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1.
J. health med. sci. (Print) ; 6(1): 21-27, ene.-mar. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1096529

ABSTRACT

El cáncer de mama es una de las patologías más frecuentes a nivel mundial y en el Ecuador ocupa un sitio importante dentro de la mortalidad; en pacientes con tumores de estadios avanzados la quimioterapia neodyuvante es el procedimiento indicado para lograr una reducción tumoral satisfactoria. El objetivo fue determinar la respuesta clínica y patológica en pacientes con cáncer de mama tratadas con quimioterapia neoadyuvante según cada subtipo molecular, atendidos en el hospital "Teodoro Maldonado Carbo" en el período 2015 a 2017. Se hizo uso de un diseño no experimental, transversal de tipo correlacional. Pacientes con cáncer de mama que recibieron neoadyuvancia, en su mayoría con quimioterapia basada en antraciclinas y taxanos. Se clasificó a las pacientes por sus subtipos moleculares, los mismos se obtuvieron en base a las características inmunohistoquímicas de los reportes de patología que constan en el sistema AS-400. Se comprobó la respuesta clínica al tratamiento usando los Criterios RECIST 1.1. Como resultado los 171 pacientes fueron analizados. La edad promedio de las pacientes fue 55 13 años de edad; el 25% fueron luminal B (HER+), 24% luminal B (HER-), 22% triple negativo, 18% HER2+ y 12% luminal A; el 52% de las pacientes tuvieron estadio III de la enfermedad; el 75% (129) de las pacientes fue realizada una mastectomía radical modificada. Se pudo concluir que la respuesta patológica completa en pacientes con tratamiento neoadyuvante se relaciona con los subtipos moleculares y esto es estadísticamente significativo. Además, se evidenció las mayores tasas de respuesta patológica completa en los grupos moleculares de HER2+ y triple negativo.


Breast cancer is one of the most frequent pathologies worldwide and in Ecuador it occupies an important place in mortality. In patients with advanced stage tumors, the neo-adjuvant chemotherapy is the indicated procedure to achieve a satisfactory tumor reduction. The aim was to determine the clinical and pathological response in patients with breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy according to each molecular subtype, treated at the "Teodoro Maldonado Carbo" hospital in the period 2015 to 2017. We used a non-experimental, crosssectional type design. Patients with breast cancer who received neoadjuvant, mostly with chemotherapy based on anthracyclines and taxanes. The patients were classified by their molecular subtypes, they were obtained based on the immunohistochemical characteristics of the pathology reports that appear in the AS-400 system. The clinical response to treatment was checked using the RECIST 1.1 Criteria. As a result, a sum of 171 patients were analyzed. The average age of the patients was 55 + 13 years old; 25% were luminal B (Her +), 24% luminal B (Her-), 22% triple negative, 18% Her2 + and 12% luminal A; 52% of the patients had stage III of the disease; 75% (129) of the patients underwent a modified radical mastectomy. As a conclusion, the complete pathological response in patients with neoadjuvant treatment is related to molecular subtypes and this is statistically significant. Also, the highest rates of complete pathological response in the molecular groups of Her2 + and triple negative were evident.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Anthracyclines/therapeutic use , Taxoids/therapeutic use , Breast Neoplasms/classification , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Therapy, Combination
2.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(4): 807-811, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1057983

ABSTRACT

Abstract Gastrointestinal Nematode Infection (GIN) are the main constraint to the production of small ruminants. Studies of medicinal plants have been an important alternative in the effort to control these parasites. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activity of essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis. The oil was extracted, analyzed by gas chromatography and tested on GIN eggs and larvae in six concentrations, 227.5mg/mL, 113.7mg/mL, 56.8mg/mL, 28.4mg/mL, 14.2mg/mL and 7.1mg/mL. To determine the ovicidal activity, GIN eggs were recovered from sheep feces and incubated for 48h with different concentrations of the oil. For the evaluation of larval migration, third-stage larvae (L3) were obtained by fecal culture, and associated with the essential oil for 24h at the same concentrations, after which they were left for another 24 hours on microsieves, followed by the count of migrating and non-migrating larvae. The assays of R. officinalis oil showed a significant (p<0.05) 97.4% to 100% inhibition of egg hatching and a significant (p<0.05) 20% to 74% inhibition of larval migration. The main constituent revealed by gas chromatography was Eucalyptol. The results indicate that R. officinalis essential oil has ovicidal and larvicidal activity on sheep GINs.


Resumo As infecções por nematódeos gastrintestinais (ING) constituem a maior limitação à produção de pequenos ruminantes. Na busca do controle desses parasitos, estudos com plantas medicinais têm sido uma importante alternativa. Visto isto, o estudo desenvolvido teve como objetivo avaliar a ação ovicida e larvicida in vitro do óleo essencial de Rosmarinus officinalis. O óleo foi extraído, analisado por cromatografia gasosa e testado sobre ovos e larvas de ING em seis concentrações, 227,5mg/mL; 113,7mg/mL; 56,8mg/mL; 28,4mg/mL; 14,2mg/mL; 7,1mg/mL. Para determinar a ação ovicida, ovos de ING foram recuperados de fezes de ovinos e incubados por 48h com as diferentes concentrações do óleo. Na avaliação da migração das larvas, as larvas de terceiro estágio (L3) foram obtidas por coprocultura, e associadas ao óleo essencial por 24h nas mesmas concentrações, permanecendo por mais 24h em microtamises, seguindo-se a contagem de larvas que migraram e que não migraram. Os testes in vitro com o óleo de R. officinalis mostraram o nível de significância (p<0.05) 97,4% a 100% na inibição da eclodibilidade e 20% a 74% na inibição da migração das larvas. Na análise por cromatografia gasosa o constituinte majoritário foi o eucaliptol. Os resultados apresentados mostram que o óleo essencial de R. officinalis possui ação ovicida e larvicida sobre ING de ovinos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ovum/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Sheep/parasitology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Rosmarinus/chemistry , Larva/drug effects , Nematoda/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Chromatography, Gas , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Nematoda/isolation & purification
4.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 37(3): 392-395, July-Sept. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1041337

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To present the outcomes of fixed doses of propranolol tablets for the treatment of hemangiomas. Case description: Two illustrative cases of hemangioma in infant patients younger than six months old are described. Treatments were started in 2010 and 2011 and were monitored until August 2017. Patients were treated with fixed doses, initially calculated based on the upper limit of 3 mg/kg/day and administrated in two daily doses rounded down to the nearest multiple of five milligrams. Dosage was not adjusted to patients' weight gain. The tablets were crushed and then diluted in a maximum amount of 3 mL of water. This procedure was necessary because propranolol was not available in oral solution in 2009, when dosages available in the Brazilian market were 10, 40 and 80 mg. Both patients presented significative improvement in the first 60 days and were in complete remission by the end of the treatment. Comments: It is possible to treat patients with Propranolol 10 mg tablets, even though the dosage is not as precise as when calculated according to patients' weight. The maintenance of a fixed dose, ignoring the patient's progressive weight gains, helps avoiding the rebound effect and decreases complications.


RESUMO Objetivo: Apresentar a experiência com a utilização de propranolol em doses fixas, em forma de comprimido, para o tratamento de hemangiomas. Descrição do caso: Dois casos ilustrativos de portadores de hemangiomas com menos de seis meses de idade são descritos. O início de tratamento ocorreu nos anos de 2010 e 2011 com seguimento até agosto de 2017. Os pacientes foram tratados com doses fixas iniciais calculadas com limite máximo de 3 mg/kg/dia, divididas em duas doses diárias, sempre com quantidades múltiplas de 5 mg. Os comprimidos de 10 mg ou a sua metade eram macerados e diluídos em 3 mL de água. As doses não foram mais alteradas. Esse uso foi decorrente da ausência da forma líquida de propranolol em 2009, quando começamos a utilizar esse tratamento, sendo então apenas disponíveis comprimidos de 10, 40 e 80 mg. Os pacientes obtiveram melhora acentuada nos primeiros 60 dias e remissão completa posteriormente. Comentários: É possível o uso de comprimidos de 10 mg, apesar de resultar numa dose não exata, como a calculada por kg/peso. A manutenção da mesma dose, mesmo com aumento progressivo de peso, pode evitar o efeito rebote e diminuir o índice de complicações.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Propranolol/therapeutic use , Skin Neoplasms/drug therapy , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/therapeutic use , Hemangioma/drug therapy , Propranolol/pharmacology , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Weight Gain , Treatment Outcome , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/pharmacology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Hemangioma/pathology
6.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(2): 221-223, Mar.-Apr. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1001143

ABSTRACT

Abstract Vegetative chronic genital herpes is an atypical presentation of herpes simplex 2 that it is usually seen in patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus. Clinically, it is characterized by extensive ulcers that evolve to chronification and hypertrophic pseudotumor forms. Antiviral drugs are recommended for the treatment, and acyclovir is the most used one. Foscarnet is the treatment of choice to resistant cases, although treatment failure has been reported. We report a male patient, previously diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus who developed vegetative chronic genital herpes resistant to acyclovir and successfully treated with imiquimod.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Herpes Genitalis/drug therapy , Adjuvants, Immunologic/therapeutic use , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , /therapeutic use , Herpes Genitalis/diagnosis , Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Chronic Disease , Treatment Outcome , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , /administration & dosage
7.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 41(1): 9-14, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-985360

ABSTRACT

Objective: Cannabidiol (CBD), one of the non-psychotomimetic compounds of Cannabis sativa, causes anxiolytic-like effects in animals, with typical bell-shaped dose-response curves. No study, however, has investigated whether increasing doses of this drug would also cause similar curves in humans. The objective of this study was to compare the acute effects of different doses of CBD and placebo in healthy volunteers performing a simulated public speaking test (SPST), a well-tested anxiety-inducing method. Method: A total of 57 healthy male subjects were allocated to receive oral CBD at doses of 150 mg (n=15), 300 mg (n=15), 600 mg (n=12) or placebo (n=15) in a double-blind procedure. During the SPST, subjective ratings on the Visual Analogue Mood Scale (VAMS) and physiological measures (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate) were obtained at six different time points. Results: Compared to placebo, pretreatment with 300 mg of CBD significantly reduced anxiety during the speech. No significant differences in VAMS scores were observed between groups receiving CBD 150 mg, 600 mg and placebo. Conclusion: Our findings confirm the anxiolytic-like properties of CBD and are consonant with results of animal studies describing bell-shaped dose-response curves. Optimal therapeutic doses of CBD should be rigorously determined so that research findings can be adequately translated into clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Anxiety/drug therapy , Speech/drug effects , Anti-Anxiety Agents/administration & dosage , Cannabidiol/administration & dosage , Socioeconomic Factors , Double-Blind Method , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
9.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-777617

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#More than 140 million people drink arsenic-contaminated groundwater. It is unknown how much arsenic exposure is necessary to cause neurological impairment. Here, we evaluate the relationship between neurological impairments and the arsenic concentration in drinking water (ACDW).@*PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS@#A cross-sectional study design was employed. We performed medical examinations of 1867 residents in seven villages in the Thabaung township in Myanmar. Medical examinations consisted of interviews regarding subjective neurological symptoms and objective neurological examinations of sensory disturbances. For subjective neurological symptoms, we ascertained the presence or absence of defects in smell, vision, taste, and hearing; the feeling of weakness; and chronic numbness or pain. For objective sensory disturbances, we examined defects in pain sensation, vibration sensation, and two-point discrimination. We analyzed the relationship between the subjective symptoms, objective sensory disturbances, and ACDW.@*RESULTS@#Residents with ACDW ≥ 10 parts per billion (ppb) had experienced a "feeling of weakness" and "chronic numbness or pain" significantly more often than those with ACDW  50 ppb). These data suggest a threshold for the occurrence of peripheral neuropathy due to arsenic exposure, and indicate that the arsenic concentration in drinking water should be less than 10 ppb to ensure human health.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Arsenic , Toxicity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dietary Exposure , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drinking Water , Chemistry , Female , Groundwater , Chemistry , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myanmar , Epidemiology , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases , Epidemiology , Sensation Disorders , Epidemiology , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Toxicity , Young Adult
10.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-777609

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Traditional toxicological studies focus on individual compounds. However, this single-compound approach neglects the fact that the mixture exposed to human may act additively or synergistically to induce greater toxicity than the single compounds exposure due to their similarities in the mode of action and targets. Mixture effects can occur even when all mixture components are present at levels that individually do not produce observable effects. So the individual chemical effect thresholds do not necessarily protect against combination effects, an understanding of the rules governing the interactive effects in mixtures is needed. The aim of the study was to test and analyze the individual and combined estrogenic effects of a mixture of three endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), bisphenol A (BPA), nonylphenol (NP) and diethylstilbestrol (DES) in immature rats with mathematical models.@*METHOD@#In the present study, the data of individual estrogenic effects of BPA, NP and DES were obtained in uterotrophic bioassay respectively, the reference points for BPA, NP and DES were derived from the dose-response ralationship by using the traditional no observed adverse effect (NOAEL) or lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) methods, and the benchmark dose (BMD) method. Then LOAEL values and the benchmark dose lower confidence limit (BMDL) of single EDCs as the dose design basis for the study of the combined action pattern. Mixed prediction models, the 3 × 2 factorial design model and the concentration addition (CA) model, were employed to analyze the combined estrogenic effect of the three EDCs.@*RESULTS@#From the dose-response relationship of estrogenic effects of BPA, NP and DES in the model of the prepuberty rats, the BMDL(NOAEL) of the estrogenic effects of BPA, NP and DES were 90(120) mg/kg body weight, 6 mg/kg body weight and 0.10(0.25) μg/kg body weight, and the LOAEL of the the estrogenic effects of three EDCs were 240 mg/kg body weight, 15 mg/kg body weight and 0.50 μg/kg body weight, respectively. At BMDL doses based on the CA concept and the factorial analysis, the mode of combined effects of the three EDCs were dose addition. Mixtures in LOAEL doses, NP and DES combined effects on rat uterine/body weight ratio indicates antagonistic based on the CA concept but additive based on the factorial analysis. Combined effects of other mixtures are all additive by using the two models.@*CONCLUSION@#Our results showed that CA model provide more accurate results than the factorial analysis, the mode of combined effects of the three EDCs were dose addition, except mixtures in LOAEL doses, NP and DES combined effects indicates antagonistic effects based on the CA model but additive based on the factorial analysis. In particular, BPA and NP produced combination effects that are larger than the effect of each mixture component applied separately at BMDL doses, which show that additivity is important in the assessment of chemicals with estrogenic effects. The use of BMDL as point of departure in risk assessment may lead to underestimation of risk, and a more balanced approach should be considered in risk assessment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Benzhydryl Compounds , Toxicity , Diethylstilbestrol , Toxicity , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Interactions , Endocrine Disruptors , Toxicity , Estrogens , Toxicity , Models, Theoretical , Phenols , Toxicity , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Risk Assessment
11.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-777600

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Bisphenol A (BPA) is a monomer primarily used in the production of polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins. Bisphenol F (BPF) is apparently the main BPA replacement that is used increasingly. BPF has been detected in canned food, thermal paper receipts, and soft drinks. In the present experiment, we did both in vitro and in vivo studies to evaluate the effect of low and high-dose BPF exposures on testosterone concentration, oxidative stress, and antioxidants activity in reproductive tissues of male rats.@*METHODS@#Adult (80-90 days old) male Sprague Dawley rats (n = 36) obtained from the rodent colony of Animal Sciences Department of Quaid-i-Azam University. The direct effects of BPF on the antioxidant enzymes and testosterone secretion were measured in vitro and in vivo studies. In an in vivo experiment, adult male Sprague Dawley rats (n = 42) were exposed to different concentrations of bisphenol F (1, 5, 25, and 50 mg/kg/d) for 28 days. Various biochemical parameters were analyzed including the level of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and lipid peroxidation (LPO). Moreover, sperm motility, daily sperm production (DSP), comet assay, and histological analysis were performed.@*RESULTS@#In vitro study showed that BPF exposure significantly (p < 0.05) induced oxidative stress biomarkers, i.e., ROS and LPO, while it did not change antioxidant enzyme and testicular testosterone concentration. Whereas, an in vivo study revealed that BPF induced dose-dependent effect and high-dose (100 mg/kg) exposure of BPF significantly reduced tissue protein (p < 0.05) content, CAT (p < 0.001), SOD (p < 0.05), and POD (p < 0.05) levels while significantly (p < 0.05) augmented ROS and lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, BPF reduces testosterone, LH, and FSH secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Significant (p < 0.001) reduction in plasma and intra-testicular testosterone, LH, and FSH was noticed at 100 mg/kg BFP dose. High-dose exposure reduces spermatogenesis.@*CONCLUSION@#BPF showed an antagonistic effect on male reproductive hormones and induce alterations in testicular morphology. Increased oxidative stress and decreased testicular antioxidant status might be the underlying mechanism of BFP-induced testicular toxicity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants , Metabolism , Benzhydryl Compounds , Toxicity , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Environmental Pollutants , Toxicity , Male , Oxidative Stress , Phenols , Toxicity , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Testosterone , Metabolism
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-773690

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper was to compare the properties of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets and Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets from dose-effect-toxicity on type Ⅱ collagen-induced arthritis( CIA) in rats. SD rats were randomly divided into eight groups,including normal group,model group,Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets groups( 1 times equivalent dose 0.009 g·kg-1,4 times equivalent dose 0.036 g·kg-1,16 times equivalent dose 0.144 g·kg-1),Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets groups( 1 times equivalent dose 0.007 5 mg·kg-1,4 times equivalent dose 0.030 mg·kg-1,16 times equivalent dose 0.120 mg·kg-1). Beginning on the first immunization,Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets and Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets administered intraperitoneally once a day. After the second immunization,the symptoms such as redness and swelling of joints were observed,and the clinical score and incidence of arthritis were evaluated. HE and Masson staining were used to examine the histopathological changes of joints. The expression level of anti-type Ⅱ collagen antibody Ig G in serum was detected by ELISA,routine testing of blood components,the concentration of ALP( alkaline phosphatase),ALT( alanine aminotransferase),AST( aspartate aminotransferase),GGT( gamma-glutamyltransferase),TBi L( total bilirubin),CRE( creatinine) and UREA( urea) in serum were detected by enzymatic assay. The rate of sperm deformity in the epididymis was evaluated under light microscope. The extent of damage to the testis and ovarian tissue was assessed by HE staining. Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets and Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets attenuated the inflammation,redness,swelling and deformity of joints and reduced the clinical score and incidence of arthritis in CIA rats. Meanwhile,it also exhibited obvious reduction in all pathological features such as joint synovitis,pannus,cartilage erosion and bone destruction. Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets and Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets reduced Ig G in a dose-dependent manner,and Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets is better than Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets( P<0.05 or P<0.01). The high doses of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets and Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets could significantly increase the organ coefficient of liver and spleen and reduced RBC and HGB in CIA rats( P<0.01),and severity leading to death. Gastric mucosal injury and morphological changes of liver and kidney were not observed in CIA rats of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets and Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets treatment group. The 4 and 16 times doses of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets and Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets could significantly increase serum ALT,GGT and decrease CRE( P<0.05 or P<0.01). Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets and Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets could increase the sperm deformity rate and damage the testicular seminiferous tubules of CIA male rats. Severity increased with dose and time increasing. The effect of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets( 16 times) is more significant than Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets( 16 times). Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets and Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets significantly delayed onset of arthritis and inhibited the paw edema and arthritic score. Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets and Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets also caused male reproductive damage,high dose affected hematopoiesis,and maximum dose leading to death. Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets and Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets all depended on dose-effect-toxicity manner. Anti-arthritis effect of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets is better than Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets,but the toxicity of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets maximum dose is more obvious. The relevant conclusions of our study will provide experimental references for clinical rational use of drugs,and further clinical studies are needed to confirm our conclusions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arthritis, Experimental , Drug Therapy , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Toxicity , Glycosides , Toxicity , Male , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Tablets , Tripterygium , Toxicity
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-773117

ABSTRACT

The dose-toxicity-effect relationship between licorice combined with rhubarb in purgation was studied. A total of 108 ICR mice were divided into control group,model group,positive group,low,medium and high-dose rhubarb groups,and low,medium and high-dose rhubarb-liquorice decoction group. After 6 days of continuous administration of loperamide hydrochloride,the constipation model of mice was replicated,and each group was given lactulose,different doses of rhubarb and rhubarb-liquorice decoction for 14 days. After administration,the defecation characteristics,blood biochemistry,liver,kidney and colon pathological changes in each group were compared. Based on the objective weight given by factor analysis,the dose-toxicity-effect relationship was comprehensively analyzed by multi-index scoring method. Two common factors were extracted by factor analysis,representing effect and toxicity respectively. The results showed that rhubarb could exert a diarrhea effect at the dosage of 1/2,2 and 8 times of the high limit set forth in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia,increase the defecation volume and the intestinal tract propulsion rate,reduce the time of anal and the oral transmission,and increase the water content of feces. The combination with licorice could alleviate its diarrhea effect,especially at the dosage of 1/2 times of the high limit set forth in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. However,rhubarb showed obvious hepatic and colon toxicities at the dosage of 2 and 8 times of the high limit set forth in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia,and the combination with licorice could significantly reduce its toxicity. It shows that licorice has a " mediating" effect on rhubarb by alleviating the purgation property and reducing the toxicity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cathartics , Pharmacology , Colon , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Glycyrrhiza , Chemistry , Kidney , Liver , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Rheum , Chemistry , Toxicity Tests
15.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 161-165, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-771617

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#To investigate whether dexmedetomidine (Dex) can reduce the production of inflammatory factor IL-1β by inhibiting the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in hippocampal microglia, thereby alleviating the inflammatory response of the central nervous system induced by surgical injury.@*METHODS@#Exploratory laparotomy was used in experimental models in this study. Totally 48 Sprague Dawley male rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 12 for each), respectively sham control (group A), laparotomy only (group B); and Dex treatment with different doses of 5 μg/kg (group D1) or 10 μg/kg (group D2). Rats in groups D1 and D2 were intraperitoneally injected with corresponding doses of Dex every 6 h. The rats were sacrificed 12 h after operation; the hippocampus tissues were isolated, and frozen sections were made. The microglia activation was estimated by immunohistochemistry. The protein expression of NLRP3, caspase-1, ASC and IL-1β were detected by immunoblotting. All data were presented as mean ± standard deviation, and independent sample t test was used to analyze the statistical difference between groups.@*RESULTS@#The activated microglia in the hippocampus of the rats significantly increased after laparotomy (group B vs. sham control, p < 0.01). After Dex treatment, the number was decreased in a dose-dependent way (group D1 vs. D2, p < 0.05), however the activated microglia in both groups were still higher than that of sham controls (both p < 0.05). Further Western blot analysis showed that the protein expression levels of NLRP3, caspase-1, ASC and downstream cytokine IL-1β in the hippocampus from the laparotomy group were significantly higher than those of the sham control group (all p < 0.01). The elevated expression of these proteins was relieved after Dex treatment, also in a dose-dependent way (D2 vs. D1 group, p < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Dex can inhibit the activation of microglia and NLRP3 inflammasome in the hippocampus of rats after operation, and the synthesis and secretion of IL-1β are also reduced in a dose-dependent manner by using Dex. Hence, Dex can alleviate inflammation activation on the central nervous system induced by surgical injury.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dexmedetomidine , Pharmacology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Hippocampus , Metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Inflammasomes , Metabolism , Inflammation Mediators , Metabolism , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Interleukin-1beta , Metabolism , Laparotomy , Male , Microglia , Metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , Metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Time Factors
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-776024

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the 50% effective dose(ED)and 95% effective dose(ED)of dexmedetomidine(DEX)combined with 0.032 μg/(kg·h)sufentanil as well as its analgesic effect for patient-controlled intravenous analgesia(PCIA)after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery(VATS).Methods Totally 25 patients undergoing elective VATS were enrolled. DEX and 0.032 μg/(kg·h)sufentanil were used for postoperative PCIA. The loading dose of DEX was 0.048 μg/(kg·h),and the dose difference between two adjacent patients was 0.008 μg/(kg·h). The DEX dose of a current patient was determined by whether the previous patient was satisfied with postoperative analgesic effect. If the previous patient was satisfied with postoperative analgesic effect,the DEX dose of the current patient was decreased by 0.008 μg/(kg·h);and if the previous analgestic effect was not satisfactory,DEX dose of the current patient was increased by 0.008 μg/(kg·h). The study endpoint was dexmedetomidine dose was<0.008 μg/(kg· h) within 7 upper and lower cycles in 7 consecutive cases. Finally,the probability unit regression was used to estimate the ED and ED of DEX and their 95% .Results When DEX combined with 0.032 μg/(kg·h) sufentanil was used for postoperative PCIA in young patients undergoing VATS,the ED and EDof DEX were 0.0346 μg/(kg· h)[95%:0.0283-0.0408 μg/(kg·h)] and 0.0459 μg/(kg·h)[95%:0.0400-0.0880 μg/(kg·h)],respectively. No adverse reaction such as vomiting,respiratory depression,or bradycardia occurred. The average Visual Analogue Scale(VAS)scores at rest(=-5.128,=0.000)and cough(Z=-6.642,=0.000)and the Ramsay sedation score(Z=-2.335,=0.020)within 6 hours after surgery were higher than those after 6 hour.Conclusion DEX combined with 0.032 μg/(kg·h) sufentanil are effective for postoperative PCIA in patients undergoing VATS when the ED and ED are 0.0346 μg/(kg·h)and 0.0459 μg/(kg·h),respectively.


Subject(s)
Analgesia, Patient-Controlled , Analgesics, Non-Narcotic , Dexmedetomidine , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Pain, Postoperative , Drug Therapy , Sufentanil , Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted
17.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(3): 509-516, Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-951583

ABSTRACT

Abstract Typha domingensis (cattail) is a native macrophyte known by its capacity to tolerate several heavy metals effects and the potential use for phytoremediation. However, in despite that cadmium (Cd) is one of the most toxic pollutants; its effects in T. domingensis biology remain uninvestigated. Thus, the objective of this study was to study the tolerance of T. domingensis to cadmium contamination by evaluating its growth, Cd uptake, leaf anatomy and gas exchange. The experiment was designed using three cadmium concentrations (0, 10 and 50 µM) and ten replicates for 90 days. The cadmium uptake, growth, gas exchange, chlorophyll content and leaf anatomy were evaluated. Data was submitted to ANOVA and Scott-Knott test for P<0.05. Typha domingensis accumulates Cd proportionally to its concentration on the solution and the content of this metal was higher in roots as compared to shoots. Plants showed no significant modifications on growth parameters such as the biomass production, number of leaves, number of clones and the biomass allocation to organs. The photosynthesis, transpiration and chlorophyll content were not modified by Cd. Most anatomical traits evaluated were not modified by the metal but the stomatal density and the proportion of vascular tissues were reduced under 50 µM of Cd. In despite, the leaf anatomy showed no toxicity evidences for any Cd level. The absence of growth reduction and the stability of anatomical and physiological traits give insight about the Cd tolerance of this species. Therefore, T. domingensis is able to overcome Cd toxicity and shows potential for phytoremediation.


Resumo A espécie Typha domingensis (taboa) é uma macrófita nativa conhecida por sua tolerância a vários metais pesados e potencial uso na fitorremediação. Contudo, apesar de que o Cd é um dos poluentes mais tóxicos; Seus efeitos em T. domingensis ainda não foram investigados. Assim, o objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a tolerância de T. domingensis ao cádmio, avaliando o crescimento, absorção de Cd, anatomia foliar e trocas gasosas. O experimento foi conduzido utilizando três concentrações de Cd (0, 10 e 50 µM) e dez repetições por 90 dias.. O crescimento, trocas gasosas e o teor de clorofila e anatomia foliar foram avaliados. Os dados foram submetidos à ANOVA e ao teste de Scott-Knott para P<0,05. A absorção de cádmio, crescimento, trocas gasosas, teor de clorofila e anatomia foliar foram analisados. As plantas de T. domingensis podem acumular Cd proporcionalmente à sua concentração na solução e o teor deste metal foi maior nas raízes em comparação com a parte aérea. As plantas não apresentam modificações significativas nos parâmetros de crescimento como produção de biomassa, número de folhas, número de clones produzidos e alocação de biomassa nos órgãos. A fotossíntese, transpiração e conteúdo de clorofila não foram afetados de forma significativa pelo Cd. A maioria das características anatômicas avaliadas não apresentou diferenças, mas houve redução na densidade estomática e na proporção de tecidos vasculares na concentração de 50 µM de Cd. A anatomia foliar não mostrou evidências de toxicidade em nenhum dos níveis de Cd. A ausência de redução de crescimento e estabilidade das características anatômicas e fisiológicas caracteriza alta tolerância da espécie ao Cd. Portanto, T. domingensis é capaz de superar a toxicidade do Cd e demostra potencial para fitorremediação.


Subject(s)
Cadmium/metabolism , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Typhaceae/growth & development , Typhaceae/metabolism , Photosynthesis/physiology , Biodegradation, Environmental , Cadmium/toxicity , Chlorophyll/metabolism , Chlorophyll/chemistry , Plant Roots/metabolism , Plant Roots/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Biomass , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
18.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(3): 436-442, Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-951571

ABSTRACT

Abstract In this study were evaluated the anaesthesia and analgesic effects of clove Eugenia caryophyllata, tea tree Melaleuca alternifolia and basil Ocimum basilicum essential oils (EO) during handling of yellowtail clownfish Amphiprion clarkii. Juveniles (3.70 ± 0.75 cm and 1.03 ± 0.50 g; mean ± standard deviation) were submitted to concentrations of 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 µl L-1 of clove, 150, 200, 250, 300 and 350 µl L-1 of basil and 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 µl L-1 of tea tree oils (n=10/concentration), previously defined in pilot tests. Individually and only once, fish from each treatment were placed in a glass recipient containing 1 L of seawater at a temperature of 25 °C, salinity of 35 g L-1 and the specific concentration of diluted EO (stock solution). Control (only seawater) and blank (seawater and ethanol at the highest concentration used to dilute the oils) treatments were also conducted. After reaching the stage of surgical anaesthesia, fish were submitted to biometry and a sensibility test. After that, they were transferred to clean seawater for anaesthesia recovery. The times of induction needed to reach each anaesthesia stage and anaesthesia recovery were recorded. Animals were observed for 72 hours after the procedures. All the EO provoked anaesthesia and analgesic effects in A. clarkii, but basil oil is not recommended because it caused involuntary muscle contractions and mortality in 100% and 12% of fish, respectively. The lower concentrations that promote suitable induction and recovery times are 50 µl L-1 of clove oil and 500 µl L-1 of tea tree oil. However, due to its complementary high analgesic efficiency, clove oil is recommended as the ideal anaesthetic for A. clarkii.


Resumo Neste estudo foram avaliados os efeitos anestésicos e analgésicos dos óleos essenciais (OE) de cravo Eugenia caryophyllata, melaleuca Melaleuca alternifolia e manjericão Ocimum basilicum durante manejo de peixes-palhaços Amphiprion clarkii. Juvenis (3.70 ± 0.75 cm e 1.03 ± 0.50 g; média ± desvio padrão) foram submetidos às concentrações de 40, 50, 60, 70 e 80 µl L-1 de cravo, 150, 200, 250, 300 e 350 µl L-1 de manjericão e 200, 300, 400, 500 e 600 µl L-1 de melaleuca (n=10/concentração), previamente definidas em testes pilotos. Individualmente e somente uma vez, os peixes de cada tratamento foram colocados em recipiente de vidro contendo 1 L de água salgada, em temperatura de 25 °C, salinidade de 35 g L-1 e a concentração específica de OE diluída (solução estoque). Tratamentos controle (apenas água marinha) e branco (água marinha e a maior concentração de etanol utilizada para diluição dos óleos) também foram conduzidos. Após atingirem o estágio de anestesia cirúrgica, os peixes foram submetidos à biometria e teste de sensibilidade. Em seguida, foram transferidos para água marinha limpa. Os tempos necessários para atingir cada estágio anestésico e recuperação foram registrados. Os animais foram observados por 72 horas após os procedimentos. Todos os OE provocaram anestesia e analgesia em A. clarkii, porém o óleo de manjericão não é recomendado, pois causou contrações musculares involuntárias e mortalidade em 100% e 12% dos animais, respectivamente. As menores concentrações que promovem indução anestésica e recuperação em tempos adequados são 50 µl L-1 de óleo de cravo e 500 µl L-1 de óleo de melaleuca. Entretanto, devido à sua alta eficiência analgésica complementar, o óleo de cravo é recomendado como o anestésico ideal para A. clarkii.


Subject(s)
Animals , Plant Oils/toxicity , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Tea Tree Oil/pharmacology , Clove Oil/pharmacology , Analgesia/veterinary , Analgesics/pharmacology , Anesthesia/veterinary , Anesthetics/pharmacology , Species Specificity , Plant Oils/adverse effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Fishes , Analgesia/methods , Anesthesia/methods , Muscle Contraction/drug effects
19.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 40(4): 367-375, Oct.-Dec. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-959251

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the effects of Hypericum perforatum (hypericum) on cognitive behavior and neurotrophic factor levels in the brain of male and female rats. Methods: Male and female Wistar rats were treated with hypericum or water during 28 days by gavage. The animals were then subjected to the open-field test, novel object recognition and step-down inhibitory avoidance test. Nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) levels were evaluated in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Results: Hypericum impaired the acquisition of short- and long-term aversive memory in male rats, evaluated in the inhibitory avoidance test. Female rats had no immediate memory acquisition and decreased short-term memory acquisition in the inhibitory avoidance test. Hypericum also decreased the recognition index of male rats in the object recognition test. Female rats did not recognize the new object in either the short-term or the long-term memory tasks. Hypericum decreased BDNF in the hippocampus of male and female rats. Hypericum also decreased NGF in the hippocampus of female rats. Conclusions: The long-term administration of hypericum appears to cause significant cognitive impairment in rats, possibly through a reduction in the levels of neurotrophic factors. This effect was more expressive in females than in males.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Cognition/drug effects , Hypericum , Frontal Lobe/metabolism , Hippocampus/metabolism , Nerve Growth Factors/analysis , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Random Allocation , Sex Factors , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Models, Animal , Pattern Recognition, Physiological/drug effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Frontal Lobe/drug effects , Hippocampus/drug effects , Locomotion/drug effects , Memory/drug effects , Nerve Growth Factors/drug effects
20.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(7): 609-618, July 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-949367

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the gastroprotective effect of methanol extract of E. spectabilis and its major component isoorientin. Methods: Effects of isoorientin and methanol extract of E. spectabilis were investigated in indomethacin-induced gastric damage model on rats. Famotidine was used as the standard antiulcer drug. Numerical density of ulcer areas and oxidative status were determined on stomach tissues of rats. Results: All doses of isoorientin and methanol extract decreased MDA level and increased SOD activity and GSH levels in the stomach tissue of rats. When numerical density of ulcer areas were analized, the 500 mg/kg dose of methanol extract (84%) exhibited a similar effect to 20 mg/kg dose of standart drug famotidine (87%). Conclusions: The gastroprotective effects of E. spectabilis and its major constituent isoorientin in rats for the first time. Detailed analyses suggested that potential antioxidant activity of both plant extract and isoorientin mediates the gastroprotective effect.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Stomach Ulcer/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Luteolin/pharmacology , Methanol/pharmacology , Xanthorrhoeaceae/chemistry , Anti-Ulcer Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Stomach Ulcer/pathology , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis , Superoxide Dismutase/drug effects , Severity of Illness Index , Indomethacin , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Glutathione/analysis , Glutathione/drug effects , Malondialdehyde/analysis
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