Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 3.856
Filter
1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880354

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Periploca aphylla is used by local population and indigenous medicine practitioners as stomachic, tonic, antitumor, antiulcer, and for treatment of inflammatory disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate antidiabetic effect of the extract of P. aphylla and to investigate antioxidant and hypolipidemic activity in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.@*METHODS@#The present research was conducted to evaluate the antihyperglycemic potential of methanol extract of P. aphylla (PAM) and subfractions n-hexane (PAH), chloroform (PAC), ethyl acetate (PAE), n-butanol (PAB), and aqueous (PAA) in glucose-overloaded hyperglycemic Sprague-Dawley rats. Based on the efficacy, PAB (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) was tested for its antidiabetic activity in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced via intraperitoneal injection of STZ (55 mg/kg) in rat. Blood glucose values were taken weekly. HPLC-DAD analysis of PAB was carried out for the presence of various polyphenols.@*RESULTS@#HPLC-DAD analysis of PAB recorded the presence of rutin, catechin, caffeic acid, and myricetin. Oral administration of PAB at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg for 21 days significantly restored (P < 0.01) body weight (%) and relative liver and relative kidney weight of diabetic rats. Diabetic control rats showed significant elevation (P < 0.01) of AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, creatinine, total bilirubin, and BUN while reduced (P < 0.01) level of glucose, total protein, albumin, insulin, and HDL in serum. Count of blood cells and hematological parameters were altered in diabetic rats. Further, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and total soluble protein concentration decreased while concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and percent DNA damages increased (P < 0.01) in liver and renal tissues of diabetic rats. Histopathological damage scores increased in liver and kidney tissues of diabetic rats. Intake of PAB (400 mg/kg) resulted in significant improvement (P < 0.01) of above parameters, and results were comparable to that of standard drug glibenclamide.@*CONCLUSION@#The result suggests the antihyperglycemic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of PAB treatment in STZ-compelled diabetic rat. PAB might be used as new therapeutic agent in diabetic patients to manage diabetes and decrease the complications.


Subject(s)
1-Butanol/chemistry , Administration, Oral , Animals , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Hypoglycemic Agents/chemistry , Male , Periploca/chemistry , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Streptozocin/adverse effects
2.
Rev. cuba. med ; 59(4): e1388, oct.-dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1144502

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La obesidad está asociada al uso frecuente de medicación de rescate y padecer asma de mayor gravedad. Los obesos asmáticos tienen menor reactividad bronquial, sin embargo, existe información limitada sobre la magnitud de la reversibilidad aguda al broncodilatador (RAB). Objetivo: Evaluar la magnitud de respuesta aguda al broncodilatador en pacientes asmáticos sobrepesos y obesos. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal con 49 pacientes asmáticos sobrepesos y obesos atendidos en consulta externa del Hospital Neumológico Benéfico Jurídico (enero 2017˗ enero 2018) y se constató mediante espirometría la respuesta aguda al broncodilatador. Resultados: Predominó la edad (40-59 años), mayor asociación de padecer asma, poca mejoría con la aplicación del broncodilatador. El sexo femenino (20-59 años) presentó mayor número que el masculino y menor reversibilidad al broncodilatador. Los pacientes con antecedentes patológicos familiares de asma o atopia representaron 73,5 por ciento del total. El 76,5 por ciento de los obesos no presentó mejoría con la aplicación del broncodilatador. Predominó la categoría de gravedad persistente moderada. Conclusiones: El sexo femenino tiene más riesgo de padecer asma y no tener mejoría al aplicar el broncodilatador. Los obesos mayores de 40 años tienen mayor riesgo de no presentar reversibilidad aguda al broncodilatador. Los antecedentes patológicos familiares de asma o atopia y personales de otras enfermedades no predisponen a menor reversibilidad aguda al broncodilatador. La gravedad del asma no influye en la reversibilidad aguda al broncodilatador(AU)


Introduction: Obesity is associated with the frequent use of rescue medication and suffering from more severe asthma. Obese asthmatics have less bronchial reactivity, however, there is limited information on the magnitude of acute bronchodilator reversibility. Objective: To assess the magnitude of the acute response to the bronchodilator in overweight and obese asthmatic patients. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in 49 overweight and obese asthmatic patients seen in the outpatient clinic at Benéfico Jurídico Pneumologic Hospital from January 2017 to January 2018, and the acute response to bronchodilator was verified by spirometry. Results: Age predominated (40-59 years), greater association of suffering from asthma, and little improvement with the use of bronchodilator. The female sex (20-59 years) showed greater number than the male and less reversibility to bronchodilator. Patients with family pathological history of asthma or atopy represented 73.5 percent of the total. 76.5 percent of the obese did not show improvement with the use of bronchodilator. The category of moderate persistent severity predominated. Conclusions: The female sex has greater risk of suffering from asthma and has no improvement when applying bronchodilator. Obese individuals over 40 years of age have higher risk of not having acute reversibility to the bronchodilator. Family pathological history of asthma or atopy and personal history of other diseases do not predispose to less acute reversibility of bronchodilator. The severity of asthma does not influence acute reversibility to bronchodilator(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Bronchodilator Agents/therapeutic use , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Obesity/complications , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
3.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(5): 684-690, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144266

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El primer año de vida es un periodo de riesgo de deficiencia de vitamina D (VD). La administración de 400 UI diarias de VD no tiene una adherencia del 100%, en cambio dosis únicas de 100.000 UI de VD oral son seguras en recién nacidos. OBJETIVO: Comparar el efecto de la suplementación oral de VD en dosis única de 100.000 UI al mes de edad vs dosis diarias de 400 UI sobre las concentraciones séricas de VD, a los 6 meses de vida. SUJETOS Y MÉTODOS: Ensayo clínico aleatorizado, sin enmascaramiento. Se incluyeron 84 lactantes sanos de 1 mes de vida, asignados al azar al grupo de estudio (GE) que recibió una dosis única de VD de 100.000 UI oral o al grupo control (GC), que recibió dosis diarias de VD de 400 UI oral del 1er al 6to mes de vida. A los 6 meses de edad se determinó la concentración sérica de VD. RESULTADOS: 65 lactantes terminaron el estudio, 36 en GE y 29 en GC. No se encontró deficiencia de VD. La insuficiencia de VD fue de 5,5% y 6,8% en el GE y GC, respectivamente. La concentración sérica de VD a los 6 meses de vida, fue de 38,8 ± 5,2 ng/ml y 39,7 ± 6,3 ng/ml para GE y GC, respectivamente (NS). CONCLUSIONES: La suplementación con 100.000 UI de VD única al mes de edad logra concentraciones séricas de VD a los 6 meses de vida, similares a dosis diarias de 400 UI de VD, del 1er al 6to mes.


INTRODUCTION: Infants are a group at risk of vitamin D (VD) deficiency. The administration of 400 IU of VD per day during the first year of life does not achieve 100% adherence. A single dose of 100,000 IU of oral VD is safe in newborns. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of oral administration of VD between a single dose of 100,000 IU at one month of age vs daily doses of 400 IU on serum concentrations of VD, at 6 months of age. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: Randomized clinical trial, without masking. 84 healthy infants were included at 1 month of age, randomized to the study group (SG) receiving a single oral dose of 100,000 IU or to the control group (CG), who received daily oral doses of VD of 400 IU from the 1st to the 6th month of life. At 6 months of life, the serum concentration of VD was determined. RESULTS: 65 infants completed the study, 36 in SG and 29 in CG. No VD deficiency was found. VD insufficient was 5.5% and 6.8% in the SG and CG, respectively. The serum concentration of VD at six months of age was 38.8 ± 5.2 ng/ml and 39.7 ± 6.3 ng/ml for the SG and CG, respectively (NS). CONCLUSIONS: Supplementation of 100,000 IU of VD at one month age achieves serum concentrations of VD at 6 months of life similar to the administration of daily doses of 400 IU of VD from the 1st to the 6th month.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Vitamin D Deficiency/prevention & control , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Dietary Supplements , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/diagnosis , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Drug Administration Schedule , Biomarkers/blood , Nutritional Status , Administration, Oral , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
4.
Rev. cuba. med ; 59(2): e1358, abr.-jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1139049

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El cáncer de pulmón constituye una de las principales causas de muerte en Cuba. La mayoría de los enfermos acuden al servicio de salud en etapa avanzada de la enfermedad, la poliquimioterapia es uno de los tratamientos utilizados. Objetivos: Evaluar la respuesta al tratamiento con cisplatino-etopósido vs cisplatino-paclitaxel, en pacientes con carcinoma no microcítico en estadios avanzado de la enfermedad. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, prospectivo, en 40 pacientes diagnosticados con carcinoma no microcítico en estado avanzado de la enfermedad, que fueron asignados de forma aleatoria a uno de los dos grupos de tratamiento de cisplatino + etopósido (n=20) y cisplatino + paclitaxel (n=20) en el Hospital Neumológico Benéfico Jurídico en el período comprendido desde enero de 2017 a septiembre de 2018. Resultados: Predominaron pacientes del sexo masculino entre 50 a 69 años de edad, 37,5 por ciento en estadio IV. En 72,5 por ciento de los pacientes se encontró una respuesta clínica al tratamiento, en la modalidad de cisplatino + etopósido 70 por ciento y en cisplatino + paclitaxel 75 por ciento respectivamente. Se observó un porcentaje similar de respuesta objetiva antitumoral, 32,5 por ciento de los pacientes tuvieron una reducción parcial de la lesión tumoral, mientras que en otro 32,5 por ciento se observó estabilidad de la enfermedad. Por el contrario, en 35 por ciento restante hubo progresión de la enfermedad. Conclusiones: Se concluye que ambas modalidades tienen una efectividad similar en la evolución clínico-radiológica de los enfermos de carcinoma no microcítico en etapa avanzada(AU)


Introduction: Lung cancer constitutes one of the main causes of death in Cuba. Most of the patients come to the health service at an advanced stage of the disease. Polychemotherapy is one of the treatments used. Objectives: To assess the response to treatment with cisplatin-etoposide vs. cisplatin-paclitaxel, in patients with advanced non-small cell carcinoma. Methods: A descriptive, prospective study was conducted in 40 patients diagnosed with advanced non-small cell carcinoma. They were randomly assigned to one of the two treatment groups: cisplatin + etoposide (n = 20) and cisplatin. + paclitaxel (n = 20) at the Pneumologic Hospital from January 2017 to September 2018. Results: Male patients predominated, ages ranged between 50 and 69 years, 37.5 percent were in stage IV. Clinical response to treatment was found in 72.5 percent of patients, that is, 70 percent in the modality of cisplatin + etoposide and 75 percent in cisplatin + paclitaxel. Similar percentage of objective antitumor response was observed, that is, 32.5 percent of the patients had partial reduction of the tumor lesion, while disease stability was observed in 32.5 percent . In contrast, in the remaining 35.0 percent , disease progression was observed. Conclusions: Both modalities are concluded to have similar effectiveness in the clinical-radiological evolution of persons suffering from non-microcytic carcinoma in advanced stage(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Prospective Studies , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
5.
J. health med. sci. (Print) ; 6(1): 21-27, ene.-mar. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1096529

ABSTRACT

El cáncer de mama es una de las patologías más frecuentes a nivel mundial y en el Ecuador ocupa un sitio importante dentro de la mortalidad; en pacientes con tumores de estadios avanzados la quimioterapia neodyuvante es el procedimiento indicado para lograr una reducción tumoral satisfactoria. El objetivo fue determinar la respuesta clínica y patológica en pacientes con cáncer de mama tratadas con quimioterapia neoadyuvante según cada subtipo molecular, atendidos en el hospital "Teodoro Maldonado Carbo" en el período 2015 a 2017. Se hizo uso de un diseño no experimental, transversal de tipo correlacional. Pacientes con cáncer de mama que recibieron neoadyuvancia, en su mayoría con quimioterapia basada en antraciclinas y taxanos. Se clasificó a las pacientes por sus subtipos moleculares, los mismos se obtuvieron en base a las características inmunohistoquímicas de los reportes de patología que constan en el sistema AS-400. Se comprobó la respuesta clínica al tratamiento usando los Criterios RECIST 1.1. Como resultado los 171 pacientes fueron analizados. La edad promedio de las pacientes fue 55 13 años de edad; el 25% fueron luminal B (HER+), 24% luminal B (HER-), 22% triple negativo, 18% HER2+ y 12% luminal A; el 52% de las pacientes tuvieron estadio III de la enfermedad; el 75% (129) de las pacientes fue realizada una mastectomía radical modificada. Se pudo concluir que la respuesta patológica completa en pacientes con tratamiento neoadyuvante se relaciona con los subtipos moleculares y esto es estadísticamente significativo. Además, se evidenció las mayores tasas de respuesta patológica completa en los grupos moleculares de HER2+ y triple negativo.


Breast cancer is one of the most frequent pathologies worldwide and in Ecuador it occupies an important place in mortality. In patients with advanced stage tumors, the neo-adjuvant chemotherapy is the indicated procedure to achieve a satisfactory tumor reduction. The aim was to determine the clinical and pathological response in patients with breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy according to each molecular subtype, treated at the "Teodoro Maldonado Carbo" hospital in the period 2015 to 2017. We used a non-experimental, crosssectional type design. Patients with breast cancer who received neoadjuvant, mostly with chemotherapy based on anthracyclines and taxanes. The patients were classified by their molecular subtypes, they were obtained based on the immunohistochemical characteristics of the pathology reports that appear in the AS-400 system. The clinical response to treatment was checked using the RECIST 1.1 Criteria. As a result, a sum of 171 patients were analyzed. The average age of the patients was 55 + 13 years old; 25% were luminal B (Her +), 24% luminal B (Her-), 22% triple negative, 18% Her2 + and 12% luminal A; 52% of the patients had stage III of the disease; 75% (129) of the patients underwent a modified radical mastectomy. As a conclusion, the complete pathological response in patients with neoadjuvant treatment is related to molecular subtypes and this is statistically significant. Also, the highest rates of complete pathological response in the molecular groups of Her2 + and triple negative were evident.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Anthracyclines/therapeutic use , Taxoids/therapeutic use , Breast Neoplasms/classification , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Therapy, Combination
6.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 114(2): 295-303, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088850

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Cigarette smoking is usually associated with hypertension and may modify vasoconstrictor response. Objective: The present study aimed to analyze and compare the interaction of passive cigarette smoking and hypertension on epinephrine and felypressin blood pressure effects after intravascular injection. Method: 45-day male Wistar rats had the main left renal artery partially constricted and the right kidney removed (1K1C model). Rats were placed in the chamber for exposition to passive cigarette smoking (10 cigarettes) during 10 min (6 days a week). Hypertensive rats received atenolol (90 mg/kg/day) by gavage for two weeks. Hypotensive and hypertensive response, response duration and heart rate were recorded from direct blood pressure values. The significance level was 5%. Results: Passive cigarette smoking increased maximal hypertensive response to epinephrine in normotensive and 1K1C-atenolol treated rats and to felypressin only in 1K1C-atenolol treated rats; it also reduced epinephrine hypotensive response. Epinephrine increased heart rate in normotensive and hypertensive passive smokers or non-smoker rats. Comparing the two vasoconstrictors, epinephrine showed greater hypertensive response in normotensive smokers, 1K1C-atenolol treated smokers and non-smokers. However, in normotensive-nonsmoker rats, felypressin showed a greater and longer hypertensive effect. Conclusions: Our results suggest that passive cigarette smoking may reduce epinephrine vasodilation and increase hypertensive response when compared to felypressin. Therefore, felypressin may be safe for hypertensive patients to avoid tachycardia and atenolol interaction, but for normotensive and non-smoker patients, epinephrine may be safer than felypressin.


Resumo Fundamento: O tabagismo geralmente está associado à hipertensão e pode modificar a resposta vasoconstritora. Objetivo: O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar e comparar a interação do tabagismo passivo e hipertensão sobre os efeitos da epinefrina e felipressina na pressão arterial após injeção intravascular. Métodos: Ratos Wistar machos de 45 dias tiveram a artéria renal principal esquerda parcialmente obstruída e o rim direito removido (modelo 1K1C). Os ratos foram colocados na câmara para exposição ao tabagismo passivo (10 cigarros) durante 10 minutos (6 dias por semana). Ratos hipertensos receberam atenolol (90 mg/kg/dia) por gavagem durante duas semanas. A resposta hipotensora e hipertensiva, a duração da resposta e a frequência cardíaca foram registradas a partir da medida dos valores diretos da pressão arterial. O nível de significância foi de 5%. Resultados: O tabagismo passivo aumentou a resposta hipertensiva máxima à epinefrina em ratos normotensos e ratos 1K1C tratados com atenolol e à felipressina apenas em ratos 1K1C tratados com atenolol; também reduziu a resposta hipotensiva à epinefrina. A epinefrina aumentou a frequência cardíaca em ratos fumantes passivos ou não-fumantes, normotensos e hipertensos. Comparando os dois vasoconstritores, a epinefrina apresentou maior resposta hipertensiva em fumantes normotensos, ratos 1K1C fumantes e não fumantes tratados com atenolol. No entanto, em ratos normotensos e não fumantes, a felipressina apresentou um efeito hipertensivo maior e mais prolongado. Conclusões: Nossos resultados sugerem que o tabagismo passivo pode reduzir a vasodilatação da epinefrina e aumentar a resposta hipertensiva quando comparado à felipressina. Portanto, a felipressina pode ser segura para pacientes hipertensos, com o objetivo de evitar a interação entre taquicardia e atenolol, mas para pacientes normotensos e não-fumantes, a epinefrina pode ser mais segura que a felipressina.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Atenolol/pharmacology , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Epinephrine/pharmacology , Felypressin/pharmacology , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , Time Factors , Vasoconstrictor Agents/pharmacology , Vasodilation/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Interactions , Heart Rate/drug effects , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypotension
7.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1258614

ABSTRACT

Background: The accuracy of drug dosing calculations during medical emergencies in children has not been evaluated extensively. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the accuracy of drug dose calculations using the Broselow tape, the PAWPER XL tape plus its companion drug-dosing guide, a custom-designed mobile phone app and no drug-dosing aid (control group). Methods: This was a prospective study in which 32 emergency medicine volunteers participated in eight simulations of common paediatric emergency conditions, using children models. The participants used the three methods to estimate the children's weight and calculate drug doses. The accuracy of and time taken for the drug dose determinations were then evaluated for each of the methods. Results: The overall accuracy of drug dose determinations was extremely and potentially dangerously low in the control group in which no dosing guide was used as well as in the Broselow tape group (<20% of doses were correct). The accuracy was significantly higher with the PAWPER XL tape group and the mobile app group (47% and 31% respectively). The times taken to obtain the required information did not differ in a clinically meaningful magnitude. Conclusions: Both an accurate weight estimation and a dosing guide with comprehensive information were necessary to produce an accurate prescription. The information on the Broselow tape was not sufficient for this purpose. The current guidelines recommending the use of tapes with limited information should be revised. The results from the comprehensive dosing guides were substantially better, but still had a lower proportion of accurate prescriptions than desirable. The role of training in every aspect of the emergency paediatric weight estimation and drug dosing procedure cannot be underestimated and should be routine in any environment where emergency care may be needed


Subject(s)
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Emergency Medicine , Pediatric Emergency Medicine , Resuscitation , South Africa
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828999

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To verify the health advisory for short-term exposure to phenol.@*Methods@#The method of this validation experiment was the same as the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology for toxicology experiments used to determine phenol drinking water equivalent level (DWEL). Pregnant female Sprague-Dawley rats were administered phenol in distilled water by gavage at daily doses of 15, 30, 60, 120, and 240 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) from implantation (the 6th day post-mating) to the day prior to the scheduled caesarean section (the 20th day of pregnancy). The following information was recorded: general behavior; body weight; number of corpus luteum, live birth, fetus, stillbirth, and implantation; fetal gender; body weight; body length; tail length; and abnormalities and pathomorphological changes in the dams.@*Results@#In the 60 mg/kg b.w. dose group, the mortality of pregnant rats increased with increasing doses, suggesting maternal toxicity. Fetal and placental weights decreased as phenol dose increased from 30 mg/kg b.w., and were significantly different compared those in the vehicle control group, which suggested developmental toxicity in the fetuses. However, the phenol-exposed groups showed no significant change in other parameters compared with the vehicle control group ( > 0.05).@*Conclusion@#Despite using the same method as the US EPA, a different NOEAL of 15 mg/(kg·d) was obtained in this study.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Environmental Pollutants , Toxicity , Female , Fetal Development , Phenol , Toxicity , Pregnancy , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Toxicity Tests, Acute
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828315

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the accuracy of five warfarin-dosing algorithms and warfarin stable dose model (2.5 mg/day) for Shandong population.@*METHODS@#One hundred and twenty five patients who achieved stable warfarin dose were enrolled. Clinical and genetic data were used to evaluate the value of each algorithm by calculating the percentage of patients whose predicted warfarin dose was within 20% of the actual stable therapeutic dose and mean absolute error (MAE).@*RESULTS@#The frequency of patients with CYP2C9*1/*1, CYP2C9*1/*3 and CYP2C9*1/*2 genotype was 92.00%, 7.20%, 0.80%, respectively. That of VKORC1-1639 AA, AG and GG genotype was 82.40%, 15.20%, 2.40%, respectively. CYP4F2*1/*1, *1/*3, *3/*3 genotype was 50.40%, 39.20%, 10.40%, respectively. With the same genotypes for other loci, patients who carried at least one VKORC1-16398G mutant allele had increased warfarin stable daily dose compared with VKORC1-1639AA. Compared with CYP4F2*1/*1, those carrying at least one CYP4F2*3 mutant allele had warfarin stable daily dose increased by 5.9%-13.00%. The percentage of ideal prediction calculated from IWPC model (59.20%), Huang model (57.60%) and Ohno model (52.80%) were higher than others. The MAE were 0.35 (95%CI: 0.11-0.49), 0.15 (95%CI: 0.10-0.32), 0.39 (95%CI: 0.12-0.51), respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#The polymorphisms of CYP2C9, VKORC1 and CYP4F2 genes can influence the stable dose of warfarin in Shandong population. IWPC algorithm is suitable for guiding the use of warfarin in this population.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants , Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9 , Genetics , Cytochrome P450 Family 4 , Genetics , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Genotype , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Polymorphism, Genetic , Vitamin K Epoxide Reductases , Genetics , Warfarin
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827441

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To develop a new Chinese medicine (CM)-based drug and to evaluate its safety and effect for suppressing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in COVID-19 patients.@*METHODS@#A putative ARDS-suppressing drug Keguan-1 was first developed and then evaluated by a randomized, controlled two-arm trial. The two arms of the trial consist of a control therapy (alpha interferon inhalation, 50 µg twice daily; and lopinavir/ritonavir, 400 and 100 mg twice daily, respectively) and a testing therapy (control therapy plus Keguan-1 19.4 g twice daily) by random number table at 1:1 ratio with 24 cases each group. After 2-week treatment, adverse events, time to fever resolution, ARDS development, and lung injury on newly diagnosed COVID-19 patients were assessed.@*RESULTS@#An analysis of the data from the first 30 participants showed that the control arm and the testing arm did not exhibit any significant differences in terms of adverse events. Based on this result, the study was expanded to include a total of 48 participants (24 cases each arm). The results show that compared with the control arm, the testing arm exhibited a significant improvement in time to fever resolution (P=0.035), and a significant reduction in the development of ARDS (P=0.048).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Keguan-1-based integrative therapy was safe and superior to the standard therapy in suppressing the development of ARDS in COVID-19 patients. (Trial registration No. NCT04251871 at www.clinicaltrials.gov ).


Subject(s)
Administration, Inhalation , Adult , China , Coronavirus Infections , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Mortality , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Administration Schedule , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Integrative Medicine , Interferon-alpha , Lopinavir , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Mortality , Risk Assessment , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Mortality , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827259

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#We previously demonstrated that continuous exposure to nitrous acid gas (HONO) for 4 weeks, at a concentration of 3.6 parts per million (ppm), induced pulmonary emphysema-like alterations in guinea pigs. In addition, we found that HONO affected asthma symptoms, based on the measurement of respiratory function in rats exposed to 5.8 ppm HONO. This study aimed to investigate the dose-response effects of HONO exposure on the histopathological alterations in the respiratory tract of guinea pigs to determine the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) of HONO.@*METHODS@#We continuously exposed male Hartley guinea pigs (n = 5) to four different concentrations of HONO (0.0, 0.1, 0.4, and 1.7 ppm) for 4 weeks (24 h/day). We performed histopathological analysis by observing lung tissue samples. We examined samples from three guinea pigs in each group under a light microscope and measured the alveolar mean linear intercept (Lm) and the thickness of the bronchial smooth muscle layer. We further examined samples from two guinea pigs in each group under a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM).@*RESULTS@#We observed the following dose-dependent changes: pulmonary emphysema-like alterations in the centriacinar regions of alveolar ducts, significant increase in Lm in the 1.7 ppm HONO-exposure group, tendency for hyperplasia and pseudostratification of bronchial epithelial cells, and extension of the bronchial epithelial cells and smooth muscle cells in the alveolar duct regions.@*CONCLUSIONS@#These histopathological findings suggest that the LOAEL of HONO is < 0.1 ppm.


Subject(s)
Alveolar Epithelial Cells , Animals , Bronchi , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Emphysema , Epithelial Cells , Guinea Pigs , Hyperplasia , Inhalation Exposure , Lung , Pathology , Male , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Nitrous Acid , Toxicity
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827079

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To develop a new Chinese medicine (CM)-based drug and to evaluate its safety and effect for suppressing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in COVID-19 patients.@*METHODS@#A putative ARDS-suppressing drug Keguan-1 was first developed and then evaluated by a randomized, controlled two-arm trial. The two arms of the trial consist of a control therapy (alpha interferon inhalation, 50 µg twice daily; and lopinavir/ritonavir, 400 and 100 mg twice daily, respectively) and a testing therapy (control therapy plus Keguan-1 19.4 g twice daily) by random number table at 1:1 ratio with 24 cases each group. After 2-week treatment, adverse events, time to fever resolution, ARDS development, and lung injury on newly diagnosed COVID-19 patients were assessed.@*RESULTS@#An analysis of the data from the first 30 participants showed that the control arm and the testing arm did not exhibit any significant differences in terms of adverse events. Based on this result, the study was expanded to include a total of 48 participants (24 cases each arm). The results show that compared with the control arm, the testing arm exhibited a significant improvement in time to fever resolution (P=0.035), and a significant reduction in the development of ARDS (P=0.048).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Keguan-1-based integrative therapy was safe and superior to the standard therapy in suppressing the development of ARDS in COVID-19 patients. (Trial registration No. NCT04251871 at www.clinicaltrials.gov ).


Subject(s)
Administration, Inhalation , Adult , China , Coronavirus Infections , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Mortality , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Administration Schedule , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Integrative Medicine , Interferon-alpha , Lopinavir , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Mortality , Risk Assessment , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Mortality , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate
13.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eRW5055, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056057

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The objective of the present study was to assess the efficacy of different doses, times for infusion of the first dose, intervals of administration of subsequent doses, and number of epinephrine doses in the survival of children and adolescents who went into cardiorespiratory arrest. It is a review study with data from the PubMedⓇ/MEDLINEⓇdatabase. The search was for articles published from January 1st, 2000 to February 10, 2019, with a sample of patients aged under 18 years, published in English, Portuguese and Spanish. We found 222 articles, of which 16 met the inclusion criteria of the study. The first dose should be given as soon as possible. The standard dose (0.01mg/kg) has a better outcome when compared to the higher dose (0.1mg/kg). There is an iⓇverse relation between the number of epinephrine doses and survival. The interval currently recommended between doses has lower survival when compared to larger intervals. The dosage recommended by the American Heart Association presents a better outcome for survival, but the interval between doses and the maximum number of doses should be better assessed.


RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia de diferentes doses, tempos para infusão da primeira dose, intervalos de administração de doses subsequentes e número de doses de epinefrina na sobrevida de crianças e adolescentes que sofreram parada cardiorrespiratória. Trata-se de estudo de revisão, cujas buscas foram feitas na base de dados PubMedⓇ /MEDLINEⓇ. Foram selecionados artigos publicados de 1° de janeiro de 2000 até 10 de fevereiro de 2019, realizados em menores de 18 anos de idade, publicados em inglês, português e espanhol. Foram encontrados 222 artigos, dos quais 16 atenderam os critérios de inclusão no estudo. A primeira dose deve ser aplicada o mais rápido possível. A dose padrão (0,01mg/kg) apresenta melhor desfecho quando comparada à dose alta (0,1mg/kg). Houve relação inversa entre número de doses de epinefrina e sobrevida. O intervalo entre doses recomendado atualmente apresenta menor sobrevida quando comparado a intervalos maiores. A dose recomendada pela American Heart Association apresenta melhor desfecho para sobrevida, porém o intervalo entre doses e o número máximo de doses devem ser melhor avaliados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Epinephrine/administration & dosage , Adrenergic alpha-Agonists/administration & dosage , Heart Arrest/drug therapy , Time Factors , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Heart Arrest/mortality
14.
Medwave ; 20(7): e7996, 2020.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1122647

ABSTRACT

Se sabe que la amiodarona, un potente antiarrítmico, causa toxicidad pulmonar. La neumonitis intersticial crónica es la presentación más común. Sin embargo, la toxicidad pulmonar aguda es rara y provoca una mayor mortalidad. Se presenta un paciente de 61 años con fibrilación auricular persistente que, tras tratamiento por un mes con amiodarona vía oral a dosis baja de impregnación de 400 miligramos al día, desarrolló toxicidad pulmonar aguda secundaria al antiarrítmico confirmada por radiografía y tomografía. Su caso tuvo resolución después de la suspensión del fármaco y tratamiento con esteroides.


Amiodarone, considered a potent antiarrhythmic, is known to cause pulmonary toxicity. Chronic interstitial pneumonitis is the most common presentation. However, acute pulmonary toxicity is rare and has a higher case fatality rate. We present a 61-year-old patient with persistent atrial fibrillation who, after a one-month treatment with oral amiodarone at a low dose impregnation of 400 mg/day, develops acute pulmonary toxicity, with radiographic and tomographic resolution after antiarrhythmic suspension and steroid treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Amiodarone/adverse effects , Lung Diseases/chemically induced , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/adverse effects , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Acute Disease , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Amiodarone/administration & dosage , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/administration & dosage
15.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(4): 807-811, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057983

ABSTRACT

Abstract Gastrointestinal Nematode Infection (GIN) are the main constraint to the production of small ruminants. Studies of medicinal plants have been an important alternative in the effort to control these parasites. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activity of essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis. The oil was extracted, analyzed by gas chromatography and tested on GIN eggs and larvae in six concentrations, 227.5mg/mL, 113.7mg/mL, 56.8mg/mL, 28.4mg/mL, 14.2mg/mL and 7.1mg/mL. To determine the ovicidal activity, GIN eggs were recovered from sheep feces and incubated for 48h with different concentrations of the oil. For the evaluation of larval migration, third-stage larvae (L3) were obtained by fecal culture, and associated with the essential oil for 24h at the same concentrations, after which they were left for another 24 hours on microsieves, followed by the count of migrating and non-migrating larvae. The assays of R. officinalis oil showed a significant (p<0.05) 97.4% to 100% inhibition of egg hatching and a significant (p<0.05) 20% to 74% inhibition of larval migration. The main constituent revealed by gas chromatography was Eucalyptol. The results indicate that R. officinalis essential oil has ovicidal and larvicidal activity on sheep GINs.


Resumo As infecções por nematódeos gastrintestinais (ING) constituem a maior limitação à produção de pequenos ruminantes. Na busca do controle desses parasitos, estudos com plantas medicinais têm sido uma importante alternativa. Visto isto, o estudo desenvolvido teve como objetivo avaliar a ação ovicida e larvicida in vitro do óleo essencial de Rosmarinus officinalis. O óleo foi extraído, analisado por cromatografia gasosa e testado sobre ovos e larvas de ING em seis concentrações, 227,5mg/mL; 113,7mg/mL; 56,8mg/mL; 28,4mg/mL; 14,2mg/mL; 7,1mg/mL. Para determinar a ação ovicida, ovos de ING foram recuperados de fezes de ovinos e incubados por 48h com as diferentes concentrações do óleo. Na avaliação da migração das larvas, as larvas de terceiro estágio (L3) foram obtidas por coprocultura, e associadas ao óleo essencial por 24h nas mesmas concentrações, permanecendo por mais 24h em microtamises, seguindo-se a contagem de larvas que migraram e que não migraram. Os testes in vitro com o óleo de R. officinalis mostraram o nível de significância (p<0.05) 97,4% a 100% na inibição da eclodibilidade e 20% a 74% na inibição da migração das larvas. Na análise por cromatografia gasosa o constituinte majoritário foi o eucaliptol. Os resultados apresentados mostram que o óleo essencial de R. officinalis possui ação ovicida e larvicida sobre ING de ovinos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ovum/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Sheep/parasitology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Rosmarinus/chemistry , Larva/drug effects , Nematoda/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Chromatography, Gas , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Nematoda/isolation & purification
16.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 56(4): 372-376, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055172

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death globally. Unfortunately, the survival rate of the gastric cancer patients who underwent chemotherapy following surgery has been less than a half. Besides, chemotherapy has many side effects. Current evidence suggests that some antidepressants like duloxetine have growth-inhibiting effects against a number of cancer cell lines. OBJECTIVE: Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of duloxetine on gastric cancer. METHODS: In this regard, the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of duloxetine were investigated in MKN45 and NIH3T3 cell lines by MTT assay and on peripheral blood lymphocytes by MN assay. For this purpose, cells were cultured in 96 wells plate. Stock solutions of duloxetine and cisplatin were prepared. After cell incubation with different concentrations of duloxetine (1, 10, 25, 50, 100 and 200 μL), MTT solution was added. For micronucleus assay fresh blood was added to RPMI culture medium 1640 supplemented, and different concentrations of duloxetine (1, 10, 25, 50, 100 and 200 μL) were added. RESULTS: The cytotoxicity of duloxetine on MKN45 cancer cell line and NIH3T3 normal cell line were studied followed by MTT assay. duloxetine exhibited higher IC50 in the MKN45 cells in comparison with the NIH3T3 cells. In addition, genotoxic effect of duloxetine was evaluated by micronucleus assay. The results revealed that duloxetine induced more DNA damage at 100 and 200 μM and no significant difference at 200 μM with respect to cisplatin, but it had less genotoxic effects at 100 and 50 μM concentrations. CONCLUSION: Although, in this study, duloxetine had less genotoxicity than cisplatin in concentrations under 200 μM and showed cytotoxic effects as well, due to its IC50, it cannot be considered as a better choice for gastric cancer therapies with respect to cisplatin as a common anticancer drug.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: O câncer gástrico é a segunda principal causa de morte relacionada ao câncer globalmente. Infelizmente, a taxa de sobrevivência dos pacientes com câncer gástrico que se submeteram à quimioterapia após a cirurgia, tem sido inferior à metade. Além disso, a quimioterapia tem muitos efeitos colaterais. Evidências atuais sugerem que alguns antidepressivos como a duloxetina têm efeitos inibidores de crescimento contra um número de linhas de células cancerosas. OBJETIVO: Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi determinar os efeitos citotóxicos e genotóxicos da duloxetina sobre o câncer gástrico. MÉTODOS: A este respeito, a citotoxicidade e a genotoxicidade da duloxetina foram investigadas em linhas celulares MKN45 e NIH3T3 por ensaio de MTT e por ensaio de MN em linfócitos periféricos de sangue. Para este efeito, as células foram cultivadas em 96 placas. Soluções de estoque de duloxetina e cisplatina foram preparadas. Após incubação celular com diferentes concentrações de duloxetina (1, 10, 25, 50, 100 e 200 μL), a solução de MTT foi adicionada. Para o teste do micronúcleo o sangue fresco foi adicionado ao meio de cultura RPMI 1640 suplementado, e as concentrações diferentes de duloxetina (1, 10, 25, 50, 100 e 200 μL) foram adicionadas. RESULTADOS: A citotoxicidade da duloxetina na linha celular cancerosa MKN45 e NIH3T3 linha celular normal foram estudadas e seguidas pelo ensaio de MTT. A duloxetina exibiu maior IC50 nas células MKN45 em comparação com as células NIH3T3. Além disso, o efeito genotóxico da duloxetina foi avaliado pelo ensaio de micronúcleos. Os resultados revelaram que a duloxetina induziu mais dano de DNA em 100 e 200 μM e não houve diferença significativa em 200 μM em relação à cisplatina, mas teve menos efeitos genotóxicos nas concentrações de 100 e 50 μM. CONCLUSÃO: Embora, neste estudo, a duloxetina tenha menos genotoxicidade do que a cisplatina em concentrações inferiores a 200 μm e também tenha mostrado efeitos citotóxicos, devido ao seu IC50, não pode ser considerada como uma escolha terapêutica melhor para o câncer gástrico no que diz respeito à cisplatina como uma droga anticâncer comum.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , DNA Damage/drug effects , Lymphocytes/drug effects , Duloxetine Hydrochloride/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Cell Line, Tumor/drug effects , NIH 3T3 Cells/drug effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Mutagenicity Tests
17.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 37(3): 392-395, July-Sept. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041337

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To present the outcomes of fixed doses of propranolol tablets for the treatment of hemangiomas. Case description: Two illustrative cases of hemangioma in infant patients younger than six months old are described. Treatments were started in 2010 and 2011 and were monitored until August 2017. Patients were treated with fixed doses, initially calculated based on the upper limit of 3 mg/kg/day and administrated in two daily doses rounded down to the nearest multiple of five milligrams. Dosage was not adjusted to patients' weight gain. The tablets were crushed and then diluted in a maximum amount of 3 mL of water. This procedure was necessary because propranolol was not available in oral solution in 2009, when dosages available in the Brazilian market were 10, 40 and 80 mg. Both patients presented significative improvement in the first 60 days and were in complete remission by the end of the treatment. Comments: It is possible to treat patients with Propranolol 10 mg tablets, even though the dosage is not as precise as when calculated according to patients' weight. The maintenance of a fixed dose, ignoring the patient's progressive weight gains, helps avoiding the rebound effect and decreases complications.


RESUMO Objetivo: Apresentar a experiência com a utilização de propranolol em doses fixas, em forma de comprimido, para o tratamento de hemangiomas. Descrição do caso: Dois casos ilustrativos de portadores de hemangiomas com menos de seis meses de idade são descritos. O início de tratamento ocorreu nos anos de 2010 e 2011 com seguimento até agosto de 2017. Os pacientes foram tratados com doses fixas iniciais calculadas com limite máximo de 3 mg/kg/dia, divididas em duas doses diárias, sempre com quantidades múltiplas de 5 mg. Os comprimidos de 10 mg ou a sua metade eram macerados e diluídos em 3 mL de água. As doses não foram mais alteradas. Esse uso foi decorrente da ausência da forma líquida de propranolol em 2009, quando começamos a utilizar esse tratamento, sendo então apenas disponíveis comprimidos de 10, 40 e 80 mg. Os pacientes obtiveram melhora acentuada nos primeiros 60 dias e remissão completa posteriormente. Comentários: É possível o uso de comprimidos de 10 mg, apesar de resultar numa dose não exata, como a calculada por kg/peso. A manutenção da mesma dose, mesmo com aumento progressivo de peso, pode evitar o efeito rebote e diminuir o índice de complicações.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Propranolol/therapeutic use , Skin Neoplasms/drug therapy , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/therapeutic use , Hemangioma/drug therapy , Propranolol/pharmacology , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Weight Gain , Treatment Outcome , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/pharmacology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Hemangioma/pathology
19.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(4): 376-384, July-Aug. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019349

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To test the influence of oral fructose and glucose dose-response solutions in blood glucose (BG), glucagon, triglycerides, uricaemia, and malondialdehyde in postprandial states in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients. Subjects and methods The study had a simple-blind, randomized, two-way crossover design in which T1DM patients were selected to receive fructose and glucose solutions (75g of sugars dissolved in 200 mL of mineral-water) in two separate study days, with 2-7 weeks washout period. In each day, blood samples were drawn after 8h fasting and at 180 min postprandial to obtain glucose, glucagon, triglycerides, uric acid, lactate, and malondialdehyde levels. Results Sixteen T1DM patients (seven men) were evaluated, with a mean age of 25.19 ± 8.8 years, a mean duration of disease of 14.88 ± 4.73 years, and glycated hemoglobin of 8.13 ± 1.84%. Fructose resulted in lower postprandial BG levels than glucose (4.4 ± 5.5 mmol/L; and 12.9 ± 4.1 mmol/L, respectively; p < 0.01). Uric acid levels increased after fructose (26.1 ± 49.9 µmol/L; p < 0.01) and reduced after glucose (-13.6 ± 9.5 µmol/L; p < 0.01). The malondialdehyde increased after fructose (1.4 ± 1.6 µmol/L; p < 0.01) and did not change after glucose solution (-0.2 ± 1.6 µmol/L; p = 0.40). Other variables did not change. Conclusions Fructose and glucose had similar sweetness, flavor and aftertaste characteristics and did not change triglycerides, lactate or glucagon levels. Although fructose resulted in lower postprandial BG than glucose, it increased uric acid and malondialdehyde levels in T1DM patients. Therefore it should be used with caution. ClinicalTrials.gov registration: NCT01713023.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Sweetening Agents/metabolism , Postprandial Period/drug effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/metabolism , Fructose/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism , Triglycerides/blood , Blood Glucose/analysis , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Cross-Over Studies , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Tolerance
20.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(8): 3129-3140, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011862

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo do estudo é estimar a prevalência do uso de clonazepam no Estado do Rio de Janeiro (RJ). Estudo ecológico e descritivo do consumo de clonazepam (2009-2013), com dados do Sistema Nacional de Gerenciamento de Produtos Controlados da Anvisa. O consumo foi medido pela Dose Diária Definida, com indicadores por população total e com 18 anos e mais utilizando a DDD padronizada de 8mg (anticonvulsivante) e a de 1mg (hipnosedativo). Os Municípios da Região Metropolitana foram agrupados segundo os Índices de Desenvolvimento Humano (IDH) e de GINI, submetidos à análise de conglomerados e apresentados segundo o consumo de clonazepam. No Estado do RJ, o consumo entre 2009 e 2013 aumentou de 0,35 para 1,97 DDD/1000 habitantes. Os valores são maiores para os indivíduos acima de 18 anos. Empregando-se 1mg ao invés de 8mg, chega-se a 21 DDD/1000 habitantes acima de 18 anos, em 2013. Rio de Janeiro e Niterói, com os maiores IDH, apresentaram em 2013 os maiores consumos, 3,38 e 4,52 DDD, respectivamente. Os dados sugerem que até 2% da população adulta é usuária de clonazepam, possivelmente como hipnosedativo. Deve-se atentar para o uso ampliado e fora de indicações terapêuticas, dados o potencial de abuso e as reações adversas ao clonazepam.


Abstract This descriptive, ecological study of clonazepam consumption in Rio de Janeiro State (RJ) estimated use prevalence from 2009 to 2013 using data from the National Controlled Product Management System operated by Brazil's health surveillance agency, Anvisa. Consumption was measured by total population and by population over 18 years old, using the standardised Daily Defined Doses of 8 mg (anticonvulsant) and 1 mg (sedative-hypnotic). The municipalities of the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Region were grouped by Human Development Index (HDI) and GINI index, subjected to cluster analysis and ranked by clonazepam consumption. From 2009 to 2013, consumption in the state rose from 0.35 to 1.97 DDD/1000 population, but the figures are higher for individuals over 18 years of age. A DDD of 1 mg instead of 8mg returns consumption in 2013 of 21 DDD/1000 population over 18 years of age. Consumption in 2013 was highest - 3.38 and 4.52 DDD, respectively - in Rio de Janeiro and Niterói, which have the highest HDIs. This suggests that up to 2% of the adult population uses clonazepam, possibly as a sedative-hypnotic. This broad use and use outside therapeutic indications deserves attention, given clonazepam's potential for abuse and adverse reactions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Clonazepam/administration & dosage , Hypnotics and Sedatives/administration & dosage , Anticonvulsants/administration & dosage , Brazil , Cluster Analysis , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL