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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255755, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355898

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study involves the chemical and bacteriological analysis of water from different sources i.e., bore, wells, bottle, and tap, from Peshawar, Mardan, Swat and Kohat districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province, Pakistan. From each district, 50 water samples (10 samples from each source), regardless of urban and rural status, were collected from these sources and analysed for sulphates, nitrates, nitrites, chlorides, total soluble solids and coliforms (E. coli). Results indicated that majority of the water sources had unacceptable E. coli count i.e.> 34 CFU/100mL. E. coli positive samples were high in Mardan District, followed by Kohat, Swat and Peshawar district. Besides this, the some water sources were also chemically contaminated by different inorganic fertilizers (nitrates/nitrites of sodium, potassium) but under safe levels whereas agricultural and industrial wastes (chloride and sulphate compounds) were in unsafe range. Among all districts, the water quality was found comparatively more deteriorated in Kohat and Mardan districts than Peshawar and Swat districts. Such chemically and bacteriologically unfit water sources for drinking and can cause human health problems.


Resumo O presente estudo envolve a análise química e bacteriológica de água de diferentes fontes, ou seja, furo, poços, garrafa e torneira, dos distritos de Peshawar, Mardan, Swat e Kohat da província de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Paquistão. De cada distrito, 50 amostras de água (10 amostras de cada fonte), independentemente do status urbano e rural, foram coletadas dessas fontes e analisadas para sulfatos, nitratos, nitritos, cloretos, sólidos solúveis totais e coliformes (E. coli). Os resultados indicaram que a maioria das fontes de água tinha uma contagem inaceitável de E. coli, ou seja, > 34 UFC / 100 mL. As amostras positivas para E. coli foram elevadas no distrito de Mardan, seguido por Kohat, Swat e distrito de Peshawar. Além disso, algumas fontes de água também foram contaminadas quimicamente por diferentes fertilizantes inorgânicos (nitratos/nitritos de sódio, potássio), mas em níveis seguros, enquanto os resíduos agrícolas e industriais (compostos de cloreto e sulfato) estavam em níveis inseguros. Entre todos os distritos, a qualidade da água foi considerada comparativamente mais deteriorada nos distritos de Kohat e Mardan do que nos distritos de Peshawar e Swat. Essas fontes de água química e bacteriologicamente impróprias para beber podem causar problemas à saúde humana.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drinking Water , Water Quality , Pakistan , Escherichia coli
2.
Saúde Soc ; 31(1): e190728, 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361138

ABSTRACT

Resumen En este trabajo se presenta una reflexión sobre una experiencia educativa con comunidades ubicadas en el casco urbano del municipio de Turbo (Colombia), que no tienen acceso al agua potable. Los participantes son 18 líderes comunitarios, 149 familias de tres barrios y profesionales de dentro y fuera de la región. Este proceso tuvo como objetivo el fortalecimiento de las prácticas del uso cotidiano y conservación del agua en las comunidades, y es respuesta a una investigación previa que analizó algunos retos que enfrentan las personas para acceder a fuentes de agua suficientes y adecuadas para suplir sus necesidades. En esta experiencia se privilegia el diálogo como posibilidad para el reconocimiento de las condiciones de acceso al agua potable y la construcción de acciones para la gestión y defensa del derecho al agua.


Abstract This paper presents a reflection on an educational experience with communities located in the urban area of the municipality of Turbo (Colombia), which do not have access to potable water. The participants are eighteen community leaders, one hundred and forty-nine families from three neighborhoods and professionals from inside and outside the territory. The main objective was to strengthen the practices of daily use and conservation of water in the communities. This process is related to a previous research that analyzed the challenges faced by people to access to sufficient and adequate water sources to meet their needs, among others. In this experience, dialogue was the possibility to recognize the conditions to have access to potable water, and to define collective actions for the management and defense of the right to water.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Drinking Water , Water Quality , Water Rights , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Education
3.
San Salvador; MINSAL; dic. 16, 2021. 15 p. graf.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1359282

ABSTRACT

Con la finalidad de establecer los mecanismos de coordinación para resolver los problemas de calidad del agua en forma eficiente y oportuna, se creó el Comité Nacional de Calidad del Agua, conforme el Acuerdo Ejecutivo n.° 1880 de fecha 5 de noviembre de 2020, con participación de técnicos del MINSAL y ANDA a Nivel Nacional. El presente manual describe la integración y funciones del comité, con el objetivo de garantizar que el agua de consumo humano cumpla con los requisitos establecidos en 10 el Reglamento Técnico mencionado anteriormente y demás disposiciones legales relacionada


In order to establish coordination mechanisms to solve water quality problems in an efficient and timely manner, the National Water Quality Committee was created, in accordance with Executive Agreement No. 1880 dated November 5, 2020, with participation of technicians from MINSAL and ANDA at the national level. This manual describes the composition and functions of the committee, with the aim of guaranteeing that water for human consumption complies with the requirements established in the aforementioned Technical Regulations and other related legal provisions


Subject(s)
Drinking Water , Water Quality , Manuals as Topic , Water , Organizations
4.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 10(1): 1-10, feb. 24, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178770

ABSTRACT

Fluoridation has been shown to be an effective measure against caries in children. The present study evaluates the cost-benefit of the fluoridated water program for the reduction of dental caries in 12-year-old children in the Biobío Region, the only region in Chile that has not implemented this program. An economic cost-benefit evaluation was carried out, comparing two alternative interventions: non-fluoridated drinking water versus fluoridated drinking water. The prevalence of caries, direct and indirect costs of the treatments, the cost of implementing the programs and the benefits of both interventions were estimated. From this study it is concluded that the savings in oral health costs in 12-year-old children when using fluoridating drinking water in the Biobío region is significantly higher than the cost involved in implementing the water fluoridation program, resulting in total savings for the Chilean state of $129,861,645 (USD$ 152,833) as well as an estimated reduction of 15% in the history of caries in the study population.


Se ha demostrado que la fluoración es una medida efectiva contra disminución de la caries en la población infantil. La presente investigación buscó evaluar cual es el costo-beneficio del programa del agua fluorada para la disminución de caries dental en niños de 12 años de la Región del Biobío, única región de Chile que no adhiere a este programa. Se realizó una evaluación económica de costo-beneficio, comparando dos intervenciones alternativas: agua potable no fluorada versus agua potable fluorada. Para tal fin se estimó la prevalencia de caries, costos directos e indirectos de los tratamientos, el costo de implementación de los programas y el beneficio de ambas intervenciones. De este estudio se concluye que el ahorro en costos de salud bucal en niños de 12 años al fluorar el agua potable en la región del Biobío, es significativamente mayor al costo que implica la implementación del programa de fluoración de aguas, lográndose un ahorro total para el Estado de $129.861.645 (USD $152.833) así como una estimación de reducción del 15% en la historia de caries en la población de estudio.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Fluoridation , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Drinking Water/analysis , Chile , Prevalence , Health Care Costs , Fluorides/analysis
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880455

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the capacity of laboratories participated in the proficiency testing (PT) of determination potassium in serum and improve the quality of testing, and put forward technical suggestions for unsatisfied laboratories.@*METHODS@#According to the requirements of CNAS related documents, the homogeneity and stability of the real PT sample were evaluated by one-way ANOVA and t test, respectively. The values of real PT samples were assigned by reference method which was used in PT results assay. It is required that the deviation of value of real PT samples (code:2, 3, 5) between the measured value and the assigned value shall be within ±15.0%. The precision of values for all samples should not be greater than 3.0%.@*RESULTS@#All the laboratories submitted valid data according to the requirements. Only one laboratory did not meet the requirements, and the satisfaction rate was 90.9%.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The ability of most of laboratories are accurate and reliable.


Subject(s)
Drinking Water/analysis , Laboratories , Laboratory Proficiency Testing , Potassium
6.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 9(1): 1-7, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362928

ABSTRACT

Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the microbiological quality of the water and the maintenance and physical structure of public drinking fountains located in the city of Araçatuba ­ SP. Methods: To assess the presence or absence of Escherichia coli and total coliforms in the drinking water 41 samples were randomly collected. Thirteen samples were collected in the year 2018 and 28 samples in 2019. Results: All samples collected in the year 2018 showed no total coliforms and E. coli. However, the samples collected in the year 2019 showed coliforms in 10% (3/28). All the drinking fountains analyzed demonstrated to be inadequate in at least one of the qualitative criteria considered. Conclusion: Our results indicate that are necessary periodic maintenance of the public drinking fountains and the monitoring of its water since these parameters serve as indicators of the integrity of the drinking water distribution system.


Objetivo: O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade microbiológica da água, a manutenção e estrutura física de bebedouros públicos localizados no município de Araçatuba - SP. Métodos: Para avaliar a presença ou ausência de Escherichia coli e coliformes totais na água de consumo, 41 amostras foram coletadas aleatoriamente. Treze amostras foram coletadas no ano de 2018 e 28 amostras em 2019. Resultados: Todas as amostras coletadas no ano de 2018 não apresentaram coliformes totais e E. coli. Porém, as amostras coletadas no ano de 2019 apresentaram coliformes em 10% (3/28). Todos os bebedouros analisados demonstraram ser inadequados em pelo menos um dos critérios qualitativos considerados. Conclusão: Nossos resultados indicam que são necessários a manutenção periódica dos bebedouros públicos e o monitoramento de sua água, visto que esses parâmetros servem como indicadores da integridade do sistema de distribuição de água potável.


Subject(s)
Drinking Water , Water Quality , Water , Quality Management , Escherichia coli , Coliforms , Indicators and Reagents
7.
J. appl. oral sci ; 29: e20200939, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340098

ABSTRACT

Abstract Arsenic contamination in the environment and groundwater is a major global public health problem. Several researchers suggest that the toxicity of arsenic could be related to oral cancer development, usually resulting from potentially malignant lesions. During pathological processes, salivary proteins suffer modifications, which could lead to the discovery of new biomarkers. Objective To analyze the protein profile in human saliva samples from a rural population exposed to high levels of arsenic in drinking water and its association with potentially malignant lesions. Methodology This observational, analytic and cross-sectional design included 121 patients from the state of Graneros (Tucumán, Argentina). Arsenic concentration in drinking water was determined and, according to the values obtained, individuals were divided into 2 groups: exposed group and non-exposed group. Saliva samples were obtained, and total protein concentration was measured by Bradford method. Finally, Laemmli SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was conducted to obtain the protein profile. Results Total protein concentration in saliva was lower in the exposed group than in the non-exposed group. Average areas of 20 and 42 KDa bands were significantly lower in exposed group than non-exposed group. Conclusion Chronic intake of high arsenic concentrations in drinking water produces changes in the salivary protein profile, which is associated with the presence of potentially malignant lesions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arsenic/analysis , Arsenic/toxicity , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity , Drinking Water/analysis , Argentina , Rural Population , Salivary Proteins and Peptides , Pilot Projects , Environmental Monitoring , Cross-Sectional Studies
8.
São Paulo; s.n; 2021. 124 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291350

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Arroz pode ser a principal fonte de exposição a arsênio inorgânico (iAs), que é carcinogênico e está associado a diversos efeitos não-carcinogênicos. Produtos feitos de arroz, como cereais infantis, e água para consumo podem ser importantes fontes de exposição a iAs. Embora o arroz seja um componente básico da dieta da população brasileira, há poucos estudos avaliando os riscos à saúde decorrentes da exposição ao iAs. Objetivo: Avaliar o risco da exposição a iAs e/ou outros elementos tóxicos e essenciais em arroz integral, arroz branco, cereais infantis, e água potável no Brasil, e identificar possíveis medidas para mitigar o risco. Método: O incremento de risco de câncer no tempo de vida (ILCR), o risco não-carcinogênico (HQ) e o hazard Index (HI) foram estimados através de análise probabilística com simulações de Monte Carlo. A concentração de elementos em arroz e cereais infantis foi obtida de pesquisas realizadas no Brasil, e a concentração de arsênio em água provém do monitoramento nacional de vigilância da qualidade da água. Resultados e discussão: O ILCR médio para exposição a iAs em arroz branco foi 1.3 × 10-04, arroz integral 5.4 × 10-06, e para exposição a chumbo (Pb) em arroz integral foi 2.5 x 10-8. O HQ para arroz foi estimado abaixo de 1 para todos os elementos, assim como o HI, sugerindo que efeitos não carcinogênicos não são esperados. O ILCR médio decorrente da exposição a iAs em água foi 6.5 × 10-05, acima do limite de 1 × 10-5, e o HQ foi inferior a 1. Cereais infantis feitos de arroz foram o tipo de cereal com maior ILCR (4.0 x 10-5) e com mais elementos com HQ acima de 1. Todos os cereais infantis apresentaram HQ acima de 1 para ao menos um elemento. Cadmio foi o elemento tóxico mais significativo, e zinco o elemento essencial mais relevante. Estimou-se que através de ações de mitigação o risco carcinogênico devido ao consumo de arroz poderia ser reduzido em até 68%, e para cereais infantis em 24%. O ILCR para arroz foi considerado elevado, ainda que as concentrações de iAs estejam dentro dos limites permitidos. O risco para arroz integral foi menor que para arroz branco, devido à baixa concentração de iAs nas amostras avaliadas, e as possíveis razões para isto foram exploradas, como o local do cultivo, práticas agrícolas e o tipo de cultivar de arroz. O risco carcinogênico e não-carcinogênico referente a exposição a Pb foi considerado baixo, entretanto nenhum nível de exposição a este elemento é considerado seguro. Conclusões: O ILCR para consumo de arroz, cereal infantil e água foi considerado elevado. O risco não-carcinogênico foi considerado elevado apenas para cereais infantis, incluindo elementos tóxicos e essenciais, e cereais infantis feitos de arroz apresentaram risco mais significativo. O consumo de água representou um menor risco carcinogênico, entretanto considerado não tolerável. Com o suporte de políticas públicas, medidas para reduzir os riscos relativos ao consumo de arroz e cereais infantis poderiam ter um impacto positivo para a saúde pública no Brasil.


Introduction: Rice can be the main source of exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs), which is classified as carcinogenic and is also associated with non-cancer effects. Rice products, such as infant cereals, and drinking water are also important sources of exposure to iAs. Although rice is a staple food in Brazil, there have been few studies about the health risks for the Brazilian population. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the risks of exposure to iAs and other toxic and essential elements from brown rice, white rice (only iAs), infant cereal (made of rice and different raw materials), and drinking water (only iAs) in Brazil, and to identify possible measures to mitigate those risks. Method: The incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) and the non-cancer risk, or hazard quotient (HQ), and hazard index (HI) were calculated. A probabilistic analysis was performed with Monte Carlo simulation. Results and discussion: The mean ILCR was 1.3 × 10-04 for exposure to iAs in white rice and 5.4 × 10-06 for brown rice, and for exposure to Pb it was 2.5 x 10-8 for brown rice. The HQ was under 1 for all elements in brown rice, as the HI, suggesting that health effects are unlikely. The mean ILCR for exposure to iAs from drinking water was 6.5 × 10-05, above the tolerable value of 1 × 10-5 recommended by the World Health Organization, and the HQ was below 1. Rice cereal was the kind of infant cereal with highest ILCR (4.0 x 10-5) and with more elements with HQ above 1. All the infant cereals had an HQ above 1 for at least one element. Cd was the non-essential element more significative in this scenario, and Zn was the essential element more relevant. Various mitigation measures discussed in this dissertation are estimated to reduce the risk from rice consumption by 68%, and from infant cereal by 24%. The ILCR for white and brown rice was high, even though the iAs concentration in rice is below the maximum contaminant level. The risk for brown rice consumption was lower because the iAs concentrations were low in the brown rice samples evaluated, which possible reasons were explored, such as the location of cultivation, agricultural practices and the kind of rice cultivar. The estimated cancer and non-cancer risk from exposure to Pb is low, however no exposure to this element from diet is considered safe. Conclusions: The ILCR for rice, infant cereal and water consumption was considered high. The non-cancer risk was not tolerable only for infant cereal, including essential and non-essential elements, and rice cereal showed to be more concerning. Water consumption represents a small part of the risk for adults, although it was estimated to be not tolerable. With the support of public policies, measures to reduce these risks from rice and infant cereal would have a positive impact on public health in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Drinking Water , Monte Carlo Method , Staple Food , Risk Evaluation and Mitigation , Infant Food , Lead , Arsenic , Public Policy , Oryza
9.
Diaeta (B. Aires) ; 38(173): 38-48, dic. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1278981

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción. El Zinc (Zn) es un oligoelemento esencial con gran importancia nutricional e indispensable para el crecimiento normal y la reproducción. Su deficiencia produce anormalidades fisiológicas y estructurales. Así mismo, ingerido en altas concentraciones produce efectos tóxicos, de allí la importancia de su determinación. El agua puede contribuir significativamente a la ingesta diaria de elementos trazas, entre ellos Zn. En el presente estudio se analizó el aporte de Zn en muestras de aguas de ríos y de red (de suministro público) de la provincia de San Luis y en agua mineral natural envasada, por medio de fluorescencia en fase sólida (FFS). Materiales y método.La determinación cuantitativa de Zn en muestras de agua y estándares se basó en la complejación del Zn utilizando una mezcla de o-fenantrolina y eosina a pH 7,5. Luego, una microzona de papel de filtro Blue Ribbon se impregna con la mezcla durante 1 minuto (n=6). Posteriormente, los papeles de filtro se secaron a temperatura ambiente y se colocan en una celda de cuarzo convencional adaptada para FFS. Los resultados obtenidos fueron comparados con la técnica de espectrometría de masas con plasma acoplado inductivamente. Resultados. Las muestras de agua de río analizadas presentaron valores por debajo del límite máximo de Zn recomendado por la Ley Nacional 24051, para la protección de la vida acuática. Las concentraciones de Zn en las muestras de agua de consumo analizadas (de red y envasadas) también estuvieron por debajo de los límites máximos permitidos por el Código Alimentario Argentino y la OMS. Por otro lado, se obtuvo buena concordancia entre las metodologías utilizadas. Conclusiones. El contenido de Zn de las muestras analizadas se encuentra por debajo de los valores máximos permitidos por los distintos organismos de regulación. Las muestras de agua analizadas no contribuyen a satisfacer la ingesta diaria recomendada y presentan valores considerablemente menores a los encontrados en otras regiones. Finalmente, el método aplicado mostró ser una alternativa rápida y sensible para la determinación de Zn en muestras de agua.


Abstract Introduction. Zinc (Zn) is an essential trace element with great nutritional importance and indispensable for normal growth and reproduction. Its deficiency produces physiological and structural abnormalities. Also, if ingested in high concentrations, it produces toxic effects; this is why its determination is very important. Water can contribute significantly to the daily intake of trace elements, including Zn. In this work, Zn concentration was analyzed in river and tap water samples of the province of San Luis and in bottled natural mineral water, by means of solid phase fluorescence (SPF). Materials and method. The quantitative determination of Zn in water samples and standards was based on the complexation of Zn using a mixture of o-phenanthroline and eosin at pH 7.5. Then, a microzone of Blue Ribbon filter paper was impregnated with the mixture for 1 minute (n=6). After this, the filter papers were dried at room temperature and placed in a conventional quartz cell adapted for SPF. The results obtained were compared with the Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) technique. Results. The river water samples analyzed were found below the maximum limit of Zn recommended by National Law 24051 for the protection of aquatic life. The Zn concentrations in the analyzed drinking water samples (tap and bottled water) were also below the maximum limits allowed by the CAA and WHO. Furthermore, a good agreement was obtained between the methodologies used. Conclusions. The Zn content in analyzed samples was below the maximum values allowed by different regulatory organizations. The water samples analyzed do not contribute to satisfying the recommended daily intake and have considerably lower values than those found in other regions. Finally, the method applied proved to be a fast and sensitive alternative for the determination of Zn in water samples.


Subject(s)
Zinc , Drinking Water , Elements , Toxicity
10.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 19(3): 457-465, dez 5, 2020. ilus, fig
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357952

ABSTRACT

Introdução: a análise microbiológica das águas em escolas é de suma importância, visto que crianças em idade escolar são extremamente vulneráveis podendo desenvolver doenças por causa das condições do seu sistema gastrointestinal. Objetivo: avaliar os parâmetros microbiológicos da água de bebedouros destinados ao consumo humano de escolas de Alagoa Grande ­ PB. Metodologia: foram realizadas avaliações microbiológicas das águas disponíveis nos bebedouros, analisando a potabilidade, bem como as torneiras destes, fazendo levantamento da quantidade de fungos e bactérias encontrados. Os testes foram realizados nos laboratórios do Centro Universitário Maurício de Nassau ­ Campina Grande. Resultados: 24% das amostras estudadas apresentaram positividade para o grupo coliforme e termotolerante, portanto, não estão em estado potável para o consumo, e que a manutenção da limpeza dos bebedouros que armazenam a água está deficiente, revelando elevado número de microrganismos e presença de contaminação de todos. Conclusão: as higienizações dos aparelhos, bem como o monitoramento da água consumida nas escolas, são essenciais no controle de doenças que obviamente prejudicam o rendimento escolar dos alunos. As escolas em parcerias com instituições de saúde devem se mobilizar no sentido de capacitar e educar os funcionários que realizam a limpeza dos bebedouros, os alunos e a comunidade que os utilizam, visando a colaboração de todos para melhorar a qualidade da água consumida.


Introduction: the microbiological testing of water available in schools is of paramount importance, as school-age children are extremely vulnerable to developing diseases because of their gastrointestinal system conditions, which underscore the importance of water quality in schools and proper maintenance of the same. The water for consumption is that which is called potable water. The water that do not fit into the standards of potability can lead to pathologies to humans through their consumption. The main pathologies carried by the waters are typhoid fever, cholera, salmonellosis, shigellosis, poliomyelitis, hepatitis A, verminoses, amebiasis and giardiasis. The present study aimed to evaluate the microbiological quality of water from drinking fountains intended for human consumption in schools in Alagoa Grande-PB. Metodology: the microbiological analyzes were carried out of the water available in the drinking fountain, analyzing the potability, as well as the taps of these, surveying the amount of fungi and bacteria found. The tests were executed in the laboratories of the Mauricio de Nassau Faculty ­ Campina Grande and it was found that. Resulting: 24% of the samples studied presented positivity to the coliform and thermotolerant group, therefore, were not in the potable state for consumption, and that the cleaning of the water fountains is deficient, revealing presence of a high numbers of microorganisms. The fact that the coliform group and thermotolerants were not detected in the other water samples analyzed does not mean that the water is totally safe, since high numbers of fungal and bacterial colonies were found in the nozzles of the drinking fountains. Conclusion: the results showed that the hygiene of the devices, as well as the monitoring of the water consumed in schools, are essential in the control of diseases that obviously impair the students' school performance. The schools in partnerships with health institutions should mobilize to train and educate water cleaners, students, and the community that use them, in order to collaborate with each other to improve the quality of water consumed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Schools , Bacteria , Water Microbiology , Drinking Water , Coliforms , Fungi , Evaluation Studies as Topic
11.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 20201000. 19 p. Ilus.
Monography in Spanish | MINSAPERU, LILACS, MINSAPERU | ID: biblio-1123124

ABSTRACT

El documento contiene los criterios técnicos sanitarios del abastecimiento de agua para consumo humano mediante surtidores y camiones cisterna.


Subject(s)
Water Supply , Drinking Water , Bathroom Equipment , Tank Trucks
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880317

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Improved water sources are not equally available in all geographical regions. Populations dependent on unsafe water sources are recommended to treat their water at point-of-use using adequate methods to reduce associated health problems. In Ethiopia, the spatial distribution of households using unimproved water sources have been incomplete or ignored in most of the studies. Moreover, evidence on the point-of-use water treatment practice of households dependent on such water sources is scarce. Therefore, the current study is intended to analyze the spatial distribution of unimproved water sources by wealth quintiles at country level and point-of-use treatment (POU) practices using nationally representative data.@*METHOD@#The data of 2016 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) conducted on 16650 households from 643 clusters were used for the analysis. For spatial analysis, the raw and spatially smoothed coverage data was joined to the geographic coordinates based on EDHS cluster identification code. Global spatial autocorrelation was performed to analyze whether the pattern of unimproved water coverage is clustered, dispersed, or random across the study areas. Once a positive global autocorrelation was confirmed, a local spatial autocorrelation analysis was applied to detect local clusters. The POU water treatment is analyzed based on reported use of either boiling, chlorine (bleach), filtration, or solar disinfection (SODIS).@*RESULTS@#There were 5005 households using unimproved water sources for drinking purposes. Spatial variation of unimproved water coverage was observed with high coverage observed at Amhara, Afar, Southern Nations Nationalities and People and Somalia regions. Disparity in unimproved water coverage between wealth quintiles was also observed. The reported point-of-use water treatment practice among these households is only 6.24%. The odds of POU water treatment among household heads with higher education status is 2.5 times higher (95% CI = 1.43-4.36) compared to those who did not attend education.@*CONCLUSION@#An apparent clustering trend with high unimproved water coverage was observed between regions and among wealth quintiles hence indicates priority areas for future resource allocation and the need for regional and national policies to address the issue. Promoting households to treat water prior to drinking is essential to reduce health problems.


Subject(s)
Drinking Water/analysis , Ethiopia , Socioeconomic Factors , Spatial Analysis , Water Purification/methods , Water Supply/statistics & numerical data
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762177

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Alterations in the intestinal microbiota in early life affects the development of atopic dermatitis (AD) in humans. This study aimed to further investigate the effects of gut dysbiosis in early life in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced mouse model of AD. METHODS: The AD mouse model was developed by serial OVA sensitization and mice were treated with an antibiotic cocktail in their drinking water for 2 weeks before primary sensitization. Probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus, 1 × 10⁹ CFU) or 100 µL of fresh fecal supernatant were orally administered daily from 1 week before the first sensitization until the end of the study. RESULTS: The AD mice which received antibiotics had significantly aggravated phenotypes, including clinical score, transepidermal water loss, and histopathology, compared to those treated with healthy feces or probiotics. Total systemic immunoglobulin E production and skin interleukin (IL) 4 levels were significantly increased in the antibiotic-treated mice compared to the other groups. Antibiotic treatment also increased the levels of IL17 and group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) in the gut and significantly suppressed the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and decreased the number FOXP3⁺ cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the status of the gut microbiota in early life in the mouse may play a crucial role in AD development through intestinal SCFA production through regulate the numbers of CD4⁺IL17⁺/CD4⁺FOXP3⁺ regulatory T cells and ILC3s.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Cytokines , Dermatitis, Atopic , Drinking Water , Dysbiosis , Fatty Acids , Fatty Acids, Volatile , Feces , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulins , Interleukins , Intestines , Lymphocytes , Mice , Microbiota , Ovalbumin , Ovum , Phenotype , Probiotics , Skin , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Water
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826316

ABSTRACT

Well water could be a stable source of drinking water. Recently, the use of well water as drinking water has been encouraged in developing countries. However, many kinds of disorders caused by toxic elements in well drinking water have been reported. It is our urgent task to resolve the global issue of element-originating diseases. In this review article, our multidisciplinary approaches focusing on oncogenic toxicities and disturbances of sensory organs (skin and ear) induced by arsenic and barium are introduced. First, our environmental monitoring in developing countries in Asia showed elevated concentrations of arsenic and barium in well drinking water. Then our experimental studies in mice and our epidemiological studies in humans showed arsenic-mediated increased risks of hyperpigmented skin and hearing loss with partial elucidation of their mechanisms. Our experimental studies using cultured cells with focus on the expression and activity levels of intracellular signal transduction molecules such as c-SRC, c-RET, and oncogenic RET showed risks for malignant transformation and/or progression arose from arsenic and barium. Finally, our original hydrotalcite-like compound was proposed as a novel remediation system to effectively remove arsenic and barium from well drinking water. Hopefully, comprehensive studies consisting of (1) environmental monitoring, (2) health risk assessments, and (3) remediation will be expanded in the field of environmental health to prevent various disorders caused by environmental factors including toxic elements in drinking water.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arsenic , Toxicity , Barium , Toxicity , Drinking Water , Environmental Exposure , Environmental Health , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Mice , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Toxicity , Water Wells
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826306

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Most studies have reported that suicide mortality rates are negatively associated with lithium levels in tap water; however, a few studies showed either no association or a positive association. Thus, the association between suicide mortality and lithium levels in tap water remains controversial. To clarify the association, our study evaluated the association between lithium levels in tap water and suicide mortality rates in Miyazaki Prefecture of Japan, after adjusting for confounding factors.@*METHODS@#We measured lithium levels in tap water across the 26 municipalities of Miyazaki Prefecture in Japan. We examined the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for suicide in each municipality and used the data as the average suicide SMRs over 5 years (2009-2013). Weighted least-squares regression analysis, adjusted for the size of each municipality's population, was used to investigate the association between lithium levels in tap water and suicide SMRs. In addition to a crude model, in an adjusted model, potential confounding factors (proportion of elderly people, proportion of one-person households, annual marriage rate, annual mean income, unemployment rate, the density of medical doctors per 100,000 people, annual total rainfall, and proportion of people with a college education or higher) were added as covariates.@*RESULTS@#We showed that male and female suicide SMRs were not associated with lithium levels in tap water in Miyazaki Prefecture. After adjusting for confounders, male suicide SMRs were significantly and positively associated with the proportion of elderly people in the population and annual total rainfall, and female suicide SMRs were associated with the proportion of elderly people in the population.@*CONCLUSIONS@#No association between lithium levels in tap water and suicide mortality rates was found in Miyazaki Prefecture.


Subject(s)
Drinking Water , Female , Humans , Japan , Lithium , Male , Suicide
16.
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 525-530, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877290

ABSTRACT

@#Introduction. We analyzed the concentrations of the trace elements [chromium (Cr), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), cesium (Cs), lead (Pb), thorium (Th), and uranium (U)] in commercial bottled water consumed in the town of Angono, Rizal province, Luzon island, Philippines to evaluate the health risks of the trace elements in drinking water. There are some arguments that water resources available in the Philippines are heavily polluted by various materials, inparticular heavy metal elements. Method. The concentrations of seven trace elements in commercial bottled water produced and consumed in the Philippines were analyzed using a solution nebulization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SN−ICP−MS). Result. The concentrations of the trace elements except for Cs, which does not yet have a WHO guideline value, in the locally produced bottled water were below the WHO guideline values. The Cs concentrations (<0.6 μg/L) of the bottled water of the Philippines were generally similar to those of the bottled water produced and consumed in other countries such as Japan, China, and Indonesia. Conclusion. The concentrations of trace elements in bottled water consumed in Angono, Philippines can be regarded as being at safe levels, as well as those of daily life water (i.e. tap, well, and spring water) consumed in the said town.


Subject(s)
Drinking Water , Trace Elements , Philippines
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-820823

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of some commercial calamansicontaining beverages on the sound surface of bovine teeth as well as the dental erosion inhibitory effects of calcium.METHODS: The pH and titratable acidity of six kinds of commercially available calamansi beverages were determined. Further, 3% calcium was added to the calamansi beverage Oranssi in the experimental group to confirm its dental erosion inhibitory effect. Jeju Samdasoo was used in the negative control group and Coca-Cola in the positive control group. After immersing the sound teeth specimens for 10 min, surface microhardness was measured using the Vickers hardness number (VHN), and surface changes in specimens were observed under a scanning electron microscope.RESULTS: The average pH of the commercial calamansi beverages was 2.54±0.22. After 10 min of treatment with each experimental beverage, the surface hardness difference (ΔVHN) was highest in the Coca-Cola group (−49.05±12.59), followed by the Oranssi calamansi group (−43.77±13.70), 3% calcium-added Oranssi calamansi group (−2.71±12.58), and Samdasoo group (14.03±20.79). There was no significant difference between the bottled water and calcium-added Oranssi calamansi groups or between the Coca-Cola and Oranssi calamansi groups (P>0.05). However, there was a significant difference in the surface hardness between the bottled water and CocaCola groups (P<0.05). On scanning electron microscopy, the Samdasoo group showed a smooth surface without any loss, but Coca-Cola and Oranssi calamansi groups showed a rough surface due to erosion. However, although fine cracks and porosities were seen in the calcium-added Oranssi calamansi group, surfaces in the group were much smoother than those in the Oranssi calamansi group.CONCLUSIONS: Calamansi beverages of low pH may cause corrosion of the tooth surface, and the addition of calcium to the calamansi beverages inhibits demineralization of the tooth surface. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the risk of dental erosion when drinking calamansi beverages of low pH.


Subject(s)
Beverages , Calcium , Corrosion , Dental Enamel , Drinking , Drinking Water , Hardness , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Porosity , Tooth
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-829019

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Our objective was to investigate the occurrence of opportunistic pathogens and characterize the bacterial community structures in the water system of a pulmonary hospital.@*Methods@#The water samples were collected from automatic and manual faucets in the consulting room, treatment room, dressing room, respiratory ward, and other non-medical rooms in three buildings of the hospital. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify the load of several waterborne opportunistic pathogens and related microorganisms, including spp., spp., and . Illumina sequencing targeting 16S rRNA genes was performed to profile bacterial communities.@*Results@#The occurrence rates of spp., spp., and were 100%, 100%, and 76%, respectively in all samples. Higher occurrence rates of were observed in the outpatient service building (building 1, 91.7%) and respiration department and wards (building 2, 80%) than in the office building (building 3), where no was found. were more abundant in automatic faucets (average 2.21 × 10 gene copies/L) than in manual faucets (average 1.03 × 10 gene copies/mL) ( < 0.01). , , , , , and were the dominant bacterial phyla. Disinfectant residuals, nitrate, and temperature were found to be the key environmental factors driving microbial community structure shifts in water systems.@*Conclusion@#This study revealed a high level of colonization of water faucets by opportunistic pathogens and provided insight into the characteristics of microbial communities in a hospital water system and approaches to reduce risks of microbial contamination.


Subject(s)
China , Drinking Water , Microbiology , Genes, Bacterial , Hospitals , Legionella , Microbiota , Mycobacterium , Mycobacterium avium , RNA, Bacterial , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Water Quality , Water Supply
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-829001

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to evaluate the genetic diversity, virulence, and antimicrobial resistance of isolates from clinical patients, tap water systems, and food.@*Methods@#Ninety isolates were obtained from Ma'anshan, Anhui province, China, and subjected to multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) with six housekeeping genes. Their taxonomy was investigated using concatenated sequences, while their resistance to 12 antibiotics was evaluated. Ten putative virulence factors and several resistance genes were identified by PCR and sequencing.@*Results@#The 90 isolates were divided into 84 sequence types, 80 of which were novel, indicating high genetic diversity. The isolates were classified into eight different species. PCR assays identified virulence genes in the isolates, with the enterotoxin and hemolysin genes , , , and found in 47 (52.2%), 13 (14.4%), 22 (24.4%), and 12 (13.3%) of the isolates, respectively. The majority of the isolates (≥ 90%) were susceptible to aztreonam, imipenem, cefepime, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin. However, several resistance genes were detected in the isolates, as well as a new variant.@*Conclusions@#Sequence type, virulence properties, and antibiotic resistance vary in isolates from clinical patients, tap water systems, and food.


Subject(s)
Aeromonas , Genetics , Virulence , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Pharmacology , China , Drinking Water , Microbiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Food Microbiology , Genetic Variation , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections , Microbiology , Species Specificity , Virulence
20.
Saúde Soc ; 29(2): e200094, 2020. graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1139533

ABSTRACT

Abstract Geographical variation on hip fractures (HF) may be related to the geographical variation of drinking water composition (DWC); minerals in drinking water may contribute to its fragility. We aim to investigate the effects of DWC on HF risk in Portugal (2000-2010). From National Hospital Discharge Register we selected admissions of patients aged ≥50 years, diagnosed with HF caused by low/moderate energy traumas. Water components and characteristics were selected at the municipality level. A spatial generalized additive model with a negative binomial distribution as a link function was used to estimate the association of HF with variations in DWC. There were 96,905HF (77.3% in women). The spatial pattern of HF risk was attenuated after being adjusted for water parameters. Results show an indirect association between calcium, magnesium, and iron and HF risk but no clear relation between aluminum, cadmium, fluoride, manganese, or color and HF risk. Regarding pH, the 6.7pH and 7pH interval seems to pose a lower risk. Different dose-response relationships were identified. The increase of calcium, magnesium, and iron values in DWC seems to reduce regional HF risk. Long-term exposure to water parameters, even within the regulatory limits, might increase the regional HF risk.


Resumo A variabilidade espacial existente na fratura do colo do fêmur (FCF) pode estar relacionada com a variabilidade geográfica da composição da água para consumo (CAC), devido à ação dos minerais na fragilidade óssea. O objetivo do artigo foi investigar o efeito da CAC no risco de FCF em Portugal (2000-2010). Do registo nacional de altas hospitalares, foram selecionadas todas as admissões em indivíduos ≥50, com diagnóstico de FCF causado por trauma de baixo/moderado impacto. Os componentes e características da água foram usados ao nível do município. Um modelo espacial aditivo generalizado, com a distribuição binomial negativa como função de ligação, foi usado para estimar a associação de FCF e as variações da CAC. Foram selecionadas 96.905 FCF (77,3% em mulheres). O padrão espacial de risco de FCF foi atenuado após ser ajustado pelos parâmetros da CAC. Os resultados mostraram uma associação indireta com cálcio, magnésio e ferro. No entanto, com alumínio, cádmio, fluoreto, manganês e cor, a associação com o risco não foi clara. O intervalo de pH de 6,7 a 7 parece apresentar um menor risco. Foram identificadas diferentes dose-resposta. O aumento do cálcio, magnésio e ferro na CAC parece reduzir o risco regional de FCF. Uma exposição a longo prazo, mesmo obedecendo aos limites impostos por lei, parece aumentar o risco regional de FCF.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Osteogenesis Imperfecta , Drinking Water , Water Quality , Femoral Fractures , Minerals
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