease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain Waves , Physiology , Corpus Striatum , Cortical Synchronization , Physiology , Dopaminergic Neurons , Physiology , Electrocorticography , Male , Neural Pathways , Oxidopamine , Parkinsonian Disorders , Rats, Wistar , Thalamic Nuclei , Walking , Physiology
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-813313

ABSTRACT

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative movement disorder mainly due to degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Most PD cases are sporadic and only 5%-10% of patients carry mutations with inheritance. Among them, the mutation of DJ-1 is related to the autosomal recessive early-onset parkinsonism. DJ-1, the Parkinson's disease-related protein, plays important roles in different physiopathological processes, including oxidative stress, cell translocation and regulation of transcription and translation. DJ-1 is known to be widely expressed in different areas of brain, including hippocampus, amygdala, substantia nigra and cortical areas. Several researchers have tried to demonstrate the clinical and neuroimaging features of DJ-1 related parkinsonism. The DJ-1 knockout mouse model was established to further explore the mechanisms of different functions. Moreover, the search for different forms of DJ-1 as potential biomarkers of PD also provides guidance for its accurate diagnosis and treatment in the future.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dopaminergic Neurons , Mice , Oncogene Proteins , Oxidative Stress , Parkinson Disease , Protein Deglycase DJ-1 , Substantia Nigra
13.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2018. 88 p. graf, tab, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-969405

ABSTRACT

A Doença de Parkinson (DP) é um distúrbio neurodegenerativo, caracterizada em parte pela perda de neurônios dopaminérgicos da via nigroestriatal, originada na substância negra com projeções para o estriado, causando vários déficits motores. Atualmente, o tratamento mais utilizado é a administração de L-DOPA, um análogo da dopamina. Porém, essa droga apresenta eficácia limitada e induz diversos efeitos colaterais. A exploração dos efeitos neuroprotetores, proliferativos e neuroregenerativos da bradicinina (BK) em modelo animal de DP pode conduzir à substituição celular do tecido lesionado pela 6-hidroxidopamina (6-OHDA). De fato, a BK e seus receptores possuem um grande espectro de ações fisiológicas, estando classicamente envolvida no controle da homeostase cardiovascular e inflamação, além de exercer efeitos protetores em fisiopatologias do sistema nervoso, como em modelos de acidente vascular cerebral. Vários tipos celulares têm suas vias de sinalização associadas à ativação do receptor B2 de cininas (B2BKR). Trabalhos anteriores de nosso grupo mostraram que a BK está envolvida na diferenciação neural de células progenitoras neurais por um loop autócrino que resulta em ativação do B2BKR. Os resultados apresentados neste trabalho mostram a eficácia do tratamento com BK, um agonista de B2BKR, em animais submetidos à lesão da via nigro-estriatal induzida por 6-OHDA. Além disso, há uma recuperação comportamental e histológica desses animais quando tratados com Captopril®, um potencializador dos efeitos farmacológicos da BK, e com [Phe8Ψ(CH-NH)Arg9]-Bradicinina, agonista estável do receptor B2BKR. Assim, concluímos que a ativação de B2BKR pela BK desencadeiaum processo de neuroregeneração dopaminérgica de animais submetidos à lesão por 6-OHDA. Trabalhos recentes mostram que o receptor B2BKR desempenha um importante papel neuroprotetor em modelo animal da Doença de Alzheimer, o que corrobora nossos achados. Juntos, esses resultados contribuem para o estabelecimento da ação neuroprotetora e neurorregenerativa da BK no modelo de animal de neurodegeneração dopaminérgica, tornando-a uma excelente candidata para aplicação em terapias de reparo neuronal


Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder partially characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons from the nigrostriatal pathway, originated in the substantia nigra with projections to the striatum, which causes several motor deficits. Currently, the most commonly used drug for PD treatment is levodopa. However, it has limited efficacy and induces several side effects. Elucidation of the neuroprotective, proliferative and neuroregenerative effects of bradykinin (BK) in animal models of PD can culminate in cellular replacement of the tissue damaged by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). In fact, BK and its receptor have several physiological effects, being classically involved in the control of cardiovascular homeostasis and inflammation. Besides, BK exerts protective effects on nervous system pathophysiology, as observed in stroke models. Several cell types have their signaling pathways associated with the B2 kinin receptor (B2BKR) activation. Previous work from our group showed that BK is involved in differentiation of neural progenitor cells by an autocrine loop that results in activation of B2BKR. The results presented in this thesis show the efficacy of treatment with BK, through B2BKR activation, in animals submitted to nigrostriatal pathway injury induced by 6-OH dopamine. Furthermore, behavioral and histological recoveries of these animals were observed when treated with Captopril®, a potentiator of BK pharmacological effects, and with [Phe8Ψ (CH-NH) Arg9] -BK, a stable agonist of the B2BKR receptor. Thus, we conclude that BK activation of B2BKR triggers neuroregenerative processes in animals submitted to 6- OHDA injury. Recent studies showed that the B2BKR receptor plays an important neuroprotective role in an animal model of Alzheimer's disease, which corroboratesour findings. Together, these results contribute to the establishment of the neuroprotective and neuroregenerative actions of BK - an excellent candidate for neural repair therapies


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Receptor, Bradykinin B2/analysis , Dopaminergic Neurons , Kinins/adverse effects , Parkinson Disease/drug therapy , Neurodegenerative Diseases/diagnosis , Nerve Degeneration/classification
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718083

ABSTRACT

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. Although its major manifestation is motor symptoms, resulting from the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, psychiatric symptoms, such as depression, anxiety, hallucination, delusion, apathy and anhedonia, impulsive and compulsive behaviors, and cognitive dysfunction, may also manifest in most patients with PD. Given that the quality of life — and the need for institutionalization — is so highly dependent on the psychiatric well-being of patients with PD, psychiatric symptoms are of high clinical significance. We reviewed the prevalence, risk factors, pathophysiology, and treatment of psychiatric symptoms to get a better understanding of PD for improved management.


Subject(s)
Anhedonia , Anxiety , Apathy , Compulsive Behavior , Delusions , Dementia , Depression , Dopaminergic Neurons , Hallucinations , Humans , Institutionalization , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Parkinson Disease , Prevalence , Psychotic Disorders , Quality of Life , Risk Factors , Substantia Nigra
15.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 408-418, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717372

ABSTRACT

We have previously reported a novel synthetic compound KMS99220 that prevented degeneration of the nigral dopaminergic neurons and the associated motor deficits, suggesting a neuroprotective therapeutic utility for Parkinson's disease. Microglia are closely associated with neuroinflammation, which plays a key role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of KMS99220 on the signaling involving AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the enzymes thought to regulate inflammation. KMS99220 was shown to elevate the enzyme activity of purified AMPK, and phosphorylation of cellular AMPK in BV2 microglia. It increased the level of HO-1, and this was attenuated by AMPK inhibitors. KMS99220 lowered phosphorylation of IκB, nuclear translocation of NFκB, induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase, and generation of nitric oxide in BV2 cells that had been challenged with lipopolysaccharide. This anti-inflammatory response involved HO-1, because both its pharmacological inhibition and knockdown of its expression abolished the response. The AMPK inhibitors also reversed the anti-inflammatory effects of KMS99220. The induction of HO-1 by KMS99220 occurred within 1 h, and this appeared not to involve the transcription factor Nrf2, because Nrf2 knockdown did not affect the compound's HO-1 inducing- and anti-inflammatory effects in this time window. These findings indicated that KMS99220 leads to AMPK-induced HO-1 expression in microglia, which in turn plays an important role in early anti-inflammatory signaling. Together with its neuroprotective property, KMS99220 may serve as a feasible therapeutic agent against neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration.


Subject(s)
AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Dopaminergic Neurons , Heme Oxygenase-1 , Inflammation , Microglia , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Nitric Oxide , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II , Parkinson Disease , Phosphorylation , Transcription Factors
16.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 309-319, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716236

ABSTRACT

The present study investigated the effects of interleukin (IL)-4 on dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) in vivo of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated rat. Tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry showed a significant loss of nigral DA neurons at 3 and 7 day post-LPS. In parallel, IL-4 immunoreactivity was upregulated as early as 1 day, reached a peak at 3 day and remained elevated at 7 day post-LPS. IL-4 immunoreactivity was detected exclusively in microglia. IL-4 neutralizing antibody (NA) significantly increased survival of DA neurons in LPS-treated SN in vivo by inhibiting microglial activation and production of proinflammatory mediator such as IL-1β as assessed by immunihistochemical, RT-PCR and ELISA analysis, respectively. Accompanying neuroprotection are IL-4NA effects on decreased disruption of blood-brain barrier and astrocytes. The present data suggest that endogenously expressed IL-4 from reactive microglia may be involved in the neuropathological processes of degeneration of DA neurons occurring in Parkinson's disease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Astrocytes , Blood-Brain Barrier , Dopamine , Dopaminergic Neurons , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Immunohistochemistry , Interleukin-4 , Interleukins , Lipopolysaccharides , Microglia , Neurons , Neuroprotection , Parkinson Disease , Rats , Substantia Nigra , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase
17.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 849-853, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775507

ABSTRACT

As an environmental risk factor, psychological stress may trigger the onset or accelerate the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we evaluated the effects of acute restraint stress on striatal dopaminergic terminals and the brain metabolism of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), which has been widely used for creating a mouse model of PD. Exposure to 2 h of restraint stress immediately after injection of a low dose of MPTP caused a severe loss of striatal dopaminergic terminals as indicated by decreases in the dopamine transporter protein and dopamine levels compared with MPTP administration alone. Both striatal 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP) and MPTP concentrations were significantly increased by the application of restraint stress. Striatal monoamine oxidase-B, which catalyzes the oxidation of MPTP to MPP, was not changed by the restraint stress. Our results indicate that the enhanced striatal dopaminergic terminal loss in the stressed mice is associated with an increase in the transport of neurotoxin into the brain.


Subject(s)
1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine , Metabolism , 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium , Metabolism , Animals , Corpus Striatum , Metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Dopaminergic Neurons , MPTP Poisoning , Metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Neurotoxins , Metabolism , Restraint, Physical , Stress, Psychological , Metabolism
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775290

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of curcumin on dopamine neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD) and its mechanism.@*METHODS@#SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells were treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) to establish the PD cell model. The model cells were treated with curcumin and/or autophagy inhibitor 3-MA. After 48 h of drug treatment, the number of surviving dopamine neurons was detected by tyrosine hydroxylase immunofluorescence method. Western blotting was used to detect protein expression of α-Synuclein (α-Syn), transcription factor EB (TFEB) and autophagy-related proteins lysosome-associated membrane protein 2A (LAMP2A) and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-Ⅱ(LC3-Ⅱ); RT-PCR was used to detect mRNA expression of α-Syn.@*RESULTS@#Compared with MPTP model group, curcumin increased the number of surviving dopamine neurons(<0.01), decreased both protein expression and mRNA expression of α-Syn (all <0.01), and increased protein expression of TFEB, LAMP2A and LC3-Ⅱ (all <0.01). When curcumin and 3-MA were given concurrently, the number of surviving dopamine neurons, protein expression of TFEB, LAMP2A and LC3-Ⅱ increased (<0.05 or <0.01), and both protein expression and mRNA expression of α-Syn decreased (<0.05 or <0.01) compared with MPTP model group; but the number of surviving dopamine neurons and protein expression of LAMP2A and LC3-Ⅱ decreased compared with curcumin group (all <0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Curcumin exerts protective effect on dopamine neurons in PD, which may be associated with enhancing autophagy and promoting the clearance of α-Syn.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Line , Curcumin , Pharmacology , Dopaminergic Neurons , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Parkinson Disease , alpha-Synuclein , Metabolism
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728031

ABSTRACT

GABAergic control over dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra is crucial for determining firing rates and patterns. Although GABA activates both GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors distributed throughout the somatodendritic tree, it is currently unclear how regional GABA receptors in the soma and dendritic compartments regulate spontaneous firing. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine actions of regional GABA receptors on spontaneous firing in acutely dissociated DA neurons from the rat using patch-clamp and local GABA-uncaging techniques. Agonists and antagonists experiments showed that activation of either GABA(A) receptors or GABA(B) receptors in DA neurons is enough to completely abolish spontaneous firing. Local GABA-uncaging along the somatodendritic tree revealed that activation of regional GABA receptors limited within the soma, proximal, or distal dendritic region, can completely suppress spontaneous firing. However, activation of either GABA(A) or GABA(B) receptor equally suppressed spontaneous firing in the soma, whereas GABA(B) receptor inhibited spontaneous firing more strongly than GABA(A) receptor in the proximal and distal dendrites. These regional differences of GABA signals between the soma and dendritic compartments could contribute to our understanding of many diverse and complex actions of GABA in midbrain DA neurons.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carisoprodol , Dendrites , Dopamine , Dopaminergic Neurons , Fires , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid , Mesencephalon , Neurons , Rats , Receptors, GABA , Receptors, GABA-A , Substantia Nigra , Trees
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-38089

ABSTRACT

Parkinson's disease (PD), the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer's disease, is characterized by the loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons. PD leads to a series of clinical symptoms, including motor and non-motor disturbances. α-synuclein, the major component of Lewy bodies, is a hallmark lesion in PD. In this review, we concentrate on presenting the latest research on the structure, distribution, and function of α-synuclein, and its interactions with PD. We also summarize the clinic applications of α-synuclein, which suggest its use as a biomarker, and the latest progress in α-synuclein therapy.


Subject(s)
alpha-Synuclein , Alzheimer Disease , Dopaminergic Neurons , Lewy Bodies , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Parkinson Disease
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